Complete Solar Energy Course For Electrical Engineering | Ahmed Mahdy | Skillshare

Complete Solar Energy Course For Electrical Engineering

Ahmed Mahdy, Electrical Power Engineer

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88 Lessons (9h 19m)
    • 1. Introduction To Solar Energy

    • 2. Renewable and Non Renewable Energy

    • 3. Pros and Cons of Renewable Energy

    • 4. Pros and Cons of Non Renewable Energy

    • 5. PV System Construction

    • 6. Construction of PV Cells

    • 7. Advantages and Disadvantages Of PV Cells

    • 8. Solar Cell,Module,Array and String

    • 9. Types of Solar Photovoltaic cells

    • 10. Mounting Of PV System

    • 11. Parallel and Series connection in PV System

    • 12. Effect of Insolation and Temperature on V I Curve

    • 13. Shading and Tilt angle

    • 14. Determing PV Array Max Voltage

    • 15. Types of DC DC Converters

    • 16. Several Techniques for MPPT

    • 17. Gried Tied Solar System

    • 18. Advantages of Gried Tied Solar System

    • 19. Equipment of Gried Tied Solar System

    • 20. Off Grid Solar System

    • 21. Advantages of Off Grid Solar System

    • 22. Equipment of Off Grid Solar System

    • 23. Hybrid Solar System

    • 24. Advantages of Hybrid Solar System

    • 25. Equipment for Hybrid Solar System

    • 26. Construction and Types of batteries used

    • 27. Charging of Lead acid batteries and hydrometer

    • 28. Mainitance of Batteries and Methods of charging

    • 29. Cycle of Batteries

    • 30. Importance of Charge controller

    • 31. Junction Box

    • 32. Wiring of Junction Box

    • 33. Introductory Example To Design

    • 34. Selection and Datasheet of the Panel

    • 35. Inverter Selection

    • 36. Example 1 On Desiging OFF Grid System

    • 37. Determine Power Consumption Demands

    • 38. Size the PV modules

    • 39. Inverter sizing

    • 40. Battery sizing

    • 41. Solar charge controller sizing

    • 42. MPPT Charge Controller Sizing

    • 43. Example 2 Design of an OFF Grid System

    • 44. Example Design of an ON Grid System

    • 45. PV Energy according to Area

    • 46. Design Standalone System using PVSYST

    • 47. Design of Grid connected system using PVSYST

    • 48. Introduction to Protection Of PV System

    • 49. Selection of Fuses and Protection of String

    • 50. Protection of Arrays

    • 51. Protection of Inverter

    • 52. Protection of Transformer

    • 53. Surge Protection Device

    • 54. Grounding of PV System

    • 55. Types of BusBars in PV System and Selection of BusBars

    • 56. Design Of Off Grid PV System Using Excel Sheet

    • 57. How To Get Free License For Students For Autocad

    • 58. Starting Autocad and Changing Background

    • 59. Drawing A Line In Autocad

    • 60. Drawing A Rectangle In Autocad

    • 61. Drawing A Circle In Autocad

    • 62. Drawing A Polygon In Autocad

    • 63. Drawing An Arc In Autocad

    • 64. Drawing A Polyline In Autocad

    • 65. Multiple Lines Using The Offset Feature

    • 66. Adding Text To Autocad

    • 67. Extending Lines In Autocad

    • 68. Selection in Autocad

    • 69. F shortcuts In Autocad

    • 70. Dimensions In Autocad

    • 71. Multi Spiral Line And Mld In Autocad

    • 72. Block And Explode

    • 73. Move And Scale Commands In Autocad

    • 74. Rotate,Mirror And Fillet Commands In Autocad

    • 75. Area Calculation And Adding Layer In Autocad

    • 76. Saving Your File And Autosave Feature

    • 77. Drawing Fluorescent Symbol Using Autocad

    • 78. Autocad Classic Mode And Workspace

    • 79. Single Line Diagram Of PV System And Selection Of Fuses And Breakers

    • 80. Effect Of Current On Human Body

    • 81. Types Of Electric Hazards

    • 82. Classification Of Earting Systems

    • 83. Components Of Earthing System

    • 84. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Electrode

    • 85. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Conductor

    • 86. Measurement Of Earth Resistance By Megger and Three Point Method

    • 87. Design Earthing Or Ground Grid Using ETAP

    • 88. Simulation Of PV Cell In MATLAB And Obtaining V I Characteristics


About This Class

Hello Students !!! Welcome to My Own course "Complete Solar Energy Course for Electrical Engineering"

Here are some of the Content which you will Learn in this Incredible Course !!!

  • In this course we will discuss the construction of the PV(Photovoltaic) Cells , the connection of PV Cells including series and parallel and when to use each of them, we will learn about the advantages and disadvantages of PV Cells.

  • We will learn about Sun Tracking to get Max Output power from PV Cells also we will discuss some of the Techniques of MPPT (Maximum power point Tracking) to get Max Power from PV Cells .

  • We will learn about the Effect of Insolation ,Temperature and Load Resistance on Power.

  • you will also Understand the Gried Tied system , its components ,advantages and disadvantages,Understand the off Gried system , its components ,advantages and disadvantages and Learn about the Hyprid Solar system , its components ,advantages and disadvantages.

  • you will Learn about the Different Types of Solar-Photo-voltaic Cells and their Efficiency, the Junction box and how to wire it.

  • we will learn how to determine the PV Max voltage and Power consumption demands.

  • We will have an overview to DC-DC Converters including the Buck Converter, the Boost converter and Buck-Boost Converter to Step up and Step down the DC Voltage of PV Cells.

  • Lastly the most important part which is the solar PV System design , we will Size the PV Modules,inverter ,Battery, Solar charge controller and MPPT Charge controller and more in this course.

Requested by Student : i Added New Section : "Protection of PV System"

  • you will Learn about Protection of PV System,how to select fuses to Protect Strings and Learn the Protection of Arrays.

  • you will Understand difference between 3 busbars and 5 busbars and How to Select the AC busbar and DC Busbar.

  • you will Understand the Protection devices for Transformer,the Inverter Protection and the Surge Protection Device.

  • Finally you will  Learn the Grounding of PV System and Solar Kit.

    You will Learn Everything you need in Solar Energy , waiting for you in my course .

Updated Content and added lectures on 2/3/2019 !

  • On grid system design by hand calculations.

  • On grid system design by PVsyst program.

  • Off grid system design extra example.

  • Off grid system design by using PVsyst program.

  • PV system construction.

  • Construction of PV Cells.

  • Advantages and Disadvantages Of PV Cells.

  • Solar Cells Modules and Arrays.

  • Parallel and Series connection in PV System.

  • Effect of Temperature and Insolation on V-I Curve.

  • Construction And Types Of Batteries.

  • Charging of Lead acid batteries and hydrometer.

  • Maintenance of Batteries and Methods of charging.

  • Cycle of Batteries.

  • Importance of Charge controller.

  • Selection and Datasheet of the Panel.

  • Inverter Selection.

  • PV Energy according to Area.

  • Shading and Tilt angle.


1. Introduction To Solar Energy: hello and welcome everyone to my own course for solar energy. In this course, we are going to study different sections. We will see here section number one, which is that introduction to solar energy. In this section, we are going to discuss number one is the construction of the PV cell The diagram of the PV cell number three, we are going toe mentions the advantages and disadvantages of the PV. Cell number four, we're going to discuss the sun tracking in order to get the maximum power from our PV Number five who are going to have an article about the facts about solar energy. Then we're going to study types of solar systems. In the second section, we're going to study the grid-tied solar system. Its advantages and equipment Also the off-grid solar system. and, its advantages and equipment. Then we're going to study in our next section there types of the PV cells and the factors affecting them. Number one we're going to start is that type subs every V cells that effect of the insulation on power, the effect off temperature on power and defectors Air load resistance on power also are going to start. Is there baby array Maximum voltage and helped tow little mind. It's a value. The types off the DC to DC converters such as a park and supposed to converter and the back post to convert. We were going to start their several techniques of four Maxima ballpoint tracking. Also are going to start teasers on some books, and we are going toe. Have a video where we are going to see the wiring off their sanction. Books also are going toe discusses a different connections off the Beav Easels series and parallel. Then, on our loss section, we're going to study that solar system sizing How told it reminds a power consumption number two Is that battery sizing numbers? Reza inverters Rising number fours are sizing off the PV modules that solar tours of control sizing and the maximum power point dragging towards control sizing. This is a content off our course. Thank you 2. Renewable and Non Renewable Energy: So what is that? Renewable energy, the renewable energy? It is the energy which is generated from natural sources like the sun, which is called the solar energy. The windows are wind energy czar in the tights and the Camby generated again and again, as and wind required. They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest resources off energy available on this planet. Also, the energy that came received from the sun came used a tow, generate electricity as we started in this course, were using the BV cells or the foot of will take. Also, we can generate energy from the wind Joe sermon by humans and tides. They are also considered as renewable energy because they never end. They can use it to fulfill our daily energy d months. That's why that renewable energy is a very important source. Off energy is a non renewable energy is a non renewable energy. It is the energy which is taken from the sources up, are available, owns the there's a limited quantity and they will vanish in 50 to 60 years from now. The non renewable sources are not environmentally friendly, and they can have a serious effect on our health. They are called a running your will because he cannot be regenerated within a short span of time. Nonrenewable sources exist in the form off fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. To summarize what I have said, that renewable energy can be generated again and again and again. Zaman Renewable energy will finish or vanish in 50 to 60 years from now. So we cannot depend on the non renewable energy we have to change our dependence from the non renewable N toes, a renewable source off energy. 3. Pros and Cons of Renewable Energy: So what is the pros off? The renewable energy, the sun, wind, geothermal ocean energy are available in the abundant. The quantity and the free to use also is a non renewable source of energy is that you are using are limited. And, as we said, it will expire one day and it will vanish in 50 to 60 years from now that renewable sources have a low carbon emissions. Therefore they are considered as green and environmentally friendly. That's why we can decrease is a greenhouse effect is that a normal help is in stimulating the economy and creating job opportunities. Some money that is used. Otto Bell This plant is can provide jobs. A 2000 even two millions off also don't have to rely on any sort of the country for the supply of renewable sources, as in case off the non renewable sources off energy, for example, as Saudi Arabia is one of the most important in production off petroleum. That's why here we can we don't need toe depend on them because mainly we are depending on their petroleum. The noble sources can Coastal is n consuming local electrical supply, therefore, in the longer on renewable sources can cut your electricity bills the cones off the renewable energy. It is not easy to set up a plant as the initial courses are. Quite high, however, is a running cost is long. The solar energy confused the only during the daytime or even in the cloudy or rainy day. We cannot use it or during the night. Geothermal energy. It can bring toxic chemicals beneath their surface on to the top and the create environmental changes. Zayed or electrical, they're building them across the river, which is quite expensive, can affect natural flora and wildlife to use the window and you have to rely on a strong winds. Therefore, you have to choose a suitable site or break them. Also, they can affect the birth population as they are quite high. Therefore, they killed the birds. Which of us is true them? 4. Pros and Cons of Non Renewable Energy: the pros off the non renewable energy. The non renewable energy sources are sheep and easy to use. You can easily fill up your car tank and power your motor vehicle. You can use a small amount off nuclear energy to produce a large amount of power. Zanoyan. Your will have a little or no competition at all. For example, if you are driving a battery driven car, your battery gets discharge it. Then you will not be able to charge it in the middle if you are using a renewable source off energy. But if you are working with non renewable source of energy like petroleum, therefore, it will be easy to find, I guess bombing station and they will eventually run your own car immediately. They are considered as she when converting from one type of energy into another. Raccoons off the non renewable energy is a non renewable sources will expire someday as well said before, in 50 to 60 years, and you have to use our indigent resources to create more nonrenewable sources off energy, the speed at which such resources are being utilized. It can have a serious environmental changes. For example, on the greenhouse effect the non renewable sources release toxic gases in the air will burn it, which are the major cause for our global warming senses. His sources are going to expire soon. Therefore, we have toe change in tow that renewable sources of energy. 5. PV System Construction: So what is the construction off our BV system? Assembly for ad off grid system, which we are going to discuss How toe design it. The first thing is the solar panels, the solar panels. Its purpose is to take the sun radiation and convert it into electricity. OK, a DC electricity now Z D C. Electricity goes toe something which is called as social controllers. What does a charge controller do? It takes a C D. C can't here and it is he vaulted and regulate the charging off the battery. Okay, we are going off course, though Discusses the benefit off the charge of control more in this course. But we are talking now and overview about the solar system. Now we have the battery banks which you are going to store the energy from the solar panels . Now we have an inverter toe convert a c o d c toe generate a a C power to our house. We also have year an optional a generator in in if we don't have battery banks or if you would like to have an extra a generator for generating power when we don't have all we own Wednesay, solar system does not produce enough power. Okay, this is an optional solution, but it's not recommended because it will cost you a lot. 6. Construction of PV Cells: So what is that? Construction be Visa or held us BV cell walk. So we find here that here we have one BB cell. Okay, Now this beef easel having or received the solar radiation and the converts it into electricity. So how does it work? Okay, the first thing it has here and none reflecting surface this non reflecting surface. So until reflecting quoting is used the to prevent disease sunlight from re being reflected from Z panel. Okay, because we would like to absorb or their radiation. So that is the first thing we use here. And until reflecting surface in orderto absorb over the radiation said anything we have here and in the type silicon and be a type circle. And between them and the relational region, if you understand electron ICS, you will understand. How does is this junction work? It is a p N junction. So what happens here simply as he and the type has an excess amount off electrons okay. And in the top, Selcan has a larger amount off electrons or excess amount off electrons, but the P type silicon has a large amount of holes. Okay. Is this electrons want this toe. Close this holes. Okay. Assembly. So this electrons wants togo tothis holes. So what happens here is that Wednesay light Falzone Z in the type silicon. The electrons again amount off energy, which is enough for them to move from the type layer Toby type player. Okay, so when the electrons moves from CNN type toe be type, it causes electron flow, which means as the floor off electric charge. OK, which means that was a flow off electric current. Okay, symbolizes now again, the light energy passes the reflecting surface, causing the silicon electrons a token Enough energy in orderto go from here and pass and go toe their P type circle. Okay, in orderto fills the holes. Okay, So the electrons again amount off energy buses through this wires, then go and fill Z B type. That depression layer is used to separate between this two between the and the type and be type. Okay, So when electrons have enough amount of energy, it goes from the wars. Rosie wires and dozy be type circle. Okay, so that movement off electron here will causes the electron floor or electric electricity flow or current flow. Okay, 7. Advantages and Disadvantages Of PV Cells: So what is that? Advances off that BV systems number one. It provides green energy. This energy is from the nature, and it is our clean energy and nearly have a zero pollution. It is free and available. Energy is energy is taken from our son can be used locally, which reduces losses. Okay. What does it mean? It means that we can use it near us. Just by putting Izzy panels, we can take the energy right from it. OK, but if we're talking about the great off the government, they generate the electricity at as generators, then transmit it using transmission lines, which causes losses until distributing it using distribution substations or substitute Add distribution transformers, which also causes losses in through underground cables until it comes to you. Okay, so all of this system causes closes and cost Is the government lots off money? Okay, so the BV system reduces losses and more efficient in Khost, then building, generating substation and providing power to you. The operation and the maintenance costs are lower in the system. It is silent and no noise as a reason for this is that it has no mechanical parts. Not as the generators in Z A Z, the generating power plants such as easing krone generators, which have a mechanical parts and or mechanical moving parts. It is off course, easy toe in stone. You can in a store it by yourself. It is used in spacecraft applications satellites, for example. But today's advantages off that BV systems number one there is no power at night or during a cloudy or rainy wizard, because the during this time there is no sun. Okay, sort of. So there is no power during using ah night or cloudy or raining with our. It requires additional equipment such as in voters, and better is the reason for this is that the power generated from the BV system is a D C. Power. Or I'll buy the current or steady voltage or one directional power, one directional air voltage. And so we need to use inverters, toe supply, easy powers, toe converted, the D C. Power toe, a sea power. And if you would like to know about inverters, you can go to my own course. For investors, it required the batteries in orderto store zem power during the night or doing cloudy or rainy with Toby used enduring exist conditions. Okay, so we store the power during the day Toby used at night or cloudy or raining weather. Okay, The matter is are really, really, really expensive and represents are larger percentage off's BV system costs. Okay, when you are talking off course at an off grid system, okay? And in this course, we will discuss the difference between off great and 100 system and hybrid off course. The BB system actually have a 15 to 18% efficiency or a low efficiency, as this means that we can only benefit from 18% maximum off 18% off the radiation off the some. It needs a continuous cleaning from dust off course for high power. Bi V requires a very large area. For example, are desert off course? It's It is difficult inside the city's because we don't have ah, large Roof four BV 8. Solar Cell,Module,Array and String: Hi, everyone. In this lecture, we are goingto discusses e component off solar system from the point of view off the photovoltaic system. Okay, so the first thing that our system or our PV system consisting off a group off modules, strings and finally a raise. So what does a cell module string array means. Okay, So represented is the smallest part or the smallest component in a BV system. This cell is yours. It'll convert Z solar energy in tow. Electrical energy. This cell produces from a 0.5 toe maximum off point on my involved. Okay, so this cell is used toe converted, the electrical asi solar energy and toe electrical energy. Okay, Now a group off cells like this one, a group of sense in Siris. All of these cells are in serious for Miss something which is called module. Okay, So a group of cells in series for Miss Eyre Maduro. Now we have this one, which is a module. Now I grow off modules in serious will produce something which is called as drink. Okay, so the cell is a smallest component in our BV system. The module is consistent off a group of cells in series is in that strength is consisting off a group of modules also in serious. Okay, Now, the array, which is that biggest using in our BV system, is consisting off our group off strings in Paris. Okay, so this one is a strength consistent off two modules. So the this is one is a module. This one is a maduro. This one is a model. This one is, um, with your tom modules in serious will form on a string toe. Matured since here's format Sprink two models and serious string toma jewels in serious strength. Now, all those history ings are in barrel forming and array. Okay, The strength does not have a specific number. At least two modules in serious okay or one module in series. The model is consisting off a group of cells. Okay, here is an example off. How does this work or how our strings for me. Okay. We'll find here this one a sin. Six the vault and three m six of water and three m six old and 3 a.m. If we connect as this panels or this modules in Sears, we will have final voltage off. Six a vault plus six of Walt Blast six vault, which is 18 volt. Same as a group of batteries in Syria's. Okay, positive. Negative. The negatives connected toe the postive negative, postive. Same as a group of batteries in cities. And we will discuss this in another picture, okay? 9. Types of Solar Photovoltaic cells: types off that solar photovoltaic cells, solar panels to convert the energy from the sun into the electricity, which we use in our homes, off course to power that lights on our streets, the machine in our industries. And of course, we can use it in our home. They're on a different times. Off the solar photovoltaic cells, there is a moon crystalline silicon solar panels. There is a poorly crystalline or multi crystalline solar panels that are more force or a Cine film. Seoul opponents and the hybrid silicon solar panels. The 1st 1 is a more no crystalline that is, the are the most effective off the solar PV cells, with a 15% impressions. They also are considered the more expensive option because they require less space and ours ourselves simply because it produced more energy. And they can yield up to four times more power than that's in film School of planets. They also lost the longer than the Assad panels and the performing better at low light. Their own mean this as much Is the cost what you mean that it's not the first choice for homeowners because it is very expensive, despite its a large efficiency, which is 15%. It's also can be affected by their torch shed, which you can break a certain the second. The type is a poorly crystalline or more dick restaurant. They have an efficiency off a 13%. They are often seen as a better economic choice, particulary for the homeowners, because they have a lower price. Senza Morneau crystalline, they are made from a number off a smaller silicon. Crystals that are melted together ends in re crystallized. That means a bunch off it. It means that you will need more of them because of the lower energy conversion conversion efficiency, As you see here in the reverse, when we have an efficiency offer 15%. That's why you will need dialysis base and the list amount off them. But here, for the poly crystalline, it has an efficient off 15% which means that we will need more of them because it has a lower efficiency. The third type is the amorphous or sinful solar planets. They have a 7% efficiency. Therefore, the Cine film, or the amorphous are among the least efficient, efficient owns the mark, but they are consider as the she best option. They work well in Santo Light, even moonlight, and are made from non crystalline silicon that can be transferred in a same film in tow. Another material such as glass. Does that mean advanced off? It is that it can be mass produced at a much cheaper coast butts more suitable for situations where this place is not a big issue. For example, in a desert, if you have a large space or a large amount of very off course in the desert the weekend, we can install that amorphous or the same film a pie. But for the home owners they are not. We cannot use it because it have a law official 7% So we'll use the bully crystalline type . Does that mean this advance for them is that the on more general used for residential purposes or for the home owners because they will regret quicker, sends a crystalline cells or symbolical Stalin or more? No crystal, And they have a low efficiency off a 7% the hybrid silicon solar pennants they have our largest. A feels they have the largest efficiency, with any efficiency off 18%. The high brittle opponents are made from a mix off the amorphous and the mono crystalline cells generate as a maximum efficiency. There are a variety off types off the hybrid cells, and they are still very much as a research and development stage, which is wise. Our country currently are more expensive. Option now is that somebody force that BV souls. That first type is a Montecristo lines. You have efficiency over 15% and they are considered the one of the most effective BvS sells in the market. That bullet, crystalline or multi crystalline Z, have efficiency off a 13%. They are also cheaper to produce and slightly less efficient than Morneau. Crystalline that amorphous or the same films silicon. They have the lowest efficiency, 7% and the one of the least efficient cell types on the market. But they are considered their ships the hybrid Sarkozy on a combination off Zach Pollock, Arsalan and the mono crystalline, and they have the highest efficiency, 18%. There are the more 6 70 expensive BV cell type available on the market, but also the most efficient 10. Mounting Of PV System: Now let's all discusses the difference. A missile off mounting off the system. How we bought our BV system, or BV planets. We have a different A missile. The first missile is affects it. Panel a panel which does not move throughout. See, it is a fix it. Plan it An example of this Z panels on a roof of the house. Okay, this penalty does not move throughout the year. Another one, A pool where we fix our BV parents on a pole. This poor as this ball is not moving, it is a stead the airport or on the ground where it is a constant off course. And it is not moving the roof mount, for example, as the advantage. And this advantage of it is it is simple and cheap. Tony stole. Of course, we take dependence and but it on the roof. But the problem is that no flexibility on orientation off the system we cannot control the orientation or the movement off the PV system. It is a fix it all hours a year. So it only support is the small BV system only is a small or the low power bi V systems the second type is he integrated? Z integrated, as you see here. Have a good looking. And as the problem off this is, we have a very low efficiency. Okay. For example, we have here building. You can see that all of this our solar panels, they give a very good look. However, they have a very low efficiency. OK, but anyways, they are very helpful. Toe benefit from sunlight. Okay, now, another missile is the tracking off the BV system. Okay, we'll see. Here are BV system connected. Tow motor. This motor has sensors and B l A C system in orderto control and the move our BV system. You will see that here The panel will produce Z maximum Albert power when sun rays are perpendicular toe z panel. So it tracks. Is the movement off He's on in orderto have always a perpendicular direction and the produce z maximum power. So this message is used s called disease Solar tracker. The smaller tracker simply advised, used the four orienting the vessel or moving is a beef hazel towards the sun By using our light sensors which senses the light connected with a motor like servant. This helped this toe increase the efficiency boy 15% in winter and 30% in someone. However, this system is very, very high price. Okay, because we was here are mortar and sensors which you need Toby A change it, but however is this will help but to increase the efficiency. Or, if you would like toa produce the maximum power, it will help to increase by 15% in winter and 30% in summer. Now, as the tracker or solar trigger can be different types, the first time is called dizzy. Single access Trekker is this tracker moves in one axes. It can be easily vertical access or horizontal axis. Okay, it moves in the vertical or the horizontal. Like this one. It moves a year in a specific direction only in one direction. OK, the dual axis tracker or Doyle Access to I can have both vertical and horizontal access. It has two axes. Okay, Not only one access only two axes, so it can rotate in a different direction. As you see here, it can rotate like this in the clockwise direction. It can rotate is a vertical direction in the horizontal direction, as would like 11. Parallel and Series connection in PV System: Now, in this lecture, we are going to discuss how to connect our Beav easels in series and parallel and Z effect on the V I car. So first you have to concern that each of the cells or each off this modules, Toby, more specific is like a battery. Okay, So when you connect a group off batteries in Syria's, for example, if this battery's where point my vault going 5.5 point five. And if you connect all of them in serious as your as you know that from as the devil No, you will find that the output voltage would it be is the sum mission off all voltage? Okay, we want Blas veto laws V three plus before which will give us toe vault. Okay, so I would connect them Is the module has two terminals, One which is a positive one, which is a negative. Okay, In orderto connected in series with takes the postive and connected with the negative off the second cell, the postive toe, the negative second say most if tonegative and so on until you will finally have one postive terminal and one negative 10. Okay, Now here is the same example you will find here to terminals posted on the upper and negative on the lower. Okay, Now, if connected, the negative was the postive negative and so on. You will have to terminals most of terminal and the negative terminal and the submission off the voltage. Here is the sum of the toe voltages here. Okay, Now, if we see here, is the single sir or single module having a current point it and 0.0.6 volt. Okay, this is Ah, sell off course and not amateur now, which is the same as module. Okay, if we made this one Maduro, it will give us the same values. OK, but the current will be higher and the voltage will be also higher. Okay, but since here we are drawing this curve according Toa single cell, So have you 0.6 volt as you remember that the voltage waas between 0.52 point 29 vote So here as this one is single cell And if we have to cells in Sierra's is the voltage will be the submission off two cells. So C Walton here doubled and the current is the same. Okay, the current here I want is equal toe I to equal. So I see qualify for about the voltage is a some mission off all voters here. So one cell here so cells in Syria's all give us 10.6 plus 0.6, which will give us one point toe. Okay, Current is the same. The voltages doubled. Now, if we talk about the barrel connection here, we have one panel here, one panel, one panel or one planet, or we can say we have a group of cells. It is the same. Okay, Now, if we would like Toa have here, is this cell a parent was Issel Okay? For example, this store sells will give us a 0.6 a vault. This is an assumption. Okay, so this to ourselves on the are in barrel is the total current increases. It will be a the current off the first district or C first align below sea current off the second line, I plus I be okay. So when we connect a to cells in barrel, this one is battery. You'll find here is the total current increases to double. Okay, Since they are identical to Charles so point it will become one point seats but the Walters will be the same senses they are in better. So the difference again is that the barrel connection Use the to increase the total cut. So funny it wants it. Two cells in Parral will give us 1.6 or double Z current and the Walter do the same. But here in Z s years is the too serious. Here, for example, will give us double the voltage about same current. Now let's see the effect off serious and the barrel only I care of again. OK, now if we have a single cell if we have to cells in Syria's isn't the total voltage will increase at the same current here once in hey so cells in series. So the vaulted here waas doubled or increased toe. Now for the a barrel connection one cell here to cells embarrassed will increase as the current Toto's e double at the same voltage. Okay, you'll find years this one and this point. At this point, it's called dizzy Maximum power point. What does it mean? It means that the maximum or the point at which we will have the maximum power at this point Voltage and current, we will have the maximum output power. Okay, So if we would like toe get dizzy maximum power from our baby s l we will have toe operate at this wattage. And this current. Okay, same here. This point, which is the knee off sicker of is the voltage and current at which we will have the maximum power. 12. Effect of Insolation and Temperature on V I Curve: now would like to discuss Izzy. Effect off the insulation and the temperature on the V, Iker or the power kills. So first we need toe defines the installation or the solar radiance. What does a solar ingredients mean or installation mean? It means that the Power bear unit area received from this on in the form of electromagnetic radiation. So it means that when we are saying radiance, we can say the killer. What? Bear Meter square. Simple as this. Or it can be energy per unit area. Okay, Kill what? Our pair. Meter square. So, for example, here your fund here's a relation between the B v R a current and the B V R a voltage. Okay, so let's take this curve. Okay, so we'll see that. Aunt Solar radiance off 200 watt per meter square power bear unit area. This means that at this value, we will have a value off. Maximum orders are short. Circuit current will be nearly one point toe, for example. Okay. And the maximum voltage will be nearly certainly add vault. Okay, Now, if we increase the solar radiance or C power per unit area from the sun, for example, 400 watt meter square. You will find that Z current increase. The voltage also increased at 600. What? Burr meter square. The current increased, the vaulted increased and so on. Okay, so we'll see that we understand the year as the insulation or the A radiation, or as the power per unit area received from the sun increases the power generated from the BV system increases. Okay, she'll see that here at 1200 watt Big meter square here at 200. What per meter square. Now, if we would like to go find, say, power, we multiply the voltage multiplied by C current. Okay, so at this 0.0 voltage amount of blood by a 7.5 members here. 10 a fair amount of pot, boy, a certain value here and so on. Okay. And the maximum power received the from BV system is adds any off the car. Okay. As e ni nearly here, answered five Walt and nearly add seven a pair. Okay, Now, what is the effect off that temperature on this curve? You'll see her. That here, for example, adds e orange one at 7 12 Solicitors degree. Okay, so If we decree is that temperature to 50 solicitors degree here, the voltage will increase but as but the current were nearly remain constant. Now again here at 25 solutions degree here at zero degree at negative 25 citizens degree. So what does it mean? It means that if we increase the temperature, for example, here is zero degree 25 citizens degree 15 75. So as we increase the temperature, the voltage ing decreases but the current nearly remained constant. So what does it mean? It means that the total power from the BV system decreases. Okay, So this means that at a higher temperature, the efficiency of the system decreases. Now let's see another care of here at 10 solicitors degree 25 for two degree, 55 degree, 70 degree. So as the temperature increases from right toe left, the power received the from the BB system decreases. So as the temperature increases, the power off the BV system decreases as the installation increases the efficiency and seapower received from the baby system increase 13. Shading and Tilt angle: Now let's discuss on also thing, which is important in our baby system, which is called the shading. What's mental by shading, it means that the there is a tree, for example, hiding our sunlight okay. Or the shadow of the tree is going on the B vessel and causing it not produce Z current, okay or not produce any power. So we'll see years that our son here causes shedding on one off see BV cells which causes here the current not off law. Okay, so let's have an example on this You'll see is that we have here sell connected in serious and to have years, something which is called the bypass tight and will understand. What is it now we will assume that we have here a shadow on the cell or leave off the tree . Okay, This shadow or leave is hiding ourselves, so it prevents it from producing any power. So the problem here is that a Z current from someone buses through here. Since Roswell does in through self three and the win it reaches cell for it cannot boss why ? Because cell four does not produce any power and it is considered as an open circuit. So how we can solve this problem we cannot produce now in your power. So we put here out Ayotte Barrel. Does he sell? Is this bite called bypass tight in orderto pass zisson. Okay, so the current bosses through here, here, here and then at cell four can no bus. So we give it another post. Here's Rosie di Di for and through the load. OK, it as if it cancels this cell. Okay, so they're benefit off. My bus diet is that it passes z sell when descent does not generate any electricity. Okay, When a shadow is cast on a panel a wizard by a tree or a building, for example, it decreases the amount of electricity produced a participant trading or just one cell in a module. Only one cell, which consists off 60 cell and with your consistent 60 cell can efficiently decrease the power by 33%. So you can see that when you're like this one consistence off our sickest T cells. If one of these cells is hidden by shedding or the shadow of the tree or a building, this can reduce the efficiency off the cell boy 33%. So you can see how was the shad ing analyst is really important. So you have tow keep beaker for from the shedding effect on your own site. Okay, Now let's discuss a very important sing, which is schools that TelDta angle. So what is actual angle here? That it angle here is the angle Peter off the BV panel. Okay, so that tells the angle off the photovoltaic PV array is the key to our optimum energy yelled. Okay, Is this angle okay? Effect is the power from the sire from cease on. Okay, because Izzy, we want is he some Toby perpendicular on ZB v Bannon? Okay, so we have toe tell it by an angle called teldta angle or incline it by an angle called Peter or tell the anger Solar panels, or be very are most efficient. So when's the up open dickler towards the sun rays? OK, when's the sun? Rays like this one is perpendicular on the TV Bannon. The BV Bannon produces the maximum power or the maximum possible power. Also this angle, we have to use it, which is the angle between the panel and Z horizontal Aziz angle will cause a shadow from the panel. Okay, so when sun here hits his e panel, it will cause a shadow here. So we have to both z panel and see next one at a distance. D cold is a module roll over distance in order to prevent disease. Selfish heading So again, when sunlight hits his opponent, it causes a shared go under it. So if we both z panel this one here, it will be affected by shed. So we need toe put Z panels at a distance between each other to prevent Is the shining effect or selfish adding effect? This distance should be at least three w where w is a the winds off seen a panel. OK, so this one should multiplied by three. And but it the next a bunny. Okay, so distance city here is three w Okay, Now is the optimal angle here for BV panels. Okay, according to your own position on the world. OK, so we'll see here a map, for example, here at this reason, where my own country agent your five years. That's the optimal angle. Fourth, the delta angle should be between 2060 degree and certain seven degree for the maximum or the most efficient power from Aziz on. Okay, so boating here, z a panel at an angle. Twin six toe sort. Seven degree will produce Z most efficient power. Okay, this is just an approximation. Okay, That range here, the fourth according toe. The region's off the world to give you a point off reference as zero tilt angle means that the panel is lying a flat down on its back, facing directly opposed. So when's this angry called zero. It will be flat and facing upwards. As the inclination increases. That panel would be adjusted to face more and more towards the front. Okay, so when this angle increases, it will be more toe different. Okay. Now, in order to find Z tilt angle accurately, Z first single. Goto this for a website. Okay. It'll finds the latitude off your own place. Okay. Latitude and dizzy magnitude or longitude will be helpful in our program. B v Syst Now is the accurate missiles. Is that by my man noise calculations for a latitude up to 25 degree according to our own place on the map will take latitude on the multiply eight by 80.87 for a latitude between 25 to 50. Solicitors degree or 50 degree Take your attitude multiplied by 500.87 And after the actual at 3.1 degree for over 50 degrees, almost idea angle will end up being approximately 45 degrees. Of course, I obtained this accurate message from this website called Sora panels. Air Foot will take dot net and another e ZR missile by going toe this whip site. Okay, Now, um, in this website will find that the angle here will be between vertical Z angle provided is between the vertical, not between horizontal and Spanish, and you will find the Here is the optimal angle here. Changing ways. E monsters off the off course, Izzy, position off the sun is not constant. So it does the angry changes Saros theme ounces off here. As you see, this color is also as this one. Okay, let's get back. This one is obtained from the same website. Which provides is that I have to reference them. Okay, thanks to them for providing us on Awesome. Um, a very important map and thanks for their information. Now this angle will changes throughout they okay, now let's go to this website and that's to go to this website and see how we are going to use them now for our first website, which is provided by NASA In orderto find a Z accurate angle or the accurate latitude and look cute off your own position, we will definitely here. For example, I'm living in Cairo. Okay, Now I want to select my own country. So I will click on point here and then selected here at Cape. Okay, you will find here is the latitude longitude off Z position here the latitude and longitude . This values are used also in our program. Beavis ist now another thing we can do. Oh, after findings. This is that we go to our calculations year you'll find between 25 degree to a 50 degree take that attitude and multiplied by 500.87 After that, add 3.1. So let's get back here. Can creator, for example, the latitude is 30 degree okay and multiplied it by 0.87 Okay, and then add 3.1 degree. So we'll find that the best angle. According toa This message is to intern. I'm goingto degree. Okay. Actually, in Egypt, in my own Cairo in my own country, Ko will use adult anger off certain areas. So this message is very, very accurate. Now, if we get back dozy zoo map, you will find here for my own country. The optimum is 26 degree toasted seven degree, and the 20 line is between this range. Okay, so this is a very important dimension and the accurate obtains those values. Now, let's go toe easy. This website, the same one side toe find any important it it What is this? That Okay, now I would like to choose my own a year and debt. I would tell you know why? For example, from 11 2018 toe, um 2018 again. And, um, on December 31. Now, I would like to find the data for the radiation off the sun in this position throughout one year. Okay, Now, if I go here and select sizing and the pointing off solar parents for for a sermon, applications click on it and sinkler concept mitt. Okay. You'll see that the website is processing the data or data for this position and they will see now important information which will help you in designing. Okay, now you will see that here from January 1 toe. Ah, the symbol searched 1 December 2018. Your fund years he kill what? Our bear meter square per day. So this is the amount of energy produced the bear unit area in one day. Okay, This you will see that here, for example, on 13 April, 7.71 kilowatt hour per meter square per day. So this is a very helpful information for yourself and you can use it in designing now Another data kilowatt hour per meter squared per day. You will find years that it gives you each off this values and how long is the remain? For example, the value eight point mind kill what our perimeter square is for 36 days. 8.1 is for 14 days and so on. So you can get the average off kilowatt hour per meter square bear day. Okay, throughout, say, by analyzing this is kerf Now the second The mess in which we said here is by going toe this website So let's ago solar Anglican quit. So this provides us with that data for going or having angle. So, for example, I choosing is it and the city of scale. Now you will find here it gives you the optimum angle in Z three optimum teldta angle throughout. See, for example, in January, 44 degree February 52 degrees 60 and so on. But remember that here that the optimum angle here is between the vertical and Simpanan. But here, this one and this one is from the horizontal. So the 44 degree here, okay, for example means that between it and Zia horizontal should be 90 minus of 60 degree. So we will see if you draw here at vertical horizontal line as the angle here, 90 degree therefore, this angle between the panel and the horizontal 90 minus 36 degree. Okay, so this is on as our solar angle creator from this awesome website. Okay? 14. Determing PV Array Max Voltage: in this video are going toe Discuss help toe deter mine the PV array Maximum system voltage . As you know that for the United States in residential and commercial BV systems in the United States is rated upto 600 voltage DC So it's important to make sure that the BV array is configured so that this 600 volt aerating is not exceeded. So when we are designing our B visa, we need toe. Make sure that the vaulted, which is coming out from the B visa, does not exceed 600 vaulted as a D. C value in the cold, sunny conditions is our voltage off. The array will start to to enquiries do toe the dim Britcher decrees as we remember the effect off the temperature on the voltage and the current Albert from the B visa. So, as we remember from our previous lectures, we have discussed that as the temperature decreases, the voltage out from the B visa will start to increase. So we need to make sure for women are designing our system. That's a voltage or always to stay below the 600 voltage DC. So we need to find the lowest expected ambient temperature at your site. So if we are living in an area and I would like to find the lost temperature in this area in order to design our BV cells, our BV module manufacturer providers at temperature coefficient off open circuit voltage and we will use this value in order to find this a voltage at the Lohse temperature. This coefficient it tells us how much ammo jewels vaulted will increase bear Citizens Degree blues. A standard test conditions stc off 25 solicitors degree. So this coefficient, which is a temperature coefficient off open circuit voltage, helps us don't know how our voltage would change. For example, if our temperature is 25 solicitors degree, then we will have a certain voltage. What will happen if our temperature decreases the to 24 citizens degree? Then our voltage will start to increase. So how much our voltage would increase? It depends on the temperature coefficient, and we'll see an example now the temperature coefficient will be listed in vaulters bear solicitors degree. Many Walters bear solicitous or as a percentage bear solicitors degree. Now let's have an example. If we have a module with Adam Britcher coefficient voltage open circuit off negative or 0.12 volt bear solicitors a green. This means that for each one degree salacious below 25 syriza's degree, our voltage will increase boy or going toe 120 Now, if we have our Magoon with that temperature coefficient voltage open circuit given in percentage of bear solicits degree, we will multiplies this coefficient boys on with Jones Open circuit in orderto know how much our voltage will it change? Now Let's have another example If we have a module with an open circuit voltage off 36.29 volt and a temperature coefficient off negative or going 36% bear citizens degree. So it means that for each one degrees Eliza's blue 25 visas degree our volta will a change boy this value. So we multiplied that temperature coefficient percentage by our open circuit. Voltage, we get or going toe one series three. So what does it mean? It means that for each one syriza's degree, our voltage will change of body is this value? Once we have this calculation, we can deter Mine is a lost expected ambient temperature. We need this ambient temperature in orderto know how much our vault will it change? Now let's have a solved problem. Number one. Let's assume that our array uses modules with the open circuits or C 6.29 volt, as we discussed before. And do we have a temperature coefficient? The open circuit equal negative or going to 36%? Bear solicits the green, and it's located in a location called Albany in New York. The extreme minimum temperature for this location is listed at as negative 23 solicitors agreeing. So now we have a Xavi or when circuit, which is 36.9. We have that in Britain coefficient negative or going to city 6%. We have our location with extreme minimum temperature. Negative two industries. This is the green. So the first single would like to find is how many solicitors degree below 25 Salacious agree. So this is 40. It's delicious. Lowers NZ is deceit temperature. How did we calculate it from here? Negative 23 minus 25 solicitors degree and gives us negative 48 solicitors degree, which is a difference between the negative 23 solicitors degree and 25 syriza's degree. So now our temperature changes binding the 48 services degree. Now would like to find out how much our world totally change. So 49 citizens degree multiply or going toe one cities revolt, which will be equal to 6.38 Where did we get or 0.1? Cities three. From here, as we remember from this part, you will find or going to one seriously vault which represent is there change bear once, Clesius. So this vote as our our temperature decreases by one serious our volta will change by this value. So again. Now we Richard here it means that our vote win our temperature changes by negative 48. So 48 Clesius Monta blood bio 480.1. Cities revolt will give us the vaulted 6.38 vault. So if our temperature is negative to industry, then our vault will be 6.38 Plus is his value which will give us 43 point to win the vault . So the maximum with your voltage is this value. So when we design our BV is module. We knew now that our maximum value is 40 60 point. Tow it now if we have an array consists off a 12 off this models. A 12 off this 43 point went eight, then the resulting in maximum system. Voltage is 519.4, which is is 43.28 multiplied by 12 which you give us this value which is under 600 volt limit. But if we design our array off 14 modules, then our 600 volt will be 6 14 about the blood buys 40 c 400.28 which will give us 605 which is higher than our limit. So what is the purpose off? Never knowing the maximum allowable voltage in orderto not exceed 600 volt. So when you now from that temperature coefficient, we can deter mine. How much our totally change purse, Eliza's degree and then the lowest temperature in our area. And then we can deter mined the maximum with jewels, the open circuit. And after this weekend, that ermine Hellman, how many modules who are going to use now? We will find in their description off this video the resources you will find here this link for the U. S. A. Which would help. Bastard. But here's the city or the state in the United State, and it will give us that lowest temperature in this area. So if you are living in the USA, you can tribe your own city or state and the click submit. Then you can get the lowest temperature for your area. 15. Types of DC DC Converters: Now let's discuss here in this video about with zai DC to DC converters. What does this converters do? They simply step up the voltage or step down the voltage. So we have here that are but voltage from the BV cell. Using this circuit, we can get an outward voltage lower than the input. This one is called the Buck converter. The back or a step down converter. So this switch has something which is called the duties like What does it mean? As I don't cycle d is equal toe t own over team. What does it mean? The on is a period or the time in which our switch is on or in the conducting state. And the tea is a total period. The total period, which is the some off the time in which our switches on and the time in which our switches off. So assembly t is a quantity on Blust e off and you will find here from this circuit you will find that the V Abbott is equal to D, which is a duty cycle t own over teen which is less than one multiplied by Xavi import this symbol voltage which comes from the B results. So what happens here? We we were able toe converted the input voltage in tow, a lower armored voltage using the duty cycle. And of course, it is done by using switches like transistors or visiting Or most fit his ability can be used, which is a poor electronic device can be used the s as which the second the type off the D C D C converters is posed or step up converter. It increases the voltage you will find Here there is here as which and we have also a duty cycle. Here you will find that the relation off the output Voltage. So the ambled voltage is this relation? The output is equal toe we I over one miners, Dean, Since dean is lowers on one, therefore one minus a value lowers and one will give us a decimal point a decimal value. Therefore we import over Addis Immel Value will give us ah large value greater Zen Zevi import. So this type is called the post or a step up convert. This time it's called the park or a step down converter. This type is used. It will step down the voltage off that PV cells. This type is used it to step up or post. Is there inboard voltage off the BV cells? The last type is the park. Both to convert this time is usually toe. Make the Albert according toe that do this. I can make it higher than that in boot or lower than same. It can be the toe step up or step down. That's why it's called Park boasts to comfort, and this is a circuit off our convert, and this is the relation between Is that the outward and VM? But 16. Several Techniques for MPPT: in this video are going to discuss the several techniques he was the four maximum power point tracking. We have a different techniques or at the front of missiles in order to get the maximum power point in order to get the maximum power from our BV cells. There are different a missile number one the Afghanistan devoted GMs owed the open circuit voltage a message with the feedback voltage a Cantamessa zebra, corruption and observation missile B and or the incremental conducting always see missile the fuzzy logic measured. Then you're a network missile. All of these techniques are used toe get the maximum power point tracking. So in this video will discuss separate corruption and observation Missile they're incremental conducted its icy mess So now let's see them. The first missile is the pervert corruption and observed technique measured. So what happens here? You will see that the power, the voltage a curve is something like this. You will find that as we increase the voltage, their outward bore starts to increase. Until we get to that maximum four and then the power starts to decrease again. So what are we going to do here? We are just increasing our voltage by incremental. What does it mean? Incremental? It means that we are increasing the voltage boy a very small value. So we'll see here is that we in commits a voltage of by a very incremental small value, which is Delta V. We just increase the voltage and then calculate the border at each point so they can call it the power Bi equals V multiplied by. So we'll continue doing this until we find that the power starts to decrease. So when's the power started to do? Please? It means that we passed the point off the maximum board point. So I started toe decrease the voltage again by Delta V until we get the maximum power point . So assembly what happens here, we increase the voltage by a small value and the calculates a power at each point until we find that the power starts to decrease. What does it mean? It means that we bossed the maximum ballpoint. So we decrease the voltage by a small value until we find that we have the maximum power out. That this advance off this missile is that we don't operate exactly at the maximum or going to we just orbit at the point around it or funds that it was a maximum power point. Here we will find that we are operating at a point here or a point here Now Our second, The message is the incremental conductors technique. The power is maximum. When the differentiation over the power with respect toe the voltage will be equal to zero . What does it mean? It means that we are getting the maximum power point or the maximum value. So as you know that the differentiation is used, toe find their value off the maximum power or the value off any maximum. So in order to get the maximum off any single, we differentiate the equation with respect toe our variable which is years off. What it So it was a differentiation off the voltage of matter. Blood buys a current senses. A power is equal toe. We want the blood by I and using the differentiation will find that it will be equal toe the derivative off the 1st 1 martyr blood boy, The second itself the derivative off the 1st 1 which is a voltage. But the blood by the current, the derivative off the current multiplied by is a voltage itself. This is equal toe the differentiation off this part. So finally we will find that partial V by partial v the call one. Therefore, that Barschel all over partial v will be ableto negative all over the This part is called the Incremental Conductors and this part is called the instantaneous Conductors. So what happens here? The condition, in order to get the maximum power, will be equal to add the incremental partial I by partial V will be called the negative I over the So what are we going to do? We will just the change, the current and the voltage by a very small, valuable tri Delta V. Until that they'll die over Delta V, which is partial. I by partial V is equal to negative I over the and when we said spy this condition, we will get our maximum power. 17. Gried Tied Solar System: in this video are going toe discusses at the front. A grid systems well first discuss their great tight solar systems. All their own grade solar systems the great tight or on great or utility interactive or great aunt or tie and the great back feeding are all the term is used to describe the same concept of solar systems that's connected to the utility power grit. What does it mean? It means that we are having here a system which is generate electricity from our solar panels, where I fear our sunlight, which is a source off energy. And we have here is a small A parents or disastrous BVs ALS ZTE exacts on light and converters. That's all our energy into electrical energy or electrical D C. Energy. Then we have the inverter, which converts is that they see in tow a C alternating current so as to use it. Then you'll see years that the inverter is connected to our house and connected to a meter . Then two is a totality, great words meant by utility Great. It means that it is our Orza. Source from our government is the government, which contains as generators along its country's you will find here that there is a meter here. What does it mean? It means that for example, you are talking about there they light therefore watch generating electricity and embossing sores inverter which converts from the D. C into a C on. Then you will find here a meter. This solar panels will provide energy into our house or our home and the totality Great. It acted as a generating station for the utility great, which is used to fulfill as our demands in other regions. So that is a benefit, therefore, is a meter here when calculate that you are giving the government some kill. What? And this kill what you are going to get some money from it and at night when there is no sunlight. Therefore, there is no energy's also from Zach solar cells. Therefore, we are taking from the utility great energy in tow, our house. So the meter will say that you are taking some amount off kill what? Or how many kilowatt hour from is a totality great and therefore the difference between them is gonna being money given to you or money given to the government. So that is a benefit off the great tight is a great bite system. You are just connecting toe the totality. Great. Therefore, you are taking energy when you don't have any power supply and you provide energy when you have excess electricity. 18. Advantages of Gried Tied Solar System: So what is The advantage is off is a great tight systems. They save more money on with net metering through a better efficiency rates. Net metering blasts, lower equipment and installation costs. As you know that, for example, here in Egypt for giving the government one kilowatt hour, therefore it means that you are will take from the government 88 Viesturs. But if you are buying one kilowatt hour or consuming one kilowatt hour from the government , you will bay only 44. So we'll see that here is a doubles the value. If you are giving the government more than taking energy, you will still get more money from the government. You are generating electricity for your own home and the taking the money from the government, the batteries and also stand alone equipment which are found in the off grid system which would discuss in the next video they had to Costas as well as the maintenance off these batteries. As you know, that the better is only lost for 10 years and sometimes Lord, therefore, is this batteries and the system, or is a stand alone system which does not depend on the totality Grete and contains its own batteries and its own generators. It will cause more Costas as well as more. Maintenance is a great pipe. Solar systems are therefore generally sheep are and simple of toe in the sport, with the net metering, the homeowner, the campuses, excess electricity on certain toes, a utility great instant off, storing it themselves with the batteries. That's what you are talking about it. You are giving electricity to the government. You are acting as a generating border station. You are using some of the generating power for its own house, and this excess electricity is given toe the totality. Great interstate off, storing it in the batteries or consuming that. Because Zach batteries has its own limit, you cannot store Ah lot off electricity according to the capacity was about that. So instead, off wasting this electricity, we are giving it to the government and we are taking the money from it. Many utility companies are committed to buying Gilchrist from home owners at the same rate as he sell it themselves. Yes, there are some countries which boy electricity and the given interest as the same rate. For example, you are taking an interest one kilowatt hour for one bound, then you are buying electricity from them or selling interest. It was the government with one bound, but here in Egypt, we still did not reach Is this We are here in Egypt. We are selling electricity to the homeowners at at 44 yesterday's, for example. And we are if if the home owner gives us the government, he will take 88 Bs started. So homeowners adds this time is making the money from the government. The hotel great also is a virtual battery. Why? Because you are giving their excess electricity instead off storing them in batteries you are giving them in tow. The utility grid therefore more interest and war money goes to waste with the conventional battery system. As we said before, the batteries has its own limit. That's why you cannot charges cemetery to infinity. You are just a charging it according to its capacity and the excess you just wasted. But for the great tight system you are giving me, is that the excess electricity directly towards the utility? Great 19. Equipment of Gried Tied Solar System: So what is the equipment for the great tight solar systems? Number one is a great time. Inverter, or G? Ay, it is used in tow. Regulates the voltage and the current received from your own solar panels. It converted I D c current or the D C vaulted from the BB battles in tow A. C as you know that the easy is a type off is our current which is use the toe utilize our or it is your It is utilized by the majority off electrical appliance. At home, you are consuming electricity. At 120 volt were phase or the 180 line to line voltage. In addition to this, agree tie inverters, Syncronys affairs and the frequency off the current to fit the totality. Great nominally 60 hertz. What does it mean? It means that it makes the wave form off the easy current coming from the BV. Mandel's is the same as the one off the totality. Great. The as if it is ah, generator. They are making them having the same place. And the frequency second equipment is a micro inverter. Micro inverter goes on that back off each of solar panel, as opposed to one central inverters that typically takes on the entire solar every. It means that instead of just using a central or one central inverter, we are just using micro inverters on each off the solar panel and today's we have a lot of the bat on which weather that my cream voters arbiters as a central inverters or not. The micro inverters are certainly more expensive, but in many cases yield higher officials you rates the 30 equipment is a power meat. It's a power meter. As we said before, it is the one which calculates how much you are consuming akin, what from that utility grid and how much kill what you are giving the totality great is the difference between them is amount of kilowatt given toe the government or taken from the government and at which you are are going toe bay for it or earn the money from the government. So most homeowners we need to replace the current power meter was one that convertible with net metering. Why our power meter is just in one direction from the utility, great in tow, our house. But here, since you are generating electricity it will be in a tool direction one from that totality great in tow. Our house, which means that we are consuming electricity or from our house or our solar panels into is a utility grids, which means that we are generating electricity. That's why it is a two way or a knit meter or Attaway meter that's capable off measuring power, going on both direction from the Great Tour House and vice versa. 20. Off Grid Solar System: Now let's discuss that off grid solar systems on off great solar system is or a standalone is the alternative to one that is great tight for home owners that have access toes agreed to ensure access to electricity all the time. The off grid solar system requires a battery storage and a backup generator. If you live off the grid on top. Off this at Battery Bank privately needs to be replaced off the 10 years. Some batteries are complicated, expensive and degrees overall system officials. So we'll see you in our system. We have that solar balance, which convert is a solar energy into electricity or electrical energy or a D C. Electrical energy. Then we have Here are Treasure Controller, which controls the charging current into cemeteries. As you know, that is that. But there is have a limited current so as to prevent its burning. So we'll see that charge control controls is that the current, which goes to the battery and controls the amount off a charging off the battery. As you know, that if the battery is full, dozens of prosecutorial will prevent it from charging, and you will see it from that battery bank. As you know that the battery bank contains a D C value on a D c voltage DC current. Then we Wasit in tow inverter and then to our house in for the inverter is used the two converted de ciento easy, and you'll find the year above. Here there is an optional generator, Roy, since that at night, or if there is not enough energy from the sun or enough electrical energy from that battery bank, therefore will use an optional generator. For example, that diesel generator will talk is with diesel off course instead off the solar parents or in case off there is a problem here. So is that Here we are off grid system orders mean it means that it is a stand alone or it is not connected. Does a great it is just alone. You are just generating electricity and use it for our own house. That's all 21. Advantages of Off Grid Solar System: the advantages off the off grid solar system. Number one. There is no access to the utility grade as you know that it is a stand alone or it is on off grid system. Therefore, it off great sources can be cheaper, then extends and extending the power lines in a certain remote areas. As you know that if you are living in a desert of for example, therefore extending is up our lines off the transmission lines from the generating bar station into your own home will cost you more money, then creating your only stand alone. System number two. It becomes an energy self sufficient as you don't need their own great system or the utility grid. Since you are standing alone, living off the grid and being self sufficient feels a good. The power fillers on 30 does not effect off great solar system because they are not connected to it. So if any problem happened, so is tell it a great then you are not concerned. It was it. You are connected or you're disconnected from off grid. You are standing from the political and you are standing alone. Number two. On the flip side, the batters can only store a certain amount off energy. As we said before in the on grid system, we said that the batteries have its own limit. It has its own charging capacity. Therefore, there will be a waste off energy if you don't store this excess energy. And, of course, if you if the batteries goes out or energy from it ended. Therefore, you can use or install a backup generator to be prepared for this kind off situations about Cobb genitals as well before as a diesel generator. 22. Equipment of Off Grid Solar System: the equipment forced off great solar systems, the solar charge controller, the social regulators or the battery raters or the solar social control. It is used to limit that it off the current being delivered to the Battery Bank and to protect is the batteries from overcharging. So the purpose off it is just control or limit that right off the current entering the battery and also protected a matter from overcharging ends. As you know that wins. A battery is full. Therefore, it will cut the electricity from it to prevent overcharging is a good charge. Controllers are crucial for giving the batteries healthy. Which angels the lifetime off a battery bank is maximized. Number two. The Battery Bank. The battery bank is essentially a group of batteries. Were the together to store electrical energy before sunset? The electrical energy off course it is a D. C. Or direct current number. City is a D. C. Disconnected Switch A, C and D C. Safety disconnected are required for all solar systems for off grid solar systems. One additional decides connect is installed between Zab Battery Bank. Hands off. Great inverter. It is yours. It'll switch off the current flowing between this equipment and it is important for maintenance, troubleshooting and protection against electrical fires. There is also that off great inverter. It is used to convert off course the a D. C toe a C, as we discussed in the own great system. And of course, we said that the electric and appliances are working on a C or alternating current or a 220 volt single face or a long time. Walt is 180 volt. The off grid ever do not have to match is a face with the authority sine wave. Why, since so we are here dealing with off great or a standalone system. Therefore, we are not having any other source or we don't have the utility growth source. Therefore, the electorate gun current flows from that school a balanced Rosa Swallow charge controller and bank a battery before it's funny, convert it into a C boys off great inverted. So are saving money by not matching is a face off the brutality sign with. There's also a back up generator. It takes a lot of money and big batteries off course to prepare for the several consecutive days with hours of sunshine or access to cigarette. This is where the backup generators the comes in. As you know that there are some countries which does not. Sunlight does not reach it for several days. That's why we will need a backup generator. Toe supply electricity in this time. But of course, if you are just using that on great system, therefore you will taking electricity from there. Tell it a great. Therefore you are saving money. That's why here we have, I decide launchers with their off grid system is that it takes or it needs a backup. Genetic, in most cases on installing backup generators that runs on diesel is a better choice than investing in an oversized battery bank, so it seldom gets a toe operate that it's a Ford Put in jail. Generators can run on propane, petroleum, gasoline and other fuel pipes. Also, the back up generators they produced a C, which means that we don't need inverter, therefore, which can be sent throws. I'm better for a director who's or it can be converted into i. D. C. For a battery storage 23. Hybrid Solar System: Now let's discuss their hybrid solar systems. The hybrid solar systems combines the best from the great tight end off grateful systems. They are just a combination between them. The systems can be is a be described as an off grid solar system with a utility back Ah, power or a great tight solar system with extra battery storage. So we'll see that here we have the solar parents, which converts is our solar energy in tow, electric and energy. Then we have the charge controller which controls they're charging off the batteries and prevented from overcharging. Isn't the battery provides the inverter which converts is there a C D. C in tow A c into our house And we have Here is the extra sing, which is a meter and utility great. The inverter off course here must mention the face coming from the utility. Great ends one which is generated from the solar planets. So we have here the meter which calculates the amount officer kill what consumed and the amount of kilowatt given toe the utility grid will find here that we have here and on great system with extra battery storage. As you see your old Battery Bank is and we have or its could describe it as an off grid system with the utility backup generator. 24. Advantages of Hybrid Solar System: the advances off the hybrid solar systems. The all this expensive sends off grid solar systems. The hybrid solar systems are less expensive than off grid solar system. Why? Because you don't really need a backup generator. We back up. Here is our utility grid, which is the electricity from the hotel it company. Off course issue bars Enza diesel, which comes from our backup generator number two the smartest solar or the hybrid solar system. Hold this. Ah, lot of promise. Why? Because the home owners a lot of homeowners take advance off the change in their totalitarian interest rates. So I would say they so they are consuming the electricity at the time in which we are in the off peak or we don't or the demand on illiteracy is low. Therefore, the amount off electricity or the cost off electricity is low. The solar panels have in tow our boat the most electrical power at noon before the price off electricity beaks and the time off the big demand, your home and director can vehicle can be programmed to consume power during off peak hours or from your solar panels. Why in orderto Bayliss, consequently, you can temporarily store whatever excess electricity, your solar panels in batteries and the wood it owns. That utility great when you are paid with the most for every kilowatt hour. So at the time off their beak or the time which in which is that utility grid needs electricity, you will give it on interest so as to render them most of money. And at the time, off off, BKR taking electricity from the company so are being is the least amount off the East Coast , the small to solar. The smart solar holds a lot of promise. The concept will become increasingly important as we transition towards us more to great in the coming years because it is the best for the home owners. 25. Equipment for Hybrid Solar System: the equipment for the hybrid solar system. Number one, as we said before the start of controller, is a battery bank that D. C. Disconnect the battery based great tie inverter Bauer meat that we all discussed assist in the on great and off grid system. But there extra thing is a battery based great toy inverted zai brittle system utilized a battery based great tight inverters. This divide is combined can draw electrical power to and from the battery banks as well as synchronize with their political. It, as you know, is that the inverted it is used toe matches that or synchronize the face and off the current with that utility great and at the same time converted this into a sea. They can also take electrical electrical power from two, all from the battery banks, as well as synchronization with the utility Brit 26. Construction and Types of batteries used: Now let's discuss zem types and the construction off batteries used. So in this course or in the BV system course we have Ah, battery schooled Z second generation batteries. What is a second generation battery? A second generation batteries, er, batteries, Which he can be charged, and resource Jordan Anderson several times. Okay, we can charge it. And Sarge it and so on. Several times. Okay. The first type off matters which is the most recycled. The product or the most used product is the lead acid batteries. Okay, as this one you'll find during is a design off ZB V system, we are going to use this type of batteries. Okay, as there are other types about in this course, we are going to discuss his equal instruction off. Let asset and a zine and the design using them. Okay, Now the applications off it is that we can use eating automative and traction application. We can use it in an emergency power for electric installation. Okay, We can use it in as an emergency and source of for power. It can be used in submarines. Used off course in ups or uninterruptible power supply ups is well known in orderto Keep the critical lords operating. Okay, Wednesay Main Supply or member. What is not available? We can use it in lighting in high current drain application in sealed battery types available for use important equipment. Now other time is just the battery. This one angel batters are best used in very deep cycle application. What does a deep cycle mean? We will explains the meaning off a deep cycle. But for now, the deep cycle means that how much battery can be discharged. For example, weekend discharge is this pattern is, for example, toe 10% off its capacity. Okay? And they may lost a bit longer in hot weather applications. The confused in wheelchair mobility batteries, the second type or certain type here, a regime or absorb or classmate battery. This one, they can be used in both batteries and motorcycle. Butters, OK, is the perfect off this information for yourself? Okay, they are not very, really important, but the most important or is how to design them And the definitions actually are going to discuss the hybrid car battery. This types of matter are using cars or choose electric and the mechanical motors at the same time alkaline battery like torassa, which is well known. They are, of course, is the most common rechargeable household batteries. Okay, we use them in a remote control, for example, everywhere in our house. Okay, so this are some of the well known or the types of batteries. Now we will discuss dizzy construction off lead acid. Better. Okay, so the first thing is that the battery are consisting off plates. Okay, you're see is that we have here are posted vibrate, then a negative blade posted bread, then a negative billet and so on. So we'll see, is that we have a postive and negative blade. Okay between them separator or an insulating material between them. OK, so we have posted blades and the negative late. Okay, Number two z rubber case, Robert case, which contain all of our components, such as the poster blades and the negative rates. Okay. Numbers are easy. Filler Cab. The filler cap here. This party's you'll find. Of course, you can see it simply in any battery. This part is where we put our electrolyte material, for example, into toys off war and water. Okay. They provide access for adding electrolyte Any quit The holes also allow gases Toby vendor toes the atmosphere. What does it mean? It means that when we add the electrolyte, for example, it's to Oso four. You'll find years that chemical reactions. Oh, care inside the battery. So we have toe open this holes to keep this horse open toe. Allow the gases form it from this chemical reaction, Toby vented to the atmosphere the electric links the O Soto connect the cells to withstand heavy card. What does it mean? Finally you will find the poster blades negative, played most of and connect This poster blades are connected with each. Others are using electrical Linkous. The negative blades are connected toe each other in orderto have finally two terminals, postive terminal and in a grift imminent. So boasted blades are connected to each other. The negative Brits are connected to each other and finally will have a positive and the negative the electrolyte Form it off. H two s 04 with water 40% off. It will be. It's so so far and the rest is regular world. Now here you will find year construction off lead acid battery you will find here is that What we discussed is that we have a group off poster blades and group off negative plates the post of are connected to each other and the native are connected to each other. So posted here and or find years Innegative blades. Which is this one? Okay. Is he a postive negative? Most of negative and sort. So fund here opposed to blade, then a negative billet. And between them, spirit. Okay, now, and the battery or each off this poster grades are used. For example. Let's write something. You will find your Z posted blade here each supposed to Blitt and negative. Most of negative, most of and negative. Okay, age off this plate reduces that to a vote. Okay, so if we would like 24 12 volt, for example, well, before battery, we will need six off poster blades and Sikhs off negative plates. Okay, so a six, possibly each off them is to walk the some show off them will give us 12 a vote. So we need six postive blades. Six negative blades. Okay, so this is what's a simple construction off violet asset battery. Now, let's read all of this. Uh, now you will see again. A chisel or blade gives us at to vote for a 24 volt we will need at well vibrate. Each blade produces a 12 volt off course, and it will boast of and the 12 innegative. All Boston blades are connected together and the negative connect to reserve tohave one and negative terminal and one postive time. And you will see that we will have finally one postive terminal here. This is the negative terminal and one boast of terminal finding. 27. Charging of Lead acid batteries and hydrometer: Now in this video, we are going to discuss how toe charge lead acid battery. Okay, so if you have ah, battery, which is not which is not new, as is better after maintenance and it would like to charge it. So the first thing you will fill the lead acid battery was H two s 04 before charging it. Okay, How to know if the shooter was so for is enough or not? We will find out now. Then we will connected the most of terminal with the worst of terminal off the charger. Negative terminal lysine. Negative terminal off the charger, for example. Here is the solar chargers controller. Then it's all jersey better with a voltage heart Zanzi battery vault, but not off course. It'll high toe prevent over a voltage. Now, for example, if we have a battery, 12 volt batteries and we will use a 14.5 alter as a voltage for charging the device which you are going to ZZ Hydro meter in orderto No, it is a church toe. So for is enough or would like to increase it now. How does the hydro meter workers z we open here? Ah, hole. Okay. And both our device, which is called hydro meter Hydro meter. Here we will take some of the hour. Assemble off the electrolyte here inside the battery. Okay. Wouldn't click on the rubber pulp. It will absorb some of them to understand if the hydro fz it stores. So for is enough or not, you will find here a scale. A green one, white and red. Okay. If the value inside the hydro meter green, it means that it's does so for is enough. Why it? It means that it is not nearly enough Red, It means that we need toe increase z a chew toy. So four or Nieto fell zem battery with electrolyte. Okay, now here you will find here at tape on okay with the values at different voltages and these specific gravity. OK, so the first thing here you will find the state off a charge it represent is how much our better. Is it yours? 100% or it is sorted by 90% or 80% and so on. So at is this the front state of the charges? For example, if we have a battery toe world, if it is a charged at 100%. Then the open circuit Voltage off the battery will be 2.14. If it is only 10% it will be one point. Time for listen to vote. Same as for six of all the Hedwall 12 volt. So again, for example, here, if the battery is a sort of by 50% for a to vault, you will find that the voltage across Z battery 2.3, vote toe, 10 street. Okay, Now the hydro meter itself have a value called the specific gravity. The measurement off hydro meter is the specific draftees. As he was seven gravity represented the Dennis tee off the electrolyte ors h two. So four in the electrolyte. Okay, So as this one, you will find the year. If I would like to zoom in here Now, let's move. You'll find here 1.31 point 251.21 point 15 and 1.1. Okay, this values represented the specific gravity inside Z Ah zi electrolyte. Okay. That specific gravity or the dynasty off which toast or for okay, If it is in the green reason, it means that Zh Artur so far is enough here, it means that it is not enough. We need to increase by a little percentage here. We need to fill our, um, electoral battery with its stores. So awful. So this'll values off course is as specific gravity values also represented. See value How much our battery is a charge it okay, if that's a specific gravity was between about 1.255 and one going toe. 75 It means that our battery is a source of 100%. Okay, so it's a subservient gravity representives to values number one A. The H does so far enough or not. And second thing, when we are charging Z battery, it will show us how much our battery is charged. Okay, So if that hydro meter reads between 1.18 and 1.2, it means that our battery is 50% now the charging off lead acid battery for the first time . If we have a new battery and would like to charge it, number one, the postive terminal off the battery is connected with the boast of terminal off the solar charge controller negative is with negative off the charger. Number two, we were removes the filler cap. Okay. Is this holes that to get back is this is the feller cap. We will remove it in orderto allows the gases Toby vented and towards the atmosphere. Okay. So allows you guys still go our toes. The atmosphere then we will charge is the better with a voltage again Her them but revolts , but not too high. As we said before, of course, we will use hydro meter to know how much is the batter is a charge it now we will leave the battery toe called for example, for four hours Now we will boots the cover again. Then we will wash and clean Z battery. Okay, But you have to know something. After we charges the batteries, we have toe check for the after going after the chemical reactions or the guesses go out atmosphere. We have to check if the battery needs it also, four or not by using hydro meter 28. Mainitance of Batteries and Methods of charging: Now let's discuss the maintenance off the battery lead Acid battery number one. We will check the rubber case from any damage to prevent. Is the leakage off the electoral light? Okay, so as we remember, the rubber case which contains all of our components such as the postive negative blades is the ISA laters or the insulation between them? Okay, so we have to check the robber case does not have any leakage or holes to prevent that leakage off the electoral light number two which exactly Qtera light. If it is enough or not, by using the hydro meter by using the harder a meter, we will see that specific gravity values and all, see if it needs it, or so far or not. After booting z electrolyte, will we leave but a for hours before charging. Why do dozy chemical reactions inside the electrolyte or inside the battery will cause a lot off hate or high temperature willow care. So we need a Z battery to live it in orderto call down. After charging the battery will check also the dynasty off the hard raw meat dynasty off the electrolyte or the store. So for in orderto make sure that the H does so for is enough because amount of which is always so four is decreased. Do dozy chemical reactions. There is a simple way toe. Make sure that the battery it doesn't have any leakage by using as bond with some soup. Okay, and boating, it owns the battery. If you found any couples, then it means that there is a leakage inside. See battery. Okay, So as pawns with some soup and putting it on the battery, boating or passings us poncho on the battery. If you find any problems, then it means that there is a linkage off the electrolyte. Now, how does it charge our betters that first? This message is the constant in DC current boys supplying Z battery with a constant DC current. This is, ah, law charging, which it takes lots off time from 16 to 24 hours to reach 100% off the battery. But at the same time, it is easy, safe, measured and Z or recommended message. Second, the missile is the constant DC voltage by supplying Z battery was a D. C voltage. It is at first the charging nestled, but it is not safe and decreases the lifetime of the batteries 29. Cycle of Batteries: Now, let's discuss is the cycle off battery at what is meant by cycle of battery. It means that the number of times we can charge and disa chores our battery. So thesis Eichel represent is when we are discharging our battery from 100% off its value toe 20% then charging it back again 200%. This represented air one complete psych. Okay, It can be discharging from 100% toe 50% or toe 30% and so on. Okay, this value changes according to the type of Z battery. So against the cycle of cemetery represented Z number off times, we can charge in source a battery from 100% toe specific value as an example 20% then charging back 200%. Now a very important thing which is called the Odeon or the depths off. This a charge. It means that how much we can This ensures our battery as an example. Off this 80% it means that we can decide sores Our battery upto hunt alto 80% off the battery, so 80% we can take 80% or disa chores 80% off the battery or upto 20% off the battery capacity. Okay, So, for example, as you have your own weapon or or your own Emma Pine, you will find that 80%. It means that we are surcharging from 100% toe, 20%. That is meant to buy dips off a charge or 80% or 20% off battery capacity, which means state overcharge. As we said, very for Assoc the tips off its shores dips off. Discharge available in the market is 10 20% 50% and 80% The recommended one easy 50%. Okay. Why is this? Because it will help increase the lifetime off Z battery. Now, let's see as this graph as the dips off, it's yours. As a dips off disa chores increases the battery lifetime decreases. Okay, So, for example, at 80% we are dis a charging 80% off the batteries and charging it again. 200% z 50% discharging to 50% is in increasing it again. The 50% have a high lifetime or larger lifetime. Then the 80%. Now you will see that here we have the number off cycles where we can. It's ours and such are our battery. As the dips off disorders increases, it means that we are consuming 80% off the battery upto 60% off the battery upto 40% 40% off its capacity, of course. So as value increases, the number of cycles off or the lifetime of the battery decreases with time. Okay, so this is an important thing. Depths off this A charge is very important. The concept you have to know about batteries. 30. Importance of Charge controller: Now let's discuss an important component. Which is that solar charger controller. So what is an solar charger? Control a solar charger. Control controls Easy current in and out off the battery. Okay, so it controlled dizzy current interim dizzy battery and the current coming out off the battery number two, it protected the battery from overcharging. Okay, we we have to protect is the batter from overcharging in order to increase its a lifetime and prevent overcharging, which will decrease its a lifetime. Okay, They also see Charles to control. Regulate the voltage entering Z battery. Off course we will. Don't want dizzy Voltage, Toby. Very high. Tobe river. Dizzy over. Voltage. Okay, so if the voltage is very low, the solar social control increase it. If it is a largely value, it will decrease it. The charge controller contains DC shoppers. A buck, DC shopper and post D. C sober to step. Observe voltage and step down the voltage. Okay, so we have here a solar charger controller, solar panel having its most of and the negative terminal, for example all of the way. For example, the postive entering is the solar social controller is the negative toe solar charger controller and you have your postive and negative to Z battery and to have your positive and the negative to D C ludes. Okay, so again here, an example off solar charger controller. Here's the solar panel the positive and the negative entering busy charge controller and two terminals for the battery. And here, two terminals before our loot. Okay? Or we can take from year from the battery, of course, to an inverter. The charge controller also protected the battery from over disa charging according toe tips off this a charge as we remember that each battery has dips off this a charge for example, 80% 50% and so on. So we use the charger control to cut off the circuit and the prevent dizzy battery from exceeding its depths off disorders in orderto increase the lifetime off the batter's. Also, it contains sensors. A toe protected the battery from high temperature so it increases the lifetime off the battery. Okay, so the sensors are used to protect is a battery from high temperature because the temperature affected the efficiency off the battery. Therefore, boy controlling the batter or cutting off its charging way will help to increase the lifetime off. Z better 31. Junction Box: Now let's discuss an important thing in the solar cell or an important component in solar cells. Zayas Unction Books. So what is our junction books? Assange. Some boxes and closer on the module where the BV strengths are electrically connected. So Junction box assembly their connection, Or that where the BV strings are connected. It is a ted toe, the back off the solar panel, or TBT, which is a layer firm. It wires, usually a four connectors together. And it is Albert interface off the solar panels when we are trying our surround modules that we have to look at something which is really important, which is called the I B off a junction box, a junction box assembly, the I B is called their ingress protection. So you will find that for air completely water, try junction box. It carries the I B 67 So now we have said, Is there a junction box? It is just an enclosure. Where is that BV Strings are connected. It's connected at the back off the solar panel. It can usually connect the four strings together. Now we will find that there is something which is really important when processing the junction box, which is called the I B or the ingress protection. You will find that I be is a value which is for any electrical equipment such as Transformers, Junction box and so on. So the I B has two values or more. The values here. One of them represented their protection against dust. Another value which is protection against a liquid or water. So is this. Value has a maximum value off six and the maximum value off seven. So this value represents the protection against the dust. This value represented the protection against liquid. So for air, good Junction books which will help us toe completely watertight or a completely water tight junction which is resistant to toe water, is having an I b 67 So it is really important to make sure that Junction box is a water tried to be able to withstand. Is that rain? Most of what it will take. Junction books have a diet. Why? The function off this diet is toe keeps up our flow going in one direction. So, as you know that Windsor Sun goes Rosa BV sells our baby cells. That convert is a solar energy into electrical energy and power flows from the solar panels into our load and the batteries. So when we don't have some light zap battery, will it started toe? Give power to the baby cells so would like to prevent is a power from feeding back into the panels. When there is no sun shines so they're beauts. Will allows the message off the power or the current in one direction. So in four or devised, it will be a short circuit and allows a current to flow in. The river survives, it will be open circuit, and the prevent is a current from going this room, the panel. 32. Wiring of Junction Box: now how we can wire hours unction books when wiring maduro strings together, which happens in serious is a postive toes, a negative and so on. The voltage will started to increase worlds, the current state constant. But when you are wiring our strings in parent, the post office tools are positive and the negative toe connective the current will start to increase Worlds of voltages stays constant. So again, family jewels in order, they are connected in sailors in orderto enquiries a vaulted, they are connected embarrass in order to increase the current you will find in orderto connected them. In Syria's Zibo Step is connected to the negative. But here in in connection for several the Post Service does a positive and a negative is toe is a negative. Here is an image off the junction books you will see here is a wire and it has its innegative and most of and another wire. This one is coming from and strength and this one is coming from another majority. Now let's see how our strings are connected. You will find years that here is our junction books we have here and in boot and in would be or Senate and Channel B. They are two strings. You will see your string Guan String to string three and four. Each of the strings are in tow. The junction books and honors or one here, another one. Here, you will find that each off them are wired in parallel on the D. C. Complainer in boots at the inverter. The total number off mules on each off the channel is different. But the number off middle zone each of strength within Janet and we are the same. You will see here that we have it. Eight modules. Okay, now we will find that we connected it here. And this one here. And this one here. And this one here. Now, in order to connect to this one in series and the parents, we have to see how we can open our junction books and the connectedness strings. Now we're going to see a video off. How we are going Toe wire hours on some books. Now, first thing we're going to do you will see, is that we are going toe opens eyes on some books in order to connect our off course. Is there wires? Now? We opened our junction books and you will see here there is an Boston and the year is negative and you will see outside off the junction box so we can see where is a postive and where is a negative. It is just dimension die on the outside or the description off the junction books. Now we fold. Leto, make sure we'll just use at D C a meter to see that this is a postive and this is negative . The red one is a postive and then they're black. One is negative. Now let's see how he will connect to them. They will just about here just assemble for is a postive and another symbol for cnegative The post It is red and the negative is black one. Now we are going toe just wars this hour and see how we're going to connect is a wire. Your tears is a postive and senator which comes from the string. Okay, now we'll make it through that. This whole okay, until this one looks like this and then we're going to screw it again. Now we have the determinant is a postive and negative. We will start to connecting the postive with supportive ends. A negative with a negative. Now what? You carefully how we will try it. Okay, So why did he do this In order toes us to help them in putting it inside this holes. Now we will see now, just like this. Uh huh. After we have connected the positive and the negative, we will need toe close junction box again in order to prevent anyone from playing with it. You will see here in the out off the books here is a postive. And here is that negative. So some some books is really easy in orderto now. We have learned in this video how toe wires on some books and everything about that junk some books. 33. Introductory Example To Design: Now let's take an example on their B visas. You'll see here that are a jury. Peter Station workers on a baby continuously 24 hours, it per day. It operates on a 24 volt and average a current toe and be so we have a 24 volt and toe under. Okay, so they revolted required, and the current required the insulation or the radiation continuous four six hours a pair day as an average so the insulation or their radiation from the sun remains a 46 hours every day. So the power taken from them sun rays six hours a day. The available BV units have a voltage 12 a vault and a current off a two and bear. Take a safety factor off 1.25 designs that BV units on the draw. A circuit diagram. So what do we need from here? Would like to find the number off the TV units and draws a circuit diagram for this BV units. Now let's see the solution now In the problem, he would like to find their operation vault, which is 24 volt, and the current is toe Mbare, which is power or the vault and current in which is a radio station is working or radio repeater station is working. So the Beav easels have a voltage off at 12 of Alta and our current toe amber and safety factor off warm with 25 So we would like to find Is that current required? Which means that we would like to find the number off Visa BB sold in barrel. And I would like to find the voltage required, which means that would like to find the number off BVs souls in Cedars. So we'll find here a relation, which is one month blood by t. One is equal toe to toe. Want blood by t two. So the current required is 1.25 which is a safety factor matter Blood boy, the Mbare, our or their current which is required boys, their station which is to and our the number off hours in which our radio repeat rescission is working which is a 24 hours and the average of some time which is working our son, which is six hours per day, which is given in the problem. And all of this will give us the current record which is thin and beer. And this relation came from this relation which is I want Mata blood by t. One is equal toe. I tow mater Blood by Tito And if would like Toa sink off it, I would like Toa show you. Now you will find that the energy which is generated boy, is a B visas in this six hour I would like Toa expand it so rules and 24 hours so that energy during generated boy is there BVs ALS is equal to the energy consumed and the energy is equal Toe za power multiplied by time So the energy generated is equal toe that voltage multiplied boy, the current matter blood by time, Xavi Motto Blood by T. I is every multiplied by I is equal to the power But the blood buys a time off generation which is six hours. The current which is required from the previous ALS is a vaulted which is constant which is given in the problem which is 24 volt. It's constant throughout the day His app energy taken boys are stationed in 24 hours is equal toe is a power motto Blood by time the power is in Quito's A vault. Monta blood buys a current, but the blood by the time the vault is equal to 24 which is the same is as here. Therefore, we canceled it from this equation. Why, since it's a voltage ear, is equal to the voltage. Here is that guarantee year is give required a boy. Their station in 24 hours is too, and beer as that eat or witches. It's a time which is 24 hours the time off. Zach consuming off energy, which is 24 hours and, of course, is the one with the device as a safety factor. So in the end we get the oil record, which is 10 and be the current records. That boy's a PV cells. So it's years that HBV unit gives us a tow. Amber is therefore we will divine that thin and bear boy, too. We'll find that we have ah, five barrel panels since the way would like 10 and bear and each of them give us at two AM bear. The number off panels in Syria's is equal to 24/12 boy, since HBV unit give us that will vote and would like a 24 volt. Therefore, we need to panels in Serious Now we'll fever. You will see that the final circuit is tow banners in Cedars and the five battery branches . Age of this panel is 12 volt. Therefore, all of this is 24 and each of these give us a tow amber. Therefore, the total current Easton and beer you'll see here are Diet Roy. So as to allow is a message of from the current from the B visas into the batteries ends a load about. You will see here that the light is in this direction toe allow the current only in this direction to allow the energy flow in one direction. Why to prevent is a batteries from supplying back toe the BV pennants? Because if the current moves from here so here at night, therefore we will lose the energy but will prevent is a passage of from the battery from here to weed and only I love the batteries to go through the load. So we'll see is a tow em beers, which is recorded by salute and extra is given toe is a battery. So what is the benefit off the battery Battery assembly used the toe, George, When the BV Bannon's are working during is the sunlight and his employ this lord, when the BV banners are not working or no sunlight. Now for any question, you can ask me directly on the discussion board for this course or sending me a message on your to me. And don't forget toe leave any of you in this course. And if you have any suggestions for improvement for the course, you can send me a message. Thank you and see you in other courses. 34. Selection and Datasheet of the Panel: Now let's discuss another important thing, which is how to select our money. There are different types off panel as weeds caused before or different types off cells. There is a mono crystalline, the bullet crystalline, the sinful. The hybrids are micro, amorphous, amorphous, and there's another times okay, each off. This one have its own efficiency, according to's E data sheet, or you will find your values average from 11 to 16% 10 to 15% and so on. The best one is a hybrid or high performance hybrid. Silicon now is his base for each one of these. In order to reduce one kilowatt hour bear meter square, we need for one kilowatt hour we need for this type we'd from 6 to 9 meter square for the hybrid. You'll find it, since it has ah, higher performance will need 5 to 6 meter square. Now, the number off modules off course depends on the lens and the weeds off the area and see panel the area where you are goingto any stall z be very system and the area itself, or the lens and the woods off the panel. Okay, each off this panels have its own area. So it will, for example, is a mono crystalline. We need 6 to 9 meter square off them. In order to reduce one kilowatt hour their space between would yours should be between six and 10 millimeters square off course. This is the space between the moon. Yours itself. Now the data sheet off the panel you will find here the data sheet, for example. You will see here that radiance and sell to pressure at a radiance or installation off 1000 . What meter square at inspiration. Off it 100 watt meter square air mass 1.5 at 25 Syriza's degree and 47 solicitors degree. Okay. The air mass is simply one of our cosigned seat. What is our co sign? See that? Simply this on here and here is our panel. The angle between the vertical line is equal to zero. So zero equal one and wins. The sun moves it form is an angle cedar. So air mass will be one cosigned seat. So add a specific angle. Sita, will you still give us 1.5 a m? Okay, so adds this conditions. We will have a maximum power off the B, V or Z Bannon. 120. What? The V beak, Max. Maximum value at or the voltage. And the maximum power is 16 point and I involved Z current at maximum power 7.1 and bear. So this is at a Z maximum power. Okay, is the voltage and the current at maximum power the open circuit Voltage at when our circuit is open its toe into 1.5 vault and the short circuit current at zero. Load or zero resistive load or a short circuit 7.45 and bear. This is the maximum output current from the panel actual circuit. And this is the maximum output. Voltage. Okay, now, at 800 watt meter at on other conditions here, you will find be Max. Decree is the V Max decrease and so on. Okay, source here that here we have also that fuels inside Z z photovoltaic module in heaven and bear, and you'll find their maximum system voltage. Here is 600 volt. This conditions is called the Ecstasy or standard test conditions 35. Inverter Selection: now How does elect our invert? So there is a different types or there are different pipes off inverters. There is a string inverter at many central inverter and central inverter. The power f was a string is ranged from one to think ill What as the many central inverter tantos article. What central inverters 30 to 1200 kill What? Okay, The efficiency off this time is from 96 toe 98% This one greater than mine, 7%. And this one graters online 7% This computer for a single and see first system this confused only it was a story. It's a face system. This one computer was the largest reef system upto 30 kilo vote. Okay, so this are the different types and the power according to your own system. So how we can select our inverter? The first step is that we will some all of our lord's in kilowatt and the choosing a higher value for inverter as that means that we will some all of the roads and the multiply it by effective one going to 25 or 1.3. And the worry bids this inside the design off the off grid system. Okay, so for example, off we have a load. Three point tonight, then we can choose our larger value off four. Kilowatt. This is an example. Now, this is for Z off grid system. We take all the loads and multiply it by 1.25 or 1.3 and choose higher invert or we can for the on grid system. Off course for the on grid, we will choose our inverter, same as Z power off the BV system itself. Off course, we are going to discuss this again in details inside that design off the BVs system, okay? 36. Example 1 On Desiging OFF Grid System: in this section, we are going to discuss how toe size our solar system. So solar BV system sizing has several steps. The steps. So what you are going toe discuss in this section are divided in tow. Number one deter mined the power consumption demands step number two size BV modules. Step number three inverter sizing number for that matter. Resizing number five followed charge control sizing and is the maximum power point tracking sizing. So these are several sips of which you are going to discuss in this section. 37. Determine Power Consumption Demands: our first step is toe minds A power consumption demands. So we need toe remind our consumption off electricity. So number one we will find out the total power and the energy consumption off all the roads that needs to be supplied. Boys Asshole Lot BV system by using two main steps number one calculate total What hours? Bear day For each appliance use. We will add that What are the needed for all their appliance together to get the total what hours? A birthday which must be delivered toe the appliance Step number two calculates a total what hours bear they needed from our BV modules by multiplying that total appliances What? Our bear day by 1.3 which is affect er as we have energy lost in our systems over will consider as 30% lost in the system. So after that we will get the total What hours? A better day, which you must be provided. Boys are planets. Now let's have an example. We have ah house which have therefore wing electrical appliance usage. We have 1 18 What floors? And tell em with electronic palace to use the four hours of their day. We have another 1 60 watt fan used for two hours. Bear Day Number City. We have 1 75 What refrigerators that runs 24 hours Bear day with a compressor run 12 hours on and 12 hours off. The system will be powered by amateurs having at, well, roll teasing and 110. What big. So now let's do our first step. What is our first step is to get as a total what? Our off our appliances. So we have here an 18. What? Flores in Tulum, Working for four hours. So the total What? Our fourth This equipment is eating, multiplied by the time used the birthday, which is four hours for our fan, it will be 60. What? Which multiplied by two since we are using it for two hours a day. Number Syriza refrigerator. 75 foot and we want to write it by 12. Why senses A refrigerator has a compressor, which takes is a power is at 75. What off the refrigerator and the trans 12 hours per day and 12 hours off so we will multiplies a seven divided multiplied by 12 the time in which our compress will run. Now let's see that question. The total appliance used equal 18 What multiplied by four, which is our fluorescent lamp. Six to what? Monta Blood by two hours, which is our fan. 75 watt multiplied by 24 months of life by opening drive, which is 12 hours, is for our refrigerator, since the compressor works for 12 hours and 12 hours off. Therefore, we will have 1090 toe What our per day now is a step. Number two is to calculate the Total BV panels energy needed. So multiplies is by a factor 1.3 in orderto get this value for the total BV panels, The 1.3 30 extra 30% represented their losses in our system. That's why we multiply this value by one point city. So that is our first step 38. Size the PV modules: Now let's discuss step number two. Which is size is the baby modules number one different A size off. The modules will produce the front amount of power. So according toe, that manufacturer off that PV module we can deter mined. Using the subsidy occassion we can deter mined the amount of power. But it used to buy each baby in which you will type step number to find out that sizing off their baby model, we need to find hours sizing off our baby module. We will need the total big what produced needs. So in order to get the total be what we will use an equation in orderto find it. But first, we have to know that the big what or w B or what beak produced depends on the size off. The diva module ends a climate off the site location. There is an important factor, which is called the panel generation factor, which is the front NHS ike location. So according toe to your own side location, we can find the one generation factor well, for our example will take for Thailand. It's apartment Generation Factory 3.43 Our minds are sizing off the beaver models to calculate as forwards number one calculates a total what be creating needed for be Roma jewels. So from our previous to step we find is that total What our needed bear day. So now we are going to size that I even use in order to size up even yours and we need to get the total What beak? So in order to get the total what people divides that what hours a day which is found from step number one by 3.4 City which is a panel generation factor toe get is a total what to be creating needed for the PV panels Needto parade, Sir Appliances September To calculate the number off BV Bannon's affords the system divides Answer. We obtained in a step number one toe 10.1 prize aerated output. What big off the PV modules available to you Increase in fractional part off. The result was the highest full number or the highest integer. That will be the number off review modules required. This number represented the minimum number off BV parents If more beating with yours are installed since the system will perform better and the battery life will be improved if a few are baby models are you System 1 may not work at all during the cloudy periods and battery life will be shortened. You have to know that that the result of the calculation is our special or the minimum number off BV parents. So now let's does this. For example, we found that from our from step number one that the total what ours is 1419.6. So, in order to get the total what peak off our TV panel capacity, we will divide this by It's a panel generation factor, which is for our examined is 3.4, so it will give us 413.29 as we what beak for our system. So now we use the hour BV panel or leaving module as well said in the beginning. Off our section, we said we are going to use 100 and 10. What big So we'll divide this 413.29 buys 110. It will give us 3.76 modules, so find that we will use three matures and the 30.7 ritual which is not possible. So when get the highest in exchange digger, which is for modules, the former jewels is a minimum amount off modules required from our system. If we was more than former doors in our system will be performed, the better the battery life will be improved. But if we use is therefore modules are system may not work during the cloudy periods and the battery life will be shortened. So the system should be powered at least by four models off 110 What a big baby. 39. Inverter sizing: Now let's discuss is a step number city, which is the inverter sizing. So we have some important. And so when we are chosing our inverter, so the first waters and inverter and inverter it is used in the system where a sea power output is need. You know that when we are using our solar PV cells, it reduces D C power or D C. Voltage DC current. So in our home, we use easy power or alternating current power or a C sign a Saudi A wave. So the inverter it is a device. Our power left running device by using society stores or diabetes or any power switching devices in order to convert is a D. C. Voltage in tow a C vaulted. So the inverter assembly used to convert is a D c anto ese. The infiltrating off the inverter should never be lower than the total what, over their appliances, the inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery. For a stand alone systems, inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount off. What's you will be using at one time? The inverter size should be 25 or 30% bigger than total. What's off their appliances in case off the appliance type is a motor or compressors enzyme worth offsides who should be minimum at least three times the capacity of these appliances and the must be added toes a inverter capacity. Why in orderto handle the service of current during the starting? As you know that for starting off motors, you will find that the current will be two times or three times or two per unit or a separate on it off the rating off our machine senses a machine or the motor, for example, induction motor. As a starting, it will need a large current. Why, in order to start is a motor and overcomes a frictional forces inside the motor. So the starting current is is high in order to produce large starting torque. That's why the current will be very high. Ads are starting, so we will need for the inverter must have a capacity off three times in orderto. In case off the starting current, it will be ableto handle. This current, in order to prevent is a damage off the inverted. So now let's take an example, but first you're sees it for a great tie system or a great connected systems. The MBA treating off inverter should be the same as a BV area rating. Why toe Aleve for safe and efficient operation? Now let's have an example as you know, that from our previous example, we have the total waterfall plants is 18 plus 60 blossom 75 again. 18 is fluorescent lamp. That 60 is our fan. That's 75 is a refrigerator. The submission off them will give us 153. What now? We said that the capacity off the invert terms to be greater sense that capacity or the total wattage Rosa appliances by 25 to 30%. So for safety off course, now you will see that the inverter side should be about 190. What? All great. So we multiply this value by 25% or 30% toe get add value, which is Ah, 190. What? So that is how we size our invert 40. Battery sizing: Now let's discuss the step number four, which is battery sizing. The battery recommended for using in solar BV system Is that the ape cycle pattern? So we are going to use this type in the solar B visas. Why? Because they deep cycle battery is subsist Bickley designed for Toby to the charges toe low energy level and rabid recorded or cycle charge it and start a day after day for years. So the benefit, all the dips, a deep cycle battery is that this type of the batteries can be distorted and assorted several times and day after day, four years. So that is a benefit off it. As you know, that we are charging our batteries in the morning and in the oft ursus on is gone or in the night we are using their batteries. So we are charging and sourcing in that day, and you know that when we're taking our power from the batteries we takes up, our director from the matter is not from the baby's ALS. The BBC supplies the power to the batteries, and since the battery is charged and then discharge it toe supply our home or our equipment , the battery should be large enough to store sufficient energy. Toe operate is their appliances at night and cloudy days when there is no sun off course. Now what are the steps off sizing, sir? Battery number one. We have to calculate the total what, Hours per day. Use the ballet, the appliances. And we calculated this from our first step in the design off the power consumption demands . Step number two. We will take this total what hours of their day and divide it by a factor. Cold or going 85 its value. It is for battery lows. As you know that the efficiency of the better is not 100%. So we'll assume losses off 15% in our battery. So well, take a factor or divide by over into at five in order to get a large amount off battery or a larger capacity in orderto have a specific closest, which is the battery knows. So we have the total what hours and we divided by over 885 in order to get a large value and in this large value when we subtract is that battery lows? We will get the power required number city. We will divide this answer off course which is a total what hours? Divided by Oprah into 85 We will divide it by another factor which is open six, which is used. The force that tips off the same source. What does it mean? The depths offices, the source. It means that we cannot discharge our battery 100%. We cannot reach zero discharging or our body. Our better will be filled. So we will use. We will justice source our battery upto 60% off its capacity. So we will just be divided by opening six. Which represents is that we are just this is charging it in tow until it is reaching 60% off its capacity. So we will just have open six in order. Why? In order to get a larger amount off arrestee in orderto only disa stores our battery on 10 60% off it. Number four dividing this answer by the nominal battery vaulted and we know why Now number five After dividing by the normal battery voltage, we will multiplies the answer pie that days off autonomy the days off autonomy. It represents the days when we need our system to operate without with the president's off son. So the number off days that you need the system to operate when there is no power produced the boys that BV panels in order to get that required the capacity. So those are the steps which you are going to use an orderto size our battery. So again, number one, we calculate the total What hours birthday use. The boys are appliances number two, which is found in step number one. Step number two taking this value and divided by opening 85 In order to get a larger capacity, the other 0.85 represented 15% off losses. New toes, a battery losses number City will divide by open six Roy in order for that tips off the source because we cannot discharge our battery greater than 60% of its caressed number four We will divide this by nominal battery voltage in orderto get and instead off. What our We will get a bear our which is a capacity over the better Number five will multiplies Esparza days off autonomy the days off Autonomy assembly The days What is this? When there is no sun and our system needs to be operated. So now let's take an example or real justice always the same example and apply it as we did before. But before that, we have to define something which is called the and bare our capacity off the deep cycle battery. So the equation here, which we discussed before the total what hours today it was the bison appliances multiplied by the days off. Autonomy divided by all went at five, which is representing Czar losses in the battery or grow in six, which is represents that absorbs the stores number cities A nominal battery Voltage to services is a battery voltage which are going to use It will give us in finally on bare Our as you know that we have here what our this part has. Ah What? Our unit. This has no unit. This has no unit. Therefore we will have our what our divided by vaulted What over the voltage will give us and bear or current. Therefore it's called and bare our or the battery caressed off That battery is called the Mbare. Our so what does And they're our means. The amber our It means that if we have a capacity of 100 bare our It means that weekend We can take 100 bear from our battery for only one hour or weekend. Take 50 and bear for two hours. Did you get what I mean? If you have a battery which has 100 our so it was 100 and our means that we can take 100 bear for only one hour or 50 and bear for two hours. Oh, 25 Mbare for four hours and so on. Or we can take a 200 bear for half an hour. So that is the meaning off the and bare our Now let's solve this example as we know that the total appliances use is 18. What multiplied by four hours was six to what multiplied by two hours plus 75 worked multiplied by 12 hours which we solve it before and we have the battery normal battery voltage which is that well, the vault which is the same as is that PV module? We have the days off autonomy three days now we for a blight, our equation 18 and this value master blood by city, which is a days off. Autonomy divided by factors are going at five multiplied by open six about the blood. Baeza Norman Al, Battery Voltage. It will give us a total and bear hours a record which is 535.22 mine and bare our. So we're going to use something which is Thunder Jesu 600 bare our so that battery required for the system is rated at 12 volt 600 amber our for three days autonomy. 41. Solar charge controller sizing: Now let's discuss our faves a step which is a solar. It's our job controller sizing. So what is a charge controller? A charge controller. It's a function is toe regulate their voltage and current from the solar arrays toe the battery in order to prevent Is overcharging end over discharging? So assembly regulates the voltage and current Coming from our solar arrays in order to prevent is over charging off the batteries or over the surcharging. As you know that we cannot turn our better over 100%. And we cannot discharge our battery, for example, Liz and 60% off the capacity so that solar control its function is this. As we said now, a solar control is type clear. Rated against the M. Barrett and Walter Jacob Estes, We selectors are charge controller toe matches of water off the B V arrays answer batteries , for example. In our example, which was a BV array off a 12 volt. And the batteries are phenomenal. Voltage 12 world. So that's all. A resurgent Kotaro controller must have a 12 fault. We make sure that the solar charger controller has enough capacity to handle that current from BV array for a serious a charge controller type. The sizing off the control depends on the total BB in both current, which is delivered so the control and also depend on the BV panel configuration. Serious orbital configuration. So in the end, Sartaj Rana is concerned with the short circuit current and the current coming from the BV sends according toe that stunned the practices are sizing Was the solar charging what the controller is to take that shorter current off the B V ery and multiply it by 1.3? So what is our short circuit off the BV areas? If we connected this arrays in a short circuit instead of connecting a roads in a current will boss, this current amount of lead by 1.3 will give us their sizing off our solar Charles of the solar. It's awesome. Throw rating will be Quito that total short circuit current off the baby array multiplied by 1.3 Remark for the maximum ballpoint ink solar towards controlling the situation will be completely different and we will discuss how toe design this for the maximum Barbone trekking in the next video. So now let's have an example we have ah BV module subsidization which is given on that sophistication off our model. It will be, as we said, that the power beak is 100 and 10. What beak is a voltage will be 16 born seven V. D. C. The current maximum 616 and this is a maximum Voltage is a voltage. The open circuit will be 20.7. The I short circuit will be 7.5 again. Is that one maximum? Is a maximum power can be taken from our mutual, which is 110. What beak? The maximum is the voltage at the maximum power are a maximum its current as a maximum power. If we multiply, both of them will give us the 110 Big Vo one circuit. It is a voltage at open circuit. Must be a vote. The current are short circuit will be 7.5. Okay, so we have the 7.5 off our one BV Maduro. Now, as we said that we will use our force drink. Each of them have are short circuit 7.5 and the factor 1.3 which will give us 39 beer or EMS. Therefore, we will lose our charge controller rated at a 40 EMS at 12 World or great. So that is how we assembly can design our solar charger controller by taking a short circuit current off the baby module, one bathing module and amount of laid by the number of modules and the multiplied by the factor, which is 1.3. You have to know that that four models here are connected in barrel as we increase the current ABI connection in Barry. If they are connected in series, then we will have only one short circuit current. 42. MPPT Charge Controller Sizing: Now let's discuss. Have to choose the maximum board pointed trekking in charge of control It is really important and they will learn a lot from this video. So how we can choose this First, we're going to use that cattle. Look for that Solar Khan is a company which will give us that serious for a maximum 4.8 taking charge of control. So is that model is SBT execs Roy. His xx represents Is that nominal? But they revolted. Is that why you wanted to present is a maximum It's article. So first we have to find their execs. And while you to choose our model is X X is a nominal battery voltage. Okay, The nominal battery voltage, as in our example, is 12 Okay, The why is the maximum charge a current? Okay, so the first we'll find what is a nominal battery Voltages as a storage controller. Will it sort? Then we'll select the XX according tothis value. Then we'll find What is that? What? Beak off Then one selected a suitable charge current. It will be there. What over the voltage? Is that what beak offers? A voltage will give us the charge current CC. Then, in order to get the maximum sort of Toronto multiplies this cc by a factor called the one going to Then we told the mother that covers is this white boy We will check that V B m is in the range. That's a source of control. Can 100 the maximum part going dragging Walter drainage if someone would. You also are in serious. We need to check that that BBM equality v bm off the module Monta blood buys a middle in Syria's number off yours. But if they are connected in the barren, then Xavi be off the system will be Quito, the baby off the module. So assembly again vaulted. Here is a some off this voltage since we have more than one module insiders, Therefore the voltage will increase. Therefore, the voltage off that system will be Quito them with your Monta black buys A number of years in series is they are connected. Embarrassed. Therefore, the V B m. It was a vb em off one modules. We have to check that the the open circuit system is not more than the range off this one. What was that? Of course, that's always a controller. The maximum open circuit voltage is that PV modules are in serious. Then we need need to check that the open circuit is 1/4 of the people on circuit Maduro multiplied by the number of modules in Sears as they are connected. Embarrassed? We need toe check. That view in circular system is a Cardoza the open circuit or something. You. So again, first we have is B team. That type of the control are going to is from the solar con Company execs. Why execs is a nominal battery voltage. Why? Why? It's called the maximum matures. The current find the maximum towards the current will First to get there. What beak Off the PV module and divided by the nominal voltage, We will get the suitable charge. A current CC multiplies sec by one going to toe. We will get why which is the maximum towards the current. So we have this value and this way we can get that we can get them. Wouldn't we need Okay, so we have to take care off. Two things. Number one V b m. That view or been sucked V B m. It must be in the range that that charge about a rock can handle is that the open circuit must be off course, greater than not greater than the range off the SPT Now we have that the modules in Syria's in it will be the voltage off. The system will be the module multiplied by the number in Siris. But if they are connected, M. Barrett will be equal to the voted off one. Now let's sees a subsidization off PV modules. We have era, different types of modules sharp Canonica, Seenu, Bangkok Solar and the side here. Each of them has a different modern. Each of them has a different what beak V B m. The maximum power is the voltage at maximum power. Is that got on that maximum board? Xavi Open circuit off each module is this. Values are obtained the ETA, Iraqi INTs or insulation off our 1012 per meter square and at a Sunday temperature off a 25 citizens degree and their message call 1.5 So this values are obtained at a stand artist condition. So that's why you will see that we are in our design off the TV system. We divided by a factors are like losses like 1.3 and so on. This factors will help us due to difference in temperature off course between the standard test and actual conditions. The sophistication off the Circon SPT Siri's M B M BBT solar charge controller You'll see here at the front type SBT 12 06 12 12 12 20 soon you will see that the maximum in power for each off one is a maximum open circuit. Voltage there another substation off course to see that temperatures dimensions await the battery that just leaves the battery is a deep psych in as we discussed the nominal voltage , the maximum a charging current and so on. So this represents a substation officer So raccoon SBT serious, and you'll find all of this in that description. Now let's have an example to it's all business and understand what I mean. Now we have here an example. We need 100 and 28. What Big solar home system. And we're going to use our two medals off 64. What? Big Canonica BB A BB module connected. Embarrassed. Okay, so now we Let's get back. Does that Canada. You're seeing that somewhat. Beak is 64 and you'll see that you are going to use to off them in order to get that 128. Okay, Two modules connected in parallel. Now we would like to find which one Marwan to us. So first XX represent is a nominal voltage. We said that the nominal battery voltage will be equal to 12 volt from our example. Now we would like to find out what beak off the TV module. We said that that we have year 64. What beak, Annika. But we use that to mules. Therefore will have 128. What peak? Now, in order to get that suitable charge a current we divide this by the XX or that 12 volt, we will get at them 0.67 and bear or amps. Now we will find our why by applying this value by a safety factor, which is where I'm going to tow. Therefore, we will get a 12 appointed. So we find this and this This one which is a 12 and this one which is at 12 point it. Now let's see them with you, which is suitable for this you will find the SBT 12 and 06 12 representatives are vaulted, which is the same as required. But their current is this. Then they required recordist. Well, we're going to eat So this one SBT 12 12 is the one which is close to our requirement. So we'll use that SPT 12 12 that well, businesses are voltage that well represented a maximum current or they're suitable Charge the current model by safety factor or why now we have to make sure off two steps after which was this one? We have to chose that that the voltage at the pink or the voltage reviews a maximum power is in the range off the SPT that can't 100. Now let's have seen again the maximum bolted off this type the maximum voltage MBT tracking role to drainage the maximum open circuit vote. You have to remember the open circuit. Voltage is line six. The range off it is 26 toe 75 voltage DC Now let's see someone. June is a voltage at Big is 68 and we have here that inches twin 6 to 75 OK, so it can handle it. You will see is that the range is 26 to 75 voltage DC and our system from them with your 68 vault. And since the also the are connected embarrass. Therefore we will have only one Ma June vaulted. So this one is correct, since it is in the range off the maximum or point, tracking wrote. Now let's seize of the open circuit. We said, That's Ivy Open circuit off here. Maximum open circuit. Voltage is mine. Six. The vault for this values, Let's see, is the open circuit for our model can. Icka is lying to toe, so 92 is less than the 96. So now it is corrected toe. So we're now in this video. We learn it how to choose that maximum PowerPoint drinks all just a solar charger. Motorola by using a few steps and using the specification off that company producing the maximum power point, taking social controllers and by using the specifications off the baby modules 43. Example 2 Design of an OFF Grid System: Now, in this video, we are going to discuss an example on the off grid system. How? Toe design it using missile number two. Okay, so in the previous video, sweets causes e a missile number one in sizing our baby system. Now, this is the missile number two. Okay, now we have in our house, we have a load consisting off an air conditioner, working for eight hours having ah what off? 2500 watt. We have also in our house five flames each off 60 what, 4 12 hours. We have also a refrigerator off 200 watt for 24 hours. We have also a TV off 200 watt for two hours. So in our off grid system, we would like to find Dizzy and Verte, the battery Bank, the charge controller and, of course, our solar finances. Sizing. So the first said we are going to do in the design is that toe finds the total kilowatt off the house and the total kilowatt hour. So the daughter power is equal toe the submission off the power 2500. What 60? What multiplied boy. Five. Since that we have five lambs Blust 200 off their refrigerator. Blust 200 off our TV. So our total note will be three point toe Kayla. What now? For the energy or the daughter? Kill what? Our It will be equal. Toe 1005 100 Is the power multiplied by time? 2500 Much blood by it. 16 multiplied by 12.2 Blood by five. 200 What? Want blood? Its own time. Which is 24 hours. 200? What motto? Blood by two hours. So the total kilowatt hour off our home. 28.8 kilowatt hour. So our load is three pointed toe kill What? Our kill what? And 28.8 kilowatt hour. So that was the first step. The second step. We would like to find dizzy Invert So simply in Z off grid system, When we are sizing our inverters, the inverter will be equal toe as the killer. What off? See how smart a blood y one going to 25 or 1.23 Same as the previous example. Or we can say that the killer What off? The inverter should be 3.2 toe or large. So Zane verte should be greater by 25% or 30% a large So 1.25 months but by three pointed toe will give us a four kilowatt as a minimum value for the in vote This inverter having an efficiency in the market mind 7% Okay, The inverter which I found so the inverter minimum in both also is 96 a vote. So this inverter in the market I found that also the vaulted to 96 a vault. Okay, zeros, different values. But I chose a mind six a vault as a minimum import or the m But for the inverter now is the second step is that we would like Toa find dizzy in both power toe the invert Okay, so we found Here's a total loot We found disease sizing off the inverter we would like Toa find is the simple power toe there inverter So as you know that the efficiency is equal to power out off our power in boat or energy. Albert over energy import since they have the same time. So the efficiency of the inverter waas 97%. So the MBA power toe the inverter here from this law be imbued is equal to power. Albert, over the efficiency, our Albert over the efficiency. So the import energy. So the inverter is 28.8 kilowatt hour over 97%. So the in boot, So the inverter should be 30 kilowatt hour. So, surgical what? Our is the MBA toe the inverter. And after losing, losing 3% off the power, we will have finally 28.8 kilowatt hour for the house. Now number four, we have the efficiency off the battery, which will be was the lead acid battery having efficiency combined with the efficiency off the charge controller off 85%. Okay, the charger control and batteries. This is an assumption. Or you can get the specific values from the data sheet off the battery and soldier control . So I would like to find Is the MBA power toe the charge of control? So in power or m good energy, toe charge and battery will leave called 2 30 over the efficiency, which is 85%. So it will give us 35.29 kilowatt hour. So again, the certified 0.29 is the MBA toe charge of control and the battery. After losing 15% we will have an Alberto the inverter Surgical kill What? Our after losing steep percent and we will have a final value of 28.8 kilowatt hour now, as the power needed from the solar panels. Okay, so we have here as the m but off that article to run at least to certify, born to interline kilowatt hour. So we find the big hours or the hours where the sun is available. When the sun is available in our site, you can find it from Google, for example, in our side. Here we have five hours for the sun. So in order to find the power off the panels, we will divide set of five point 29/5, which will give us seven kill. What required? So again, as you remember that the power off the panel is equal toe energy over time. So again, let's write it point Or then you know that power is equal to energy. Over. Fine. Okay, So the energy here is the Albert here, certified point to 29 and the time here is the five hours. Okay, so energy over time will give us seven kilowatt. So by using the planners for five hours, we will have an hour but off certified 50.29 Killer. What? Okay, now we will see here at map. Okay, this is provided in the slide. So let's sell it all off this. Okay? Your Sears that is this map represented Z time for the front regions, for example, here in Cairo. Or is it? We have from 5 to 5.9 hours. Okay, so we'll find. Here is the time for your own country. And but it in the equation now, the BV panel available in the market zeros, a front types and several values. Okay. So I can choose what you want. Okay. There, large. Or see what the lower number off panels required. Okay, but the large one is more expensive and off course, according to's the space you have in your own area, OK? So you can choose higher value if you have a small area or a small power. When you have a large area. Now is the B M or the maximum power is 250. What is the voltage? Open circuits 30 Volt and short circuit. Eight points, three and bear. Okay, so we need to find the number of panels required here. So number of panels only because toe seven kill. What? Oversea power off one panel. So we need in this system doing to eight panels now, as you remember that the this values are found in the data sheet off the panel itself Now is the step number seven. So way of Tensy. Number of panels we obtained Dizzy inverter. Now we want Toto finds the battery and the charger control. So the batteries. In order to find the batteries, we have to find days off autonomy. The days off autonomy means a Z time When the sun is available this is so be win as the sun is not available. Okay, so we will assume in our example we have one day off autonomy one day where we don't have any power. So the same formula as before the battery and bare our required is equal toes. The total kill What? Our entering Gezi battery, which is 35.29 is the value entering Gezi better here, Martyr brought by days off autonomy. Remember that e today will double the number off batteries. Okay, the over the voltage martyr blood by Z depths off a charge of this. A charge which we discussed, so to make it easy. Kill what? Our Okay, Kill what? Our When we divide it by vault. Okay. It means that power over the voltage, which will give us a kilo. I'm there. I want. Okay. So by solving this assuming off course, we have dips off visitors off about 80% and each battery 200 bare. Our This one is available in the market. Okay, You can off course. They choose any type off batteries and any value, and the design will change. According Tour Z Castillo Zieba. Now, by substituting with the value certified, born 29 is the entering one day off. Autonomy over 12 volt off the bat. I want the blood. Bio 120.8 dips. Officer off discharge. So the number required will be 3.67 kilo and bear off a better. Okay, now we would like to find the number off serious batteries. Okay. Our batteries here will be connected in serious and barrels him as the solar panels. Okay, remember that NZ inverter when you obtain Z four kill what? Which was an inverter off 96 vote. Okay, so 096 a vault. Uh, so the united six a vote is a minimum in boto the inverter. So is the battery should at least to produce line six volt. So we will connect a mind six volt over the voltage or form battery, which is 12 will give us total off aid batteries. So what does it mean? It means that if we connect it batteries here, for example, eight batteries each is at 12 volt. Okay, this will give us a total value off minding six. Okay, so we have here, it better is in serious and Z, the submission off them will give us 96 which is the minimum in boto involved. Now we would like to find the number off barrel. Um barrel batteries. Soc on better acquired the 3 67 kilo amber. So cities 1006 170 on bare our divided Boise on bear off H battery, which is 200. Okay, 3 60 70 Over 200 will give us is the total number off batteries. Okay, but when we divide it by it. It will give us only see parent one. So we need to strings off batteries. So but the results equal to 16. What does it mean? It means that we are connecting here at 16 and eight. Batter is here in Sears, and it better is here. And but two lines. Parent with Charles. Okay, so here we have eight batteries. And here we have eight batters. It Parenteau eight. Okay, so we have here eight batters in serious and the two parallel strings, so they don't number is 16. Okay, again, where did we obtain this? The total number off batteries is 3 67 divided boys at 100 bare. Our This will give us daughter number of batteries, but we need eight batters in Syria's so Z Z. A number of parallel batteries will be the number divided by it. Okay, I hope it is clear now. So we found the inverter Battery bank. Solar panels. We need to find the charge controller. Remember that busy battery bank was 96 vote okay. And the inverter minimum import 96 Vote now for the charge of control. HBV Panelists 30 volt and it points to compare. And we have a 28 panels. So we have in market for the Z social control. We have asked the 0.8 kill. What? The charge controller. Okay, is the this controller has 96 a vault and 40 amber, which was 96 vault, same as the battery banks. Him as invert. Okay. And we will take to off them, so we'll give us 7.68 kill. What? Why did that? So I chose to because the power off. See panel waas seven kill What? Okay, so I need to charge controllers with the standards. This 17. What? So I got this a charge controller and get to off them each charge of controlling the sea 0.8 kill What? Okay, now the connection off the BV panels. You'll see here we have here is the battery banks. Okay, The inverter and the year we have two lines. Okay? Or to charge controllers. The first stars who controls connected toe, four barrel groups, each group off. This is four in serious. Okay, here we have four panels in four groups or four panels in serious and three groups, Parent. Okay, So what does it mean? It means that the first group was a force. Here's panel and four parallel line. Therefore, four months of blood by six means that we have 16 planets. Okay, this system or this is the first Bart has a current for which is a parallel want about by Z short circuit current certain 3.22 and the voltage of four month blood by 3100 and 20 volt 30 is the value off the BV Bannon for As for panels in serious second, the group consisting off a 4343 years and three better, which is 12 opponents the 12 below 16 is 28 panels which is the design off ourselves. Now the total current is the barrel What a blood by the short circuit the voltage four or the number off serious much blood buys revolted which is 100 and 20 vote now someone will ask Now that Z charge controller is 96 a vote and 40 impair and we have hear such history and 100 points 25 $1.20. The current is the charge Incontrera should actually showed with the stand at least 40 and beer that should have a maximum import or 40 MB. So here we have a certain three for the first stars and 25 for the second A chores. This group reduces search history on bear. This group produces at 25 AM Beer. This gun was a stand for tambor. This one can withstand 40 and beer. So can is Lee. A soldier control is knee can withstand this values. Okay, now for Z voltage or finding 120 votes on 120 vote. But this one is 96 a vault. You have to remember that 96 of Walt represented. See, our put off the logical to Roland Nazi emblems that charge it on tour can withstand upto 600 volt. According off course. So that a sheet, sometimes some types off social control can was the standard to 600 for a vault D c. Okay, the working voltage as I remember 780 or are upto 180 or upto 480. Okay, so the charge controller can easily withstand withstand these values. Okay, so our design is correct. We will also learn in this course how toe make ad Zain off seven kilowatt with the same loads for a great connected system. Okay. And you'll find that we also designed 28 planets, okay? 44. Example Design of an ON Grid System: Now let's discuss how toe design an own great system. Okay, so our on grid system is connected to the grid and also providing Bauer to our home. So the first thing you are going to do in the grid trite system we wanted to remove some or all off my own electricity usage. Okay, so I am someone who has a house and has killed what our and I would like toa decrease my own consumption off electricity from cigarette. So I build my own great tight system. So I take a power from the BB system and take power from the grant. Okay. In order to save some money. So how told design along great system. The first thing we are going toe date her mind or determines immensely usage off our energy consumption. Then we will calculate the daily requirement of four Kill what our or kill? What then? We're going toe defines the array wattage were required. Then we will select Azia Rae. And so is invert. Now, finally, we will have a sizing off the protection device. Number four has a section on our course of four discussing how to size the protection device. Now we assume that we have here and examine off my electricity usage. For example, on a on July 13 I consumed the 2109 3 kilowatt hour on August is value and throughout with that 12 months. Okay, Now, the first thing you are going to do is that we are going toe determines E on one daily average helm. How many kilowatt hour of how much kill what our I am consuming in one day. So in order to find the daily average, we will. Some all of these values, some mission off all the months is in kilowatt hour, divided by surround 65. So, by summing all of these values which will give us 18,485 and what it buys around 65 days in order to find as the average consumption kill what? Our bear one day which is 50 points 63. Okay, so this was the first step. Second step. We need to remember to selectors that'll the angle in our BV system remember that in the map and dizzy as a member to contend dizzy, approximate measured and the accurate message using Z degrees, for example, as we remember greater than at 25 degree or of 25 to 50 degree. We said that we will multiply it by a factor. Then add 3.1 degree. You will remember this from the lecture off Delta Angle and shedding Anil Sense. So we will find the tilt angle off our system. Using this missile, we will assume our system efficiency for all of the wires. Thean voters, Izzy losses in thesis See yr, ZZ pennants that mismatching between manners panels, Izzy quality or dizzy quality off sick and panels itself as I efficiency as the diehards and connections and all of this. Okay, all of this will give us a system efficiency off 77%. It can be large ones on this, but I will just assume the average value, which is 77% now. We would like to get their kill. What required from our BV system. Okay, after this system, so is the chicken. What? Our required four z load Ok is the skin. What require the four zeroed. So kill what? Our divided by the peaks on hours. Okay, So have here 50 points city 63 56 The violent boys are picks on hours of 4.5, which will give us 11.54 kilo. What? So this is the net power going toe the house. Okay, the net power going toe to toe the house without the efficiency off course. But remember that the bigs on farmers, We In a previous lecture, we had a a large map where we said as the pigs on ours for ear for every location. Okay, if you get back toe the brave, your slickster, you'll find bigs on ours for its location on the world like me. Now, considering their system losses, the power required from the BV system will be 11.254 divided Boise efficiency. So the net power required toe supply. Our house is 14.615 kilowatt. Okay, Now, we said at the beginning that the on grid will just remove some of the electricity bill so they're designed. Depends on my own budget or the space available. So, for example, I will assume that I will need toe cut 50% off my own pen. So 50% off see power required from the TV system will give US 7.308 Kill what require? Okay. So in this system, on great system, when we are chosing our inverter, we will choose any inverter hires and this value. So the one which is available in our market is eight. Kill what? And not 60 kill. What? Okay, so, uh, so six again. What? Or it can What? So we will choose the it kill. What? There is no seven kilowatt. Okay, so we'll chose. Ah, higher value. Which is it? Kill what? When I look dozy that a sheet off the inverter. I found that the value off the D. C and what should be from several 100 to 480 vote okay as a minimum in both surrounded and a maximum value of 480 d c. Voltage. So I should consider when I designed that several 100 a vault. Okay. As a minimum, import value does the invert. So for our design, we will not choose. Their critical value will just choose an average of value. For example, 260 evil. This is an assumption we can chose 787 140. Any value betweens this, But I don't want to toe choosy, highest or is a critical. I'm choosing a value between them for our system. So surround 60 vote, which is the input from the TV system. So that BV system should at least the supplies run 60 vote. So we have now at the front Panin Z maximum bars around that what Zeevi open said 27 vault and I short circuit 11.1 pair. So as the first step is that we need to find the number of the panels number of panels required is equal to zero power over the power off one panel. So it will be 24.36 I can choose 24 panels about it will give us lower power, then this. So I will chose the higher value, which is £25. Now the we need to find the number off serious parents. Okay, So the important thing here is that our inverter has a 760 vote. So we need our pennants to provide this value So we will take surrounded and 60 vault and divided by the open circuit off each off the pan. It's OK. So 716 divided by 27 will give us 13 born three, which will give us 13 planets. Okay, we can choose 14 or 13. OK, but I don't want a toe choose 14 so that their value should not be very high. Okay? Or according to on design now is the number off the barrel will be equal. Tosi, 25 panels over. Number off. Serious which will give us one boy in Toronto which is to barrel and strengths. Okay, so the new value off panels will be equal to two battle strings multiplied by 13 C response which will give us the 26 planets. Now let's see the new power Because we designed 25. We now designed 26 so 26. But the by bison 100 What will give us 7.8 kilowatt which is listens A inverter. Kill what? Which is eight kilowatt? Okay, so this waas that design off a known greatest very simple and easy. Okay, why did we choose here It kill what? Or hires? And this Because inverter is dialectic connected toe the BV system so we consider the m. But toe the in vote. Okay, Now you will find here is that this values can be also obtained by by the baby. Assess the program. Okay. And we have another section. Will we discuss that sign off grade and on grid system using ZB v assist. And if you try this and it uses 100 what to win seven vault and you'll find years at the design is okay and the same as the program, okay? 45. PV Energy according to Area: now how? Toe? Find dizzy energy off the BV according to our area. Okay, if I have an area which contains solar panels how don't know how toe defines the amount of energy produced by Zeze BV. So we have here are low called energy off their devi, which is killed. What? Our equal toes the area total solar panel area in meter square. What about by our core disease? Whole opponent yield or efficiency, for example, as remember that the mono crystalline, poorly crystalline Z hyper it and so on. For example, here's the efficiency can be according toe that a ship off the panel can be, for example, 16%. Okay, which is the n one average solar radiation on the Tilted Bannon's and shedding off course or not included. Okay, where we can find the edge as you remember that as the radiation Here we will goto this website which we used before, and we'll find the variation off the radiation across Z year. Okay. And you can find here an average of four z value. Okay. According toe. The latitude and longitude. Okay. Now the total area off course, it will be equipped with the area off one panel Martyr Blood by the total number. Very simple now is the performance. Racial represent Izzy losses, and it can be from 0.52 point online, so we'll choose a value off 0.75 Okay, that efficiency, as we said before from the table which we discussed before. Okay, in the election off selection off a panic. Or we can go toe this website with at the front that are, you can find this one hands at the front. Efficiency values for the BV panels. Okay, you will find this NZ provided slides in the course, Okay. 46. Design Standalone System using PVSYST: In this video, we are going to discuss help toe design, a stand alone system or an off grid system using a program called be V Syst. So in this course, we are going to use BV Cest 6.4. Okay, there isn't more version which is 6.7, but you will not find large differences between them. OK, so starting with B v Syst, we will double click on it and you will see year first, you will choose preliminary design or projected sign or that obeys or tools. So we are going first to choose our project sign. Then you will find here your own system. Is it a great connected system or a standalone system or a bombing system or a solar system ? Bombs? You are working using solar energy or D C? Great. If you're are talking about a grid working with a D c voltage or D C power. Okay, Now we are going into this with you are going through the sign Zi stand alone system So we'll click on stand alone system Now we will find here as the first thing is that we were right. Our project name So my own project called a stand alone project at in my where I live. Okay, is the date is a 21 2019. Okay, now we all see that the first thing that the programme tells you to do and you'll find the year something in red color. This means that the program is telling you toe does this or this is I think you have to do it tells you please defines a plan orientation. So let's see how toe defines a plan. Orientation Well, assembly, voyeuristic click on orientation. But before we start doing this, we have to chose our site so all side and meet you. You will find here, for example, you will choose your own country. For example. Here I'm chosing Egypt and you'll find year your own government. For example. Er I am living in title so I can click on Cairo and it will give you Is the better for Kate . Okay, Now, if I would like Toa create my own place or be more specific note or terror or ah, government off Cairo. I would like Toa be more specific about the place where my own house is located or my own BV system. Look it. So I'll click on tensile prisons, this one and go toe databases. Okay, if I click on that basis, you will find here geographical sites and you'll find here your own country. Okay, you will find here Table or Egypt. Sorry. Okay. And we'll find here the front data that that which is, or the data which appeared the before. Now I click on new. Then I would like toa add a mother location according Toa my own place. Okay, All my own latitude and longitude. Okay, So if you open this, you will find here a map and you can. But here's the latitude and the longitude and click on it Toby or toe put a new site but another missile instead. Off waiting for the store download, we can click on geographical coordinates and we say that our side called al Mayadeen inthe e country Egypt a region Africa. Okay, Now I would like to put that latitude and longitude off my own place. So what I'm going to do is I'm going toe goto This website called Power Data Access Viewer , you will find the link in six slides. Okay, this is provided by Ness. Now what I'm going to do is that I go here and as room in in this area by double clicking Let's zoom in again. I just to keep clicking DoubleClick in orderto zoom in in this A map. Okay. Now, for example, here I'm going to choose, for example here at this point. OK, Now, I would like toa select at this point and to find its magnitude and latitude. So I will click on this point on this point, OK? And then go here and click here. Okay, so now we will find for this point you will find is the latitude okay? Now I'm going to tow the program again and control being like exists now for the other one . Copy Long cute control. Wien Uh, now we would like to find that attitude. How many meters Eyes Our place above sea level So we can click here and zen type Cairo. Okay, attitude. Okay, off sea level. I think it is 23 meter, 23 meter. So I will type here 23 now my own time zone. So I will say Cairo. But I am zone plus two, so I will click here to now. I defines the latitude, longitude, attitude and time zone off my own place. Now I'm going toe have a to better or to places. Where can I import to My own data you will see is that year peace imports are monthly. Make you data from Mitchell Norm or NASA. Okay, All man worry. So I will choose the database off the problem itself and think Look on import Now you will see that for our side cold on my i. D. You will find here for January, February, March, April and the months of the year you will find Kill what? Our bare meter square months. Okay, so the amount off energy generated bear is the meter square in one months. So we'll find 41 meter square till what? Our for January for February and so on. And you find here's a different in breach are the wind speed and so on this that or these data are provided. Boy, the program itself. Now I'm going to click on OK, and then I will cubs if I name so I'll click on Save is now saved on zero Tapie's and then click on OK Yes, CVE who can and will find Here's a graphical site now is added to our debt tabbies. Now I click on close and get back to our program. So I will close this one Zion stand alone system send a long project at in my a d And then I will chose a site. So I will choose my own site which is admired here. OK, and then click on OK, you have modified the project. We save it before conversion Save project safe now please the fines e plan orientation So we'll goto orientation now we will find years this represented see tilt angle where our panel is the angle between it and Z horizontal. Okay, So for my own country, the recommended angle is 30 degree and as most equal to zero as most waters is most mean. You will see here that if the panel is like this in the perpendicular towards this house direction If I increase this one toe 50 degree, for example, you will see that Z panel will be inclined to buy an angle 15 degree with respect to tow the West. Okay, If I interested toe mind degree, it will be like this. Okay, so this represents east, west, south, and tomorrow's So the angle here is between Z panel and the West or the west or blast 90 degree. Now, if I would like toe off demise our Albert according toa yearly radiation yield because I would like toa would you like to optimize Z angle for the dearly or for summer only? Or for winter? Okay, So I will choose yearly because I would like to demise my own BV system through hours a year. Okay. Or if you are using ZB V system only in the summer. Therefore, I will choose this one if I am itemizing it for winter from October to March because then I click on this one. But I would like to optimize through hours a year. Okay, Now, I would like to go find the effect off changing the tilt angle on Z V. I care. So we'll click on shore optimization and you'll find here this represented see it change off. Zing. The power was respected. Toe z Ah teldta angle. So after changes this one as I entries it okay, you will find here that the power at 44 degrees is decreasing. Okay, So in order to optimize, we have to put it in this point. So as 13 Okay, you will find here that it's optimize everything changes the as most you will find also here. That is the plan. Ornamentation. Change it off course. Okay, 20 the green and so on. So the orientation also changes e and power, so we'll keep it. Zero Here, Tom I Z maximum value and the year for cities egreteau have the maximum also value. Now we'll find here the feel, the type off course. Fix it or he would like here, for example, tracking vertical axis moving in the vertical axis or it's moving in the horizontal axis at Doel Mort or having toe direction on the horizontal is twist or horizontal and more south tracking toe exes and the size of the front Stop here. Okay, but now we are going to choose the fix. It tilted a plan. Okay, Now we would like to optimize by year, then click on OK, Now users needs not defined with a stand alone system, you have to define the valid in zero user needs. Okay, so what does it mean? It means that we need toe define our loot. So I will click on user needs. And you will see her that lambs, DVB C mobile domestic appliances, frigidity, preys, dish, underclothes, waters and so on. So we will have our example which we did before the Manimal calculations For a stand alone system who are going toe have a load off air conditioner 22,500. What? So I'm going toe Add one domestic appliances, which is a Z 2500. What? Okay, now we leave this hour alone. Okay, Now for the fridge. 200 watt for 24 hours. So it's a fridge. 2200. What for? 24 hours. But just not here that the value is skill. What? Our per day. So kill what? Our is 200 month blood by 24 which is four point it kill What? Okay, now DV 200. What one TV 200. What? Four am? Two hours. Okay, now live it now. Five lambs each off 60. What? Soldiers here? Five lambs. Six to what? Okay. And for two hours. Okay. Now live this hour alone And I will tell you why now you will see that here and the plants . One please defines the hourly distribution. The second page sold. See, here is that we have here Second page, which is called our lead distribution. So we'll see here. Is that What does it mean for the French? It is working for 24 hour. So the total hours a 24 and all of the field is completed now. Our land, for example, is working for 12 hours. So the hours are from away. When are you using a Z lamps? Okay. I'm using the lambs here from for example, 60 p. M. Toe. Um 6 a.m. Okay. 60 pm to six am So it means that I'm according toe the old clock from 18 26 hour. Okay, so for dilemma, my were lost. It clicked right? Collect here. Right leg Like this. Right click and right click. And okay. Now our land is working for 12 hours from our 18 to our six. Our 18 toe. Our six Okay. From 68 pm to six. Am now for the TV or PC, 200 watt for two hours. Okay, So 200 watt for two hours now for two hours, I will assume that I'm using TV from 18 to 20. Ah, 20. Okay, you'll see is a three hours. So if I would like Toa delete, I'll just right click. Ok, if I would like to add, then I will lift the click. Ok, left a click toe ad. Right click. Don't move. Okay, Now the domestic plants is which is that for a Z air conditioner? For eight hours, I will assume that air conditioner is working from a 12 from 12 PM 28 p. M. So from here 48 hours. Okay, so from 12 PM toe eight b m. Okay, now I have defined my own lords and their consumption time and their hours in the day. Now you will see that here There is no message here. And then we can click on OK, now we will find years. That system definitions battery model is not defined. Okay, so we need to find the battery now. If I click on system now, we will find that set. The program automatically suggested a mine six vote. Okay, this is a value suggested by the program. Okay, now here you will find another value called loan or loss for flute, It means that the period or the time of the day where we don't have our battery or when our battery is not charging. OK, so we'll keep it 5% off the day. Enter the requested autonomy. Autonomy is where Z or wen's is. A day is when our power is not available. So you have to remember that H today multiplies the number off batteries. So assumes us toe one day without power. Okay, now we will see her that patter usar voltage. And on six, A vault and suggested BV power plays a program 8.11. Okay, this is suggested value. Now you'll find 96 of what is the same value which we attend here, right? During our design here, our battery, we assumed a 96 a vault. Ok, same as here. Now you will find years that we can choose our batteries. Boy Walter Jacob, a still or manufacturer. Now we'll find here according to manufacturer, we have a different companies here, which sells Z battery. Okay. And I will see all and is in search of for a good one. Okay, We said that when we can you chose here 12 about the same as we did here. But I'm going to choose and find according to their own power. Okay, I need at least 200 bare our okay. This is my own design. Okay? You can choose. Ah, higher value, which it changes are designed. OK, 200 bear is not a must. You can change it. Toast 100 bear, which he means lower number of batteries or we can change is 250 am pair, which means higher number off batteries. Okay, so this is according to our own Zain. So no, I need 200 bear. So this one is a six of Walt at 200 beer. OK, now? No, I need higher value with a higher voltage. Okay, this one is 100 and 96 12 volt. Okay, so we'll see that as the program. So just is that better is in serious. We need eight batteries in Sears and to better is in bar or two strings. Okay, so it better is in serious better with another eight. Okay. Symbolizes So daughter. Number of batteries is 16. Same as the Manuel calculations, which we did before. Okay, eight better is in serious. Why? Because eight multiplied by 12 volt will give us 96 vote. Okay, now we will find here operating battery temperature. If it is, fix it or you can change it. Okay, so for now, I will keep it as a fix it temperature. Okay, Now, let's see the second sing, which is Please choose that PV module okay from BV array. Okay, we will go to choose that baby. And what you'll selected that PV module. So find here all modules, which is all of them or which available on 2015 I'll chose own modules. Okay to see everything. Now you will see here that here we have a different companies for BV easels. Okay, Is there is a slighter MPP LG and many, many, many companies. Okay, so according toe, the company available in your own market, you can choose between them. So I'm going to choose and alleging for example, now I would like to choose a BV module. Okay, Now we can choose, which was here in our example 230. What? As I remember that scene ah, 250. What? Okay, so let's see what is available here If we have 250 What? Yes, we have here one, we will choose this one. Okay, you will find here that the program. So this is that we can have five modules in Syria's and six strings, which means we have a total off 30 panel. Remember that the suggested power here is higher. 8.11. But here we have only seven kilowatt. That's why Czar Program. So just as we have five month blood by six or 30 values and you'll find here that it will give you a suggestion should be between six and seven. So number off settings can be six or can being seven. Okay, Now we will find here that five month blood by six will give us a total album power here. Nominal power at STC 7.7 point five kilowatt peak. But the power at 1000 what meter square and 50 solicit Syria is 6.6. Okay, Now what we're going to do is that please choose that controller module. What does mean controller, it means is they're inverter here. Okay, Now we will find here that that shows any company we have here. We have a lot off. Cos here, for example, I'm going to choose as home. Where? Let's see here. Okay, now, automatically. You will see that the battery voltages 96 a vote. Okay, So when I selected at well, the Volta here, it tells you that control our voltage does not match. Is that battery pack voltage. Okay, because this one is a 12 volt and the battery voltages 96 vote. So I have to choose another one. Now, I would like to choose all manufacturers to see what is I have what I have in the market and don't find year Line six A vault. Okay. 76 ampere. Same as Or nearly as which was here. Okay, this'll module Fund him on six of all. 60 60 48 which was 96 vote, same as e pater. Here. Montek Savolt. Okay. Now, as the there is another message here saying that control a power is strongly undersized. So what does it mean? It means that you will see that the power off the TV is 8.11 kill. What peak But you will find here is that the power off the control. 720. What? So this is a very low air power. So what I'm going to do is that I will try to find another one with with a bigger value off . Um, kill What? Okay, so what I'm going to do here is that I would click on Universal Controller. Okay, You're finds that the program as a program itself virtues air module or a inverter with automatically. Okay. And on six of all 38 embarrassed six amp and you'll find here that the module in Syria's is four and number off swings, is it? This will give us an nominal power off eight kill. What? Beak? Okay, number off yours Here is 32 with the front from here. 28. Why? Because the power here is seven. Kill. What? But here is at least eight killed. What peak? Okay, now we will click on. OK, now find all of this our green key, so we can start our simulations. So if I click on simulation and then click on simulation, then click on. Ok, then click on report. Now we will find Here's the final death affords that simulation you will find. Here's a project. The name, the latitude, longitude the country. Everything would like toe toe take When you are going toe Boise components for the PV system you'll find here, there that I was a modules Morneau module You'll find as a number of modules in Syria's in number off parallel strings. Number of modules. The normal air power at STC as the power at operating condition Zam module area. Okay, which is required. Stand around system and the front. The front things. Okay, you're find here at Pedro Roberto the hourly consumption according to unload each load and its own energy. Um, here at vigil number stream, you will find here the front data, for example. The available energy from the BV system is three steam 30.57 megawatt hour bear a year. Let's see a page number 40 or fund year laws diagram representing Z losses inside our system. For example, air losses due toa radiance level losses uto temperature module array mismatch arm requiring grosses while losses in the wires module quality loss losses due to a Z quality off the module converter losses duty during the conversion, battery losses and the front six Okay, so this one can be you can Princess one and use it toe. Build your own BV system. So this is how we design our BV system or stand alone system using BV assist. 47. Design of Grid connected system using PVSYST: In the previous video, we designed our standard on system using BV says the program. Now we are going toe design our system using a Z be recessed the program. But now in a great connected system. Okay, so the first thing is that we are going to choose that Zain as before then great connected . Okay, Now the first thing is a project name. Okay. We named this product as Kairos. Whole lot one. Okay, now we will choose our site and meet you. Now I'm with choosing as the same site which I made before, as in Z stand alone system. Then click on. OK, now you have mood appoints a project to please see save Z seven before managing calculation versions. So our saves the project. Save again now please defines the plan. Orientation orientation. Now we said before that in our place, which we discussed is that the ah teldta angle should be certain degree. And as most should be zero degree. This is for my own country. All my own government care. Okay. Is this values therefore according to your own place? Okay. According to Z Longitude and dizzy actitud, you'll find that the values here will therefore, for the maximum value. But as you remember, that fourth e Africa or the other values in the large graph which we discussed before you'll find that the angle was between 26 Atto sort seven degree, as I remember. Okay, so now, as the as most, if you didn't understand it, this is the solar PV. When I imprison toe 20 degree, for example, you will find here that this is a vertical, okay, vertical and the angle between it and the West is 20 degree. Now, if I change it toe minds degree, you will find that Z fares off. The solar is heading. Throws the west or the west is perpendicular toe Z I BV panel. Okay, so the tilt angle and there's most just shows you the right or the optimum or the value specific foresee, place off the location or the solar panel. Now I will click on OK, now, system definitions. Please define that star power or available area. Now, here's the difference between the on great and off grid in the on grid. Now we need to define our system first you have two options. Okay. These are toe Bootsy plant power required from CB VI panels or right Z available area. Okay, you will see Is that Please define Xenzai it power or available area. So I will chose first to see plant power all chose here as with before as as seven kill What big power. Okay, click and own enter. Okay. Now we will find that Amazon message appeared to please choose a PV module as we did before . So we'll choose all manufacturers. All modules LG for example. Now we'll choose here and value for example we said here 230. What big like this one. Let's remember each panel sort of old eight points. Really? Let's check that at 200 inserted 250 would be cookie. So let's change it again. 150 would be cookie. So this one is 251 Peak 25. Walt, have moral point. Ok, so, um, now we will find that here. Please choose a inverter model. And the total power should be If I kill what as an optimal value or more. Okay. Source here that we are talking about a great connected system. So the power off. See, um, the inverter should be equal. Toe the poor off the great. Now, let's see. First, we are going toe chose. Okay? Is he available now in a single like SME, which is a famous company will choose an inverter, for example. Air five killed. What? Now we will find that inverter power is like the oversized. Okay, Now let's see why you will find here that the nominal BV power is seven kill. What? Big Maximum BV. Boras A. D c. Saw a 6.5 kilowatt D C number off inverters. A two number from yours. 28. So here it is, using at two inverters. Each is five. Kill. What? Giving us a total power off thinking what a c. Okay, so, thinking, What is the total power off the two inverters? Okay, so we need it is just hard then and seven. Okay, so let's choose for example, seven Kilowatt. Okay. We'll find your different versions According toe as the voltage is the voltage Easy in boat toes. E'm an inverter. Okay, Is a dcm boto the import, for example, we are going to choose the this one seven kill What? Surrounded 45 you'll see that the message disappeared. The inverter power here is equal toe the nominal BV power. Okay, so you have to remember that in the great connected system Z i BV power is equal toes the inverter power. But in the off grid system, we said that the power off the inverter as you have to remember power of the inverter Waas 25% greater Zen, the power off the road. Okay, so here's the inverter in the off grid system. One point with five multiplied by Z loot. Ok, but in the on grid system here, the power off the inverter is the same as the power off the BV. Okay, this is the difference between the on grid and off. Great. Okay, Now we will find years that which was an inverter one inverter seven kill. What is the operating voltage? And in both maximum voter 600 vote So this inverter can withstand and in body sees up to 600 volt. Okay, very simple. Now we will see that here Z m with yours in Syria's according toe. The design off the program 14 in sailors and the two parallel strings. Okay, now we will find here 14 months. Roberto Orci is 28 modules. 28 modules in case off a seven kill. What? Big? Same as we did here. You will find here in the off bread. We also add seven. Kill what? We off tend accurately. 28 panels. Okay, remember that in the example off the program off the stand alone system. We said that the power waas eight kilowatt. Okay, not seven. So now we will find here 14 in Sears and to impart. Now, let's see on other things. Okay, let's see. 14 in cedars means that let Caesar calculator. Okay. 14 in Siris. Multi blood Boise. Voltage off. Easy BV, which is going to five, will give us a 750 volt surround. And 50 volt is in the range off this inverter. 654 45 no. 480 World. This the voltage off the a total array or the modules. Okay. The taught on voters around that 50 which is in the range off the operating voltage off. See? Inverter. Okay. The also seeing a voltage off the modules or the array should not be Liz End surrounded 50 have 34 for surrounded 45. Ok, Now, um after Don't just We have done all what we want in this, uh, a window we would click on. Ok, since there is no message ears and everything is fine. Okay, Now we find all of them are green and you can do here adds e which is optional, adding z shading negotiating analysis. But in this case, you will have toe draw the shading in the installation area. And this is a complex. You need someone to draw Z shading in your own area on the TV so you can adjust these values. OK, but this is an optional thing. Their most important thing is the orientation system. And this is too important thing. Ok, now we click on a simulation, as we did before simulation. Okay. And the report and your fund here again, the same data. You will see that here we have 40 modules in Sierra's two parallel strings. 28 modules at 250. What? Beak for the unit and nominal power. The big power off one module. The ah normal power is seven. Kill. What big? Um, some details about the inverter operating voltage. The nominal power off the inverter is equal. Toe the power off the nominal power off the PV array. Okay. And some losses here. This system generates at 12.15 megawatt hour bear year. Okay, Uh, and years, the losses as before, I just want to tell you, Is that a seven kill? What is considered as a medium system or not? A very large system. A medium system just for your own home. Okay, so your own house or your own home can be power The pious seven kill. What big system? Okay. 48. Introduction to Protection Of PV System: now in this video will have an introduction toe the protection off is there BV or the solar system? Okay, so the first thing we have here solar modules OK, Which we discussed before, which will provide this D c power. And you will see here at diet which is connected. Parenteau each s solar module. Why? Because if we have a problem with this module, Zinzi current will bus from here and goes through Z diet or the parallel diet or the free winning diet. And then we'll goes through Z here and then goes back here. Okay, so we have here is a positive and the negative terminal. It goes from here. And if this one has a problem, then it will bust through the free winning diet or the diet. And then we'll go right like this and then goes through the negative one. No, true Z downward one. So it is we have here is a positive and the negative in orderto have closed the second. Okay. And we have here fuses Okay. In order to protect our and solar a PV modules is our diet in order to provide a barrel boss in case if one off This models have a problem. Now we will see here. All of this modules are combined together through a passport. As you see here, a small passport and this passport is called a string. Combine our books in orderto combines this model. So this modules for more wanna strengthens the provide power tothis passport. And we can say that we have more than one string in barrel. We have this one and one and one and one and so on. Until we have this another string combining books which combines all the solar matures. So we have here string annals are string and on a string and Donald or string and all of the strings okay, will form an array and all of the strings will for Mona's r r A And then we will have an array combine er the array complainer will have its own protection. Okay, which will be discussed and then we will have our invert. Now you will see here we have I d seeds connected in orderto connect and disconnect is this string module and all of these strings are having addy seeds connect okay in orderto off sore power and take power from the required strength. We can enable this string. Ah, as we have here. Or we can disable it. Okay, so we have here a string protection which were were going toe discuss in another video and then all of the strings are providing or giving power toe an array. Okay, you will see here, here to bus bars. Okay, one for the postive and one for the negative. You will see here. That's a postive is going towards a postive BuSpar. Here we have a postive goes toes, a post, the passport and the negative towards the negative and so on. So this strengths provide power toe sub array. Combine our box and all of them have also an array protection or array protection, which is fuses which you are goingto discuss. And then after this, we will take power Z posted forms, the post of passport and the negative from the negative passport. And then So we have here at two Albert lines here we have a Rafe used link also as a protection. And then all of this array will be connected. Toe i d. C disconnect in orderto turn on and off the array. We have. Okay. And the way me we may have more than one array in barrel. Same as here. We have more than one is drink in balance and then all of them are connected. Toe adi seeds connected for each off these arrays. And then after this, we will have inverter protection, which we are going to discuss in another video the inverter protection which convert is I. D. C in tow A C and we have its own protection. And then here we have a fuse, a low voltage refuse, which is our from this inverter. And then another a seeds connected. We have here disease connect and we have here a sits connect or a switch for the A C system and as which for the D C system. And if we are talking about on great system or hybrid system which is connected toe the grid, then the out off the inverter will be connected toe a transform okay. And the protection of the transformer will be discussed in another video. And all of these components are used in this protection or the protection off our baby system. We have a fuse holder which holds Fuze and which has a different drives or a different sittings. And we have here photovoltaic fuse links or BV links. And they're different sizes. We have a surge of protective device and we will discuss in invisible video which protected our BV system from serves or lighting. And we have a few football take fuels Linkous or a fuse holder which all these Fuze and we have another types off views. Okay, Now, before we go to the protection off each one of them, we have toe remind you about the TV system we have here is that PV system consists off cells and this cells form a module or a panel and a group off modules which we have seen here. The group off modules will form as drink we'll see is that which forms a drink and a group off strings, which or a square off strings will form us and our way. Okay, Now we had an introduction to his ear protection off our BV system. Now, in the next video, we will start discussing their protection off each off these individual components 49. Selection of Fuses and Protection of String: now in this video, we are going toe discusses that string protection again. We have said that the spring is consisting. One string is consisting off a number off modules, okay. And this models have barrel diet in order to provide a bus in case that one of these modules having an error or do is not working or have a problem. And we have here refuses which will protect our string. And then we have us, which which is used toe enable or disable. It's drink. Okay, so the first thing was that BV systems that have three or more strings are connected in barrel need tohave each string protected. So if we have more sensory strength three or more R connected in barrel, as we discussed before here, if we have more than one string and another string and another one, if we have a three or more, then we have to protect each of string as we will discuss in this video. But systems that we have Lizzie sensory strings will not generate enough for the current to damage their conductors, equipment or modules. Where's three or more servings are connected in Barrel Fuze link on each strength. As you see years this as a fuse links will protect is a conductors and the moon yours A from over current faults. Okay, so we have here a group off. Maduro owns this modules for my string. And this models of four miners are string, and this models for miners are a string and this models for minors are sitting and this are all combined toe a string Combine our books. Okay, so if we have a sneer or more strings than a few is link on each off this string and you'll see here that we have a fuse on the postive and diffuse on that negative conductors Okay, It will also easily itself all the strength so that the rest off the BV system can continue to generate electricity. OK, so if we have here a string and have a problem off it therefore we will open this views and this views will be opened. Therefore, all off our strings will work Rectum e, and this part will be isolated from our BV system. So again, as we said before, we have here a strange another one string and Donald or one string and all of this are combined toe one string and all of this during this whole form An array. Yeah. I mean, this one is an array and this one would be an array and will be combined to form a ray complainer box. Therefore, we will have and on array, fuse things which will be discussed. Okay, Now have to select is a fuse links for the string protection for our fall study off all parameters is recommended. However they're falling, the factor should be used 1.56 for the current and 1.24 devoted when selecting is a fuse link which covers most variations the module temperature as well as the amount off the sun . It is exposed to to incline as well as chatting effective from the trees, buildings or the clouds in operations f using such as as? Er Maziar a sermon devices are also in full Once it boys in ambient temperature uto installation. So forsee string protection. We will take the current the current which is our boat from the string and the multiply it by 1.56 and one pointed toe for the voltage. Okay. Why? Because it covers the most a variation as you know, that that temperature over the number of the ambient temperature or the temperature over the atmosphere so rounding Mizzi BV system will affect that sermon device, such as a fuses. That shutting effect will also affect Izzy about power that temperature off the module and amount off. Son. All of these factors are affecting. Our Medusa will choose 1.56 40 current and 1.2 for the voltage, so the different as a first step will deal and defines these all our majority specifications. Number one z short circuit current at one module at STC astound artistic conditions, for example, 25 syriza's degree and the that as the pressure would be 76 as Centimeter Hz. And here we will have the open circuit voltage off one module and then the number off models in Syria's bear string and the number off strings in battle bears up array, which is any being and an s. Here's a number of yours and we have our mood. Max Aussie P R, which is a PV module maximum over current protection rating. Satisfied boys are easy. So we have here some module solar majority specifications. What you are going to use in the industry videos and in this video are short circuit the short circuit current off the module V open circuits on circuit vultures off one module, the number off yours in Syria's biggest languages and s number off strings in barrel bursts , up array, witches and maybe and the maximum over current protection rating by I E C. If the number off strings in barbershops are a greater sensory, then the fuse link rating should be selected as fallen Was that culturing must be greater than 1.2. As we said here, Martyr Blood by Xavi Open circuit. Okay, which is that the open circuit voltage off Z module and multiplied by N s, which is number off medals in serious. Why? Because as we remember that the number off matures in Syria's will increase the voltage. Okay, so each module will provide a view of in circuit and Xavi of one circuit multiplied by number off strings in Syria's will give us the total open circuit voltage and 1.22 which is that safety factor. The current rating will be 1.56 As we discussed What? The blood. Boise Short circuit current. Okay. The current rating must be Listen that maximum over current protection reading. Okay. What does it mean? It means that if we multiplies the current by 1.56 it must be lesson that standard sophistication. Boise i e c the I C c, which is as the international electrical good, which gives us the standards for choosing our electrical equipment or everything such as the transformer substations and so on. It was the number off a strings in parables off a really sensory. And the cable which connectors between this a raise or the strengths Dozy Albert most of it at 1.56 months of blood, Boise Short circuit current for BV and installation was the only one or two barra strings and string cables at D. Quickly sized fusing may be needed if local installation or regulations or goods requires them. So, as we said before that, if z number off the parallel strings greater sensory, then we will use a fuse. But as we remember from the reverse thes video off course at the beginning is the number off as the modules or the strings in barrel is on city. Then we will not use a few words about the cable must be rated which connectors between the string and the string complainer box must be 1.56 months abroad. Boys that short circuit current If any beings listen, Syrians likeable is not right At 1.56 Then we must use fuze toe Protect Dizzy. Capable not to protect is a solar BV drink. Okay, so the fuse link current rating will be less And as as drink as a fuse linked current rating will be descent one month blood Boise current rating equals a string cable rating and the voltage rating will be 1.2 Monta blood by the open circuit multiplied boy in s So the watch rating is the same as here. But if you was link rating, what does it mean? It means that the fuels must have a rating. Liz ends that cable rating. Why in orderto protect the cable? Okay, so in case off the excess or over current, then the fuse will burn before our cable in order to protect our cables. That's why the fuels link must have a current Liz and the cable. However, here we have ah cable, which is rated at 1.56 Same as easy views. Okay, now let's have an example. If we have here are manufacturing module specifications and we have a mutual description. We have cell type and some description, but the important thing, which is electrical data or data. The open circuit voltage re own circuit is 43.1, as a short circuit current is 5.37 and the maximum fuse rating, which is identified Boise, is 15. And so need toe protect our module and that we have here the number off cells and the connection 72 in Cedars. So the first step is that we need to choose the voltage, okay, and the current so you'll see it. Is that PV installation? We have 18 panels in serious pierce drink and the maximum ambient with your minimum. I'm gentle module and the maximum temperature off the fuse link and the four strings are connected in barrel and the conductor size is 2.5. So we have here the number off cells, but we have years the number off panels in serious Paris thing, which is the one which he is important for us now. The calculations we need toe identifies the current. So the current, as I said before, is 1.56 Mortar blood buys a short circuit current. So the short circuit current Where is it? It is this 14.37 So one point fig 56 months about by 55 points. 37 is 8.38 on bear. OK, so this one is This is NZ maximum fuse rating, which is 15 and bear. Okay, so we will use this one as a fuse rating. Okay, now let's see Z maximum system voltage. As we said before their formula Formula Four as the voltage is one going to tow Mater Blood Boys, every open circuit which is for to see 10.1 and the number off busy with jewels in serious Okay, which is here. And we have eating in panels in Syria. So we multiply it by 18 on will have mine 931 wien so the fuse link will be the nearest sunder does. The voltage is 1000 and the nearest the standard dozy fuels which is then on Bear so that is, have toe protect our string with examples or with an example and according Toa Z standards and court. 50. Protection of Arrays: Now let's discuss Z array protection or how to protect our array. So we have here the group off a raise and we will use a rave use links in orderto protect our raise. So these are the different components which we have said in the introduction, and we have it's caused some of them in the previous video off the string and the surgery protective device. In the next videos, we will discuss it. Okay, so how we can protect our great so a every protection, we will have some manufacturer module, subsist, occassions and then we will from this sittings or this specifications, we will choose our array protection. So we have here is there in the open circuit off our and with Jewel is 43.1 ends a short circuit current is 5.37 and bear and we have 18. Balance in Syria's in s equal 18 the same as the previous example over the string. Now we need toe calculate our array. It is the same as before. The same equations, the same everything as before. Okay, so we have here the conductor size. If you are chosing our conductors, then we will chose as 1.56 much blood by that short circuit current off his image. You'll OK, which we have done before. However, the difference between this and dizzy string is that we have a number off a strings or ah, number off parallel strings, which will be eight battery strings. That's why we will take that 1.56 Marta blood buys a short circuit current office, one off them with jewels. Since the grow off Maduro's afore morning string and we have number off para listing each barrel, string will provide a short circuit current. Therefore, we will have 1.56 Martyr blood buys a short circuit current off one module multiplied by number off the barrel strings. Therefore, we will have at 67 on bear. Okay, so 67 amber is, ah value over the current. Absorb it Boise or the short circuit current, absorb it Boise modules and with a safety factor 1.56 Okay, so we have to choose a conductor which you can with the stand. Is this current and greater than it? So then your system under there will be 10 millimetre square conductor, which provides us who is 98 bear. Okay, so this one which is mine to it. Amir at 60 solicitors degree. Which is that Waris? The case Here's a maximum ambient to module temperature, which is 60 solicitors degree. So the war sickest is this value which is 98 bear Okay so the conductor can withstand our value, which is 67 beer now is the fuse link a voltage rating? As we said before one pointed toe, Marta Blood boys, Every open circuit multiplied by number off string is in serious or number off manuals in cities. So we have here 1.2 What a blood by the V open circuit, which is 43.1 Marta, blood by number, off strings or number off and modules in Syria's, which will be 18 18 panels in serious bear string. As you said before that, each one off this Maduro's or panels will give us a view open circuit. So that voltage, as we said before voltage increases boy serious connection and the current increases by Paris connection. So we're seeing a number off strings in parent here. Number off panels in series strings in barrel and in serious. Is there NASA off courses? Opponents okay, or C and with jewels. So we have here now on 31 then we'll find that nearest under which you can withstands is value. Now we will have toe choose our in the sub, or you'll see here that we have here three sub array imperil. So we'll have to choose the rating off the mean Ah ray or that mean array, Combine. Er Okay, so we have here 1.56 multiplied by the short circuit current Marta blood by any being or the number off strings in barrel. Okay, so all of this will give us what will give us Z current provided by one array. Okay, which is this which Watts 7 67 on beer. Now we have a city's stop remembering. We have a city off them in barrel. Therefore multiplies is by three toe a grave US 201 as the nearest air rating or the nearest sunder is 250 bear fuse. So if we get back, toe the image Okay, let's get it back to it. This one. No fee. You will see here that we have a separate combined notebooks. This comes from one array and honors or array. And this one is gold, One sub array and another once up array, which is better. So this views is the one which was calculated here. This one 67 bear or the nearest under. Tow it or the innocent Ortiz 80 and bear as a fuse. And for the main fuse, which is here, we have a three in Barry. So the main fuse is this one. This one. We have a three m barren source. That 150 bear is this one. 215. Beer is this one. And each off this fuses is the one