Complete English Punctuation | Derek Smith | Skillshare
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25 Lessons (2h 36m)
    • 1. Punctuation Enders Introduction

    • 2. The Full Stop

    • 3. The Exclamation Mark

    • 4. The Question Mark

    • 5. Pauses and Breaks Introduction

    • 6. The Comma

    • 7. The Oxford Comma

    • 8. The Semicolon

    • 9. The Colon

    • 10. Colon Misuse

    • 11. The Comma Splice

    • 12. The Ellipsis

    • 13. Connectors and Dividers Introduction

    • 14. The Hyphen

    • 15. The Dash

    • 16. The Slash

    • 17. The Apostrophe

    • 18. Quotation Marks

    • 19. Brackets

    • 20. Other Symbols Introduction

    • 21. The Ampersand (&)

    • 22. The Asterisk (*)

    • 23. The Each At Symbol (@)

    • 24. The Hash Sign (#)

    • 25. Punctuation Fun Stuff

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About This Class

This course goes through all the standard punctuation marks that are used when writing English.

You will learn when to use each punctuation symbol and you will see plenty of examples of their correct usage.

You will also see common punctuation errors, along with tips and tricks to correct and avoid these errors.

At the end of the course, you are rewarded for all your hard work with a fun section, showing how small punctuation changes can cause huge changes in meaning.


1. Punctuation Enders Introduction: This punctuation section starts off with ways in which we use punctuation marks to end a sentence on our three ways of doing this with full stop an exclamation mark or a question mark. And depending on which one we use, we actually change the way in which the information in that sentence is presented. I'll give you an example or two. We could say, for instance, Paul has a new job, and if we use just a full stop at the end, we're just neutrally imparting the information that he now has a new job. He used an exclamation mark, I think a bit of intensity to it. Paul's got a new job. Wow, I didn't even know he was looking. And if you use a question mark at the end, it's like a bit of unbelievable ity. Maybe, say they Paul's got a new job, right? Who would employ him on? We can use the same thing with other sentences. For instance, Peter is getting married to Jenny, and the full stop is just a neutral information. That Peter engine you getting married The exclamation mark. It's Peter getting married to Jenny. I didn't think she liked him on with a question mark. It would be Peter's getting married to Jenny. Why would he marry her on each of these three ways of ending the sentence adds, um, emotion and nuanced to the sentence that it's ending. We have three lessons in this section. One for each one full start, one for exclamation mark, one for question. Mark Andi. In each of these lessons, we look at the different ways in which they end a sentence and a bit more detail about what it means and we also use. We also show other ways in which these sentence enders are used in other things that they do come up in ways you wouldn't expect on. We can combine them on. We look at all of those in the following three lessons, as if you have any questions or if anything is unclear, please use a Q and A and you'll get your answer 2. The Full Stop: This punctuation lesson is all about the full stop, but the full stop is Thean English name for it on an American. English will see it called a period, and it appears as a single dot at the bottom of the line after the last word. As you can see here, it is usually used to end a sentence that is neither question nor an exclamation. There's a very neutral way of ending a sentence. I was in abbreviations titles, initials on acronyms. It's also used in decimal numbers and Web site addresses. There are differences between UK in US English with respect to quotes, so there is no space between the last word in a sentence on the full stop on if there's a following sentence. We had a space after the full stop, but before the next sentence, as you can see here, but only one space is needed. The example. Shown here. There are too many spaces. Now you'll sometimes see older style guides that suggests double spacing after a full stop . But this is to do with the way in which older typewriters with mono spacing, um, handled this type of thing. So on older typewriters you had to sort put two spaces to make it really clear that this was a full stop in a new sentence. Um, but with modern work processes that use proportional spacing, one spaces plenty and perfectly readable. No common words such as days, months and address parts of very often abbreviated on the abbreviation we only see when we're writing. For example, you would say here the appointment is for Monday afternoon, but when we write it, we abbreviate Monday toe m o n dot My address is 23 North Street. Plymouth is what you would say, but when we write it, we abbreviate street toe s t dot or her birthday is on the 23rd of February again, In the written form, you would often abbreviate the month, February 2 feb dot or we are open between 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. On AM and PM are the Latin words meaning and team iridium and post beryllium I before midday and after midday. If the abbreviated word is the last word of the sentence, then a second full stop to end descendants is not required, and this is shown in the last example the titles are actually a specific form off abbreviation. So when we write the Are got m r dot m r s dot We're actually abbreviating Doctor Mr On Mistress Although we say mrs for the M. R s version on these abbreviations air so common that in the UK we usually omit the full stop But in the US, they will continue to use a full stop Its a difference between English on American Oh, in the UK we would write Dr Brown, we'll see, you know and have no full stop after the d r for Dr and in the US again. We'll still say Dr Brown will see you now, but they still in the U. S. English leave of full stop after the abbreviation of Dr Now We often use initials instead of writing out a full name on this, then makes them abbreviations, which for quite a full stop to show this. So, for example, my name is Derek J. Smith. So he right derek j dot smith in the J stands for John. And there's a space Please note between the j dot On the next word. Arthur a several consecutive initials. You have several ways of showing this. For instance, if we think of the author of Game of Thrones, George R. R. Martin, we could write George R. R. Martin with ah dot blank are got blank or we could squash it up a bit and right, George R. R. Martin without the gap between the are dots and the dots Us. Please note that around the are the still spaces or we can leave out the full stops completely. And we still say, George R. R. Martin wrote game of phones. But we leave out the dots for stylistic purposes. Andi toe certainly send It doesn't matter which one you do. If you're not sure, please refer to a style guide, but above all, be consistent. The acronyms are another form of abbreviation in which we use the first word of a phrase, and we speak it as a separate word. How I'll show you what we mean here. So most acronyms, I reckon, upper case without the full stops. But some acronyms are so common that we right there in lower case as if it was a normal word, is that we talked about nesa. We write n a s a just as it is. So it's a NASA is sending a new probe to outer space. Ah, NASA in this case stands for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, not North American Space Agency. He needs that report ASAP. Or sometimes I say ASAP where this stands for as soon as possible. Well, please use this laser pointer. Laser is another one of these words that is actually an acronym, but it's so common it's used as its own word, and most people forget what laser stands for. But as we see here is light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, which is why people say laser. Another typical example is scuba that I bought a new scuba gear and scuba again stands for self contained underwater breathing apparatus. He says he saw a UFO last night. A new fo here is short for unidentified flying object. Sometimes you'll see a UFO with the full stop. Sometimes you'll see it without often down to personal preference on recommendations of style guides. There's a full stop to separate the whole number from the decimal part off decimal numbers , but we don't call it a full stop, though he was, say point on, please notice point and not dot we'll see examples. The 1.534 plus 3.212 equals 4.746 on. If you don't believe me, please check it with currency figures. Again, they are decimal numbers. The difference here is that we know there's only two decimal places, so we wouldn't say $37.370.23 would say $37.23. And we can agree v eight this even further because if it's dollars as a whole number, it's gonna be senses. Thebes s Immel part. So we would just say 37 23. Well, if we take pounds, it's every pounds and pence. So you say that will be £167.48. And if it's clear that we're friends in England and it's pounds, we can even leave the pounds away and just say that will be 167 48 please. We also use a full stop to separate the various parts off a website address on in contrast to decimal numbers here we do say dot we don't say point. Hey would say www dot Microsoft dot com or www dot amazon dot co dot UK or just straight i p address 192.168 dot 1.1. And even in e mails, that address is we still use the same format. John Doe at email dot net. But when we have quotes with full stops, we actually have a difference between the way the U. K in US English handles this. So in the UK English, we put the full stop outside the quotation and then the U. S. The full stop goes inside. So to see some examples of this, the UK version would say The doctor said, I have good news for you and we see here The full stop is outside the closing quote of you in the US the same sentence, the doctor said, I have good news for you, the U full stop and then the closing quote. Okay, it's a small difference, but it's worth pointing out so question for you. I told my boss I need time off over Christmas. Is this a UK or the US version? You see, the full stop is outside of the quotes. So this is the UK version. If that was your answer, well done. 3. The Exclamation Mark: this punctuation lesson is all about the exclamation mark. So the exclamation mark is sometimes called an exclamation point, and we use it to indicate a strong emotion, for example, anger or excitement or others. And it replaces a full stop at the end of an exclamatory sentence. Unless, of course, the last sort of the sentence was an abbreviation, in which case you would have the full stop from the abbreviation on. Then the estimation Mark and we use estimation marked her add urgency to imperative sentences. I'll use it at emphasis to individual words or phrases, and they can be combined with other exclamation and question marks. We also use exclamation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony. We need to be careful when we're formatting titles that contain exclamation mark, but we'll see examples of all of these in a minute, so use them to indicate a strong emotion. For instance, anger or excitement. There's a yak liver and spinach for dinner again on this Ah yuck! As an exclamation mark is that, uh, yac or perhaps a more positive example woo part of the stands tomorrow. So by adding the exclamation marks, we can see that we're excited about the holiday or you passed all your exams Well done again. Estimation marks to show to the excitement estimation Marks actually replaced the full stop at the end of the next symmetry sentence. Unless, of course, the last word is an abbreviation. I'm amazed that you know him now without the exclamation mark that just be the centers. I'm amazed that you know him with a full stop because we're showing excitement. We've replaced the full stop with the estimation Mark has shown on him. In this case, I'm amazed. You know Robert Downey Jr. If you notice the junior has been abbreviated to J R dot and in this case we have both. We have the dot off the abbreviation as well as the estimation mark showing it's the emotion in the sentence or another example that shows us my operation is scheduled for 4 a.m. four oclock in the morning on they also add urgency to imperative sentences. So we look at some examples and compare them. The fairly neutral way is I need to report by Friday, which ends in a full stop. But to show urgency, you replace the full stop with an exclamation mark and say, I need to report by Friday like it's really important. Or similarly, If someone's all excited, you say you need to calm down by adding an exclamation mark at the end. You're really so Hey, you need to calm down. We also use them to add emphasis to individual words or phrases on DWI. Show this by adding the exclamation mark in brackets. After the word or phrase that we wish to emphasize. Andi, I would like to point out that this is really only in informal writing, and please don't do this in any formal writing. It is really not required there. That is an example. We worked really late. It was midnight before we left and by placing an exclamation mark in brackets afterward. Midnight, we're emphasizing it was midnight before we left. It was that late, or she has had five husbands and still hasn't found the right one. That five husbands is well, at least in the eyes of the speaker is something that needs emphasizing on is unusual or he really likes motorbikes. He has 10 in his garret without the exclamation mark. You just say he has 10 in his Garret would be a more neutral statement, but with the exclamation mark has 10 and we can combine them with other exclamation marks and question marks. And again, please don't use this in informal writing. Don't apply to a job and start doing this. OK, please. Only in informal writing sending SMS is or text to friends as an example. So leave me alone. The whole row of estimation marks They really want to be left alone. Well, she said what? And when we had this sort of Siris of question Mark Exclamation mark, we really sharing sort of. I'm astounded. This is She said what? Oh my God! Who does he think he is again? We're totally shocked and amazed at the way this guys behaving. We got to use exclamation marks for sarcasm. Oh, irony. So when we're sort of being ironic, were sort of saying the opposite of what we mean on hoping that the context and the tone of voice will really indicate that were being sarcastic and that we really not being genuine. So So I might say, Oh, you're so clever on this sort of resource. Sarcastic tones indicates that we really saying they're not very clever or oh, sh she looked positively radiant. Now this sentence could be meant as a genuine prays. That somebody looks really wonderful or, depending on the tone, could mean the exact opposite. So if you wanted to say there's a form of praise, you say positively radiant, if you mean it sarcastic, you'd say she look positively radiant on the suitable eye. Rolling will tell you that were being sarcastic. So you failed your driving test again. Genius, as we don't think he's a genius for failing his test women formatting titles off say, films or books that have exclamation marks in it. We have to be a bit careful with how we do it on. What we often do is, if we're if we're writing on we mentioned the title of a film or a book. We often put the title off the film or book in italics to show that it's a title Now. If the name of the book or film includes an exclamation mark, then this would also get I tele sized. But if the name is without one, then the estimation Mark is not. I italicized and we'll see a couple of examples. How many times have you seen Mamma Mia this month? So the film is called Mamma Mia Andi. There's an exclamation mark in the title of the film, so we put the whole thing in italics Mamma mia! And the exclamation mark, because it's part of the title and name of the film. But if you got to say from like, Ground Hog Day, you said I really liked watching Ground Hog Day There's no exclamation mark in Ground Hog Day and I hope you can see here that the estimation Mark is not in italics because it's not part of the title. 4. The Question Mark: this punctuation lesson is all about the question mark. The question mark replaces a full stop at the end of a question. Unless, of course, the last word in the sentence is itself an abbreviation. I'm use question mark with tag questions, but we don't use them with indirect questions on. We can combine question marks with other exclamation and question marks in informal writing . Now we need to be careful when we format titles that contain question marks. The question marks replace a full stop at the end of interrogative sentence. Unless the last word is an abbreviation, The question would be, When is your holiday? This year on? The last symbol you can see is the question mark, and that replaces the full stop. Or you could say, What would you like to eat this evening? A similar principle applies. We were to say something like, Do you really know Robert Downey Jr. We end the sentence with a question mark because it's a question, but because the last word in a sentence j r dot being the abbreviation for Junior. We have the dot, and the question mark together or another example. Is my operation really shingled for 4 a.m. That I am is an abbreviation a dot m dot on the question mark. Now there is a separate lesson on take questions, so please refer to that lesson for more details on this topic. But just for an overview is a statement. This is not attack question, so we have a full stop. This is attacked. Question, isn't it? And this is an example of attack question. So it has the question mark at the end again, Please see the the tech questions, lesson form or information and details on this for indirect questions. Don't have a question mark at the end. So the question would be, What would you like to eat this evening? But phrased as an indirect question, I was wondering what you would like to eat this evening. No question. Mark another example as a question. What do you think the next game of Thrones Siri's will be like? It was an indirect question. I'm curious what the next game of throne Siri's will be like, and you'll notice on both examples. The intonation also doesn't go up at the end, indicating again that it's not really a question, but in direct question. We can combine question marks with other question marks and estimation marks, But please only do this in informal writing. Please don't do this on your letter for the job application. Believe me, you won't kept the job if you do this. Are you talking to me? So we've used a row of exclamation marks rather than just sort of asking the question, Are you talking to me? It's really saying that. You talking to me? Yeah, I'm really It's really sort of like emphasizing like, you know, if you think you are talking to me or with a summation Marks, she said. What? And you're showing with this row of exclamation marks in questions that not only are you questioning what she said, but you're really either surprised or offended by what she said Go. Oh my God, who did he think he is again? That question mark. Exclamation marks at the end kind of really show a sort of a surprise and anger about the behavior of this certain person. There were formatting titles that contained question. Marks would have to be careful with how we do it. So when we were writing about, say, films or books. We often show the titles of the film or but or book in italics. But it's the name of the book or film includes a question mark. Then the question mark also gets italicized. But if the name doesn't include a question mark, then the question mark is not. I tell a size that we'll see some examples if we take the film. Who framed Roger Rabbit? That film title has a question mark in the title. So how many times have you seen who framed Roger Rabbit? This year we can see who framed Roger Rabbit. Question mark on the question mark is I Tallis sized game to take ground hold today. Did you enjoy watching Ground Hog Day? Now the film Ground Hog Day doesn't have a question mark in the title. I hope you can see that The question mark is not I Tele sized is back to normal 5. Pauses and Breaks Introduction: This next part in the punctuation section concerns those punctuation marks to be used for pauses and breaks that traditionally these are a comma, semi colon and colon. I've also added the ellipsis into this block because although the ellipsis has other functions, one of the main functions is to do with pauses and breaks, so it sort of fits semi logically in with the other main three. Each lesson has a similar format will show you where the different punctuation marks air used, how to use them. There's lots of examples to help you see riel. Genuine examples off correct usage where there's differences between UK and US English, those will also be highlighted. In addition to the comma lesson, there's an extra lesson on the so called Oxford comma, which shows quite an interesting subtleties in common usage on, In addition to the general, how to use thes punctuation marks the same lessons on common mistakes specifically where people misuse Coghlan's when they're writing on the so called comma splice, which shows how people misuse commerce when they're writing on. In addition to showing these mistakes will also be shown ways in which to correct it. If you have any questions or anything is unclear. Please use a Q and A tow. Ask your question, you will get an answer. 6. The Comma: this punctuation lesson is all about commerce. So the humble, calmer has many, many uses, and we look all of these now, so we use commerce to join elements of a sentence. And when we're reading, we insert a short pause for the comma, as I did just then. Andi. There are differences between UK and US English when it comes to some of the common rules, but we will look at examples and explain them. Use commas in introductory parts clauses all list items and they separate, quoted and unquoted. Text and commerce can be used as a separator for large numbers, and they separate non essential clauses from the main sentence. Calm is also used in tag questions, and they separate a direct address from the rest of the sentence. We also use commerce to write dates more clearly. We also use commerce to separate geographical areas. I, the larger ones on the smaller ones. We also use commerce at the start and end of a written letter. And please note the spending is Kama with two m's. A coma with one M is something completely different. Well, look at first that some of the differences between the way in which commerce a used in UK and US English. So in the UK, when we're listing elements of a list, we put no comma before the and or or at the end of the list. And in the US English that is a comma there and also please refer to the section on the Oxford comma because is another case again. So in the UK, we would write. The fruit bowl contains apples, comma bananas and Pez in the US is written differently. Everybody. The fruit bowl contains apples, comma, bananas, comma and pays. There's only affects the written form. When we speak the sentence, we will say the same. The football contains apples, bananas and pays. I'm used commerce to join elements of a sentence, so these convey be introductory parts clauses or a list of items. So we use commas after an introductory phrase or word on. In this case, the introductory phrase or word, acts like a scene setter, so it describes a bit of the background trembling with fear. Comma, the Children opened the cellar door, so in escapes the Children about to open the cellar door, and we sort of set the scene by explaining that they were trembling with fear and as a comma between the two parts as we can see or another example is one fine afternoon, they set off for a picnic, that people are going for a picnic and this sort of scene setting information that it was nice weather. So one fine afternoon or as a single word. Undeterred, they left work early to the left work early, but it didn't bother them. They weren't worried about any consequences, or suddenly it started to snow, so the snow was not expected and use commerce to drawing clauses of a sentence. We had dinner. Did the dishes on? Went out dancing. Next year, I want to take my driving test, start a new job and get married. Today, I washed the dishes, clean the house and got dinner ready. So almost all of listing things out here is well, but there are separate clauses. We have to be careful here. Is getting the commerce wrong? Can change the meaning. Do not dunk your bread or role in your coffee. Now dunk is when you sort of dip, say a role or something in the coffee to make it a bit softer so you can eat it easier. This is saying, if you have some bread or brought a bread roll, don't dunk it in your coffee. If you get the comma in there somewhere, do not dunk your bread or role in your coffee. That means something different. They're saying that you personally shouldn't role in the coffee. And this is, I'm sure, not the intention these commerce to join a list of items so the items could be verbs, adverbs now, and so adjectives. So in a verb, the acrobat jumped, twisted, turned and tumbled. We'll go there quietly, quickly and directly the adverbs. Or if we look at a list of now owns, this recipe requires chicken, rice, peppers and cream from adjectives. I'll have a pint of delicious cool, tasty dark beer. Andi, please note. In the 1st 2 examples I've written in the English Way, with no comma before the last and in the list. We use commerce to separate, quoted and unquoted text. Now there is a lesson on quotation marks, which goes into this and a lot more details, so please check that for more information if you need it. My doctor told me, Comma, I have good news for you. Obviously when we're speaking it, we wouldn't say comma would say, My doctor told me I have good news for you. Well, I have good news for you, Comma. My doctor told me you can even put the part in the middle. I have comma. My doctor told me comma, good news for you and again. When we say properly, we wouldnt say the word comma. I'm just putting that there to emphasize it. We also use commerce as a separator for large numbers. Now buy a separate. I mean that the thousands that is can be tricky because many languages use a full stop for the separator and a comma for the decimal place. In English, we do the other way round. We have the comma or a blank for separating the thousands. And a full stop as the decimal friends is 1234. There's, Ah, a comma to show where the thousands are with a small number like this. We didn't necessarily need it, but it's there anyway, here on this case, 6,000,378 fouls and 134. The site in larger numbers that commas air now helpful to see the thousands from the millions on in this number is probably essential. And I'm not gonna say it another important area where commerce are used. It's a separate, non restrictive clauses from the main sentence on in this case as its a non restrictive clause. The information between the commerce is extra. Additional information. If you admit it, the sentence still makes sense in the sense it was meant In the example, my friend John plays drums in a band. The John, which is between the commerce, is an additional piece of information that just tells you the name of my friend who plays drums in a band, and if we were to miss it out, the sentence would be my friend Place drums in a band so it's still grammatically valid on it has the same meaning we were to say. My brother, who lives in Rome, has two Children. The same principle applies, who lives in Rome is between commerce, so it's then a non restrictive clause. It provides additional information, and if we leave it out, we get. My brother has two Children, but compare it to this sentence. My brother, who lives in Rome, has two Children. No, here the who lives in Rome is not between commerce. Eso isn't and not a non restrictive clauses restrictive clause And it doesn't just provide additional information in this particular case, this would help us to distinguish between my brother who lives in Rome from my brother who lives in London. And so, you know, in this case which what I'm talking about and is therefore essential because it doesn't just provide extra information, it provides necessary information to know exactly who I'm talking about. We also use commerce to separate dependent and independent clauses. So if the sentence starts for the independent clause, we have no comma. If it starts with the dependent clause, we separate the two of the Kama. We look at some examples Since you're all here comma, we might as well start well the other way around. We might as well start since you're all here Now, in this example, if we look at the 1st 1 the independent clauses, we might as well start the dependent clauses since you're all here. The reason since you all here is a dependent clauses because it doesn't stand on its own. So if you start with sensual here, you left hanging with, Like what? But we might as well start is a complete sentence on its own. So therefore, it's the independent clause because it doesn't depend on anything or another example. When Bob gets here, we will make a move. If we turn the other way around, we will make a move. When Bob gets here, there is a separate lesson dedicated to dependent and independent clauses. So please have a look at that for more information on this topic. And calm has also used intact questions, and they separate the statement part from the tag part. So this is a tag question, isn't it? This is attacked. Question is a statement. Part isn't it is the tack part. As you can see, there's a calmer separating the two. We'll be home on time, won't you? Again, you'll be home on time. It's a statement. Won't us the tag part? A comma between them, he hasn't booked his holiday yet. Has he again? Has he is attacked part with a comma separating it from the statement. Part fretful weather today isn't it. Okay, you see the pattern emerging here. So there is a separate lesson on tech questions, so please feel free to refer to that. For more information on this topic, I've used commerce to separate a director dress from the rest of the sentence. So a director dresses like Paul, get out of bed. I'm directly addressing Paul. So I say, Pull, comma, get out of bed. And this could be anywhere in the sentence, because are you Paul ever going to get up? And again? We separate the director dressed to pull with commerce, as we can see here, but the end of the centers. How are you feeling today, Susie? Because we're talking directly to Suzy with separate separate the her name with a comma. And if we omit the commerce, we can change the meaning as well. So call me loser if you have the courage so directly addressing someone as a loser and saying If you have the courage, call me if we omit the commerce, call me loser. If you have the courage, which is like they're calling me the loser, not me. Calling them the loser is a big difference in meaning. You've Commerz when rewriting dates to make it more clear on. There are many, many different date formats. They're all equally is valid. They all have their place, but they are different. We need a calmer to separate consecutive numbers or consecutive words, but not when it's numbers next to words. So if you think about Albert Einstein when he was born on March 14 18 79 Albert Einstein was born Ondas to commerce here. The second comma has nothing to do with the date. The second comma. We've already seen this example before, on March 14 18 79. Comma Albert Einstein was born because on March 14 18 79 is an introductory phrase, but the first comma is due to the date. So we have the 14 from the day in 18 79 from the year, and they need to be separated with the comma to make it sort of clear if you put it the other way around so we don't have the introductory phrase. Albert Einstein was born on March 14 18 79 with he just the one comma. We have another formats with words next to each other and numbers, and we need more commerce. So in this example, the parties on Monday, January 7 2019 and you'll notice that when I said it, there were slight pauses by the comma for Monday and January a words. So we separate those with a calmer on the seven and 2019. Our numbers so separate. Those were the comma no comma between January and seven because they're different. One is a word on one's number, and if we rewrite it for different format, where no numbers or words are next to each other, we need no commerce at all. In this case, the parties. On 7th January 2019 we use commerce to separate larger geographical areas from smaller ones . So we would say Los Angeles, California is one of America's largest cities, So California is a larger area than Los Angeles. So is separated them with the Kama. We're flying to Paris, France, for our next holiday again. Paris is a smaller area. France is the bigger one on. We have no commerce when this part is at the end of the sentence. So, for instance, we would say she was born in Plymouth comma England. Plymouth being the smaller one end and be in the larger one. We don't write to his Born in Plymouth comma England Comma Full stop. The second comma is not needed. Another example The party is in Sloane Square London Sloane Square, The small part London The big part hence the coma. But we don't put Sloane Square comma London comma Full stop! Just the last full stop No second comma in the last example of where we use commerce is at the start and end of a written letter. So some salutation examples would be Dear Bill de Mr Brown Dear sir or madam In each case, we put a comma at the end For the 1st 1 is say dear Bilis sightly informal Dear Mr Brown is formal with a known person. And dear Sir Madame Formal with unknown people Onda The corresponding examples of closing would be best wishes for a nen formal with dear Mr Brown If you know the name your then your sincerely And if you don't know their name, it and yours faithfully. No, there is a little strange rule that says if you start with a comma, that dear Bill comma, you end with a comma, best wishes comma and then your name. If you don't start with a comma, Dear Bill, just gone the next line. Then you have best wishes. No comma on the next line your name so the commerce can be used starting the end of a letter. But I don't have to be on the rule. Here is the finish and start the same way. It's a bit of a strange rule. I think it's slightly artificial, but it's the rule that is there, and I'm just mentioning it for completion. 7. The Oxford Comma: this lesson is on the Oxford comma. The so called Oxford comma is the name given to the calmer that is used before the end, or just before the final item in the list. It is sometimes called a Siri's comma or even serial comma. Apparently the name comes form its use. A t. Oxford University Press. Although it looks to be a UK US difference, there are cases where it's used in English. If you look at the following sentences, the only difference seems to be the last comma We invited the cats, Elvis and Lincoln, or we righted the Cats Elvis comma on Lincoln. But we need to ask the question. How many are invited? And this is where the Oxford comma makes a difference and is used in UK English. So with the Oxford comma, we invited the Cats comma Elvis comma on Lincoln. And as we see, there are four people. Things invited. Two cats Elvis on Lincoln, making four without the Oxford comma invited the cats comma Elvis and Lincoln. There are only two people invited. They were the cats, one of which is called Elvis on the other, which is called Lincoln. On this is the only real instance where in UK English, you'll find a calmer before the last and in a list, and this is the difference it makes. 8. The Semicolon: this lesson is on the semi colon. The semi colon looks like a full stop on top of a comma, as shown in brackets. Here, it signals a stronger break than a comma, but not a strong is a full stop. In other words, it's somewhere between a comma under full stop. They used to split list items when the list items themselves contained. Commerce also used to list instructions and can be used to form compound sentences out of related clauses. Because some examples to split list items on the list item themselves contained commerce, for example, addresses can often have commerce in them, as in, I used to live in Denver, Colorado. So the town on the status separated by a comma. As we see here, I know that this sentence. Over the last 10 years I've lived in Denver, Colorado, Portland, Oregon, Seattle, Washington and Washington, D. C. It is very confusing when we just use a comma because some of the commerce separate a town from the state and some commerce separate the list items, and it's really not clear which is which. So this is what we do. We replaced the commerce that separate the list items with a semi colon on leave the calmer that separate the town from the state, and this makes it much easier to read on. It makes the intent a lot clearer, so it still reads the same. Over the last 10 years, I've lived in Denver, Colorado, Portland, Oregon, Seattle, Washington and Washington, D. C. What we do is when we read it, we leave slightly longer pauses between the semi Coghlan's and we do between the commerce and then the intent, and the meaning is a lot clearer or could be used to list instructions as in your homework is as follows. Task one. So we called on task to some colon task three. Or we can list them vertically, a few tasks we need to complete before the next meeting and then, as listed in bullet points task. One task to on Task three. Or we can use semicolons to form compound sentences out of related clauses. So if we have to separate sentences, I hope the traffic is light. We don't want to be late for the meeting. Now these two separates short sentences are related. One hopes that there's not too much traffic on The result of this is they won't be late for the meeting, so they are related. So one way of doing it is with a comma is to say I hope the traffic is light comma As we don't want to be late for the meeting. All we can use a semi code on on we don't need Then the word as we just say I hope that traffic is light. We don't want to be late for the meeting. 9. The Colon: this lesson is on the colon. The code on looks like a full stop on top of another. Full stop has shown here, in brackets that generally introduces, a list or Siris of items can also be used to combine two independent clauses with second clause, summarizes or clarifies the first. Don't worry, we will see examples on this. Conan also separates hours for minutes when writing the time. I also used to show ratios or proportions. Coghlan's also used after warnings and they use when replying or forwarding. Emails and Coghlan's are used in dialogue scripts. We do need to look at capitalization with Coghlan's. A colon generally introduces a list or Siris of items, as in your homework is as follows colon and then task 12 and three. Or, if we write it in a vertical bullet point list. There are a few tasks will need to complete before the next meeting. Colon and then the list of tasks, and it could be used to combine two independent clauses. If the second clause summarizes or clarifies the first it rained all day. I am soaked. Andi. The colon is between the two because the being soaked kind of summarizes or clarifies the fact that it rained all day. Or you can say I like all sorts of music coat, rock, metal, jazz, classical Are you getting that? Clarifies? It's also a list, and the colon can replace words or phrases such as including or, for example, So if we take the last example, we could have written it like this. I like all sorts of music, for example, mental, jazz, classical. And then we don't need a coat on a tall. But it is more worthy and takes up more space on a cold on separate hours for minutes when writing the time. But we don't actually say colon, we say, in this case, 10 15 or 1/4 past 10 or here we say 2130 or half past nine in the evening, all 7 55 being five minutes to eight and couldn't show proportions, ratios and gambling odds. So older monitors had an aspect ratio of 4 to 3 on. Please note the way we say this. We don't say four Colon three. We say 4 to 3. Then we'll see this in other examples as well. The recipe has fat, sugar and flour proportions of one toe. 123 which was one part fat. One part sugar, three parts flour or an outsider won the race, and the odds are 20 to 1. Coders also used after warnings warning poisonous substance. You'll see these sort of on labels and things and signs caution. Slippery when wet danger. Deep water We often see Coghlan's as well in emails when either replying to a male or fording one. And it doesn't really matter what format we used to show that it's a reply or forward. I will show a few here. So re colon inquiry with reference number 123456 That's a reply to that. Mail is a different one with Ari with the small F w for forward. Sometimes you see FW de for forward and again, it doesn't really matter the format that is used or even the language that is used. You'll see this colon and then the original email subject. Title colors, also using dialogue scripts. So Bob Colon, with Bob says, I was sick yesterday. Did I miss anything interesting? So it's Susie replies. Oh, I'm sorry to hear that the meeting was boring so it poll says. Yeah, you did the right thing Staying away on note. In this particular case, there's no speech marks around what the people actually said, because it's clear it's a dialogue script. We need to very quickly the capitalization following a colon. But some people say that the word after the colon should be lower case because the sentence hasn't finished. Others will say that it must be uppercase on other people again will give you situations where he would use a lower case in this situation on upper case in this situation, here's the thing. There are no hard and fast rules for this. It's really just preference and style. If in doubt, if a company has a style guide, then use that, but above all, be consistent. 10. Colon Misuse: this lesson is all about colon misuse, some common misuses off it and how to correct these errors for several situations in which would be incorrect to use a colon. We do not use a code on two separate a proposition from its object. We do not use a colon after a verb. We also do not use a colon after such as we do not separate a proposition from its object with a colon propositions. This is reminder. They show how a noun relates to another part of the sentence, and some common propositions are with four from in and to. But please be aware there are many, many more. We went out for a meal with Bill, John, Sarah and Kate. This is incorrect because we've separated the proposition with from the rest of the sentence. So how do we correct this? Just leave it out. We went out for a meal with Bill, John, Sarah and Kate. This is now a perfectly valid and correct sentence. Or you could say we went for a meal with our friends. Bill, John, Sarah and Kate is also correct. I have used the code on now in the correct place another example, I was responsible for washing the dishes and cleaning up again. In this case, four is the proposition. We've separated the washing, the dishes and cleaning up from I was responsible. This is no what we do, so we can either leave out the co along and say I was responsible for washing the dishes and cleaning up. But if we really want to use the colon, say I had the following responsibilities what did the dishes and cleaning up. And by restructuring the sentence this way, we now have a valid use off a colon. We also do not use a code on after a verb. He likes to eat chicken, pork, pizza and ice cream to eat, and then the code on is incorrect to have several ways of changing this, we either emit the colon by saying he likes to eat chicken, pork, pizza and ice cream. What if we really want to use a colon? We have to restructure it. And right. He likes many different foods. Chicken, pork, pizza and ice cream. This is now a correct sentence using the colon, who is another example. Her hobbies are joking and swimming again. The verb here is our, which is a conjugated to be on. Her hobbies are we have no colon here, so I'm just write. Her hobbies are joking and swimming. If we really want to use a colon, we have to restructure it again and write something like she enjoys few hobbies, joking and swimming. This is now a correct sentence with the colon. We also do not use a colon after such as he likes diverse music such as metal, jazz and classical. It is incorrect. We have no colon after such as. And as you can probably guess from the other examples, we have two ways of changing this. We can just leave out the colon on right. He likes diverse music such as metal, jazz and classical, or we restructure the sentence to keep the colon and what he has diverse music tastes, metal, jazz and classical 11. The Comma Splice: This punctuation lesson is on the error known as the commerce place. So a comma splice is what we call the situation where two main clauses air joined with only a comma and slice is another word for join. So that matches our description nicely. A comma splice results in run on sentences, which the things we really want to avoid. But the good news is, is there are several ways to fix this problem. However, not all commerce supplies is their errors, as we shall see. So as we've said, a comma splice is what happens when two main clauses are not properly joined or separated on main clause, and independent clothes are the same thing. But here's some examples. We've run out of milk. We need to go shopping. We've run out of milk is an independent clause. It's a standalone sentence, needs nothing else. We need to go shopping is also an independent clause. And to join the two with just a comma is a mistake. Specifically a commerce place tomorrow is a bank holiday. We still have to goto work again. Tomorrow is a bank holiday perfectly good on its own. We still have to go to work an independent clause. They shouldn't be joined with a comma. My alarm clock didn't go off. I didn't have time for breakfast. Same situation. My alarm clock didn't go off. I didn't have time for breakfast. Two independent clauses. We have no business joining them with a comma. I will use these examples in the rest of this lesson when we show how to fix this mistake. By far the simplest figs is to just use a full stop on. Turn this into two separate sentences from we've run out of milk. Comma, we need to go shopping. Do this. We've run out of milk. Full stop. We need to go shopping. Two separate sentences. A good fix with the tomorrow's a bank holiday. We still have to goto work. We do the same thing. Tomorrow is a bank holiday. Full stop. We still have to go to work on. Lastly, my alarm clock didn't go off. I didn't have time for breakfast. We turn into my alarm clock Didn't go off full stop. I didn't have time for breakfast. Two separate sentences again. Another simple fixes to correctly use a semi colon. Instead of saying we run out of milk. We need to go shopping with a comma. We turn the comma into a semi colon. We went out of milk Semi colon. We need to go shopping. This is now a valid sentence. Similarly, with the bank holiday example, we replace the comma But the semi colon to make tomorrow is a bank holiday. We still have to go to work with the last example with the alarm clock and breakfast would do the same thing. We replace the comma with a semi colon and make the sentence. My alarm clock didn't go off semi colon. I didn't have time for breakfast. The third way fixing this is slightly more complicated because we keep the comma. But we had a so called coordinating conjunction on these will be shown in italics. In the examples that we take our milk and shopping example, we write we've run out of milk comma, so we need to go shopping on this. So is a so called coordinating conjunction, which enables us to add to independent clauses with a comma. The bank Holiday Inn work example. We use a different coordinating conjunction. Tomorrow is a bank holiday, but we still have to goto work in the last example. My alarm clock didn't go off and I didn't have time for breakfast. This isn't also a valid way off. Fixing the commerce place problem in the last way of doing it is to make one of the independent clauses dependent by adding an extra word or phrase. So in these examples, the dependent clause or being italics on the extra word or phrase that we were used to turn the dependent clause into independent clause will be in bold. We take our first example, we've run out of milk, we need to go shopping, you say, As we've run out of milk, we need to go shopping and by adding, And as to the start of the first part, we've turned the independent clause into a dependent clause because, as we've run out of milk is no longer a standalone sentence, it needs something else. That something else is a dependent clause, which we do join with a comma without bank holiday example. Even though tomorrow is a bank holiday comma, we still have to go to work on. But adding even though to the start of the tomorrow is a bank holiday that is now dependent clause, the last example of the alarm clock in breakfast. Because my alarm clock didn't go off, I didn't have time for breakfast. And so but I didn't work because we've made the independent cause of dependent clause, and these are correctly joined together with a set with a comma. This is where it gets awkward because a comma splice isn't always deemed an error. There are situations in which is considered stylistically acceptable to use a comma splice on these are with very short statements, contradictory statements and tech questions. We're looking examples of all of these now, so if you have some really very short statements, especially those with the same subject, we can use a comma splice with those a stylistically acceptable punctuation. For instance, I came, I saw I conquered as that's fine with commerce. This is Peter. This is Jane again, very short sentences you can get away with using a comma splice here. The short, contradictory statements also allow the use of a commerce place so some examples would be is not a fruit. It's a vegetable. It's not raining, it's snowing. I'm not your cousin. I'm your uncle and then all of the's. You have contradictory statements. They're quite short statements, so you can validly separate them with a comma and use a commerce. Fleiss, on the last example where a comma splice is used, is with Ted questions. Now there is a separate lesson on tech question, so please feel free to check that out if you need more information. So here's some examples of tech questions. That's your car, isn't it? You don't have a dog to you. We met to the cinema, didn't we? These are similar to the previous example with the contradiction. It's assist is a very specific form of contradiction, but they called take questions they used very commonly in English. 12. The Ellipsis: The short punctuation lesson is all about the ellipsis, the lips. This is formed by adding three dots in a row, and because of this, it's also sometimes called dot dot dot. We use ellipses to show in a mission they used to show a pause or a break there also used to create suspense in writing. And please note that the pool of ellipsis is ellipse. Sees to use ellipses to show on a mission. Protect the example sentence. We went to the park, played on the swings and slide and then went home. You figure that's a bit too long. You can shorten it. Two. We went to the park, don't talk dot and then went home. And what we've done here is the details, namely played on. The swings and slide have been omitted for clarity. I'm please note that the sentence still makes sense. It is valid and grammatically correct on the meaning. Hasn't changed is very important and last leap In this situation. We have a spaces around the ellipsis when we use it to replace something that we've emitted , can also use ellipses to show a pause or a break or a trading off of a thought. I told him It's your round, dot, dot, dot So go get them. My keys are here somewhere. If we did just written this with my keys are here somewhere with a full stop. It would just be a statement of fact. My keys are here somewhere. But by writing it like this, it's really clear that the person is looking for them. You think my keys are here somewhere? I just can't find them. Well, if we get here, we have to do something. I got the doc dot dot in this case, the trading off of the thought, The thing about what we have to do when we use the lips. It's like this. There's no space around it or we can use the lips is to create suspense when we're writing . So what? We create a small pause and make the reader wait just a little bit longer. We could have just written. She opened the door and saw a black cat, which is not very exciting. So we had some suspense to it. With the use of ellipses as we see here, she opened the door and sore a black cat. It's far more suspense in that sentence on something not quite as, Ah, horror film. I know what we can do. We can order Peter. I could in this last example, right? Paul has a new girlfriend. You know her? It's Jenny again. Nothing too exciting there. But by using ellipses, we change it to something like this. Paul has a new girlfriend. You know her? It's Jenny. And you've created a bit of tension there by adding these dot dot dots. 13. Connectors and Dividers Introduction: the next. Few lessons in this punctuation section concerns hyphens, dashes slashes on apostrophes on diesel punctuation marks that we usedto either split things up or join them together. Each of the lessons in this section have, ah, similar structure. So first we will see how we use each of these in what situations will use these punctuation marks. We'll see, um, examples of how they used Andi. Some of the other uses would also be shown again, together with examples. If there's any questions that you have or you feel anything is not clear or no fully explained, please use a Q and A and let us know on we will correct whatever is missing on answer any questions you have. 14. The Hyphen: this punctuation lesson is all about the hyphen. The hyphens air used to join two or more words together when we often do this to avoid confusion or ambiguity. When we do this, we have no spaces before. After the hyphens, we use hyphens in writing numbers. We use them when writing double barrelled surnames, hyphens, air used to show ranges of values. We use hyphens to form compound adjectives. We also use hyphens when we split a word over two lines. Look at some examples of where hyphens air used when we write numbers and fractions. So there were 24 pupils in the class. We have ah hyphen to make 24 a unit. 63% of the electorate voted against the incumbent. 2/7 voted for the incumbent. 135 people couldn't decide. There are 52 cards in a pack. 54. If you include the Joker's, we don't need petrol. The tank is 3/4 full. Then all these. You see the numbers from 21 to 99 hyphenated, as are the fractions. An important use of hyphens is when we joined two or more words together to avoid confusion or ambiguity. But we were to write this. We work 24 hour shifts. That's no clear. What exactly do we mean? Do we mean that the shifts of 24 hours long do we work 24 hour shifts? So the shifts of four hours long and we do 20? Or do we do one hour shifts and we do 24 off them? We need the hyphens. We'll see. Use hyphens when we write double barrelled surnames that just to give you a quick example scenario. The father is called John Brown, and the mother is called Suzie Johnson, and they kept their names when they were married for had a child that might be called, say, Peter Johnson. Ground on his surname is a double barrelled surname with both of his parents names joined with a hyphen. As we can see here, we'll see his hyphens to show a range of values, as in please refer to Page is 88 to 92 for further details. The office is open Monday to Friday 9 to 5. Business. Although we write a hyphen in these cases, we use it the word to when we say it as in Monday to Friday 9 to 5. We also use a high from room giving results. My team won the match 53 or the board voted 63 to abandon the project on giving results. We speak it differently. Although we write it the same, we'll use hyphens. Informing compound adjectives on this can be a combination off adjectives now owns and quantify IRS. One example would be click the X on the top right corner to close the application. On here, the compound adjective is top right, made out of two adjectives. Do you work part time or full time? This is an example of an adjective and a noun. It's a classic bricks and mortar house, and here we have bricks and mortar. Other Nelms on this choice. Three words. Together. You have a two door or four door car on. This combines a quantity with a noun to describe the type of car. I'm use hyphens to split a word over two lines. A modern word processes are very good at justification and spreading the words out nicely, so it's very rare that you will see this in a modern text. But there are older publications that didn't have access to modern word processing. And so you might see this type of thing in these older texts. The the sentence would be the car was in poor condition, but we still bought it. And if you only have a narrow column to write the text, you would have to split the word condition and you would do it like like this. As we see here, the car was in poor condition and we spit condition over two lines, and we had a hyphen to show that it's continues on the next line. 15. The Dash: this lesson is on the dash. Dashes could be used in place of brackets in place of commerce or in place of Coghlan's. But the use of the dash is is really considered to be informal. So if you're writing a formal text, you would use the brackets, the commerce and the Coghlan's for writing informal texts. You can replace them all with the dash as we'll see Andi in England and America have different rules about spacing. If we want to replace a bracket with a dash, we do it like this on your neighbor bracket. Fred Brown. Close bracket is a policeman. Oh, on your neighbor. Fred Brown is a policeman. It doesn't really change the way we say. It just changes the way we write it. You probably think she's friendly. She's not or with a dash, he probably thinks he's friendly. She's no. We can replace Commerz with it. My cousin, who lives in Manchester is pregnant again. Or my cousin, who was in Manchester is pregnant again and we replacing the commerce here with a dash. And again, Susie's mother, who is a critic of the school board, spoke up. Always just replace the commerce with a dash. We end up with same spoken sentence, while flashes could replace Coghlan's. So the colon, we would say a BLT sandwich only has three ingredients. Bacon, lettuce and tomato. All we write it like this. A BLT sandwich only has three ingredients. Bacon, lettuce, tomato And again, it doesn't change the way we speak the sentence. It just changes the way we write it, since the appearance of it or very famous quote. And the two things are certain in life, death and taxes. We replaced the code on with a dash. We write it like this. UK in us have different rules about spacing for the UK writers put a space around the dash on US Writers. Don't so UK would, right. That's what I said to him. Don't waste your money on that junk. Ondas. A space between around the death in us. They wouldn't put the space around it. They just write it Word onward. I personally don't like this because it makes confusing a dash and a hyphen Too difficult. It's no easy to see at a glance. Is that a dash, or is that a hyphen? That's why I personally prefer to put a space surrounded dash so that's clear is not a hyphen 16. The Slash: this punctuation lesson is all about the slash symbol. So the slash, as we can see here from bottom left to top right, are sometimes called forward slashes on. We do this to avoid confusion with the backslash, which we see here going from bottom left to top right, which is really only used in the context. Off computers you might often see the slash refer to as a ver ghoul. We have several places we can use. The slash one is in place off the word, or we can also use them in place of the word per. When we're talking about rates, are you slashes to display dates? We also use slashes when we're writing fractions, and we also use, um when we're displaying and writing abbreviated date ranges. Slashes are useful when writing certain abbreviations, and lastly, we can use them when writing poetry in a specific form. If you look at some examples of where slash is air used to replace the word or so we could right, each applicant must include his or her C V. This would be perfectly valid and legitimate. We could also write it a slightly bit abbreviated instead of the word or would put a slash . As we can see here, we have several options of how we would read this. We could read it as each applicant must include his or her C V. All we can see. Each applicant must include his stroke, her CV or his slash her C V. It's a personal preference up to you, or we could have your parent or guardian must sign the consent form. And again, we can put your parent stroke guardian or your parent or guardian or your parent slash guardian must sign. The consent form on both variations are equally is valid and understandable. You can also use a slash to replace the word per when we're talking about rates and ratios , who could write? The price is $20 per item. Well, we can write it in an abbreviated form. The price is $20 per item, and even though we write it with a slash, we still we read it. We say $20 per item. Now it's only in the written form that we abbreviated. Well, we could write. You can fit 25 blocks per square meter. We can abbreviate this a little bit more because the square meter we can abbreviate tow em with a superscript two on right, the whole thing as you can fit 25 blocks per square meter. It's only the written form that changes when you speak the sentence. It's the same you slashes when we displaying dates. The meeting is scheduled for 23rd of the seventh or 23-7 on the UK. We put the day and then the month and then the year, as in. She was born on 17th of the 3rd 1992 the 17th of March. But in the US they put the month, then the day and then the year. So the same information she was born on the 17th of March 1992 for an American former would be written. As we see here, three slash 17 slash 1992 and normally is clear if the day is greater than 12. But we have here we were on holiday from three slash force last 2018. How do we read this if we don't know, the format is either the third of April or the Fourth of March, and that makes a difference if in doubt. Ask the author. Are you slashes when we're writing fractions to 1/2 is recognize. 1/2 or one slash two 3/4 would be written is 3/4 or three slash four. So in a sentence we would say or write, I'm nearly halfway through my book. You went 3/4 of the cake, the one way writing date ranges. We can abbreviate them with the use of slashes. But if the date range is greater than two years, we normally used dashes and often in sports. We talk about the 2008 throat nine season what decided well before the last game. So we're talking about the season that goes that started in 2008 and finished in 2009. But when we write it, we abbreviate it as we can see here. Well, they were at University together in the 1985 86 academic year. As we said, if the date range is greater than two years, we were right there, acting averted together between 1985 to 1989 on, we'd write it like this as opposed to a slash. We also use slashes for certain common abbreviations. We don't normally do this informal writing, but you can certainly use it in informal writing. So you might say I haven't seen a b slash w TV for a long time. In this case, B slash W is the abbreviation for black and white as all TVs these days. A color, a formal situation where it is acceptable to use a slash is in this example. Please send the package to the company address c slash o Paul Brown on here The c slash o stands for care off. So when the parcel arrives, will be addressed to the company. And I would say C o Paul Brown and the people in the company know that this package is meant for this employee. We say the shop is open 24 7 and again, 24 7 is a very common abbreviation, meaning 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Last place where we commonly use slashes is one we're writing poetry. So the normal written form for poetry looks something like this. Roses are red, violets are blue, sugar is sweet and so are you. We have one part per line written in quite of a narrow form, but we might want to save a bit of space and write. The whole thing is a normal line of text, and we would use Slash is here to show the line breaks. So the same little cheesy poem up there could be written in one line. Roses are red slash. Violets are blue slash sugar is sweet slash, and so are you. Obviously, when you're reading this out, you wouldn't say the word slash each time. I've just emphasized it to show where they come and you can often uses to write so short poems in a one line up. Some people even put double slashes in between. It's a personal preference thing. 17. The Apostrophe: this punctuation lesson concerns the apostrophe the apostrophe has shown in brackets. Here is a different punctuation mark on an open quotation Mark has shown here. I hope you can see the difference to use the apostrophe to show a contraction. And we also use apostrophes to show possession. The it's with and without an apostrophe is a special case that we need to explain to use an apostrophe to show a contraction. Are you sure you've got holiday next week? So you have has been abbreviated or contracted to you've So the apostrophe is a sign showing which let or where the letters are missing. So the H and the A from have have bean for removed leaving youth and we put the apostrophe there To show this it possibly can stand for one or more missing letters. Are you sure you're on holiday next week? In this case you are is missing one letter the A and is being abbreviated or contracted to your Yes, I'm on holiday next week. And here the im is the contracted form of I am. You'll have to work harder. And here you will were missing two letters making you will contracted to you'll. And as we said, there's only one apostrophe. No matter how many letters and missing, we don't put one per letter. The other case where we use the apostrophe commonly is when we're showing possession. So there were many specific situations that we need to cover. Simple traditional Method two says you had apostrophe s when you want to show possession. Now, if the word ends in s, we don't have apostrophe s. We just at the apostrophe. So that that is Paul's comic toe Paul Apostrophe s. We would right. But we say polls and we mean this is the comic that belongs to Paul. Well, that is Thomas Comic Thomas ending in an S. We going at Apostrophe s? We just had the apostrophe, so that was a simple traditional way. But the modern way really reflect s'more the way in which we actually speak. And this only affects words ending in the letter s All other letters are the same. Apostrophe s no change. But when we have a letter s we sort of speak it more like a letters ed and we do Adan s apostrophe s. So we would write. This is Thomas comic as we can see here, but when we're saying it, we would say that is Thomas's comic. Did you listen carefully? You'll see that the two s is are actually pronounced differently. That is Thomas's comic. I've tried to emphasize it. The bus's passengers are happy against only a very brief overview of the topic. But as far as this lesson on the apostrophe goes, it's enough to know that we use the apostrophe and all cases to show possession. However, when we use possessive pronouns, we don't then need an apostrophe. That's right, that is his apostrophe book is incorrect, that is, His book without the apostrophe is the correct version, or this house is ours again. We don't need the apostrophe. This sentence this house is ours without is the correct version. Although shoes are hers again, no need for an apostrophe. This would be incorrect. The correct version is those shoes are hers. Now. We need to look at its and AIDS because if in apostrophe shows a contraction and possession , then how do we interpret? It's for its apostrophe s. It could be both in order to avoid confusion, we have an exception to our rule. It's with apostrophe. I mean it is and its without an apostrophe, the 1st 2 possessive nature. By definition, it's a lovely day to day. It's with an apostrophe, meaning it is so the long version here it is a lovely day. Today, the dog is enjoying its bone. There's no apostrophe here, and so we mean the possessive again. It's just on exception, and it's defined to be the way it is to avoid confusion. 18. Quotation Marks: this lesson is on quotation marks. These air used to reproduce exactly what somebody said. There are capitalization and punctuation rules that we need to be aware off. There are also differences in UK and us. The quote could be a single word of phrase or even a whole sentence. The quote could be single or double quotation marks, as shown here. Both are used in nested quotes. It could be used to highlight a specific part of a question. They can also be you sarcastically or, ironically, quotation marks also used with titles of films, books and other creative works. Lastly there, used as a short form for feet and inches, that was the examples of all of these. Now there are capitalization and punctuation rules that we need to be aware off as we see here, she told me. Breakfast is ready now, the narrator part, she told me on the direct quote in quotation marks. Breakfast is ready, always separated by a comma on the part. In the quotation, Marks starts with a capital letter as if it was a new sentence. Another example, Bob told me comma quotation must start with a capital letter. You will get your book back tomorrow. You can also swapped the quota than the rate apart around. Breakfast is ready, She told me again. They're separated by a comma. But in this case, the start of a narrator part doesn't get capitalized. So it's a small lesson. She and similarly you will get your book back tomorrow, he told me. So you will get your book. Has a capital. Why? There's the start of the quote, separated by a comma. But then he told me with a lower case A. When we use quotation marks with exclamation marks and question marks, we also have to be aware of what's going on. So if a question is being quoted and the question mark goes inside, the quotation marks and the same applies with exclamation marks, she asked me, When do you want breakfast? So the quote is, When do you want breakfast? Which is a question, and therefore the question mark goes inside the quotation marks on a similar example with an exclamation mark. I can't believe you actually said that, Steve told me. So the thing being quoted is the emphasised thing, and that's why the exclamation mark goes inside the quotes. But if the narrator is asking the question and the question mark goes outside the quotation marks Did the boss really say you're totally incompetent? So the quote is the boss saying you're totally incompetent, but the narrator is asking if you really said it. So the question mark does not belong inside the quotation marks and another example for an exclamation mark. I'm amazed that her mom said yes. The mom just said yes. But the amazement and the exclamation mark is outside of the quote. We do have differences between UK and US versions. So in the UK, the full stop goes after the quotation mark and then the U. S. The period what they call the full stop goes inside the quotation mark So UK version will be She told me I will be home late this evening on the full stop is at the end of the sentence after the quotation marks. So the UK version looks like this. She told me I will be home late this evening that the full start right at the very end, outside the quotation marks in the US, right, it's slightly different, she told me. I will be home late this evening, The full stop goes inside the quotation marks or another version. Another example, UK would say, I told her that dress is very pretty with a full stop at the end on the US version of the same centers has a full stop just inside the quotation marks. Quotation marks are used to reproduce exactly what somebody said. Breakfast is ready, she told me. So those are the exact words, she said. Breakfast is ready. No other variation nor the order. No other words. Hope said to me, I will bring your book back tomorrow, I promise. But when we use reported speech, we don't use quotation marks. So the reported version of the first example. She told me that breakfast was ready and for the 2nd 1 but promise that he would bring my book back tomorrow. These A reported sentences and they don't have quotation marks. The thing being quoted could be a single word of phrase or even a whole sentence example of a single word. The hospital spokesman described her condition as satisfactory. It was a phrase, he said, that this was neither the time nor the place for such a discussion. was a whole sentence, John said. I hate working here. We're quoting a multi paragraph text. Then the quotes are slightly different. On the rule is that each paragraph gets a starting quotation mark, but only the last paragraph gets the closing quotation mark. I'm trying to show that here without too much text, Peter said. Today is the start of a wonderful journey, and he carries on talking. The second paragraph contains a lot more information and you see at the end of thes there's no closing quotation marks. The third paragraph expands upon all of this, and finally it's I summarised the main points of the speech, and there is the last paragraph that gets the closing quotation mark. Hope, Hope that makes it clear. We can either use single or double quotation marks, and it really doesn't matter which one you use. Personally, I tend to use single quotes, forwards and short phrases and double quotes for longer phrases and complete sentences. That's just me. For example, the hospital spokesman described her condition as satisfactory. One word. I just use single quotes. What was the whole sentence? John said. I hate working here, however, when we have nested quotes we have to use both. So if there's a quote within a quote, we have to use different quotation marks to separate the two quotes. I'll show you what in me with an example. We usually use single quotes, however, for the inter quotation. But the important thing is to be consistent. So you John told me. The boss said, I need this by Friday. So the boss said as a quote, I need this by Friday and Joel is telling me. The boss said, I need this by Friday. So the inner quote from the bosses in single quotes on the outer quotes in double quotes and we see at the end after Friday with a single quote on a double quote another example, Paul said the teacher told us the test will be on Tuesday and again, the quote from the teacher the test will be on Tuesday is in single quotes. The outer quote, Paul said, is in double quotes when you see at the end a single and a double quote to close the sentence. Quotation marks can also be used to highlight a specific part of a question. For example, the boss keeps saying that we must all make sacrifices. What does he mean by sacrifices? So really highlighting that word is being something that we're really interested in knowing , or something that parents would say to their small Children. What part of stop that don't you understand? So again we're highlighting the stop that in the question girls use quotation marks sarcastically or ironically, and you can use quotes to show the part of the sentence that you mean sarcastically. I'm sure the politician will keep his promise, and in this case you often see people sort of air. Quoting with their two feet with two fingers, the teacher said the homework would be easy. It was so easy. All those. It wasn't easy. It was difficult. We'll see. Use quotation marks with titles of films, books and other creative works on a several options you can use here. You can put the title in quotes or italics. If you put the title in italics, you usually use quotation marks for individual parts of the complete item on the matter which variation you choose as ever, please be consistent. On December 31st we always sing Auld Lang Zain in quotation marks or you can write in italics like this. And if you want to show how you would use, um, quotation marks and italics together, I would say the track Natural science on Russia's Permanent Waves is awesome, which it is on day can also be used as a short form for feet and inches, which are imperial measurements that are still in use in England and United States. So a single quotation mark means feet and two quotation marks. A double quotation means inches. So if you're say, he is five feet nine inches tall, his five death nine double dash we, as we can see that on this particular representation, is the only time in the US version that the full stop goes outside and after the question mark. 19. Brackets: this lesson is all about brackets. There's several different types of brackets We need to look at a round brackets or parentheses as soon here. Square brackets, which looks slightly different, and curly brackets or braces, which look different again. Formal writing rarely uses any of these. We have to be careful with punctuation. The parentheses, air used to separate additional information from the main part of the sentence. I'm removal off. The parentheses cannot change the main information, so it's additional, often unimportant details that Aaron brackets or parentheses, and also when we remove the parentheses, the sentence must still be grammatically correct, and this is important on the text. In the parentheses can be anything from whole sentences, two phrases, single words or even single punctuation marks. We will see examples of these. Removal of the parentheses cannot change the main information. So in this example, our German neighbors made shots felt daughter or black forest gateau. It was delicious on here. The information in brackets It's just the translation off shots vault daughter. That is delicious. So if you remove it, we get our German neighbors. Makes parts felt daughter. It was delicious, or someone might say I'm so stupid. No, really, I don't know what I was thinking. And here the information in brackets just emphasizes the fact that someone feel stupid. So when we remove it, we get I'm so stupid. I don't know what I was thinking again. The main sense hasn't changed. And also importantly, when the parentheses a remove, the remaining sentence must still be grammatically correct. So here's a sentence. I bought beer, bananas, Chris and chocolate for our picnic, which sounds sort of OK if we remove the parentheses. We end up with a bad sentence, which is? I bought beer, bananas crisps for our picnic. So something is wrong. What we have to do has changed the original Toby. I walked beer, bananas and Chris and chocolate for our picnic. It's when we then removed the parentheses we're left with. I bought beer, bananas and Crist for our picnic, which is a correct sentence on the text in the parentheses can really be a wide range of things from whole sentences and phrases down to date, single words or even punctuation marks. I was very ill after eating in that restaurant. I won't be going back again as a whole sentence in brackets was a phrase it hasn't stopped raining three days and counting yet The unemployment figures report May 2018 showed a falling trend. The politician expressed regret for when the affair came to light on this little signs or marks after the shore is like a no raised eyebrows. So it's just showing irony was an exclamation mark was a punctuation mark. He managed to eat 20 hot dogs yesterday where the exclamation mark in brackets these are emphasizing 20 as being a high number on here. We have a slightly different thing where a single parenthesis is used when listing items Friends, since your tasks for today are on in one task 12 to 3 Task three and here we see just a single parenthesis on its own on this is really the only case where a single parenthesis is used. All other examples have a pair off parentheses. Please note. One parenthesis mawr, parentheses, good square brackets. No square brackets are used in censorship. We're also using quotes to add information and can be used in nested brackets. To make things clear, which comments go where and have a one very specific use namely when writing sick when quoting someone. Here's how we use square brackets In censorship, they replace an offensive word, and usually, in a transcript, the defendant told the court that the are copper kicked him in the head. They also use some bad words on these have been replaced with expletive deleted. Or sometimes they admit, the deleted and just right expletive. That's in the written form of the When we say it, we beep it out. Or, she told the reporters, My brother's a right, but he's still my brother or the use within quotes. To add information on, we should be aware that the extra information is being supplied by the author, not the person being quoted, Paul said. The teacher sneezed 20 times on in square brackets. His emphasis added, and see the 20 times is bold ID. Probably when Paul said it, he didn't emphasize it like this. But the person reporting after the emphasis, the teacher said they will leave school early tomorrow. That's what the teacher said. They will leave school early tomorrow. The person reporting this I just added in square brackets that they refers to the Children to make it clearer for who I was reading it and again, see, the teacher told us this would not happen every week. They're just clearing up who the person is. I can also be used in nested brackets to make things clearer and easier to read. I have a new job. My cousin got me a job at my aunt's, his mom's firm. And here we see the comment is in bracket. My cousin got me a job at my aunt's firm on because people weren't sure who my Aunt Waas and my cousin is clearing up that my aunt is my cousin's mum on DSO. They put that in square brackets just to use a different type of bracket than the main comment. And they also indicate that a portion of text has been admitted to make reading easier. In this case, the omitted takes is not deemed relevant to the report, and it just makes scenes of it tighter. I know what you mean. After all, it was her decision. That's the main information. But in square brackets dot, dot dot that shows that wasn't a longer portion of text that was added that was not being relevant to this information so it has been abbreviated and cut out for the sake of brevity and clarity on have a specific sick use. This is used to indicate in a quotation that somebody made a mistake and that you're quoting verbatim. All right, you haven't corrected the quote. You're reporting it exactly as it was stated. Bob Road. It's up to them is their money. That sounds okay, but when we actually look at it, they used the wrong form of there. It should be th e I, uh And so the person quoting what Bob wrote has written exactly as he's done on. Then after the wrong bit, he's ever sick to indicate that this was an original. Mistaking the quote, Oh, Peter asked, Why is the puppy chasing its tail again? It sounds OK, but is used. The wrong form of its is used. The form that's a contraction of it is with an apostrophe and not the one without the apostrophe for possessive. So again, the sick has just been added to show that the mistake was in the original quote. That hasn't been changed. Curly brackets are really not used informal writing. They have since very specific use in maths to delimit sets, as in the set of fruit would be open curly brackets, apples, oranges, pears, bananas, close curly brackets. Also using computer programming languages to delineate scope. And some people do use them an informal text in place of other brackets. I think they do this just because it looks nicer. And as usual, we have to be careful with punctuation, so complete sentences in brackets have the full stop inside the brackets. Unless it's in the middle of the sentence, then we need no full stop. We'll look. Examples. The exam was two hours. It was barely enough time. So here the comment in brackets is at the end. Exam was two hours full. Stop open bracket. New sentence Capital I on It was barely enough time. Full stop close bracket or in the middle. It's just a continuation of the sentence. So we'd have our English exam. That is. My favorite subject was three hours long. No full stop, no capital letter on that. Even though it's ah, full centers. That is my favorite subject and then freezes at the end of the sentence. Don't have the full stop inside. It's only full sentences So we say. After the exam, we ordered a curry nice and spicy, the full stop at the end of the sentence. Not inside the closing bracket. Commas usually go outside the brackets. So on Monday, I hate Mondays. We had a chemistry test, so on Monday is the leading parts. On Monday, comma, we had a chemistry test on the bit of information. The brackets is I hate Mondays, but the comma goes outside. But it is a question mark or an exclamation mark that belongs to the comment then that stays inside the brackets. Otherwise, they go outside on Monday. I hate Mondays. We had a chemistry test, and in this case, the I hate Mondays. The exclamation mark is just to emphasize it on its part, off the comment. So it goes in the brackets. Or that's just change it. From chemistry to physics on Monday are Who doesn't hate Mondays. We had a physics test, and here it's a question mark. Inside. The comment on the comment on the question mark belong together, so they're both inside the brackets. I hope that's clear. 20. Other Symbols Introduction: this last few lessons in the punctuation section concern a sort of a pot pourri off various signs, symbols and marks that aren't necessarily strictly speaking punctuation marks. But they kind of belong in here anyway. They're all things that are used in writing to change sentences or format sentences, so they sort of, in a sense belong here. Although they're not let us a strictly speaking punctuation marks, this list could end up growing. If you find some sort of symbol or or a sign that you think should belong in here that isn't here and you need information on this, please let us know in a Q and A will be very happy to add a lesson for that particular symbol or sign the very last part of this lesson. All of this section Sorry is the fun bit where we show how all the punctuation that we've seen up to this point could be used or misused to completely radically alter the meaning of a sentence with just a punctuation mark extra or less or moved. Andi. It's a sort of award for you, for getting through to the end of this section. Hope you enjoy it 21. The Ampersand (&): This punctuation lesson is all about the M purse end, but the ampersand, which is a symbol you can see there in brackets in the header as a symbol that is used to abbreviate the word and and actually has quite an interesting origin. We commonly used an ampersand in company names and logos. We also use it in academic citations. However, it is really used informal writing if you think about the origins of this word hundreds of years ago in the Middle Ages, when single letters were used, his words it was written as a letter per se word where per se is Latin meaning so in and of itself. So, for example, the letter A when uses a word. It was a A per se a meaning A by itself is the word A. And at this time, this symbol was a letter meaning and it was the letter, and this gave rise to and per se and meaning and by itself is the word and and this onda per se and of more slowly into the ampersand that we know in use today. But when we look at company names and logos will see, there are occasions when there are spaces around the ampersand, as in Procter and Gamble, Johnson and Johnson and sometimes there no spaces around the M person, as in A T and T on A and M Records. Now we can see that if the name has really words in the title, then we use spaces around it and it just made up of letters. We don't put spaces around it, though. In certain academic citation styles, the ampersand is used between author names and citing worked with two or more authors. An example of this would be this large sentence. A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programme designed to improve native speakers. Ability to understand accented speech on this was based on research done by during Rosseter on Monroe in 2002. And when we have our references section, we'll reference this as the title of the papers. Those doing TM Rosseter, MJ and Monroe M. J 2000 to the title of their paper was teaching native speakers to listen to foreign accented speech, which was published in the Journal of Multi Lingual and Multi Cultural Development. On the numbers there show the pages that it was off that publication where this paper appeared an informal writing. You generally wouldn't replace the word and with an ampersand, it's generally seen as being a bit lazy, informal writing. But there are, of course, exceptions. If, for instance, you have a table or graphic and space is limited, you could use this method of an M percent to make space for more important information. Well, you have common expression such as rock roll B and B Q. And A. We're being be is a common agree aviation for bed and Breakfast on Q and A is the common abbreviations for questions and dances, and often you are in lists. You will have this where it's not used as a separator. So if we're talking about someone's musical tastes could say the light rock R and B jazz and funk Andi, the R and B in rhythm and blues. We can use a nem percent, but we can't use it at the end between jazz and funk. When we're dressing couples, we can refer to as Mr and Mrs Blog's or Jim and Paula Adams. When referring to these couples like this, we can use an M percent instead of the word. And as a rule, if you're not sure, use the M percent less rather than more informal writing. And if you're in any doubt, please check with your local style guide, which might have information about how to address this. 22. The Asterisk (*): this punctuation lesson looks at the asterisk, so we use an asterisk a lot to indicate a footnote. We also use an Astros to indicate missing letters in order to mask vulgarity. We also use them when we make corrections in text that we can no longer change. We'll see what I mean by this in the examples. And also when we're writing fiction, we can use them to express emotions. And please note it's pronounced as to risk. Not Asterix. That's a cartoon character, not asterisk. Oh, even I've heard Astra Fisk. None of those. It's pronounced asterisk. Quite simple. Thank you. So we use an Asterix to indicate a footnote, as we've done here at the end of all the punctuation, we have the little asterisk Little star to show the footnote. Or that there is a footnote. And you often see this in advertisements where foot no shows, details of conditions and restrictions that may be applied to the offer. Their advertising I'm please. Something to bear in mind is is important. If you do indicate a footnote with an asterisk, please make sure that there is a footnote. Actually, they're on the same page lower down because of the footnote is missing. We call this an orphan or orphaned asterisk. This can often happen in advertisements where the restrictions have been forgotten about, uh, and there's the promise footnote. So you see how we do it at the top. There used to indicate a footnote. Full stop. All the punctuation has finished. The last thing is the asterisk and at the bottom asterisk. And there's the foot note that you indicated at the start we mentioned advertisements or will show these a bit more in detail. So they often used to indicate conditions or restrictions. So you might see something like this. New mobile phones for $1 asterisk, 25% discount on phone cases this week On here there's two asterisks. And so the two footnotes that we could expect we then go on to see some blah, blah, blah. And then we have the first footnote. So one asterisk new contract customers only. So these new mobile phones for $1 only a price to new contract customers only. In other words, they're know our dollar. The price is built into the monthly fee. On the second footnote was there were two asterisks while stocks last. So if they've got, say, 10 phone cases that they discounted one sold, 10 have been sold, the offers finished. Another place where use an asterisk is or asterisks is to mask vulgarity by replacing missing letters So we might have something like yesterday was a really city day. Some dick didn't like me being in his pub, so he called me an ass and told me to piss off and go home. So what we've done is that this the presumably vulgar word like shitty and dick and ass and piss we've We just replaced some of the letters with an asterisk on DA. In the second line, you can see there's a D and 1% in extra May. This is another way of masking vulgarity. Instead of just using only Astra s, you can use, um, a string of different symbols instead, so they leave enough letters to make it clear what word you're trying to say, which, for my personal preference doesn't really make sense, because if you're writing something, you want to convey them meaning to the reader. So in this first line, you can see is a really city day. If I have conveyed that meaning to you. I might as well just write the word out in clear text because you've still got the word in your head now from reading this text, but by me putting Astra seen, it's actually just I personally think it's a form of intellectual cowardice, and you don't need it. But apparently some people find it offensive having the words written out in full. So if that is the case, then you would either don't use the word at all or you to mask it in this way has shown. Now we mentioned making corrections to text that can no longer be changed. And in today's modern word processing world, this doesn't happen too often. But there are few cases where it happens when you're having for instant chest chap texts in games or messaging systems. So if we think about, say, a typical chat text for a game, someone might write in takes looking for a healer for a raid on, I realize in their haste to type it all out, they spelled healer wrong. They've written hailer, which course doesn't make sense, so they'd write an asterisk healer. Then it's clear that this word healer is replacing the word that looks like it in the previous line. Or, if we think of, say, Facebook messaging, you might write to someone in a private message. I went into town yesterday, happily, didn't write town Euro ton, which doesn't make sense, so you might right. Astra's Town asterisk is a way of correcting the word in the line before it. You can only really do this if the word you miss types is very similar to the correct word . In this case, it's clear which word is being replaced. Onda. There are many ways of doing it. You can either right asterisk correction or Asteras correction asterisk or just correction . Asterisk it. Really. There's no rules. Say how maney Asterix you have to have on whether the front or the back is whatever you prefer when were writing fiction sometimes want to show emotions and feelings, and we use Asterix to do this as well. So we're showing when use an asterisk that this is no a literal thing, but rather something that character is feeling. And someone might ask why you cross with me and the person replies, Why do you think I'm cross with you. But you see it the start. There's ah asterisk, sigh, asterisk. So if we were to read this out, the question would still be why you crossed with me. But that person and doesn't go sigh Why do you think the person goes? Why do you think I'm cross with you? And we do this with asterisks to show and that this is no electoral word that someone says 23. The Each At Symbol (@): this punctuation lesson looks at the each at sign. So this sign has shown in brackets is nowadays is usually called just the at sign, and we don't actually have a special name for it. In English. The original meaning and name was each at, and it was used in commerce and accounting. These days it's more commonly used just in email addresses, but you would also see it used any Moz on asking art. The original meaning and name was each at that was used in commerce and accounting. There was used to show the unit price. If you have a look, a on example of what an old invoice might have looked like. Position one 50 pineapples, each at $2 makes a total off $100 position to 20 coconuts. Each, at $3 is a total of 60 and in the third position, 10 bottles of wine, each at $8 making 80. We had them all out to get a total of $240. This was the original usage off this sign to show the unit price, but now it's more commonly used in email addresses to some typical examples are use a at domain dot com sponge at bob dot net the dot duck at cartoon dot d E and Michael Doctor Males at Watched on TV You've seen these before? This is nothing new, I'm sure. And the other thing we use this at is emotes on Ask e art, but really only in informal writing. Okay, please don't do this on your job application so we can have this, which is sort of a frowny. Sad or pelting. This is so like amazes into really big eyes on the other thing. We used them. Four is an ask e art if you wanted to maybe show some roses. So there's one thing for different examples of how you might use this when making rose to maybe send someone on their birthday when you send them in SMS. But please, I'll stress us again. Please don't do this informal writing. This is only for informal writing 24. The Hash Sign (#): this punctuation lesson is on the hash sign. This symbol, as we can see in brackets, is usually called the hash sign in the states is commonly called the Pound key or number sign. However, these days you often see this more in the context off social media, where it's called the HASHTAG. It's also used in computer programming and maths. But you'll be pleased to hear that we won't be going into details a factor in this lesson as it really doesn't have much to do with English language, punctuation or writing. So this sign was commonly called the number sign. But we might say, Here's the best tennis player in the world or we could write it like this. Here's the world's number one player amuses hash one for number one. Well, you might say I need a number two. Pencil the phone to the hardness of the for softness of the pencil. And then you would right. I need a number two pencil where number two is a place with a hash, too. There's also called the Pound Key in the U. S. A. And it's her first to this sort of hash sign on the phone on instruction manual might say press hash three to afford the call, but in the states they would actually say Press pound three To forward the call for the rest of the world, the pound sign means currency or wait. The unit of currency is a pound, as shown by that symbol on. The weight is referred to in units off l. B. You might see this written, but what you would actually think to yourself and say is the dress costs £100. This case pounds sterling. You might see this written, and what you would say is a large sack of potatoes weighs £50. Nowadays, people tend to know the word hashtag in social media, where it has become extremely prevalent. Also in popular conversation. That's began in 2007 when Twitter began to use Hashtags to index keywords, and since then, almost every social media site does the same thing. The word hashtag becomes so prevalent it was even added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2014 but this is an example of using a hashtag. We can see that the word example and hashtag have got a hashtag in front of it on when we would put something like this in social media, we could search for hashtag or search for example on this type of post would come up perhaps a more meaningful example. This English courses on you to me. So this hashtag English courses on hashtag you to me so you could search for you to me Or you could search for English and you would find these posts when you search for it. 25. Punctuation Fun Stuff: after all that hard work with punctuation, I think we need to lighten up a bit with some fun examples to this lesson. Is that lighthearted? Look at punctuation. It shows how very small changes in punctuation can have huge changes in meaning. Princess, the humble comma, can alter the meaning drastically. I laugh at fools like you, so we both laugh it fools. If we forget the comma, I laugh at fools like you, which means I laugh of fools and your one of thumb Let's eat granny, suggesting to Granny that we eat well if we forget the comma. Let's eat Granny. That suggesting that we eat granny, which I'm sure is not what we want. As they say common save lives on. My plans are watching little sister shower and off to the cinema. Three things If we forget the commerce. My plans are watching little sister shower, then off to the cinema. That's only two things. One is off to the cinema in the 1st 1 is watching my little sister shower. I doubt this is what was intended for. Most of the time, travelers worry about their luggage without the comma. Most of the time, travellers worry about their luggage. So what this is saying is in the last example, is that the most problem time travelers have is not with going back and killing your grandfather or changing history is luggage, which doesn't make sense that colon in the wrong place can also change the meaning in a big way. For instance, attention employees toxic. So this is a warning to the employees about something poisonous if we misplace the colon. Attention employees Toxic. This is a warning about the employees being poisonous. Caution. Pedestrians slippery when wet. So we warning the pedestrians when it's wet, you might slip caution. Pedestrians slippery when wet. This is a warning that the pedestrians a slippery when wet again, probably not the intention. We also need the right number of full stops. Love people cooked them tasty food. But it is a nice thing to do to cook them tasty food. We mess up the full stops, we end up with love. People cook thumb, tasty food that's not so nice. That's cannibalism. We are hiring new fish recipes, so that's two pieces of information. We have new fish recipes, and also we're hiring and looking for more staff. We forget the full stop. We are hiring new fish recipes. Well, it doesn't make sense. How can you hire a fish recipe? Well, im sorry you can't visit us. Which is showing regrets that you're unable to visit. We get the full stops wrong. I'm sorry you can't visit us on this. Basically, he's asking someone to stay away. We have the following example Where a school class was asked to punctuate the following sentence. A woman without her man is nothing. All the boys wrote a woman without her man. Coma is nothing. All the girls route a woman Colon without her comma man is nothing completely different meanings between the boys and the girls. And finally, we have a great definition of grammar. Grammar is the difference between knowing your shit and knowing your shit. Pause the video. If you like to make sure you get this one, it's good