Complete Electrical Design Drawing With Autocad,Dialux&Etap | Ahmed Mahdy | Skillshare

Complete Electrical Design Drawing With Autocad,Dialux&Etap

Ahmed Mahdy, Electrical Power Engineer

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54 Lessons (8h 55m)
    • 1. Introduction To Autocad

    • 2. How to Get Free License from Autodesk and Activate Autocad ?

    • 3. Starting Autocad and Changing Background

    • 4. Drawing a Line in Autocad

    • 5. Drawing a Rectangle in Autocad

    • 6. Drawing a Circle in Autocad

    • 7. Drawing a Polygon in Autocad

    • 8. Drawing an Arc in Autocad

    • 9. Drawing a PolyLine in Autocad

    • 10. Multiple Lines using the Offset feature

    • 11. Adding Text to Autocad

    • 12. Extending Lines in Autocad

    • 13. Selection in Autocad

    • 14. F shortcuts in Autocad

    • 15. Dimensions in Autocad

    • 16. Multi Spiral Line and MLD in Autocad

    • 17. Block and Explode Commands in Autocad

    • 18. Move and Scale Commands in Autocad

    • 19. Rotate,Mirror and Fillet Commands in Autocad

    • 20. Area Calculation and Adding Layer in Autocad

    • 21. Saving your File and Autosave Feature

    • 22. Drawing Fluorescent Symbol Using Autocad

    • 23. Autocad Classic Mode and Workspace

    • 24. Introduction to Dialux

    • 25. Types of Electrical Drawings

    • 26. Different Lighting Situations

    • 27. Understanding different types of lighting schemes

    • 28. Properties of Good Lighting Scheme

    • 29. Important Definitions for Lighting

    • 30. Utilization and Maintanence Factor

    • 31. Important Notes when Designing

    • 32. Steps of Project Design

    • 33. Manual Calculation of Lighting

    • 34. Understanding Catalogs and Photometric data

    • 35. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 1

    • 36. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 2

    • 37. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 3

    • 38. Wiring Of Luminaries And Switches Using Autocad

    • 39. Types of Sockets

    • 40. Adding And Wiring Of Sockets In Autocad

    • 41. Panel Schedule For Lighting And Power Circuits

    • 42. Circuit Breakers And Cable Selection

    • 43. Single Line Diagram For Industrial Area And Riser Of The Residential Building

    • 44. Voltage Drop In Low Voltage Distribution System And Manual Calculations

    • 45. Short Circuit In Low Voltage Distribution System And Manual Calculations

    • 46. Voltage Drop And Short Circuit Calculations Using Etap

    • 47. Effect Of Current On Human Body

    • 48. Types Of Electric Hazards

    • 49. Classification Of Earting Systems

    • 50. Components Of Earthing System

    • 51. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Electrode 1

    • 52. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Conductor 1

    • 53. Measurement Of Earth Resistance By Megger and Three Point Method

    • 54. Design Earthing Or Ground Grid Using ETAP


About This Class

Welcome to My own course for "Complete electrical design drawing using Autocad and Dialux" for electrical power engineers.

This course is important for electrical power engineers who wants to work in the Distribution field, this will guide you from zero even if you don't know anything.

So what are we going to learn in this course ?

  • In this course we are going to learn all of the basic tools and Commands required by Electrical power engineers in Autocad, also we will learn all of the basic Definitions about Lighting .

  • We will differentiate between Different Types of Electrical Drawing,Different Lighting schemes and Lighting Situations.

  • We will learn about requirements for Good lighting Scheme, Maintenance and Utilization factors.

  • We will get an overview to the Steps we are going to use for Lighting Design also we will understand how to use catalogs and photo-metric data in Dialux.

  • We will learn how to do the Manual Calculation for Lighting instead of Dialux.

  • We will start Interior Design Drawing by Taking a Factory floor and start creating rooms in Dialux then add luminaries to each of these rooms according to the Lux of Each room, we start creating control groups and add them to Emergency and Normal Light scenes then we will check the Lux and Export DWG Files.

  • We will start Wiring using Autocad and connect the Luminaries with Wires and connect to panel.

  • Then we will add sockets normal and power sockets, do the wiring for them and connect them to the Panel.

  • We will start doing the panel schedule for our project.

  • We will then learn about circuit breakers and Cables and how to select them for our project.

  • Finally we will calculate the voltage drop and short circuit analysis using ETAP.

If you have any Question, you can send me a message.

Thank you.


1. Introduction To Autocad: hello and welcome everyone to our course for toe get and dikes in this course we're going to start is there. Or to cut program and dialects for electrical engineers specifically for electrical power engineers. So what is auto get look at is a toady and three d computer aided drafting software application used in architecture, construction and the manufacturing toe Assist in the preparation off the blue Prentice and other engineering plants the professionals use auto kit are often referred to as drafters also took and used to create the blueprints for buildings, bridges and computer ships, among other things. There are different types off the drafters as you see the mechanical drafters, the prepared plans for machinery and the mechanical devices off course using Go to Get. There's also architectural drafters drew up plans for residential and commercial buildings . They're civilly drafters. They draw up plans for use in the design and the buildings off the roadways, bridges, sewer system and other major projects. What? There are also electrical drafters in which, in this course who are going to study, they work with electricians, toe prepare diagrams for wiring electrical system layouts. So in this course who are going to study that wiring, which is one French for the photo get. There are also electron ICS, drafters of which are repair wiring diagrams for those in the making, installing and repairing off electronics gadgets. So in the next video are going to study that basic tools in Toto get and the basic shorter cuts in took it and how to use or took it in our electrical engineering field. 2. How to Get Free License from Autodesk and Activate Autocad ?: in this video are going toe. Discuss how toe activate or find the free source of from auto desk in orderto activate your own or to get so we'll have now or to get electrical for three scores So we'll go toe w w dot auto this co dot com slash education slash free software slash or took at electrical, and you'll find a link in the files in this video. So how does this assembly boy creating first an account? We will click on, create an account assuming that we are students and would like to find a license Our free license from auto disco for our or took it So Fair Estate would like some information about you. Is the country out shows my own country, which is Egypt? The educational rule. I am still a student that it worse, but no one can have helped my own first of all. Okay, still young. Then we'll click on biggest then would like to create an account So I will find my own first name and lost to name is that I will find my own. You mean now we'll just Kobe it. Then we have our passwords, Zeno click toe. I agree toe all of systems, then will create an account. Now you will find Let's save it. You will find I am verification mail into your own in books. So let's go to our men. Now we will find the email from Auto Desk and we'll click on verifying. Now we'll click on Done. Now you will find that they want to small information about your educational statues and name off education Institution A range ums university. Then any off study architecture, engineering and construction in roll the from, um, let's say September, um, in 2012 I think then months we will choose September Onda. We grow it in July. August, I think Andi Year 2018 I think, Yes, General Click on next Zurich or does not exist in Harvey's. Okay, let's click on kind. Find your school okay, se t k o. You're my team her and let's see. Name and Shams University is a state in the sea. Click on and or next. Now we will find that your own account is now. They talk, says the auto desk education community. Then click on Continue. You are receiving an educational license. Now let's see if we opened our or to get and then we'll click on signing now. Type your own mean? Then we'll click. No. Next our password. Now click on, Start trying. Congratulations, Bengo. Now our account is now activated and we can access our or took it. Now let's see the next video. Let's see how we can use or to get. 3. Starting Autocad and Changing Background: in this video are going to discuss, have to start or to get and how to start using it. So first here is our windows and first will go here and all type or to get, since we don't know the date and installed it so took at English 2017 and we'll wait until it loans. You see, here is a program is now loading. You have to know that according tothis paid off your own windows. You will see that our program loads in a subsidiary time. So how we can start or to get by clicking on start to drawing and you will see is that our took it is now opened and or see the background four or to get so took. It is initially used by Arctic Chur for blaming off villa or apartment from zero, of course, but for electrical department or the electrical coursey year, we just deal with that Final Four. The architecture Orza several ingenious, just makes a Valores apartment or or the students structural. All of this is made by Czar Mazar, engineer nobody's electrical one. The electrical one. It's it takes it ready. It takes is out design already and then adds, are lightnings are wires, there's a socket, and as electrical withdraw symbol things like rectangle circle line very assemble things. That's why in discourse we will just to learn the things which will help the electrical power engineer only in the lighting design. So first, how we can change our background. You'll see here that we have, ah, here at black background how we can change it in tow on as our color. So first we will click on this A or auto cad, and then we chose options. Then we will choose display, and then we will choose the colors. And then you will find that the background uniform background you'll feel you'll see here at the front of colors. You can choose between red, yellow or white or any color, and you would like, for example, white and then they couldn't apply. And the clothes and you'll see is that the background change it into white. But we'll deal with the black background, so we'll click on colors and then return it back into black background and then applying the clothes. And then okay, now that is the first thing we learn it about. Toto. Get with just a learning how to change that background and how we start our program 4. Drawing a Line in Autocad: in this video, we are goingto study, have toe, draw a lying inside our or took it so first have to draw a light. Simply you can use this tone in orderto draw a straight line, or for the professional engineers or the one who used took at all, most likely use instead off all of this sort of the cuts. They will just that I blind if what type in I any you will find a list comes here and we'll chose line. Therefore, you will find year satisfy first point. So we'll choose the first point like this satisfy second, the point or the next point. You can draw your own line by choosing your own second point, for example, here, now you will find the another line is being draw it. So I have toe get out off this by clicking on escape on the keyboard. Now we have our line. Another missile is of course, we can delete it. Boy. Selecting is online and then click on delete how to draw a line we can click online and then enter. Another thing will chose that first point second thing you'll see here as we will find a number here. 17 point it This number represents. Is the lens off the line? According Toa sittings inside the program. So now or four like Violence 100 for example, when click Endo now we will find that we draw allying with some inclination and incidences . 100. Now let's control our anger. We will draw a line again, then click on Enter. It was our first point now would like, Zelin said. Toby, 50 for example. Okay, now would like to choose the anger we were. Click on tap on the keyboard to Tab. When we click on tap and you'll see what happens here, you will find the others are two things. One of them is Ellen's, which is 50 which is being looked, and the other one is anger. You will find that the angle here 22 now would like Angle 15 for example, and then we'll click on end now, Woodrow, our line with the Subsist, Clint's and Wizard Specific Bank. Let's delete it again. Now let's draw a line again. We will choose the first buoyant. Now we will find here that we change our line, as would like in That's around 60 degree as we would like. Now, when we how we can choose our line in order to make, for example, a rectangle. I would like it a 90 degree Zen online, two degrees and a 90 degree. So how we can do this simply by using a feature in the program called There Are So Gonna. Or also you will find year or someone you will click on it and you will find that all of the lines you draw is in a mind degree mind degree 180 at number 70 and so on. So now we can draw our rectangle easily. Uh huh. Like this. Then click on escape. Now we can draw with Tank. It is linked By using this, Fitch, we can return me back in tow. Our original form boy deleting is also like this. Now we find if we draw any line, you will find that this line is free to move in any diet. So what did we study in this video? We'll learn it. Have toe draw a line. How to draw a line with a specific lens. How toe draw a line with an angle. How to use the signal mood in our or to get 5. Drawing a Rectangle in Autocad: in this video are going toe study How toe draw a rectangle and side our auto cat So how we can draw erecting simply by typing are easy and zinc click on Enter Now you will find we draw directing and will find here suppose for is the first corner point. So now we'll choose our first on appoint her and satisfies the other corner point. You can see that we can see extend our rectangle as we would like so chose this point. For example. Now we draw a rectangle that CNN was on missiles. If it are a seem and then enter now, we'll choose our first. A point and you will find is that here a menu appeared rectangle subscribe us our corner point, which, as we did before we click on here and they will find the directing it is drawn or it chose one of these sittings, the area or the dimensions or salutation in orderto draw. Our Rick tanked, so let's use our area. For example, you will find your enter area of the rectangle in current units in which used, for example, if use the meter or millimeter according toe, the sittings in the program. For example, we will draw 100 Meet our Square. Now we'll find here calculates a rectangle dimensions based on the lens or the weeds. Okay, I would like toa calculate that I mentioned according to the lens, So we chose the area. As you know, that the area of a rectangle is Ellen's motor blood by the weeds. So we'll choose Zealand's. Therefore he will can create is that wit. So it shows that linds, for example, at in or, um, let's make it 25 K Zealand's offside rectangle is 25 they won't click on Enter. Now we'll find that extended is drawn. No, you'll find that silence is 25 ends our winds is for How did I know that four multiplied by 25 Easy Quinto ah, 100. So that is another way to draw a rectangle. So now let's see. Anna's are sittings. Now let's shows another one rectangle, Rory seem, is in. We'll click on enter now, so whats whys that fittest appoint, for example, this point now we chose our dimensions. Suppose for is Ellen's for the rectangle, for example, sentences toe went click on enter suppose for is the winds of force a rectangle 20 and will choose, for example, with SSM five. This is now. We'll find the addict angle is drawn, but you will see here at the front sittings will find you can Rosa thinking here or in that four quadrant, as you see here in antibiotics, as you would like now. So we draw our tangle using the area and the dimensions. Now let's see the rotation. Our he seemed, end off now, which was the first point, and then we'll click on rotation. You will find here that we can draw our rectangle with a specific angle, as we would like. Uh, then we can. After we choose our anger, we can choose our lengths or we can just click on this point and then our directing it is drawing, or we can choose the area or the dimensions, as we did before. But the difference here is that we choose the rotation first Zins area or thought I mentions now which shows that I mentions. We get 20 and our five enter now we will find here we have a rectangle off course in the four dimensions, as we said before, or the four quadrant. Now we'll find this rectangle is inclined to buy a specific angle. So if you draw any rectangle again on reciente your ends in here, you will find that directing it is inclined. So we'll choose a rotation and the wind, choose our rotating angle with zero and then withdraw. Now our sittings is a return it back. 6. Drawing a Circle in Autocad: in this video are going to discuss how to draw a circuit. So first we'll click on see enter. Now you will see it satisfies a center point for the circle, for example, alters the point here and then satisfies origins for Just expand your own your own mouse. So if expand it like here, I draw as I would like. And then, just by clicking one's left click on the mountains, you will find that the or circuit is drawing. That is one missile. Let's delete it. Another saying C n tough. Now we will choose our center, and then we can write our radios, for example 40. Then enter. You will find here our circle is drawing. But if our circle is lost a large so that I can not see it, how can I expand our window? So if you don't have this small sing in the mouth, you can drastically convened and then zone and Zen zone out. You will find that the circuit is now shown. That's delete it. So in this video we learned how toe draw a circuit and how to choose our radius and how to choose our point 7. Drawing a Polygon in Autocad: in this video are going toe draw a political as you know that the Taliban is off equal sides, for example, is a square is four sides our six. It sounds like the hexagon, and there is a Tsai's like Octagon and so on. So how we can draw it well, just a type boiling and and you'll see her enter number off sites. Will chose, for example, is a hex of 16 and then satisfies the center off that body. Good. Well, you chose the centre here and then enter. One of these options Would like toa describe it in a circle or circumscribe about Second. What does it mean? It means that you describe it in a circuit means at the circle that one Logan is in science , etc. That circumscribe it. It means that our Blue lagoon is outside our circuit and the circuit is a just a touching the site, and you will see now what does it mean? Will it chose Describe it in a circuit now satisfies a radius officer circuit has would like because, as we said before, inscribed in a circle, it means that that our boulevard is inside our circuit but just touching the our search. Now let's show the radius of a circle as a 40 for example. Okay, now we have our bullet. Now let's a draw a circle with a 40 see what happened. Satisfies a certain kill Radios 40. Now, let's see if we just take it here and move it like here. You walked having here, Uh, now you'll find years at our Bullingdon is inscribe it inside. Our Cirque will find it is just touching. At one point at end, it is inside our circuit. Now let's see their circumscribe it. But first, delete this. I have now Bollig on your eye. And then we'll choose a seven, for example, satisfies the center. Circumscribe it about circuit 14 again. Now we have another seven sides of a polygon. Now we'll draw a circle c enter is it is a center. Prisons are radius is 40. Then enter. Now if we take the circuit in toes are center off our Mulligan like this and then skip, he will find that our circle just that arching our bullet gone from from insight That is what is meant by inscribed and circumscribed it. So in this video. Will it have to draw a polygon with any number off science and how to choose that? You describe it and circumscribe it about circular or inscribe it inside a circuit and we learned, and what is the difference between them and what is the meaning off it? 8. Drawing an Arc in Autocad: in this video are going to learn how toe draw on art. So how to draw an arc simply by clicking on a enter and then our satisfy starting point off the Arcor center will chose the centre or seen is in the center off Sarkis here. And we can control our arc, as you see like exists. And you will see that we drew a large dark Uh uh, So we have our our guys you see here very somebody again was just a click on I am. And our siente Zane will choose a center point in which our are, which is a part of our circuit and withdraw in the anti clockwise direction. So rituals this point and then like this. Remember that you can use the view and to zone. And it was all of the sittings in orderto clear your own view. If you have any problem or the size off, the line is very large or the size of the ark is very large or very small. You can Blais Was this a things until you get satisfied with what you want. So in this video will earn it. How toe draw an arc. Using that, or to get 9. Drawing a PolyLine in Autocad: in this video are going to learn about that poorly line. So what is the difference between the holy line and the original normal line? So let's if I blind and seeing lying and we just make some lines as it's here. Okay? And then skip. Now we have 12345677 lights. Right now, I would like to change our seconds off this line or the color off this line. So what are going to the Royal Assembly? Click on each off them, assuming that we have another elements in the drawing. So we cannot click on control as we did now. Control a or control all what? You would select all of sense sittings. We cannot use it here. So we'll just assume that we have on other elements in our faith in our drawing. So select them like this. Uh huh. And if we have 50 lines is in, it will be a very slow process. So what you are going to do? And instead of just using this, we can you some feature in what? Okay, we will delete them. The bully line. What is a borderline borderline is used in our drawings in lighting and wiring on the will See how to use it in the lighting design. But no plan. We are just learning the basics in these videos so well for a cyclic by Bonnie. And then you will find bully line. Click on it. You will find your satisfies a starting point, for example. Here. So those findings the point Uh huh. As if our as if we are growing some lines. Same as before, the same as lying. So what is the difference now? We can click on Skip now. We drew some night. But if you just gave close to it, you will find that we are selecting is the whole thing. If you select one of the lines, then we are selecting the whole lines. So that is the difference between the lying and that bully line upon line. We can make some off the lines which are not continuous line a broken lines and then we can select them all together with one click. But the line you are just making the front alliance. Let's see now Line, Huh? You will see now uh to see you. What is the difference then escaped you'll see that when we click on the borderline, you'll see that we are selecting the whole off it butter for selecting here is that normal life you are selecting one of the lines, not all of them. We have to select them manually. That's the difference between the lying and the police line. So in this video, we're learning how toe draws upon the line, which will help us in the lighting design, and there's an extra videos of we will see how to do multiple lines. 10. Multiple Lines using the Offset feature: in this video are going to learn how to make how to do that. Multiple lines. So now let's a draw a line and see how lying ends in enter then would satisfy that first point that second point like this. OK, and skip now in their multiple lines, or what are we going to do? I just wanted to make another light within a specific distance with this one, and another line was the same. Distance on Donna's are lined with the same distance and how we can do this. We can simply does this boy first clicking on all blasts enter Oh, which is referred to tow the offset and then enter. You'll see now satisfies the offset distance, for example which was a distance by, um then okay, and then enter. Selectors are opposite objected officer to our want we want to toe offset or make or toe multiplies this object with a distance from it. So what does it mean? I also now you're now selectors object. We selected object and satisfies a point on the side or the offset. You'll find that here the side here or above and then we will just right left click on the mouse. We'll find here another one which appeared. Now let's zoom out for now. Since I does not have this small thing on the mouse. Whatever. Selectors object offs. For example, this one okay for her. Selectors. Object! Offset! Uh, that zone out again. Select the object. Offset! Uh uh huh. Select. And then you will find that the object of benzene or here here are here. Click it here on. You can also change the distance how you will find the distance. 10. Let's make it 15 and funded. Another line appeared here. So it's a very simple way to make a multiple aligns with very high accuracy was I would going toe with our just re meetings are lines and measuring the distance and goingto complicated things in a very thing, in a very easy thing. So in order to do this for assembly, click on offs it again. Oh, blast! Enter just to click on escape Now we are out off the order. Oh, plus I which is referred to to offset blood center. Then we went satisfies officer distance, for example for enter selected object offset for example this one and then satisfies a point on the side or to offset here or here or click on here. Selectors object. He object here and so on. So now you learn it in this way. You have to make a multiple a lion's or using the offset feature. 11. Adding Text to Autocad: in this video are going to learn how to write a text so well, first of all, Leconte and satisfies the first accord who are going toe right, our text inside, acting as if in everything. So you chose our first point and then satisfies the opposite corner. Our ticket still be in a rectangle. Largest will choose a 2nd 1 like this. Now we have a text or a rectangular, which are We write our text and we'll find the year properties appeared for this text. So what are we going? Toe, right? We're going to write a moment, Maddie. Course on Facebook home like this. Okay, now we were just a double click or select eight all. And then we can choose from bold on italic on the line. Anything old, light or off line? Anything you can choose also that type of the thickest As I formed itself, you see a different types. Now, after doing all of this and will find also are different settings here. You can find here that we can just put it on a center or left or anything. Center center off course off. This, which is just a way left and the anything guys would like. Now we can also add symbols. For example, if I'm driving millimetre square, you know that the Milli Meter square is that unit often area. So how does that square square confused or can be done? The square that can be done using that symbol a this sink click on it and they can choose any off hour Cymbals. Here you will find years at home is the Omega squared Zack. You anything from sums of squared you'll find here, Millie Meat r squared Really easy. You can also was that the only mention went off their resistance. We can also make the Omega. You can also make something like electric phase or the angle Froy you can see here. Is there killed City millimeter killed and you'll find here more symbols like this. Okay, very easy and very helpful. Now, after we does this, what are you doing? Click on escape. Yes. Now we find our text is very small, as you see it. So we're just it magnify it so as to see our text like this was in magnify. Magnified. Now our takes to now a beard so we'll see now will And it is this when you have to make a text or to write a text and how to do or at symbols in tow, your own text, like squared or killed or omega or whom or any other value or electrical feels. 12. Extending Lines in Autocad: now in this video are going to learn how to use is extend order or command. So what we're going to do, we first, we're going to draw our three lines. OK, like this Skip, I was in line. Uh huh. Skip lying in the and like this. Okay, now we grow as three lines. We would like to extend this line from here to here until intersect this line and would like to extend this line until it intersected this line. So how we can do this simply by going toe a command or order called the extent will type E x, which is extend enter. Then you will find that selectors object or select Oh, well, selected them like this. Okay, Now we'll collect on enter selected object or extent or shifted. Selected to train. We were just a click on the object with you would like Pakistan. This one you will find that the extension appeared here. And this one Uh huh. Then click on escape. Now we extend our two lines in tow. Another line or weeks in the catalyzed Want our sector? I served line. So it is a very simple tool and very easy and it will help you a lot instead of just doing it manually on you will not do it with a high accuracy. So in this video we learned how toe use the extent feature in orderto extends the lines. 13. Selection in Autocad: in this video are going to learn about selection. So if we draw a line like here like this, OK? And OK, corn, Skip Now you will see here are like, if we just do like this Mike here and like this, you will find that the line is not selected if we just stick like this, not selected. So how we can select online if we just click lock like here. One collect or one left click and we drag like here from the left to the right. Then we'll just need that The line would be inside the boundaries off our Rick tank so the airline is selected. But if you click coun with caustically correct left click and we drag toe the left, you will find that our line is selected. If we just start, use our line. So the difference again. If we just make like this, then we select our line. If we just drag toe right, then we cannot select the line on less. Our boundary is inside or our line is inside our boundaries like this. Okay, so that is the difference between that selected from the right hand side and the selection from the left hand side. Now someone will tell me if I just drag like this, I will find that it is not directing. That is our broken line. Okay, so it finds that in the sittings we'll find here that tools. If the tools is not appearing, we can click on here and show that menu bar not hide Menu bar menu bar. Is that fired? The editors of you and all of this window, Okay, Or is this about so we'll click on tools and then options. And if any problem have Indians a program, you will find that here is the editing for the options. This options that control everything, which is not correct. Will goto selection and go find here, allow breasts and drag on option. So if we take it and click on a ploy, you might find that you will have a broken lines. So just take it and we click on OK, so that is that first thing. Second thing, if we have more than one line like this, okay, and would like toa select all of this lines so we can control a so selected them all or forward like to select some of them. If I click on this ons in this ends in this one, collect well just to find that you are selecting it correctly. If you're if it does not working, if we just click on this one, and when you click on this one, this one is this a beer ing, then symbols. You click on shift and select. You will find this here from them tools, options, and you'll find here in that selection window you shifted to add to selection and click on apply and okay, so when you select what having the year, this election is not working. But if you click on shift and then select, then you will find that you can select a with shift. But if you just don't like this, you can return again by going to tools options and then you shift or through selection are blowing and okay. And if you're having more than one object, all exists and you would like to de select one of them. You'll click on Jeff and choose their object by clicking on shift and selection. Another thing I would like to mention if we chose to draw a line like this you can click on escape or you can just click on Enter. And then if you would like to repeat the order, you can click on enter again like this. Okay, so you can click on the skip, but you cannot revealed the order unless you click on enter like this. Okay, so again, what happened here? Let's select all of this on delete a food caustic liquid Enter if we just chose are lying like this. Okay? And click on Enter then the order finished or we click on escape. If you click on enter again, then it will do Is the last two commanders are last order like this? 14. F shortcuts in Autocad: Now let's discuss some short cuts. If we draw a line like this, l enter like this one, you'll find that the line is moving freely. If I would like to make it mine degree, we will choose or so from here. So make it mine to the green. Okay. And instead of just going toe this you can collect F eight on the keyboard like this If it will make the also and they food like to go out off this mood, you can collect on F eight again like this toe move freely. Another thing is F for seven. What does a for seven you do. You will find that here is agreed on the background. If you click on it for seven. This great this a beer. It is not necessary Important about you can just it It depends on the person itself. Click office seven again. It will return is a great There is another option called the snap. What is an host name? Let's choose alliance. And if I would like to go here from the beginning or here were at the middle off the line. So what does all snap do if you click on efforts. Three, You will find that here we cannot find the beginning off the line and the end off the line . As you see here, I cannot find the beginning. But if I click on Festering like this, you will find here a small green rectangle, a beard which prisons in the point off the line and as the first point off the line. So you can draw the line from here like this, as you would like. That is a benefit off the FS three or all snap. 15. Dimensions in Autocad: Now let's discuss how to do that dimension inside out. Okay, so first draw. Allying if it like this. Okay? And I would like to measure this line so we'll goto dimensions and linear because you are choosing online on Tuesday. First the point second, the point and the will chose of the action off the dimensions like this. Okay, now you'll find out the dimensions now a beard. But it is very small. I would like to maximize it. Right Click and BRoberts. Now we'll find some probe artist force that lying itself. You will find that the line and the R O and everything that's maximize this little bit like this. The auto size we can change the Arlotto, for example. 15. Okay, it will be a very large arm. So we'll just according to the unit, which is in both inside or two cats. Olmec it's during it will be a large dimensions. Let's make it 1.5 like this. Okay, we have now is our and I would like to change. Is that exercise We then go down here And it was that fixed like here. Is that extra height, for example, let's make it 20. Okay, let's see how it will be very large. So let's make it two the largest. According to's I own, it's you are importing in tow. Tow. Get it will choose size off the text. Now if we just somehow it will never have proper dimensions If we have a circle and would like to measure their radios off the circuit from dimensions and doing now chose their radius Selectors are called the circle and satisfies that by mentions orders are lying location like this. I would like to what Assad dimensions anyway, like here. Off course that I mentioned is very small. So we can right click and rob artists and we can increase off course our lens off the thickest from here. Uh huh. Let's make it one. And let's increase the size of the art room like here. One okay. And skip. Now we find that against off the circuit and the dimensions off the line, you can also draw that. I'm mentions off a lame by the I am and a long and which is dimensions a linear. And you will find that this one and this one and extent, that is another option. Okay, but it is much more a slow okay. You can choose dimensions and chose Alina, which is much faster. You will find here on other options for the dimensions. Will find that aligned if we have an inclined line as our cleanse as a radius and the front things like angler Angler, which represented the size off the angle or the amount or the value off the engine off alliance, of course. For example, if we grow two lines like here like this, let's close also like this and skip a for click on dimensions and angler and through this line and this line, and we draw the angle like this. Find that the angle a beard 141 So that is all about the dimensions. 16. Multi Spiral Line and MLD in Autocad: Now let's discuss help toe, make that spiral line or the multi spider line. So just click on s sipping, which is this Buy it online and C b l forest buoyant. And you'll find that when we are moving inside our program, for example, like this point, we'll find that you are making a spiral. Why, like this? It is used in If you are making ah wiring, you can make it as a with this service and you can make it as solid line or kill us. Okay, inside that wiring off Lumineers as you would like now if I would like toe end all of this really just a click on end tendency and will find it will satisfies a point off the end. Just click like this and Dick. Now we draw our line will find that all of this line is a whole line so we can click on it and change the probe artists as we would like. So that is a multi spider line. Now we'll just Joe's there m led the M E led is really important feature which you are going to use inside the program in Melody, and you will find that we have a here in our heather women. Either It is yours as a leader, our head. So we'll just to this point and then drank. You will find that the head isn't in this direction. So we're just drag like this and you'll find here, take It's the bottle Just neglected this part. So just click outside Now we draw our line. So what is it? It is simply a line which has on our So just let's zoom in like this and go here you will find here it is a small line with that a very small line allying with a header. Are you hit? So it is used toe boy in tow Happening. We are just going to use it inside that wiring so as toe if we add some Lumineers inside inside one line Therefore you are goingto directed this toe, for example Line number one for the Bannon. Now we learn it in this way you have toe makes aspire or the multi spiral line and the humility or later leader are 17. Block and Explode Commands in Autocad: Now let's discuss is look and explode vigils If we have re tangle or is he enter like this ? And we have a circle like this, Okay? And we would like toe you will find that this object is separate from this object. And I would like toa make them as a whole object. So I would like to select to them like this And those a command or the feature called a block being, which is called the Block and enter you will find, is that it will tell you their definition off the block. Examine it as seeing are easy, refer to toe circle and er thing. And then we're going to click on. OK, now we will find that both of them became one whole object. And if I select one of them, they will be one object and see for c o enter Okabe it like this and find it is coming itself as a whole object. Okay, now I would like to separate them again. We'll just He was the commander called Explode select them and then X and enter to separate them. But before that I would like to show you what if I would like Toa edit this block, Just double click on it and you'll find here a block to create or edit. And then Okay, now we'll find that we are here inside the edit reason, so I can add something like a circle again, like this. Like here. Okay, Lost the legs is and then we'll just click on close block and save changed. You will find that all of the blocks related to it. Change it together. What if I would like to say but it's him just to sell it to them like this and then explode X. Then you will find that each of them is separate now, Like this. Okay, each off them separate. Now we have discussed their explode creature and off course, is there blocked it? 18. Move and Scale Commands in Autocad: in this video are goingto discusses that move and ski. So if we have a rectangle like this one, Huh? And I would like to move districting. So I was selected and M, which is referred to toe move and and suppose for is a base point off movement, for example, this point and then if I just drag it therefore you will see that Rangel or that extended is moving like you would like now that is the first thing. Second thing I would like to use something which is called scale. I would like to increase the size of this rectangle and decrease It is the same. So just click on s, which is referred to toe scale assessing and suppose far is a base point off scaling. I would like to scale my own rectangle inside the middle, for example, satisfies the scale factor If I just to move it like this move my mouth you will find that rectangle is increasing and decreasing like this or I can just it He was there Numbers, for example I would like to maximise is two times and we'll find our rectangle increased two times and you can select it again. SS Seeing Antar answers voice At this point, like this one, you will see something different. And if I just drag it like this, you'll find that the rectangle is increasing and decreasing along at this point like this. And we're going five, for example, and will find my own rectangle. Increase the boy. How decreased by off course. So that is that move and that scale ritual. 19. Rotate,Mirror and Fillet Commands in Autocad: now, let's discuss is that rotate the mirror and their fill it. So the first thing is a rotate feature. So we have here are lying like this Let's turn on that also like this. OK, and skip Now I would like to rotate this line, select it and our entire satisfies a base point off rotation, for example, this point where we rotate our line and then rotate it as you would like, you will find that it is on also sold. Just disable. Also, you can read eight your own line as you would like and you can choose off course angle off rotation. So just click like this. Now we rotated our line. So that is the first thing are all plus enter now I would like to make a mirror, so I will just m i, which is referred to tow a mirror and selectors off little matter and enter. Suppose for is the first a point off them and run. We're going to draw a line for the mirror this line and service wise a second the point over the mirror. So find that our mirror as U changes that line off the mirror and you will see that the object new objective place Change it. So just click here. Now you will see that raise a soft object. Yes or no? I will say yes and enter. So we find that we mirrored our original object and they removed it. Now let's does that Fill it. Option Delete. Well, just choose a line and also again like this and enter and was a line I exited. Okay. And enter. And we're going to make a fill it between them, okay? Or just engages this like this and I would like to make a small fill it here like this. Okay. And skip, fill it again. Enter Senate Zephyrs to object and radius as to, for example and another will find that the Philip now is now done. It is depending on the unit you are entering. Go find that if you enter to, it will be a very small fit. And another time, as you see here, If I enter toe, it will be ah, large French. According towards there, units entered the inside the program itself. So that's the difference between that. Fill it that rotate and mirror comment 20. Area Calculation and Adding Layer in Autocad: Now let's discuss how to measure their area or can create their area. So exhausted. Choose something like addicting in our easy enter like this. Yeah, and would like to find the area off this Rick tank so we'll just type a, which is a DEA and enter suppose for is the first. According a point at this point, suppose for is an extra corner point at this point. Suppose for is that next abortion will find that you are selecting the corners off the Rick thing I exist and then this, and then you will find that we can increase again. But we now we just defendants. So we'll click on Enter. You will find that the area off this is a 30 perimeter equals 23.5. According to's I own it. You are entering now let's city was another thing. Now let's get the area off a circle. Uh huh. Exist and would like to find the area so selected A and and so it was for Is that forest according? Or you can find that weekend? Select an object like this. We'll find out the area 71.29 and circumference 29.9. So that's another missile. Instead of just selecting the points off the corner, we can just to select the object itself. Now let's see how toe add the frontal layers. For example, we have here a circle and on another circuit. Okay, Now we will find that we have here earlier. Tell your representatives layers or at the frontal ears inside the program. So how we can differentiate between them. For example, I would like a layer for was a wiring away A for Salomon years. And so when you will find them inside the violets or the wiring givinyou. But for now, I'm just showing you how toe adds a layer. So toe and Celia L. A. Enter, then name just a click here and create a new layer. And they would limit as a circum example like this, and we'll choose the walk color off the layer like green, and then okay, and then we'll click on this point, and then this does elect their current layer as circuit, and then we just close our went. Now we'll see that we have a tool layers on Brazil, which is a default one, and circle, which we add it now, I would like to add something to this layer. For example, circle with selected this one you will find This one is owns the layer number zero. So I'll just select is a circle. You will find that my own circle that is now inside that circle layer again. Skip, is it now what selected this one? It is only our number zero. I would like it to be on the same layer as this. All justice Electors agree in layer. Now our circuit insides a green layer. Now, if I would like to hide this layer or just tickly consists, they're known layer or off. Currently off Soul sees that all of the object on or this layer is now hidden. What if I click on it again? Our circle will be back again. So that is a area calculation and adding player feature 21. Saving your File and Autosave Feature: in this video are going to learn how toe save your own projector and have to protect your own or Tokyo files from damage. So in order to save a file, for example, you are drawing a rectangle and I will show you in San Excavate. You have tow draw a rick tank, for example, something like this. And I would like to save this fight. So we first click on file and then we'll click on savers and then on the disco, for example, we will save our fight. You will see that the extension off it is the blue Jean, which is referred to to the auto cad drawing. Now I have to remind you off something you will find yourself files off time. You will find here at the front extensions on a different types or took a twin 13 otoka 2010 the way of 7 4004 and so on. You will find your extension that we did ability, which you are working on or to get. We are not working with the other types, so we'll find here an extension toe 1007 to 2010 and ought to get 2013. So when we are dealing with auto cad, you can save it in any form actual like. But as I command you toe, save it in the lowest version possible. 22,007 or a 2010. Why, if you are taking this fine and want toe Brent it in any shop. If the shop has a lower vision before to get, for example, 2010 and you are exporting it in tow. 2013. Therefore, the fire will not work here there, So I recommended what, what? It is the lowest value. For example, if you have Otoka Twin 13 you will be able to work 2007 to win t 10 2030. But if you have a look at 2010 for example, therefore you can only work in 2000 and seven and 2010 extensions, but you cannot work twin 30 so the higher versions off took. It can work or open files, which is lower than its own version but is the 50 J's hires and it's a version cannot be open to buy or took it. So now and we'll click on save. Therefore you will find there's a fine saved on the scope. As you see it. On day four, we double click on it. You will find that our file is now opened like this. Now, how to use is the auto save feature to protect us from problems like the frozen computer or anything. Time is wasted after working. So we use auto, say feature to control their saving automatically in our computer. So in order to protect our computer from the frozen case or protect our father from any power supply cut or anything, we'll just use the auto safe. Richer, For example. I am drawing a rectangle like here, and I would draw a circle, for example. Uh huh. Like this. Okay. And I would like to use the old safe richer in order to save my own five automatically without going toe clicking here and saving our fight. So how we can do this assembly by clicking, going a and then going toe options and then going toe the side step, which is open and safe, And then from the safety precautions you will find here, there's an automatic save. You have to take it, and it shows the time between each you see, for example, I will click on one minute between H safe. Okay. Second thing you have to create a back up copy was excessive in orderto if they, uh, Comey itself or the same itself had any problem. Therefore, you're your own find will be in another position or in a safety position. So we will click on, create a back up copy in order to protect our saving. If saving itself a filled Therefore, there will be a back up copy on the previous version. Now, after doing this world, click on files and the war Little's automatic safe I location. Where is our files? Saved your find it saved at here. If I would like to change, its location will click on it and they won't use brows. Then we chose this stop for example. And then we'll click on Ok, General, click on. OK, now our file It saved a in that document. So what are we going to do? We are going toe draw something and see what will happen. For example alliance Uh, just a for one minute and see what would happen, of course, is the line and all of this Who are going toe learn in the next video. So no problem about this. Uh, now we draw something and we'll have to wait for some time. Andi, I will show you what will happen now after skipping from one minute. What? We'll see what happens if we just close our or to disco. From that ask, a manager will click right click here and then click on START Task Manager and some Mitchell's applications and then auto can't. Now let's see what would happen ending out now our what to get is closed by accident or free or frozen or any problem happened. Now let's see if we just open it from that. Of course, a file which is saved. We saved eight here in the document and had my tea. Okay, let's see. Now we're Skillicorn drawing. You're seeing that it broke. Windows cannot over in this fight. Why? Since the extension itself is no dwt, you'll see that extension off. It is not abating. So how I can change the extension if it is not abating simply by clicking on organized and then folder and search options on zinc, look on view and then click on hide extension for no one types. We will delete it and think like one. Apply then, okay, you'll see here that the extension now at villages dot save on Dad all sign will just click on it and click on if it or just right click and rename it anything. Zimmerman Just to delete the extension and instead off dot save dollar. We're just both in the w. G like this. Now we have our auto cad file again on it and see what will happen. You'll see here that drawing recovery in your previous work session, the program terminated unexpectedly, you can store restore their on seven changes from the back of fire by using the throwing recovery manager Sinkler corn crops. You're Caesar. The file here isn't the one which were drawing before we closed it the program or terminated the problem. So that is the benefit off the or to save. It just saves your file without clicking on that save bottom. So in this video, we're learning how toe save your own fine and the auto save feature 22. Drawing Fluorescent Symbol Using Autocad: in this. When you are going toe, have a small practice on auto. Get a very small example. How toe does that Florissant local. So what is a fluorescent log? The Florissant along with something like this, and they will show you how to draw it. Well, for us to draw a rectangle like this one. Okay. Second thing, we will draw two lines. Uh huh. Skip end of and we will draw a circle here like this. Like exist. OK, now, something wrong, Hammond. What days? Haven't. Okay, let's see again. Enter circle. So find years that if we just draw like this, you will find that here is a green rectangle, A beard, which means that the radius of the circle will extend it to it. So it for click on left click find that the circle will go through the retained. So how we can delete this? We can simplify dough, subjecting a circle and selecting the point on day After doing this way, we'll just close the oh, snap or click on F three. So now see that nothing happened. Well, just goes on like this, and left click searching who are goingto do is going to do something which is called that trim. So what is a train? A train is used to dilate on intersection or delete some lines from the drawing. For example, your seer. I would like to delete all the lines inside this circle so I can do this assembly by clicking on T R, which is called the trim and enter selectors, object or selector. I will just assume that the boundaries is all off our drawing. So I'll just tickly can enter selectors, object or trim or chef to select the extent so that one showed like to trim Is this lying inside the circle? Just select it and this and this and this So we were able toe delete all of the lines outside the circle again controls the like this and skip you are which is called the trim toe Delete any line selected object or own, which means that we are selecting the boundary The boundary which represent is there one in which when we have any intersection with it, we will delete. So click on enter because we'd like our drawing Toby the boundary selected object to train . Okay, my exist Now we are name me here. Well, Justin's would like toa hatch this world and the hatch this part. So why we can does this boy is just clicking on edge. And in that which is gold hedge big the internal point. Okay, well, you can select it to this part to be hatchet which has a pound it is or this part or this part or this part. So I would like to hatch is this one and hatches this one. Now I will click on enter toe end of my own hatching. So I had to this region and this region You can edit this hell by right click and purports you can play with this sittings I would like I would like to make up ground one the like off any color, for example, white. And you can also change the settings For example, the scale number two like this Okay, let's make it for find that the hatching is increasing. I had to make it 10 to see the difference Like this Okay, can change Also the color off matching itself and type of hatching from here controls whatever you would like. So when she was just like this one Okay, Now we will find here by layer. You can change the lines itself. So any color you would like. Let's make in green and skip. So now we will see that thatching is not clear. So what are goingto properties and increase the skin toe one and see what happened and skip So we'll see that that one have now are white color and the hatching now appeared more Okay , Now surfacing we're going through is to add a text so well and I take a steam enter like here and we type Florissant Uh huh. And then we'll click on like this. You'll find that the text is very small. So we'll just edit eight by going toe. Right Click and Tom Artists. We can change that sense of the thickest. Let's make it one, and let's maximize. Okay, let's make it more than this, for example. Okay, like this, and we'll just type, move, select it and him and enter satisfies at this point like this. Now we draw our Florissant symbol. Now we're just the last step. You'll find that each of these is considered as an object, so we'll just selected them all and being which may transform them into a block. And and the names up Look as Florissant like this. And OK, now we have one block off our symbol, that's all for our example. 23. Autocad Classic Mode and Workspace: in this video, we are going to learn how to control our workspace moot so you will see that for electrical engineer when you open your own or took it for any engineer, not electrical engineer. For any engineer who is opening auto desk, you will see that there is the interface off the program. Here is the interface off the problem. You'll see that here is just a preview for the program that this house out program looks for. Electrical engineer will need toe work. Always. Auto cad classic. So how we can transfer from this window moment in tow, The Auto Cat Classic. Simply by clicking on this tone, work is based. Mood or work is based. Switching. We'll click on it, and you will find here at the front options. You will find your drafting and annotation, three D basics and three D modeling, but you'll find that here, when you are seeing here there or to get classic, you will not find it. Why? Because it is finally removed the from AutoCAD disc. In the newer versions, you will find the auto get classic, which is much simpler. Send this view in the older versions of like 2013. But if you insist on getting the auto get classic, we can do it here. I will show you how well, first Stickley Lake on well, first the type menu bar, board and don't click on Enter and then all types of value one and then enter. That is a first thing, then from the tools will choose that told balls and then auto cad and senator was any off. You would like toa show, for example, that I mentioned. Now we'll see here a toolbar which at bed, which is for the environment, just as that classic one or the old one. It contained the diamonds. You can also add another toolbar by clicking on a tall stool. Bars took at and you can choose any off them. For example, find text all of this waas found in the old diversion. Instead, off this long or this toolbar logical part, we will just remove it and add this sittings, and we'll find years. It will be, ah, here at a toolbar here, and Anna's have told Barnier, as you would like Dole's tow bars or to get and the draw you will find here extension here towards told bars. So to get and layers towards, it'll borrow to get and insert. We'll find your honors. I want you a beard. Let's move it. That's a religious one. So Seattle Bar here and another one here and another on here. It makes your own or to get much more easier for experts in auto country. Just use their keyboard, for example, for drawing a rectangle and which you are going to learn Ari, See, enter and then here and year. That's very symbol drink. So in this video we learned how to change the workspace mood and how toe control it and down toe at tool bars. Ato, our program. 24. Introduction to Dialux: now in this section we're going to discuss is our dialogues. So what is dialects or dia? Lux? It is a free software where you can design, calculate and visualize the light. Professionally, you can use dialects of four lightning inside the single rooms, whole floors, buildings and our door scenes. As this section we're going toe makes a lightening or those are lightening for a whole floor, and it was a lightning for a play ground and street lightning. The dialects is used as a planning told by over 680,000 lightning designers old white, the dialects constantly undergoes for assertive development, and the meats is a requirement off the modern lightening Zion and lighting in calculation. You can also blend and Zain using the electronic Lanier catalogues off the wall. It's leading illuminate manufacturers. He was executive debt off us. Our architectural programs, like or to get you can create your own lightning design. So what are we going to do in this section? We are going to take a plan or architectural bland and add it to lose our dialects and then start creating the rooms and adding Salomon years and using off course that catalogue off a company called the Chemical, and you can also use the cut off any other companies like Philips and so on. You can download it from the Internet for free, of course. So that assembly what's meant to buy dialect Silex assembly of free software by a company called the Dying, which designs off course seven years and the relics is a program use itto. Those are lightening design, so we're going towards customs this section How to do the lighting design. 25. Types of Electrical Drawings: our electrical drawing is divided into singing man types number one that design drawing that Zion drawing or that conceptual drawing. It is a technical drawing that's always information about the power of the lighting and the communication for an engineering or architecture project and electric. Any electrical working drawing consists or flying's symbols, dimensions and imitations so accurately combine and engineering's design toes are workers who in its towards the electrical system on social So symbolism designed wrong, which we are going to discuss in this course assembly their concept or there. Dick Nickel drawing, which so is information about the power for examples, are lightening the sockets. And so on ends a wiring itself, and the communication is called the light current. And they told me it's caused in on as our course. Another type is a shop drawing. The shop drawing is showing more construction details and that one which is shown in the contract or the design drawing. It is a step by step assembly Manuel, where as the contract rowing as Molly, that victor on the books. So Zion drawing or the conceptual drawing just to give us an overview about what the design itself Here's a Lumineers and the wiring and the number off Rumania types, off premieres and the wiring sockets and so on. But the shop wrong. So is us exact construction, his exact lines as a direction off the tubes and silence off the tubes off connecting the wires and someone. The certain type is called as belted room, which is the growing that reflected the as constructed conditions off project. So after doings are lightening in their reality and doing, and if we made any editing in the shop, drawing do toe, a mechanical conflict or anything, as you know that we know are making is that wires affords the lightning or the sockets. It may destination, which is defying the insides. That drawing may conflict with a mechanical tubes or, for example, water jobs and so on. So we have toe end it there, destination or the direction off our tubes. So in the end we will have an spelt drawing, which reflected that as constructed conditions off our project. So this scores who are going to discuss is the important one, which is at Zyl Drone and in another course will discuss that shop drawing as built. It has no course because it is done in reality 26. Different Lighting Situations: Now let's discuss that different types off lamps. The members can be class fight in tow. The Incan decent name, Miss the Are Columbus that discharge a Lembas like that? So young, available numbers is a Mercury Sable Lambesis, that Florissant members the neon lamps, the led lumbers and so on. All of them have its own efficiency. It's on power. And so on Lifetime and so on. You will find all of this inside that cattle. We don't need to revise all of this because we have the cattle, which contains all of the information. Why, I would memorize all of this information. They are already inside that cattle. So if I need anything, I will just open zakat a look and see. Thank. And this in turn em, for example. Efficiency ends our lifetime. Ansel is that color and so on that I'm miss can be used for a different situations. The different lighting situations number one there is are so domestic lightning. There is that domestic lightening the requirements off the illuminations various from the place toe honest, for example. It is a study room drawing room, a bedroom, and so on. All of them have its own lighting and its own Lux recon using incandescent members of Florissant elements that come backed full ascent limbs. Where is that? What you are goes inside that domestic likening another one, which is an industrial lightning. The sufficient a light in industries increases their production the quality of work and also reduces their accidents and your nomination. About 200 Lux is required to obtain day light incandescent fluorescent, and the comeback two floors in Tulum and the Mercury Sable Emmis are suitable for industrial lightning that I'm. This should be mounted at a sufficient right to provide uniform illumination without any glib in case off travelling cran sidelights with the reflectors should be provided. Also, the machine shops are usually provided with general and local lightning. Another type is a decoration lightning decoration. Lightning that decorate of lightning is providing functions and tourist places and also can be used. The boy that can be eliminated, boys and Merkel available members. That's William available limbs and so on. There is also that Vertes meant enlightening this life, and he's used to attract the public and to increase their cells. Almost all of the types off the names with reflectors are used. The four advertising lighting the street lighting the Barbas off the street lighting is to promote safety and convenience toe that citizens of vehicles are police supervision and us . Our purpose is the high illumination is required on traffic, roads and shopping centers. The light should be directed downwards from the lamb Boy, suitably designed reflectors. We can use that mercury they were that sodium labels are fluorescent and incandescent. Limbs are used the fourth street lighting, but for street lighting specifically, we will need a yellow color. Why? To avoid the folk or the folks? Situations and toe make because of the fog, has its own white color. So we will need that yellow color in orderto make vision available for that course, that car drivers ends people itself. For the flood life thing. It is on my time lighting off the exterior areas, such as open any often. Industri riel were, er this the sports stadiums, quarries and temples, and you are going to use a flood lightning inside that playground or the play yard for examples at football and basketball and so on. The flood lightning toe Barkus guardians, legs, floor beds, the buildings and ancient minimums. We can use that mercury available and sodium vapor and, of course, a halogen lamps with watertight reflectors, argues the fourth Flood Lightning. Those are the front types off the lightning. But in addition to that war going toe mentioned, another think is that clear. That layer is the find as unwanted light. It is also defined as a light over and above that require the force up before months off, a visual task under most comfortable viewing conditions. If the humaniacs was the toe, a very bright light, that bubble or the dark circular opening in San Center off the air is off the I contracts in order to reduce the amount of flight and the prevented them is door retina. This phenomenon is known as Blair, so Blair is not wanted. Phenomena unwanted from it is well familiar in connection with the vehicle headlights. Also, glare is caused when high power lamb or high shining objects are see 27. Understanding different types of lighting schemes: Now let's discuss that the front of types off the lightening schemes, different types of them is that direct that Simi direct the indirect and sing in direct and general lighting number ones. Our direct it is 90% off the line that one word and 10% upto the ceilings and the walls. So the 90% goes down Prozac working plan and 10% of Goto's that ceilings and the walls. It's advantaged. It is most efficient. However, it is hard the shadow and has a clear it is used in the industrial places. The general, our door lighting number two is that semi direct it is 70% downward and 13% aboard. That glare is avoided by using, and if using globes and it's applications rooms off a high ceilings, the indirect, the indirect. It is at 10% downward and the 90% aboard and versatile that director time, the light reaches that working, bland boy diffuse reflections its advantages. Eighties has Ashado, Let's Illumination and the no glare. However, it takes more energy to produce the same illumination as our extensive. We are just giving 10% a year, but here we're giving 90% So we need more lights or more Lumineers here it is used in that drawing officers that decorations in hotels, cinemas and workshops that Simeon Direct is a 25% down ward and 75% aboard Light reaches that working blend by diffuse reflections. And from that source, it's advance. It is the same as indirect shadow, less domination and a new glare. However, it does not have the same. This off on churches takes more energy. It does not have this disadvantage. It is application. It is used in the indoor lighting general lighting. It is at direct mayor mixture between the direct and indirect. This is Olympus, made off a diffusing gloss. It's a quantities equal illuminations in all direction and reduce the brightness. It is used in a general purpose, so that is a different types off celebrating schemes, and you have to know them. The directors him with direct and directing me in direct and general lighting and don't know which one to use in their front situations. 28. Properties of Good Lighting Scheme: So what are the properties off the good lighting scheme? Number one it had must provide a dick. Quit illumination Number two. It must avoid Giller and hard shadows. Number three. It must provide uniform distribution off light all over the war. Blame. So that is a properties off the good lighting scheme. However, you have to know that for that fight emitted by the source and we have so far received. If I received on the working bland and the five emitted boys outsource, the difference between them is that the fire emitted will be quite toe. That if I received over the utilization factor multiplied by the maintenance factors. Difference between them is that the utilization factor and the maintenance factor decreases that for received the tools that working your plane So when we need toe in the manual calculations when we need for I received owns a planned toe. We 500 Lux. Therefore, world's divides that 500 lux over the maintenance factor off our room over the digitalization factor off the room and they get that fire emitted boys and EMS, and then we'll go toe some calculations toe find number off Lumineers 29. Important Definitions for Lighting: Now let's discuss some important definitions about lighting. Number one is a blend, angle or seat, which is measured in radiant Zeppelin angle. It is angle enclosed, the boy toe straight lines in the same blame. Sita will be quinto arc lens over the radios off the circle. So the sita, off a circle, all the whole circuit will be quinto to buy, which is equal to the arguments which is toe by our for circuit over the radius which is finally toe by radiant. The solid angle omega in strange in the angle, enclosed in the volume form it, boy, and in finite number off lines. So omega will be quite toe the area over our square and omega off s fear or a spherical form will be area which is the area off a sphere which is for boy are square over our square which is really be equal toe four boy street in the light energy which is measured in human hours. It is a radiant energy from ah, hotel body which produces a visual sensation, opens a human. Is that a luminous flux, which is the one which is is important for us, which is measured in Lumen it represents is that light energy radiated per second from the blood from the body in the form off a luminous light waves. Or it is a write off energy radiation in the form off light waves. Another important definition, which is a luminous intensity or candlepower the luminous in Tennessee off a point source and in a direction, it is a luminous flux. Emitted boy, the source bear unit, solid angle. The luminess in Tennessee or the counter power will be equal to the flux. Or that human bear Street Ian or Candela, that Liam in Norman, it is the amount off luminous flux emitted in space represented by one unit. Solid angle by our swords, having an intensity off one candle power in all directions. Another definitions. I mean, it's vertical candlepower is the meanest vertical kind. About it is the average or the mean off the candle powers in all directions from the light source. So we have the counter power f over omega. Okay, so omega will be for boy in case we are talking about a whole sphere for I mean horizontal candlepower. It is average or them in off the candy bars in all directions in the horizontal blame containing the light source. They mean hemispherical candle bar, or it is 1/2 sphere. It is average or mean off a candle powers in all directions above or below the horizontal blend busting. Grow through that light source, and it will be omega off. Two voices who are talking about 1/2 sphere. The reduction factors a reduction factor off a source is that issue off the MSC be to its image city or the means Spherical candle, Barto mean or is a mental candlepower. Xylem, fs ISI or efficiency will be equal to the issue between the luminous flocks. Emitted. Boys are light source toe the inboard power in what you will find the efficacy or the efficiency will find it. Inside the catalog, you'll find the efficiency awful amble we call toe f over being. I only remember what it means that the amount off the luminous flux, the luminous flux at present is there a is which goes out from the light source or the amount off the lux going out from the light source. So the inboard power toe the light source in what so it represented the efficiency. How much is that? Low minutes out in both power is converted toe a luminous flux. The illumination, which is really important. That nomination will be represented by in your room, which is measured in Lux very important unit. It is that nomination off a surfaces amount off. The doorman luminous flux received the very unit area off the war. Complain so that raised or the luminous flux is falling on a plan off our unit area. The illumination off any area will be Kyoto. There f or the luminous flux over the area, which is Lumen per meter square, which is we call toe Kalac's. So the illumination off are working blend worlds. Other definitions. Luminous intensities mean its vertical candlepower. The mean horizontal candlepower are considered the force that land. It describes that amber characteristics and they're not related toward complain. So the illumination is really a mounted. You will find that in the Egyptian court or any other international code. You will find that for example, the office will have our 500 lux. So when we are designing, our room was selected, for example, we know that this room is an office. Therefore, we are going to choose our 500 bucks for this room, since the office will require 500 Lux, another room would require 100 50 lakhs another 1 250 so on. So that illumination or that luminous flux very unit area, is really important thing. So for each room or a different types off room, you will find that we have a different types off Lux. So the most important to definitions is a lamp focusing, which is efficiency. Off the lamb is in both luminous flux or the luminous flux going out from that lamp or the Lemonier over the input power in what the illumination or the amount off Xerox bear, you own it area. That is our most important definitions. You will need to know the reduction factors that all of these values is not important. The humanism is the unit measurement off the luminous flux. The luminous flux at present is that raise released. The boys are land is a luminous in Tennessee, represents a luminous flux, a bear unit sorted angle. Some important definitions roster for you to memorize them. You will also need to know about the pool of curves you will find that for an M or along here, it has a tow. The front distribution in the horizontal plan ends a vertical band called a Polar Care. The Bowler care assembly used before that determination off the loneliness in Tennessee in all directions. I in all direction is that the termination off the actual illumination off our service e actual. So the bullet coverage present is that luminous intensity bloated against the angular position in the horizontal plane and says him as it in the vertical blend. So we'll find that when you're opens a catalog for any type of flu. NATO funds up workers, which represents the distribution off the luminous intensity in the horizontal plan and vertical blend. That's the difference between them. So if you just sees a light in the horizontal blend bolos that amber fund it some single exists in the vertical blend. Off the lamp, you'll find some single exists. You'll find your drop in this part. Why do toe the cape off Salam, which has a low loneliness intense? You have to know that Wenzel light falls on a surface, some light energy is reflected, and Arthur is transmitted through the surface on some is absorb it. You will find another one, which is a reflection fact, which is a ratio between the reflected light energy over the incident. Light energy you will find in there by Alex. When we use that, you will find that it will need the reflection factor for the ceiling, a reflection factor for the ground and the walls. And we're going to use a 60 for the ceiling. 44 the world's and 24 aground off course. The reflection factor. Ben's on the pipe off the surface. And, of course, the vendors on the color off the surface itself and the habit of different types off the reflections that reflecting surface or like that mirrors we see is a source on all the surface. As you know that wins. This goes here, wasting our eye, sees a source. It's a sensitive mirror, but the defusing service we see that illuminated surface itself, not that source we can control. The light emitted by the member boy reflectors and defusing groups is the globe's absorbs 5 15 to 40% off the light tow. Avoid that glare and the reflectors are used to prevent the light from escaping, so that is a benefit off the globe's tow. Avoid the glower and reflectors to avoid the light from skating and the reflection factor, which is really important as illumination. And their efficiency is a reflection factor represented that reflected light energy over the installed flight energy and don't need it inside that walls, ceilings and that ground. 30. Utilization and Maintanence Factor: now, let's discuss is the difference between that utilization factor and the maintenance factor . The militarization factor. It is an issue between the flux actually received. The boys are working. Plan on the flocks emitted boys a source. As you know, that this ratio represents that flux emitted by the source, and the flux actually received the buys a working plan. So the flux emitted by the source, and until it reaches a working blend, it will just have some losses. That's why the efficiency or the utilization factor will be. Listen one and the dependence on the type of the lightning scheme. As you know that in the indirect, it will be larger than the indirect, since the director will be 90% and the indirect will be 10%. Also depends on the type and the mounting height off the lamp that collar and service off the walls and ceilings the shape and dimensions off that room and the moon that, as a utilization factor, increases for the light colors and decreases for the dark colors. Also, the utilization factor decreases when the mounting height increase there. As you know that the mounting right it is a distances between the working blend and the Lumineers itself. Totalization factor will be from or going for toe or going six for direct lighting and are going to want open 35 for indirect lighting. That maintenance a factor M or em, will be Lizin won. The maintenance factor is an issue between illumination uto, actual conditions over in nomination under Perfect and the claim conditions. So I'm Internets factor from 1.62 or going to it and you'll find that in their dialects will use that a factor called the like loss factor, which is a mixture between centralization and the maintenance factor. We will, but it as oh, going 65 for the factory and or going eight for the non dirty places that maintenance factor affected by aging off the nimbus. Therefore, the illumination will be decreased. The accumulation off dust orderto owns a lamp, globes, walls and ceilings. That combination off the dirt A will cause the illumination. Toby decreased. So the maintenance factory assembly, a ratio between that nomination, your toe, actual conditions over the illumination under perfect and green conditions. That depreciation factor it is the inverse off the maintenance factor. One over M 1.3 which is means at them Internet is high, which means that the Lambie screen 1.5 it is means that much dirt or much lost. Another definition is a space toe. Hi, Trish. Very important for the manual calculations for the lighting s over age, it is a distance between the horizontal distance between two adjacent claims. If we have more than one lamb since the distance between them it is a distance between two adjacent limbs over the mounting height mounting right. It is the height off the lamp is from the working blend, not the ground. So we have years of ground and the working bland required to be illuminated and to have years alums. Therefore, the distance between here and here it's called Is there my wanting height from the lamp? So the or complain and space to heart? Ritu. It is an issue between zone Rozental distance between two adjacent to members and a mounting height, and it is between 1 to 2 and all assume isso vertical one. Inside the Manuel calculations 31. Important Notes when Designing: Now let's discuss some important and what's win designing. You'll have toe just to remember all of this. We are not going to use all of this, but just for your own personal information. Number one. The uniformly distribution factor or you note, and you'll find it in the report hours. When you are clicking that somebody inside the dialects, you will find the E minimum over a maximum. It's called the uniforms distribution factor, and it must be greater than or go into three. So when you are getting after doing the Lumineers or the lightening designed for a specific room, you have toe. See that uniform distribution factory minimum over a maximum, and it must be greater than or country if it is not greater than over in three. Then you would have to redesign that room. I confirmed the factor. It is an issue between the A minimum Andy average and also must be greater than or were into. Four. You will find it also inside that summary number three. The reflection factor. It depend on a different factors as a color off the room and type of surface, or the material we will assume as sexting reflection for the saving and 40% reflection for the walls and 20% for the ground. The violets we need this information when you are designing, gives an inside that red version or the blue version, you will find that it will need these values. You will find something which is called that control groups. It means that some office 11 years are connected together and considered as one group. They can be switched on or off together another mood. When we add light in tow, the control group. It means that we would like to see the effect off the control group from that Lux that I conferred and uniformed solution factor point of view. So when you are making our emergency and the normal case, we will make a normal guess where we select the some of the Newman years of which will be all of xylem in years as a normal case and the emergency will select the some of the Lumineers and at it toe another control group and we will add both off them into light. Seems to see the effect off this lemon years. You will understand all of this When we started doing the task. So when we are doing toe their frontal lightnings one for the normal and other force emergency we bought each off them in a different to control group and then add toe the light seen to see how well they are for the emergency would like to have at least 100 lux in each room. The number off Lumineers beyerlein, listen or equal 10. So what does it mean? It means that when we are making that wiring, we will both attend Loman years or less on one circuit or one line. You can also add for nature to your rooms by clicking on object and then choosing what would you like? And then at 20 if you would like Toa imagines the room. For example, if you are choosing a living room, we will add a TV, some chairs, and so on a table and so on so you can just imagine. But it is not necessary thing. You can just use the violence as would would do inside that in that mosque. In the lightening, we use Acker sectional area or the wire will be Toto three millimetre square for the socket . So will you? 3 to 4 millimeters squares if we are talking about a power from 2000 to 2500 vault mbare and therefore talking about Listen, that was then we'll use Toto three millimeter cross sectional area More than 80 kilovolt and bear will use a three phase meter if you have an apartment and see if you found that the total power greater than eight kilovolts members and will use a store to use a three phase meter. Each of our circuit is on one circuit or one line, but the normal soak it. We will connect the 5 to 7 normal sockets bare circuit. Where's a normal socket from 182 100 to 250 vault and bear. So when we're going toe the lecture where we discuss the difference between the power and so normal, you have to just know that each power socket is on one circuit. But then or my sockets will connect the 5 to 7 Norma so gets connected on one circuit for 1.252 No 0.5 screen sitting going to five horse power. We will use a single Facebook, for example, when you are talking about air conditioner or air conditioning, then we're going. If it has all of this horse about that will use only a single first socket for it. But if you are using air conditioning greater than these values, for example, 57 10 horsepower, then we'll use a three faced rocket off course. Both of them are cold power socket the distance between the socket and another inside the rooms will be from 3 to 5 meters in the room. In corridors. A distance between this sockets will be 60 meter. If you know that for nations, then beside each disc there will be a Publix normal socket or one normal circuit. What? What does it mean? It means that if you are talking about an office and we have here, do we discuss Therefore, on this desk there will be a computer. There will be a printer. There will be another component where they tore require it where it were required, electricity. Therefore, we will need toe both add Obelix socket or a normal one normal socket in orderto it operates all of these things. That's all four that important to notes. You have to remember them when designing for your own self 32. Steps of Project Design: Now let's discuss the steps off Project the steps or project, or when we are dealing with dialects or adding czar writing the number one. We will adjust the settings as unit, for example, will change the islands into meter, or according to our own country and the lightning unit into Lux. Also the height off the room. Their light loss factor, for example, according toe that Oh, if you are working in a factory or a dirty place or you are rocking in a normal room, for example, in a factory you will use the lightest factor as or Boeing 65 But if we're talking about one of my room, we can put it as or going eight. Another thing. That reflection factors also that personal data off the company and the person itself. Off course a reflection factor. We will discuss it in the important tomato and discuss what is meaning off it and the values off each off. The reflection factors for the scene ings that words and the ground. The second step is loadings. I did a bluesy fire or their or toe catfight in orderto edit areas off four rooms or identify our rooms So first we take the plan, which is done by the architecture and import it into their dialects or load it in toes are by Alex, and then we will start creating our rooms. Number three, the selection off the Lumineers, which will be used in the project using catalogs and debt. So, as you know, that Salomon Years has a different types and according toe, the front companies, for example, Phillips or chemical. So we'll use, for example, that Katherine Phillips and then if we are creating and office room or a transformer room and so on, we will use that Lumineers, which is suitable forces according to's the catalogue. And then, after getting the Catholic and the Nosa name off the muse own Goto that at the end in Borders this Lemonier, you will find all of this inside the dialects. Task number one, we will all We are going to make all of these steps. I'm just giving you an overview off what we are going. Toe number four in sort is a Lumineers in each room according toe the locks required and type off Flamini number five, Zach Calculation and Ziering edit for mistakes enzyme after we calculate the flux Orza locks for each room. For example, if you would like for an office 500 Lux And after doing this, we find that galaxy is 450. Then we will need to re edit our design. Number six Is that design off the emergency and adding czar light scenes. We are goingto design the emergency. When the electricity goes off, we will need an emergency lightning. Therefore, we selected some Romanians for emergency and adds a lot, it seems, and you will find all of this off course inside the task a video number seven selecting and the brain things are required, which is after doing all of the dialects all night will need toe bring the Arab orto So we would like to add some of the information or the required images toe This report using the Alexa will chose that summary and that Amir Bharti's and so on were ableto get what we want . Number eight, exporting Zai bdf before branding and the dwt find the readability file which contains that Lumineers and after doing our dialects project and then after doing this will take that either beautifying end over it using or to get on the start designing our wiring. Those are the steps affords that project 33. Manual Calculation of Lighting: Now let's discuss them. Manuel calculations off their lighting. So first we have a problem here. A workshop with an area off 16 month blood by 15 meter. We have the fricassee or the efficiency of the them or going for we have the height would be quite a five meter and the efficacy off dynamic with 16 No member. What and we have here the utilization factor the aorta locks received on the plan will be 100 locks. It's over. It's the space to Hi, Trish would be called toe one. The maintenance factor 1/1 going toe require designs are lightening scheme, the lighting scheme and number and wattage off their legs. So for that manual calculations, off course athletics will do all of this information just by giving the workshop there. Yeah. Then Samata Blood buys the weeds and give in their locks. So what are we going to do? Well, first stable are goingto design the number off locations. So we have the height will be quite a five meter and space toe height equal won their fourth and space between the lemons and or the Lumineers and each other would be five minutes. The number off rose here will be equal to We have the number off the rose and the number off columns. A number of columns and number off rose. So gets a number off. Rose will be called to 15 which is a distance here, or the winds over the Fife. Will we call toe three and the number off columns will be equal to 16 over that distance or the space between them equal five. Therefore, the number off locations off the Lamberts will be called to three multiplied weapons, therefore, will have a 36 a location. So toe, apply all of this. We have the number off rose, all of this and the number of columns. All of this. So number of columns a week or 2 12 Therefore, we have one toe city until 12 locations and the space between them will be called to fight . So it finds us with between this Lemonier and the other five. So we'll find that the here this Lemonier will have a space between the wall 2.5 and this world toe went five and this one toe buoyant fight So that sign off that lamps number. This is a second step off course before I received which is equal to their We have 100 Lux and we have the area with 60 motto Blood by 15. So we have the flux or because it was the illumination multiplied by the area as you know that from the definitions, illumination will be called the flux received over their area. Therefore, the illumination would be ableto 100 area 60 Monta blood by 15. Therefore, the number off human is 9002 Human. The fire emitted bear location will divide. This will divide this human boy the number off locations. And of course, is that the utilization factor And is there a maintenance factor? So we'll have 7500 Loman bear location, therefore for each location will have amount off Lumineers. So let's see the number off Lumineers. The wattage obey location will be according toa. This unit will have the African Sea or the efficiency would record to 16 human bear. What therefore we need to find the number off The wattage therefore divides the flux. A better location, boys, A frequency off the name or the efficiency of the name, therefore will have as a 150. What Bear location. So we need that Lambert's office of 150. What? So we were assumes that we are having Lambert's off 151 therefore will have a city multiplied by 150. What? Now you will see that we are having that. So we have a 468. We just installed 450. Therefore, the amount of the water jet decrees Therefore the amount off the illumination will decrease . So the actual illumination again the for emitted boys and m well, because it was the water jamaat ablaze that figure steam on supplied by the number off locations there are four will have a 25 215 9200 Human Therefore, if I received will be equal to this value motto Blood buys them Internet sends a totalization factor therefore will have fine Any 68,400 human Therefore e actual will be called off. I received over the area therefore will have a 96 locks which is listens 100 Lux required. Therefore, we will redesign. So again what did we do? Assembly. We have this Mr Iterations that space between them. Therefore, we get the space, which is five meter. Now. We have that that distance or silence and the weeds will divide silence and the with each of them boys is based and will have find that we have a city's basis and at wolves basis in the the rose or the number off this basis in the horizontal vertical plane ends a horizontal blend. We know that we have a space off 12 551 and two and city and so on. So we find that the number off locations which contained members will be assert. 60 location we have therefore, I required we can get. We can get the FOI send. The boys are limbs itself four xylem in years. Therefore, we divided the flux by their utilization factor and the maintenance factor and their efficacy to get the wattage off the required. And then we divide the advice a number off locations to get the number off the Lumineers or the wattage. A pair location, therefore, will have a 450. What as an approximation. Therefore we find that the installed the lamp it's ordered. Romanians will be three multiplied by 150 and then we can clear it against the actual illuminations after putting this venue. So using that by Alexa will find that all of this value easily no, just just by giving the dimensions off the room and then saying towards that program, I would like Toa both. Here are 500 Luxor, a 250 lakhs and so on. And then we will just in its told there types off salamoni ins from the catalogue and then our program were started calculating our make its own calculations. Now let's go toes are dialects and see what it is going to total. 34. Understanding Catalogs and Photometric data: Now let's discuss their cattle looks and the photo metric debt. If you're wins their chemical cattle book, you will find it in the files in the violets task. If we just open, it will find out the front that catalogs it is anaemic, all for lighting andare. Find Zach cattle. We have a different types will find it a street lighting. We have a high bay index, the float lighting as a flood, lighting globes, indexes, extra protection, Lumineers, the hospital engineers and so on. So we'll find each of them will be used in a specific operation or for a specific operation . For example, the street lighting will use a specific types off Lumineers, such as the sodium limbs, the flood lighting or their play your doors, airplane ground and so on, so each one of them, or require at the front types off Lumineers. So let's seem, if you're just to go toe, it'll look like this. The street lighting will find here at the front types alpha light beater on the gamma. So it was us to go here. You will find the Alfa you'll find here I be or index of protection, which represented that amount off protection against Acosta and daughter and is the highest will be seven. So find here six and six. It is a high protection, so I find it is, ah, high protection for both off tickle and gear compartment so Lumineers can operate in bad weather conditions without they need off. Balance it. You will find the Here's that Lambie maintenance carried out from a gear. Subs out. Opening the diffuse and go find here is, I Mean features and the amount off the What sounded it. What? Why pressure sodium lamp? Because it gives us yellow color and it would see you will see here in case off a 15 meter bull. Hides aluminium is ideal choice to eliminate the highways, roads for section and industrial areas or finds exact cereal lighting design course in San Inkster course. Off course. A. Well, Justin's cause a street lightning ends up Layard or the playground like football and so on lighting. You will find your general description for that, for each of them will find Alfa and I be and this is the important things. You'll find that another one, the alpha, ended more component, and it's the description here another one is there beat a light? Yeah, each of them is named according to the communal finds out. So I beat is at least protected. And then they're also 65 Find them in features. Enza what? Which is 400? What? And so on We'll find the head of drama also for the Romanians and so on for each one of him . And for each description, The High Bay you will have its own Newman years and so on. So that is what I mean. Boys. A catalogue. You'll see that catalogues which is used the four different things and different types of for examines extra protection. Romanians will be used in a place where it is dirty, for example, there transformer room or the factory or their works up and so on. It is a dirty place. Contains doesn't therefore will need an extra protection Lumineers and the kitchen or zap. Also, more need off course extra protection you towards the presence off or it is our water and us the proof. You'll find this extra protection will just take one of them and at it does a program. For example, we have here a proof so what you are going to use eight and signs a program you'll find here on us Iran, Exit B, B, B or Exit B, or which are wrong to use inside the program toe. It is also extra protection and so on, and you'll find your honors of time, which is just the four hospital and lemon years time and so on. Each of them will find all of these catalogs, and it's that I inside the program, for example, we choose someone like this like this one for the proof and would like to add it. Toes are likes. We'll just go through the photo metric. Better photo metric data and you'll find your different for this extra protection floodlight in Those are human years, it's streetlight will goto extra protection and you'll find here at the front types will example this one Arbroath majestically right, collect and at tools are dialects. If you don't find it like me here or just opens out, likes a program. There are eight version, and then we'll just take this one. You'll find here alone means used. It will take collectivist and drag it to the program. So long, years used and Samuel finds alone near is now available in politics. So that is a benefit off the photo metric days of autumn Metric data Give us Zafira, which are going to use inside biotics the catalogue itself Give us the information about each type off Lumineers and therefore Salomon here can be used there now inside the Dynex. 35. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 1: in this video are going toe discuss a task which contains all the steps that we have expressed in our previous videos. So the first step, we have our task, which is a dwt fine, and we will import it into our dialects. And then we will ads on June years lightning. And then we'll export pdf and did a bluesy And I would like you toe does this task and send me a link to your own Google drive or anything, or upload a tow inning website and give me the video and dwt file and I'll check it for you and see how well you have you have done for this task. So what is our task? Our task assembly. We have a did a beautifying dialects. Trask. We have I. D. W z 5666 or 11 or 22. All of them are the same, but they are the front diversions. So what are we going? So we are going to import disease dwt fight into dialects, and ads are lighting design. So the first thing you are going toe is open our dialects, Which is that it version second single. I'd like to do is that we're going to follow the steps off project which we discussed. The first thing we are going toe cancel this window will just to close it. The first step we discuss these settings default barometers. So we'll goto frying on Bento say things and then general options. First thing you are going to do is to choose our dimensions. First we'll goto global and then you will find the actual welcome dial. We will just to close this one because we don't need it. Second thing will find here that the dimensions in the imperial formula metric will use the metric and the lightning in European, which is the Lux or Candela Bear Meter square. Then we're going toe the standard of the values. Now we're obliged that global, which uses the metric the European and the let's go back and click on OK and then frying sittings general options. Now we find that our values now in meter you will find that the room dimensions which is violence and the with the default one for any room we m. But it is these values, but we don't need it because our rooms are have a different values. But the thing would like Toa Toto is a height. High toe will make it asked. Three meters, for example. And the lightless factor since we were are going to make their first the floor in a factory . So we are going toe boards. Ally Close factor as over in 65 as a bad case. Zalazar. Huge inside the factory do toes are dust off course and the air and so on. Then we're going toe. Choose our reflection factors which is 60 40 and 2060 from the ceiling, 40 from the walls and 20 from the floor. Okay, Now again in the sittings we defying the our units, Linds, which is Meter Anza Lightning in Luxor, the Caribbean dimensions second singer. Our parameters, which is the height which is it as a stream meter is our lightless factor which is open 65 cents who are dealing with a factory in this task number sees a reflection factor 60 40 20 . And now we just have to both our person on debt. Let's see now in their contact, for example, and Ahmad Maddie, our telephone, anything fax, email That's what any man my own email for contacted food like anything. Now we can choose the company name. If you are working with a company, of course. For example, that'll Sweden and the address off the company. Okay, that's what our telephone number you're address. Let's say change it, for example. Now under fight our way I didn't fight our contact or personal data for 75 our sunder units and Global, which is a metric and European. And we aren't take this because we don't need it. Now we'll click on OK, so before we start any single doing anything in the violets, we have to define the settings because anything which important will have this default settings or in your own mutual. Let second step. We will load our dwt file or Safilo for took it in order to define our areas. Okay, so we load dwt or the X of F If I from here or from frying on, then inboard did a regime the exploit. So we'll use this one day WG or gxf file. Then we click on next and will browse our fight. Now we'll find forethought. Alexa, Task, We will find here at 666111 Tau Tau. Now we'll just click on this and we'll click on open. You'll find ears that the W washing wdw or the expert could not be read. Why it is Ah, good file and is working. Why It is no clothing here because our dialects does no clothes unifying above 2010. So we'll click on browse and then all the chores this one find it. A majority expired could not bear it because it is also 20 more than 2010. This one war in both states now was I am bored is 100% completed. Now we click on next units in Suffian. You'll find here that the winds off the throwing is 215 meter, and I it was a drunk 135 meter. It's very large. It is originally in millimeters and it is defined. The boys are architectural. You have toe know this values. If you ask your own arc picture. What is the values in his drawing? Because the drawing off the auto kit or the industrial blend it is not Zazzle off the electrical engineer Electric, an engineer is concerned with lightning, so gets and so on. So is that one who designed that plan orders, rooms and so on are designed by architectural. So I will ask his architectural, What is the unit are you you are using inside there orto cat? Fine. He will tell you it is a millimeters your funds that the widget went to one and the Hyatt 15 and we click on next. Now we will find that here, as origin is nearly does the orderto the zero access. So we'll just click on selected gravity or will keep it like this does not matter. Really? So we'll click on next and then we'll click on finish. Now we'll find there is nothing inside our drawing. Why? Because we're like toe insert The annual room before in just appears. So we'll click on Insert and New Room, which is our off course. Second step inside the loo dwt. Now we'll zoom out and we'll choose this one like this. Okay, now you'll find here our drawing. You'll find here that the name off all of this is fine in the out. OK, but it is not found here inside the vile ICS, so we'll have toe opens the dwt fight in order to know what is any off this? And what is the name of this and words and moves This answer so innocent off doing this I have made something incredibly easy. What is it? Just to take that dwt fine and upload it toe this website zooms are sums. It is really strange name I don't really care about. You will just upload that dwt file and convert it in tow. G bag. Okay, in order to view it and then you'll write your own email. So send to get the converted files and click on convert. Now let's see what will happen after doing all of this. I could be able to get our dialects version or the auto care drawing with the name off itself instead off openings that out. OK, so I can switch between this and this. So find here's the entrance officer kitchen that you see, the store works up that room Auxiliary transformer room executives former that buttering is the A C. D. C. Room and so on. Now you will see that we have all of our rooms. So what is our task? Our task is toe make all of these rooms defying them and adds a lightning and think it is the video and is a dwt fight before importing it. Toe the out. Okay, So the first step is Well, define our room. After we click on insert on your own, we have this Portland's Let's get back here. We're just selected this and drag into the dimension off the room and drag and drag inside that one, you know, and drink. Okay, Now, we defined our room and click on. OK, you will find here. Our first room is defined. Okay, well, room one. Let's see what is its name? It's a name is office. Let's hearing him it. Office. Okay, now we defined our first room. Now, let's seem, is the kitchen insert a new room, then we'll jump out again. Then we'll drag this into the room like this. Uh huh. Like this. Okay, now we'll zoom in to make sure it is okay. Uh huh. Okay, Now click on. OK, now our in room is defined. Okay, this is our kitchen. So let's say write it as a kitchen. Okay, Now, let's see. Zalazar, one wc. Click on insert on your room and then watch out. Uh huh. then we drag and I will show you another way. Uh, okay. Now, OK, now our that. You see? That's right. It as a WC Okay, that would you not? Okay, now let's it chose the other one. Stole. Now instead, off just making and taking all of this point and dragging. We can do something different, will click on right click and click on Draw our thing And then we'll get from here and throw like this. Very simple now, right now. Let's do it again. But let's types any move the room. It is as store. Uh huh. Is store. Okay, Now, let's see this room is that workshop. Okay, Now we insert on your room, then will come out. Then we'll right click and Rory tingle. Okay, then. Okay. Now what room with his named is works up work. So okay, insert the annual room. Uh huh. Now we little's our battery room for tangle like this. Okay, now I want battery room is done. You will find that working with dialects is really enjoyable and really easy. Sink room, battery room. Okay. Or let's make it battery. Lost battery. Uh, it's called the battery room. Sold it as avatar. Toby. More accurate? Uh huh. This one is called the CDs your own. Okay, insert a new room. Somehow it and then drawer tangle like this. Okay, now, Yeah, let's zoom out. But first, we will just type the easing the A C room like this. Okay, now we define this one. This one, This one, This one, This one. We have the entrance. Okay, Now we're just click on insert on your own, and somehow it just drinking like this and zooming right? Click and roll rectangle. Yeah. Okay. Now we draw this as an entrance. Now, let's go through the We have to drive it as an entrance. Okay. In France? Yeah. Now, this one. This room. Okay, the room or auxiliary transform. Okay. You will find here something will find that this two rooms are identical to each other. This room is the same as this room. So in when you are dealing with dialects, we were just draw one room and deal was one room and adds a Lumineers into one room on just a neglected this one. And write that room One is try because the room toe. So that's the one who use uses dialects or to get find that this one is identical to this one. And instead of just doubling our work or the beatings Oh, so we'll just draw this auxiliary transformer room in certain on your own, zooming out it and bring, like this and right is one and right Click and rob rectangle. Uh huh. Okay. Okay. We will type it as auxiliary transformer room, auxiliary transformer room type, killing transformer one. Okay. Exhortations for my one is similar as auxiliary room toe. Uh, okay. Now the thing which is remaining is a corridor. This one well, defined it as a whole thing. But you will see that the corridor is not a rectangular form. So what we're going to do assembly were going toe insert a new room, Andi. Then so now it Let's move it like this. Now we will choose our right click and then draw a polygon like this. Yeah, really? Working was dialect is really entertainment. And really easy. More than you think. Okay. Now, after finishing right click and close and then Okay, now we defined our corridor, Cory. Okay, Now we defined all of our rooms, and it is the second step. The service step is the selection off the Lumen years. You will find that our office, our corridor or a store and walks up battery and all of this each one of them has its own low meaning here. And since we are dealing with a factory, so we'll need extra protection Catalogue. So what are we going to do? You will find here is that when we're going Toe Chemical catalogue Chemical cattle book. This is a company for Lumineers Ondo find here it has a different sections. Okay. With a different lightnings, for example, street lightning and you'll find here Alfa Light is the name of the product. Another one is beater on bonus on his gamma and so on. You will find here on another section which is higher re hyping You're finding it float, lighting and so on. So we're going to choose the section which we are concerned with Since you are dealing with a factory, we will need extra protection against dust and order slowly chooses there section which is called Is there extra protection which is for thes Really? I think not for three Ah sort seven ir 37 extra protection. Nine years we'll find here that there is a left front of times. There is one which is called a proof of the name of the product. It has an eye bean six of five, the I V, which is the index protection. Okay, we'll find here that Salome near here is used the four in the lighting system at which high protection degree against dust and water is needed, such as factories, stores, kitchens, liberties and boiler rooms. You know that, Lumineers? I be 65 degree off protection it can use for our doors lighting so it can be yours in the stores. The kitchen in our project, which is called the Proof Toe one XFL 36. What proof? Two or one. Florissant 36. What now We'll find another one. Which is this one? Exhibit B or Exit B or the name of the product? Your funds unsuitable four lightning off office reception and the classrooms. We'll find it has maybe 50 or 54 45 as and it you'll find your ex BB two x fl sort six What ? And XP. Oh, for XFL 18. What? You're finally here to multiplied by FL, which means to Florissant alums. 36. What? Four floors? And then I'm anything. What? And you'll find the exhibit hall and exit be me. The difference is seen inside the image itself. So what we're going to use for this project, we're going to use the exhibition. Oh, which is this one? And that b this one, which is is a proof one or is a proof toe xfl Sertic sort. Now we'll see that our consultant give us their information. Let's save it in this club and project one. Okay, now we will find that our consultant to give us information for our mosque. You will find that he told you to use exit B O for multiplied by Florissant for four centimes. 18 What? In the office and corridor and roof inside there that you see Kitchen store, workshop, transformer battery, a. C D. C. You will find that the office required the flux 500. The corridor's 300 is that every C 150 Kitchen 250 store 150 works over 150 Transform 150 better. It's 318 easy 300. All of this information are given by the Egyptian court. If you are an Egyptian or Saudi Arabian court or any according to our own country or group of countries, according to the finds, is there how much of flux it is needed inside that room? And it contains a lot off information about electrical engineer. A lot, a lot off information. So it finds that forces in Egyptian since I me an Egyptian our for office, it needs 500 Lux, the corridors and 100 Lux. Okay, now on you are going to use exhibit or four for FL 18 and is a proof. Okay, so that is the first step. We have selected the Lumineers from our catalogue and we need towboat in both our data inside our or insert our Lumineers inside our rooms About first, we need to add this that so first we open on while dialects again. And then you will find that if we select any off this rooms, that's a close. All of this someone would tell me now all of things disappeared. Okay, is there are no decided. You can click on any of them and then click on the two or floor plan dimensions or that you d or a three d view. We'll click on that duty so it finds that the image is now back. For example, the office here. So for click on right click and said that would like to insert no means we cannot insert Lumineers. Why? Because the Lumineers here are not found. There is no information for the Lumineers. We said that we are going to use their exit B and the proof. Okay, so how we can import it? Assembly is that most simple way Just by going toe is that photo metric data which are goingto be provided his extra protection 11 years in which our Lumineers are found and then we're going to choose that one which are requested, sexy or for except for violating the exhibit, all four XL 80 XB all for XFL 18 now just selected and right click and you'll find here a selection at those are dialects a project. But there you will find there is no more something like this. So what you are want to do with just a they can it and drag into the long years used. Now we'll find that our junior is here again. We can use it. 2nd 1 is a group photo. If excel, sir. Ticks toe fell 36 toe fl sort Phelan sort six. What now we drag it into a saloon. Years used. Now we'll find that ones which are requested are here. Now we'll close this window. Now we know that we are dealing with the office here and the kitchen and abusing first thing. Let's go with them. As we see here is the office is needed as the US that we are now in the step number four. So we need to insert the Lumineers in each room. Since we know that Lux and the type of salami near we can find our we can both our lambs or that Lumineers No clams. Salomon years. So when first select our office office 500 lives. Okay, now we'll click on right click and insert Lumineers and don't find the airfield arrangement or individual room near line arranger in circle or flood the floodlight on a new disease. The fourth Street lightning will use that field arrangement because it makes it in the form off a metrics. Now we will find that the one we're going through these exit B or exit Be all Okay. Now we will find Here's our information. Don't edit this information because it will it change the settings for all this type of fluminese. So just don't come close to this one. The correction factor represented their efficiency off the name. If you are sitting in tow or point wife, then the efficiency off our lamp is 50%. So instead of giving a luminous flux or 5500 it'll give us the half off this value, which is 2700. So now we will not eat it. The sittings, unless we know that the Lumineers used are often as our efficiency you will find here. Is that my one thing you will find here? That Lux, for example, I would like in this office 500 Lux, it is just a suggestion. I found that locks click on so just you will find that it tells you to Rose and nominees of a row is for on the click on in sort. You will find that xylem years in this office is 1234 and we have eight Lumineers here Now we would like to make sure that the nominee we have installed is correct how we can do this , we have to calculate. So I want to click on there calculator or start calculation. We'll chose our office and click on. OK, now we'll find it is now calculating the loneliness in Tennessee and all the information we need for that room. Okay, Now we'll see that result from here. Single sheet output. Now let's a scene. Now let's see the information. You will find that the working, bland, luminous flux is 547 and they set off 500 More than enough. Zai Comfort is more than over in six, and you'll find that here it waas more than or went for. It is Okay, so we have years. Averages 574 Okay, it is more than enough, but we can decrease it. How now? Let's get back to the office and the lots. It changes their arrangement. Okay. Here. Ah, let's make it three. Yes, you'll find year as three limbs. Now, let's see after calculation. Okay. Now let's see the single sheet out. What? You will find that the luminous flux 433. Okay, it is, Isn't that Is that a quality value? Ok, now let's get back to the two D view for the office. Now let's do something different, right? Correct. And then certain Lumineers in the individual nominee will about it in the middle and only chose that extra be all on and in sort. Yes, and I will find you another. Lemonier is both inside that middle. Now let's see the luminous flux can create. Okay, Now let's see the signature out. Hoping that it has come close to some 500. Yeah, The working blend is 519 close. Those are 500. Yeah, it is better than 500 0 India. And better than being glasses AM 500. And so I Comfort is greater than or wind five went forward. Okay, now we did one of the rooms offs. Okay, we did this room. Now we goto This one, which is, as we remember from here, is that kitchen that's a close this one. And go to the kitchen and holding view This one which is active, we'll find out. The kitchen is 250 lakhs and the bruv toe effects now, right click and insert Lumineers and feed arrangement. I would like proof toe fl 36. What? Okay, I'm 250 broke toe effect cells or six Galaxies. 215 215. And so just three inside one room insert. Okay, now let's see. Can create kitchen and let's see how much it's close. Single sheet out for the kitchen. It is 109 close toe the 300 not 250. 36. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 2: now we did that kitchen. Now let's award toe that. Then using to close this one was this one. And this one That Lucy. Okay, the Devon you're seeing is 100 50 lux and the roof. Let's Simic the beauty routine and the close. This one on this one. We have now our bus room. Or that you see no served in the morning hours and field arrangement. How much flux would like would like toa 100 54 blocks 115. Suggestion. So Lumineers a bare room. Okay, now let's see. Okay and single shed out. But, Lucy Okay. Lumineers is 229. Okay, now we did that. You see? Let's go to the store. The store is 150 lakhs. Uh, being the arrangement both again. Same as before. And 150 lakhs. Right store, 150 lakhs. Okay. 115. Suggestion and insert. Three long years can create. Okay. Single sheets on boat for their store. Key 119. 79. And would we need 100 and 50. Okay. Really flows. Since it is more than that required. There is no problem about this it is really good. But no, no, please ends are required. The value Close the window laws. Now we means that store Moto's at work so and tow review clothes store We are now in that will work. So work showbiz. 150 Lux Okay, 150 lakhs. Ok, same as before, bruv. So if excels at six. Ok, 150. Suggestion and then insert three Lumineers can create Onda. Okay, that's English. Eat our boat towards them. We are now inside the workshop. Okay, 100 mind it. Okay. Mm. Close window. Now we have our battery room. Let's see in toward the air. Battery room 700 Lux. Okay. And certainly minions feed the arrangement. There are 100 looks. OK, suggestion. Two months of blood by four in coming years. Then we'll see. Can create. Okay, single sheet. Our boat mattering 724 close towards us. 300. Okay. Really great close laws and groups that support was that easy. Easy room to the You see these 700 Luxton, sir Tomainia's Field 700 Lux. So I've just shown insurgents then can create You'll find out that the steps repeat itself . You'll find that you are working faster when you are making more than one room. Of course, the A C D C. Room. Okay, it is 168. Okay, let's change. It will try to change it. Okay, that scene now we'll make it tomato blood by toe and yes, ends in. We will add a certain pneumonia. And when one. Yeah, my one thing. Uh, no near insert. Let's go create it again. Hoping toe become more sent. Hundreds singled out. But using it is surrounded. 23. Yup. More sense in 100 trip Quiet. Okay, close window. We still have a saree rooms in France entrance. We don't have entrance here, so just delete this room. Neat, exhilarating transform or 150 lakhs inserted in years. First we'll make a toady and then certain Romania's field arrangement 150. Right 150 Mounting 1515. Okay, they are all inside this one. Okay, 150. Suggestion. Okay. Can create gay single our gate. Hillary here, 200 wanting three lakhs. Okay, We cannot decrease it. So we have now done. All of this is the thing which is remaining is corridor, floors, floors and gross according toe. OK, Dodie, you'll find that the corridor is like this. The problem is that the corridor needs as 400 clocks. How we can does this find that here we have a tool areas. So we'll just make something insert human years in there. We'll lose now Line arrangement from here to eat nearly as a middle. Okay. And we knew was that exhibit all right to be all fell 18 mounting. We need a surrounded locks suggestion. Insert okay. Or use here on the other line. Arrangement instead. Lumineers line arrangement exit beam. 18 mountings on the blocks. So I'm just son and insult while find here. One endeared. Then of course, there's something wrong and will find it. What does it help? Because, of course, it is not really logical. Toe make here one only. And here one And here 10. Oh, God. You will see that they tell him the 10 Lumineers and year one. Now, let's see Chocolate. Okay, we found calculation and single album. According toe, you'll find the years. Al Aqsa is 429. So what does the sing, which is wrong here? Okay, the thing. What you have to know is that when you're selecting a line arrangement here is that program sees the area as all of this. No justice, this specific area or all of this area. That's why the luminous flux is defined by all of this area. That's why you will find all of this too. Eliminate all of this area. So what are wanted will just have to use their individual. So just stick it like this corridor and is split. Yes, we will take this one here like this. And this one year, just a my logic in the late the meat. Now let's see if it is really correct or not. Calculate. Okay. She'd for Edo. Okay. 723. Okay. Close to what is needed. Okay, here are 200 forties. 100. Uh huh. Okay. We can dosomething this by it's around 20 is really good, but we CanDo something better. Let's see again if it makes it more correct or more wrong. Mm 725. Same as before. So it's close. Does 300 or more sensitive 100 by a small fire. So now we did all the Lumineers for all that places office, kitchen that we see store. So battery a CDC auxiliary and corridor. Now we will find the year is Ah, corridor close. Going now. So now we did that force a step, and that saves a step, and everything is now. OK, now we're going toe toe the emergency board for each of these rooms. I would like the emergency toe. Have one luminous flux. So we'll just to make the first light sing for all of these parts. Save now. Now, office and Jodie. Now we lost right Collect and the control group New control group. Okay, who would name it as normal? Okay. And we will just right click. Okay, before doing this will just make the known milk for all of the birds office. We did Zimmerman and Kitchen. I had to control new control group normal. Let's try toe. So be it. And see instead of just writing it everything. Kitchen WC, Gordian, right click. Add to control group store, right click at the control group. Okay. Stores now is that works battery room, right leg at the control room, uh, in orderto make at the front of light scenes. That's why you are doing their control groups 1/4 the normal case and the other one for the emergency case. So just makes a moment for all of them and make their one, which is the emergency for each of these rooms. Yeah, at the control group and make it a normal case. Corridors. We have to selected them all by clicking on shift off course. Sometimes a program is quite crazy. My shift. She's by collecting one of them, like, right click and then at the control group, New Control, Rogue group and normal. Okay, now we defines a normal case for all of this for the office. Let's make an emergency case. Okay? The office has a low mineral for 500 in the emergency case for all of this would like to make it close to 100 and the near toes adore, so we'll click on them and right click and split in order to get the other scene for that emergency. We were selected this one, and this is one. By clicking on shift right click. And at the Control group new control group, Which is that emergency emergency. Crosby. Okay. We define this as an emergency. Let's make sure it is working, so we'll have to right click at the light seen. Add to light seen. Okay, you can change it off course to the emergency and a normal. Now let's make sure that the office is working. Correct? Can create. Now let's see, if you click on Hit and chose the office, you will not find it. The old click on the outlook and then project genitals office go down. So the light scenes normal and sees a somebody or been you'll find Here is a summary for the working blend. Is 433 inside that a normal case. So let's see now. What is the problem here for the office? We said that we would like F 500 lux, but you will see its calculating as 433 reasons are required. The value. Okay, so now get back toe the office project office. Yeah. Okay. The problem is, in the normal case, will find that all of this was selected. Accepted this So we find that we will click on this and click add to control group normal. Yes. So I find that in normal, all of them are operating in the emergency. Three of them are operating. Now let's cancel it again. Okay, Now, let's see. Is that Albert and the office? Enza Bart, off the light scenes in the normal case opened summary We have our 519 same as we did before. The problem or them steak we have did is that we did not add this one. Toes are normal. Now, let's see the emergency. Somebody hoping that for the emergency we have 200 toe industry. Okay? It is really good. More than 100. And the light factors are a factor is more than or going for. It's really great. Why? In order to get anyone to do that, our orders That door okay now will get back to our project office. Now we'll go to the kitchen. The kitchen has this room, so we need the kitchen. How much? The kitchen is a 250 lakhs. Let's save it first. So the kitchen has ah normal and the emergency lets the Does the emergency more select right? Click and split. Yes, Rituals. This one, okay. And what? It as an emergency. Okay. And this one off course now we have selected toe this at the control group. New Control group Emergency. Off course. Add to light. Seen at light seen? Uh huh. All of the steps are repeated for all of them. I'm just doing it in front. Off you go. See it more than once. Okay, now we will calculate it. Okay, Now, let's see. The output is that kitchen. But scenes normal summary as we did before. It will be okay. So 100 Mine More than that. Required the value for the kitchen, which is 250 for the emergency emergency. Okay. Summary open 195. It is Okay. More than okay. 37. Dialux Interior Design Task Part 3: Now let's does that WC In the normal case, we have that to Norman years here Now would like toa make their emergency case. So we will just click on it and right click and split. Yes, and we will just turn on is the one which is closed Toe the door so we'll select it. And at Total Group New Control Group Emergency Emergen scene. Okay, copy and lifeless. Now we have the emergency, Anzor. Normal case normal and emergency. Okay at the light. Seen at the light seen. But number two is the emergency. Y t number one is a normal case. Okay, now we did that abusing. Now let's say does the calculation. Okay, Now let's see the output is that have you seen is the light scenes Normal is a Norman open . The normal is 220 mine 29. It is really good as we remember. Let's get back toe that I X task That mosque is our boss forms that ABC 150. It is more than enough now for the emergency summary open 115 more than 100. And there I can forties Listen or went for it is not really matters. The most important thing is that the E is more than 100 locks Now. We did there. Have you seen? Now let's goto the store Project store. That's a close All of this store on toe Gene. And we have here our first light seen at Toe Control group, which is a Norman. It is done. Now let's do the emergency. Right Click split. Yes. Now let's chores in off them like this one. Okay. At the control group New control room. And that's make it is the emergency. Okay, at light seen, you will find that the steps is just repeating each other. Let's see Number two emergency Lightsey number one normal. Okay, now let's does that population. Okay. Okay. Now let's see that Our what? For the store. The light scenes and normal is 179 more. 750. Okay, is the emergency 65? OK, so we'll need to add another one. For example, we will make this tour their emergency boat. Okay for the emergency that to get back, add does the emergency. Yes. For the emergency, we have this one. Let's delete it. And let's add this one tools. There emergency. Okay, Now for the emergency, we have this too. Let's those calculations again. Let's see the Albert like scenes. Open 179. Okay, for the emergency. Open, 113. It is really good. And you will find that the eye comfort more than or 0.4. OK, so we did the store. Now let's get back. Toe the workshop. Dean, this one is Ah, normal case and split. Yes, same as reverse one, which is works at whom? New control room emergency at the emergency. Okay. For the Norman Stringy and the emergency only this tool. Now we will let the light seen. Yes, at the light seen emergency. And the moment. Okay. Now let's go create. Okay, Howard. What? And the light scenes Normal Somebody. Same as the reverse one. Workshop is 115 or shop. Okay, here. 189. Really good. The emergency. Open, 120. More than 100. So it's really great. Now let's see the battery room that save now our war. Now let's do that. But really wound 14. And here are our door. Okay, so we'll make something different we have here. Is that control globes and online. Now let's make the emergency. So we'll click on his blood. And then I will choose this one and shift and will choose this one. And this one or this one and this one. So we will choose. Mm. This one and this one. Now, let's see. At Doom Control group New Control Group is the emergency is in at the light seen at the light seen. And the lighting number one is a normal The light. See, Number two is the emergency. Now let's this thing can create, Okay? We are now working in their battery room. Better room needs 100 locks. Okay, Now let's see that our boat is that better? You're alone. Is that like teen Normal? Open 724. Okay, more than enough is the emergency open 118. Okay, great. More than 100. Now let's get back and continue A C. D. C. Room. Now, let's Simic the emergence. Okay, split. We will cause this one. And this one and this one. Okay, but first we need toe. So that this one at Don't control group normal. Normal has all of this. Okay, now let's make that different one As the emergency. We are now working with the A C D. C. Which in his answer 100 locks So we can make something. Okay, let's remove the Let's chose this to now. Let's add them. Toe a new control group, which is emergency now at the light seen at the white scene. And let's see, Number one is the normal. You will find that the steps is just repeating itself. I'm just don't get all off that ask in orderto seeing what I'm doing. More than ones. Okay, now we were calculate. Okay, Now let's see the result. A C D. C. Fight scenes normal. Open for that. All months around the twin. Seen more than enough. Okay. Same urgency 198. More than enough to Okay, Now we'll get that back toe the project. And which was that? Next one? That auxiliary transformer room that was for more room is 150 as I remember. Okay, Door deem, let's choose Now that normal is all of them. Now we will choose only one of them. Split. Yes, This one as there. Emergency New control emergency. Okay. Is ah, delight. Scene at the light Seen is that normal. Okay, Now let's get back toes that can create. Okay, Now, let's seize our what off the auxiliary transformer. Okay, like teens normal 120. And all I need is 150. Okay, thou emergency open is ah 100. And they live in Okay, More than 100 now was the last one Is that corridor? So let's see it to a dean. And then we chose some of them in order to get 100. Control globes are normal. Okay, Is a normal one. All of them are chosen. Okay, Now let's choose their emergency. Okay, Well, it shows this one and seeing it's hair out of your control group. So the emergency. Let's just seeing you now. Mormon at the light Seen? Yes. Emergency at twilight. Scene emergency. Normal. Now that's can create. It is almost one and sees out. Out what for? The three door by teens emergency and more for the normal open must be some more than 700. Okay, for the emergency. Let's see. Now open 160 more then. Is that 1/4 develop, which is 100? Okay. Just to make him go through the entrance Orza our door. Okay, now we have done all of their rooms. Let's close all of this all now We would just see one of them exists and zoom out. Okay? We have done all of the rooms and we added the emergency and they're normal case. Okay, Now our loss. The step is toe exporters are fine as a PdF or dwt fight. The end of our task. So just a click on file and export save Albert as a GW gene on the X f Fine will just make it search. And in the disco ball will just click on dialects Dusk. Now we're just use ideology and save. You will find that there is a name with the same thing. Okay, we'll save it as a for example and see now is the scene selected for export to have to select the kitchen? All of them okay. And now we have selected all of them and doing click on OK, that's worthwhile. Successful. So it finds that either G five year is now a successful, the one for our drawing or our banks. Now we will save as oryx water as bdf save our would as everyday if and you'll find here all of bitches from one toe. 4th 7 What is the ridges? Okay, let's get back. You will find here for the office without what is our things that we have to? So we just to go here is a project to cover is the table of contents 11 years board. Okay, that a sheet. Okay. Okay. Is our office seen in the office summary? Okay, let's see here with the light scenes. Okay. The summary. Okay. Okay. For the one here. Emergency summary and photo metric results. Okay. For the kitchen xylem years about the light scenes are take the tool. Okay. Okay. Same as before. All of them are insides apple. Okay, now, let's see. Is there be defying Nancy, If we're something wrong or anything, save out as every day from 1 to 50 or this club off course, We'll save it as our bikes for group zombie. My Knicks save. Okay, now let's see our BDF. What does it continue? Okay, It's a project. It's called the Project One and the Barton A four. Contact order the number Customer number. All of them are not exist. OK, so now how we can enter this simply by going toe the Lileks from here. Okay, we will make it, for example. And by Alex Task. Okay, that description. Um, first door off for us, The floor else weeding factory, for example. Okay, that contact. Ah, okay. And my own. Amen. Okay. The address company, for example. All sweetie, either This, um just some exams, details, location. Okay, that's okay. Just it like this. And fire and save as a pdf all of these files. And let's have seen how our video, which is done before it contains a table of contents That's his will mean okay, is a number off human ears and hear some definitions about the O Neill that a sheet which is not needed so we can remove it. Is that office. Here's a photo Mitic. Result this not in censoring. Okay, We need this page for each off their rooms. Okay. Okay. So you are not going to give any worked off a 50 which okay, so we can decrease it. Now let's move some of the data, which is not necessary. Like is that so many years that a sheet okay for the office we were removed is there and light scenes. You will find somebody and 14 metric were removed for two metric room service again. Does not contain anything for domestic. Okay, four there. Kitchen pneumonia. Barta list is not really important. Okay, for the kitchen, for the kitchen only boats. It's not really important for his ally teens normal for two metric. We remove it their emergency move it Telomeres. Watts would remove it. Not scenes. Normal emergency. Norman Europe. Artis, I'm just showing you when you are an engineer and you are working with dialects and you will need toe export the abbey defined in order to give it to with the consultant or your own company. So we will have to make ass more somebody. You don't need a larger summary, so we will just decrease and remove all of the unnecessary things. 14 auxiliary room Lumineers Vortis control globes like teens for dormitory the emergency for two metric tool the corridor. Norman Immortalised These are like scenes for no metric. Okay, now we have did almost everything. We will export it again as everyday financing. How well it is foil export safe. Albert as a media all bitches from on 25 Okay, Now let's see our Final Four Dialects. Task first floor off, sweetie. Factoring or berate or a madman? Andy, you will find here some informations like name the telephones, email, the address and the company name. Okay. We'll find years. Ato, be a table off content. Is is a dialects task project the cover table of contents Norman years a parts list The office lights, scenes of normal and emergency Somebody, somebody, kitchen and all of the rooms with the same thing. Now everything is now done. You will find years on no near partners, 15 pieces and 26 cities. You don't express his actual number. Why? Because it will remember that there is our own. We did not make in Zar likes. We didn't does. This room is the one which it has a transformer. There's a tool, similar rooms and so one of them was not done. Therefore, the number off this doesn't really express is actual number. But it just to give some statistics insides out likes you will find years there for the office. In the normal, you will find that the Fluxus 500 is that I comfort is open 644 in the office and emergency 223 insides. A kitchen normal. That kitchen emergency is that you see normal that you see inside the emergency store normal and emergency. You'll find this. All of this information gives the assembly four. Czar Consultant Orza Electrical company. Okay, so now we have done all of the things which was required. Okay, You will find that the new parts for a C D. C. Okay, this is one which is excellent. Summary emergency summary. Okay. Auxiliary transformers, zap corridor. Okay, everything is now done. So we have now is a pdf file, which is required in this task and the dwt file which we exported now. So now we have done our task in the inter Your design hope you benefit from this city videos. And I would like you to work inside this task. Off course I'm providing in the 1st 70 order materials your use inside their bikes 38. Wiring Of Luminaries And Switches Using Autocad: in this video are going toe transfer our dialects, drawing or dwt file into our plane, and then we are going toe does the wiring off the Lumineers. So after doing from dialects and weak supported, it has a dwt file. And when we opened this, dialects will find this sinkings you'll find Here's 11 years with the rooms with its dimensions and the Lumineers, and you will see here some information about here. So all what we need is that the Lumineers with the dimensions off the room, we don't need this writing and this writing. So if I hear something which is called the layers, the layers are like here, you will find here dialects, and it has a different names. This is coming from the guy licks program, okay? And you can control the dialects, and you cannot view it or view it inside their export off the DWP. Fine. So it can chose toe have all of this information or not. So just remove some of them like this. Yeah, like this one. Let's settle. Moves this one white, you will see the dimensions and okay. Mm. Okay. Now we're move that. There they are. The which we don't need. Now we let selected this all and greet you will find the area white one Put Jennifer's into their by Alex itself. Okay, so what, you are going to know? We are going toe Select all of this, okay? And we will click on right click and then report and then copy with base point. So we'll just copy this image and or this drawing and transfer it in tow is a plane and the boat in them tourism and then service wise at this point. What? It chose a point weekend assembly find it will just click on emphasising. And then it was this point. OK, and now let's go towards the plane, sir. Premature will find in za fights 111 Yeah, Let's move like here and then right click and report and based. And they will find that the block can be controlled as you would like. Ok, so now which was the point, as we did before the dimensions which is this part And then we'll carry Kwanza left click like this. Okay, very good. Now we transformed our dialects image in tow our program. So now something is more missing What is it? Okay, you will find the year that there is an the dimension off the room off itself from the violets. Who would like to remove this? So we'll just a select is this and we'll find the layer which, as associated with the sport, which is the dialects. This one died excess scene, and then I'll close it. You will find that all of the dimensions off the rooms removed, which was made by ZA by Alex itself. Now we have our image, and we have our Lumineers. Okay, so that's the first step. We transferred that image from that dialects in tow. That or to get and from auto cad, we transform it. Survive Alex in tow, our program. So what is an extent the next step? We will just make them panels and wiring ends there. The place is telomeres with that default ones. So what are we going toe? Well, just a war tour and not our image was just called the legend. The legend. You'll find the fine. It contains many things. Number one. This represented the first floor in science factoring or the L Sweetie Simmonds factory. And we will have here some lesions. Religion, which represented that some singles assembles which by use the boys are company itself. Okay, it's a company has its own legend, its own symbols and its own Lumineers. I'll find here religion before the Lumineers, for example, this one called Desire panel his opponent. As you know, what is a plan in the planet itself? It contains a circuit breakers and the connection off it all of the wars that comes from out of it. What I mean by that, for example, there, all of that soak it. So inside our own is connected toe, for example, s one or the lying number one which represented their sockets and connected to a plan in which has circuit breaker, which in turn is on and off the stocks. Another example. We have a 6 11 years inside a room. This Lumineers are connected toe a lime, and this line is connected. Toe opinions upon itself is the one which provides electricity to all of this. It distributed distributes is a power. So it's called the distribution balance. There is also at mean distribution model and a sub distribution panel. That means solution Ban it is done or it's put inside there ground or the beginning off the building and the sub distribution bun. It is used inside each floor toe. Distribute electricity in the range off a 30 meters more than 30 meters. Will need more than one distribution plan. And we'll see how we can do this panel on how we bought this panel inside our building. You will find here that human ears the ship off Salomon years now our next step, we will just copy all of this and right click and report copy with space point. And we're, like, here and shoes this point. OK, now we'll go toe get Does that 111 and control V. You will just was at this point now we transformed our legend so we don't need this one. And I have to remind you that that first floor or this one is at ask for you. You will find it in the fines so we'll do it by yourself Is all dialects is our lighting exam that wiring and all of the things who are going to do in the next videos. So just to close this one because we don't need it anymore. Now we have our final form, which our lightning and there's a legend and everything now that existed is that we're going to tow both our distribution panel and the mean ends that sub distribution since we're dealing with the ground, the floor. And they would have here the A C board coaches done boys architectural in his design, Of course, we were both here Our main distribution, but which disturb built is a power inside our building. So just confined here. Is that simple? Like this, which is called Is that power distribution and report and or C if you want. And suppose for is at this point like this. Okay. Uh huh. And would it, like here and another one again? And then, like this second, the stable are going toe Align this image with you and then we're going toe attics for it. So just select it and then we will align hit online. And then what was that? First the point and I was the one and no. So we find that it is not lying correctly. Why? Because this one is not with the line. That's all just silicate again and a lion and are so as far as the fittest two point by exists and go into now we made our means to revolution. But let's lost to make this one toe and a lion online in Tora suppose for is that first a point second, Boyens like this and on Skip Now we don't our first thing We did this one. We want our minister to push a button and substitution second thing, we're going to add a text. So I still I find most of them that syndicate like this and main distribution ballot and maybe be now let's do something which is called the match. It is very easy. We have our text here, which is very small. We can now do something different. Just click on M A, which is called the Match Rob artists and would like selectors a sore subject which have their front or that sittings would like don't have, for example, the issue board and or select that what has Ah textile would like to change. Yeah. Ah, very small like this. And you'll find that that tickets to change it the same as this one And then we'll skip and we'll just move, rotate first like this and select at this point, like exists, and we will move eight here, not stick, you know. Mm, Nerve cylinders for is a piss point like this. And what moves This one like you skip like you. Okay, Now we will make here that distribution panel so we'll see all and and like you on, Skip just to move it, like here and likes And this one. Mm. Enter like we'll make it their sub distribution panel. Ground. Just move again like this. Okay, Now we have done our means to division banner and sub distribution panel. We can also change as we would like the front or anything but for business. Now, we will just make it like this one. Okay, Now we have done that's it was somebody. Let's ago and make is the wiring. So how we can does that? Wiring will just goto some of these Lumineers in there. One of the lions will just make Lizin 10 Lumieres as a maximum is 10 according to the cross section area off our wires, but will assumes that we are working with that Toto three million eat or square. So just assume that we are having Listen 10 long years bear line. So we just have one line for their office itself in the kitchen and zap us from nearly Yeah , maybe, maybe more. Sandton, not necessary. So just make the wiring how we can does a warning that simply by using is lying or supported line like this. And let's make the also if it okay, enter, enter like this and the but something wrong that we have did. What is the thing which is wrong? I will tell you now before starting the warning, we have to make a new layer. You layer force that wiring itself so we'll just choose a new layer By inlay they are enter Zen will choose a new layer. We were names this layer as wiring Okay. And we will change the color, please. Wiring is itself is already any so justice if it as wiring one. Let's see now we'll change the color off this layer as green, for example. Okay. And then said current and then we will exit. Now we have our layer as a green one for draw. A line like here toe makes a wiring. The warning is mean meanings. That connection between the layers and itself enter again. The connection between 11 years itself enter. Enter. Life is you're just to keep doing this, each one off them. As a line, you can make it as a solid lying or even on our as you would like. Now we will connect between them by using fell it Selig's our first object about fairest, would like to make the radius. For example, Let's make it toe and select the first object and second object. And it made a solid line. Very small. Fill it as you see. Okay, you can increase. Helen solves that. Fill it as you would like. Okay, now we can do it again because it is really small. The dimensions in this drawing is really crazy. Let's make it 20 and enter, said legs. The first object and the 2nd 1 and hands a village just increased the boy a little bit. We don't really need. Don't make a fill it Okay now we made the connection between them and will make the connection between the kitchen and the WC, all of them as on one line, because the availability is not really important in the kitchen or that abuse E. So when that any problem in this line haven't the office, A kitchen and ABC will be turned it off. But we don't really have an important cry. Cried ality in the kitchen or that abuse seen in the office is the most important one. However, the office we can both the office and the kitchen and that we see on one line. So what you are going to do are just going to make the connection between them. So I gave Doings are lying in turn like this. Enter, enter and we'll just keep doings. Sometimes it becomes really pouring. Just making this. However it is really on in his usual Not more than you think. No, tarde as you seem and again, actually dealing with dialects is much more fun. But easy to all of this work, it becomes boring and boring. However, like this Now we've got all of this on one line. So what? We are going door. We have our switchboard like here. Then we're going to make some single called Will make a lie in which pointing toe the direction off that switch. Those are sub distribution panel. So what are we doing are going to click on em. L ding and then And then we are going to satisfy the leader, are ahead or location How we are going? We're going toe our arrow would like toa buoyant like here. So just it was here and then there Aro itself. We will just and changes are also and they will connect it Toe this line Now we would like not to write any Take guests all just boat like this and the Nazis out was our well being. Very small legs this really small, So just double click on it and properties, Let's from our lesson religious How it and controlled balance off Czar. So the arrowhead. So I is Let's make it Wint ing the winning storm and zero. Let's see now it is not really large, so we'll make it 100 and see okay and close it. So we'll have on our oh buoyant ing door, our sub distribution banner. Let's move the image like here and there, pointing doors there sub distribution back now let's it Buddha thickest here for this line . So team enter satisfies the first corner and 70 corner and the let's make the tickets to as L one, which represented a lightening one or the line off the lightning. Number one Scdp, is there some distribution panel panel and G one gene? Okay. What? You're wasn't Is that ground like this? Of course, the text is very small. Soldiers engaged its length by selecting it and protests as we did before and takes tight. Let's make it 20 and see what will happen. Let's make it 15. Okay. 50 is good. Now, like this. So we'll have our line one sed being solution. Panel ground. Okay, that's submission panel. Let's say that this it is being for Ben. Unfortunately, no King. Uh huh. Like this and be okay. Now we have done our fairest allying. Let's does a second the line. Okay, we're just to connect all of this the store and the workshop on one line four business or for some blasting. Now, with just a click on lion like this, connected from here and also well, here and enter. Enter Yeah, and enter in tow. Enter. Find that actually doing the lightning and soak it sends a wiring. It's really easy task not difficult as it to see Now. Let's zone in all of this are onl online. So just click on enter and make another line for the arm came Soldier Skip, we have that situation banner here am l idem Or instead of doing that, humility. And we can assembly selectors this and copying space buoyant at this point. Uh, hands in here, we'll click on best. It was for his up his buoyant Let's Margaret, like here. Okay, so it is lost appointing toe our distribution panel to now we have made three things. When makes this line number two number two OK, very something. And of course they are owns a layer wiring. Now let's make the entrance in one line or in online lion and here satisfies the fittest Appoint. Yeah, I will tell you that something we for Bo to doom, but not really on board it And our foreign area. Okay. Uh huh. And okay, now we have done so wiring. What is the thing which is missing? We have to go. That was a legend and you'll find here. Is there switch that switches to control that lightning? One of them is the switch And another one is this one This one which is not a waterproof. It is not protected against order. This one is protected against or it can be used in that bathroom or that regions. Such as what? For example, the kitchen. What, first of all, let's allocate and they make it as a block water switch. And OK, now we'll just click on it and see all coming. And the common was this point, like here. And the movie does the kitchen. If it Mm. That kitchen. And what it Here, you will find that the door is closing here, so will not put the switch behind that door, Will. But the switching your here toe like this. Okay. And another one inside the bus from our door closes here. So we'll both another switch here. Okay. Onozawa switch. Is there anything which is waterproof? Nothing. So just the waters and extraordinary skin. Andi, I have to tell you if you don't know what that switch a switch to control the lighting. It will turn on and off the light itself. That is, it's a purpose. And each room must have a switch. Suppose flies at this point and let's go here. Uh huh. And the boat one We'll just put it near to the door and not inside that way it closes. So adjustable. Someone here another one year? Uh huh. That's here and see here. Okay. Like this. Another one here. Okay. Uh, and I was the one in the transformer room like here, for example. And here in the workshop, near to the door, put someone here and another one here. Okay, so now way have done their lightning. Okay, Nearly done. But yet we're going to do all of this, so just rotate this one road. It are all it was. Flies at this point, King and him. And okay, Now let's see the other one our own and are exist and and are are a winter toe date again. And that's needed this one and see all like this, we can dosomething here battery room for debt. - Now we have done all of them switches came correctly. Now, as an advice, when you are doing the wiring will just move the one which is close to the door and side. There s Steve Ng. Okay, so we'll just use this one or rituals. This one for this line will choose this one Since It is a one year toe. The door so trusted the rules are lying. Enter and activates that also, that's skip. Now we ml idem enter and satisfies the arrow direction. Or instead of doing this again, we just selected this part and see all. And the suppose for is at this point, like here and if eight. Let's close also like this. Okay, that's rotate. Enter satisfies appoint a flotation to make it like this. Okay, I would like it to a point. Does the direction off the sub distribution, but not like this. Okay, uh, our own enter. Okay, let's make it line number three. Okay, we have done that. This line and this lying and the other one here. But the thing here, we can do something different. We will click online. So as far as the fittest appoint, like here. Okay. And skip, let's do it. This one at some of this him. Okay? Why did we do it this in orderto because it is the one which is close to the door and close toe the switch at the same time. Our own. Okay. Great again. Okay, so now we have guns. Are wiring for one and door answering. Okay, now we have one room toe onesie, that same exact ones. Former room, as you know, that it is repeated. So just selected at nine years and shift. Now, we see all shows at this point, for example, which was this point, as it is known. Okay. And skip, that's what. The stone on the dialects. Okay. The organs of dialects layer itself. Okay, Now, in the wiring, we're just, uh it is close to that. Also just connected them like this. Okay, line. And the now would make Otto my coping gate instead of just maybe eating what you are doing. See, all end up skip, and when you will rotate it are like you and move exist. OK, let's make it line number four. Okay. And we just did it, uh, are all enter like this. Okay, now, let's ago does the battery room. So the door so lying, you'll find that everything is repeating itself. As you see here. My exists If it okay nine number five like this. We have done one and two and string and four and five. Okay. The last one for that wiring layers lying in thought Now , let's get this one, which is really inclined. Nearly Why the previous value? Yeah, uh, and she was this point. And he needs the awesome. Okay, let's make it line. Number five, number six. Right. Okay, Number six. And let's rotate this. And like this, Now we have done in the wiring. We connected all of this here as the switch. Okay, Concerning with all of this lightning, as which in each room, let's make sure that nothing is missing. Yeah, okay. And the wiring for all of them. All of them are connected. And Elaine connected toe online and on us out of the lane. Connected door, lying and connected. Toe allying, connected toe. Ally in tow. Okay, All of them are connected. So it's really great. Now we did the switches ends, the wiring and the now, in the next seven, you are wrong. Toe do their socks. 39. Types of Sockets: Now let's talk about the types off that circuits we have toe different times. Number one is that normal. Soak. It ends of power socket, the normal socket. Single face. It is a single phase and upto 1500 volt and beer. It can be divided into two things. A single outlet and a double X outlet. The power socket, the bar soak. It is divided into two things. Number one a single face from 2000 of water and bear, for example. Ah, hater and air conditioning and washing machine about soak. It has another time, which is that city phase, which I have contained. Any rated Bauer, for example, air conditioning, seven horsepower, 10 years, train horsepower and so on. So there, two times off sockets, which you are goingto go inside that wiring. We have a normal socket, which is just afford normal components like computer and any plans which does not have any power more than 1500 volt. And there it can be a single outlet or toe single, which is a double X out it. Some power socket has a single phase, which has starting a power from 2000 full time bear, you will find that the normal is upto 1500 bucks. A single phase power start is from 2000 volt and bay, for example, heater air conditioning. Endorsing machine. We will use a three phase if we have a power. Greater Zan 2500 Wartime bear, for example, air conditioning, seven more support or any advance which require a three phase. So that's the difference between them and you will find the same balls inside the next video where we add is a power sockets and Sir Norman Sockets. 40. Adding And Wiring Of Sockets In Autocad: in this video are going to discuss how toe make or does that sockets layer So first toe are going toe type player. Okay. And then we're going to make a new layer which is called their sockets. So just the chores and you layer and intimate as sockets. Okay. And sockets. Okay. And sit as our current. But we will use that color off it as blue and OK, and then we'll click on set current now was click on set current. Okay. And close this one. Now, As you see here, we have the symbols for our socket. So we have a single face socket and another were one with us, which in orderto clothes and turn on and off their soak it. We have ear fuze or associate with a fuse. It is used enza air conditioning and heaters. The one which is hatchet. It is used in their waterproof and the one which is not hatchet is used in not weatherproof . Okay, this is a single so called but it is I was are proof it is a single socket, but with a switch, it can be turned it on and off. So you will see here I was approved and we have here a single one which is more visible. So I we can It is this one will just to select it and use the command explode toe divided into the front lines and selected the hatching. Now let's village attaching like this find that it is divided into buoyant. So we just So what you are going to do? We're just going to selected this lions like this and move like this and Ilidza hatching since they divided into toe different points and things. Uh, let's make it a block again and move here and and move, and to make it up look and the names of look as Bauer Circuit, which is used the four air conditioning and their heaters. Now we will find that here we have ah month, which is not ours. Our growth. So we'll just to move it. And the list it boys this one Ah, like this okay and will change earlier. Why, since this'll one is a blue one sensitive waas in different earlier and the outside waas there was earlier You're refined that this part is in the sockets layers ends outside one waas in another label t zero earlier. So we changed it all of this, and put it in one there, which is zero layer. Now we have That was a roof and not always a proof. OK, so now let's in our boat there. So kits inside our circuit. So we have here an office, so we'll have some of them. Okay, lets see. All in the and the let's move here and rose are sockets. We're just both some sockets here at a distance off as three meters from each other city to five meters. Okay, Now for the kitchen. Instead, you see, with news that was our proof. The store Okay, wins The story can use some of them like this. Okay. And all of date it okay in the work. So we'll use ours. Our growth since it contains lost the and so on the auxiliary transformer we can use also I was a groove and better room use a bizarre prove we can use here and normal socket. Let's do one here for the better room when use, so get here. Okay. For the second time, which is called design, one was hit. Jazz is a switch and ands on also is was our proof. See? All enter. That's a what's wrong with them? Adjustable this inside that You see why? Because we have a fan in that you see which is controlled by as which in the kitchen. You can put one here, huh? Work, soap and so on. We don't need this one anymore. Okay, we have here. That was a roof. I hate that. And according toe, the Egyptian Good and other codes you will find that there is a hater for his, a kitchen and another heater force that abusing. So when he was here, hitter and another one here, or a power socket for theater and another bar Soak it for Zach Kitchen. Okay, we can make it right here. A power circuit, which is so far, so good. Which is that was our roof. Okay, now let's see. Was another one, which is here was, which is? I was a roof and on one month off trio and that was approved can be used inside their places which have Augusto and order for examined. The museum tickets in wheelchairs are water. So we'll just what? One here and another one here and for the so one to and scream. That's about someone hears them here. I don't know what at all sockets behind each other because it will make a lot of noise, and you will find that there is If a short circuit happen, it will be a lying plan fault, which is really dangerous fault. So we don't want toe so could sit behind each other. Uh, like here. You'll find that everything is working smalls and easy like this. Okay, that's Simek one here. Another one here. Okay. Way had it was about a room. And for it's absolutely OK. Now, one which is with us, which we don't need it. Okay, This one, which is used before air conditioning sense it is a power socket and does not need any wizard. So use it inside the office as we need that air conditioning. The kitchen's a store. Okay. In the store, in the war. So we can use one for the transformer room. Okay. For the better your room like this and for the CDs. You okay now? We did their sockets. We bought all of the sockets and we need toe. Make sure that they are both correctly this one rotate like this and so just see all and his buoyant like this. Let's see, another one here we can make was a woman. She's a little room here. Okay. Like here. Now let's seize sockets. Uh, see your own rotate. 41. Panel Schedule For Lighting And Power Circuits: in this video, We are going toe Discuss Z panel skid. Well, so first you will see here is that we have here on us our project. You will find this project which was one of our task is in our graduation project. When I was a student, you will see my own name under my own name. Teammates in the project Anyway, you will find years. This is a large apartment and you'll find here is that was this is another missile Goff wiring instead Off using a straight lines, we can use arcs. OK, by using this symbol, we can make or do our kiss here. Okay, so we have here some new sings Number one we have here. So special type Sandler which is eight months of blood. 15 What? It means as each off. This one has eight Lumineers or eight lamps Incandescent lambs. So let's zoom in and see what is there. Okay, you will find that according toa our court or see Egyptian. Could we have towboat 10 Lumineers on one line? Okay, so we have here 12 and we have a eight. Lumineers is so we have 10 a Lumineers in one line. And if you look at anyone off this Lumineers lines one toe, we'll find here. This one is eight Roman years, and this one is to Lumineers. Therefore, the maximum number is 10 and same here. Let's say Joe Zana's or 112 34 5678 Mind Day. So we have here 10 Lumineers at all in one line. Okay, That is a first single wanted toe discussed in this video. Second thing, you will find here that this is the Bannon, his opponent. As if you I look at an apartment when you enter Z from the door off the apartment will find here a panel. This panel contains us witches or the circuit breakers for the apartment. Okay. Circuit breakers, which is used it toe turn on and off. Z light. The circuit breakers is used air mainly for the protection off our apartment against short circuit. Okay, so in the next video, we'll discuss how to chose this circuit breakers according toe the loading off the apartment and how to use that toe. Choose the cables for our apartment. Okay, but now we will discuss how toe do this panel skid way Okay. So as you see here, you'll see that in the legend, each off this Lumineers fl little is toe multiplied by sort six. What? Which is 72? What? This one is CF one, which is 26. What? Okay, this one is eight. Model blood by 15 which is the same as 72. Okay, so this is for our on the lighting circuit. Okay, Let's see the sockets. Okay. This circuit is 40 socks. You'll find again this files on the drive. Okay. On my own new damage right now. Let's see here. You will see here that we have. This one is air conditioning, which is a power socket. Okay. And there is a small thing I would like toa tell you. Okay, you will find us that we named is this panel or the f which means that residential f, which means that we have a residential building first floor, okay, and finds this name is the same as on all the lines. Okay, Also, you will find that here we have our the f a c four a c, which is the power socket or air conditioning for okay. And this one are the f and s, which is a normal soak. It number six. And this one are the F normal socket number eight and so on. You'll find years that we have. He And another thing for the power socket or the power circuit. We use even number. For example. Two, then 468 10 and so on. For the lighting, we use all the numbers. L one a little, which is lighting. Okay, let's see. A one in three history. L seven l mine. And so on on you will find that this numbers are in sequence. Okay, so it could be easy to read l one and then when I go down in history and side it and a five and the Poseidon l seven and the line 11 and so on. Okay, so it is Toby. Easy toe. Read this Circuit and toe finds the line or the circuit. I would like to go fight. Okay, So we have Here are number off sockets, which is on all my circuits. On one line, the number off sockets should be from 5 to 7. But you have to remember something. Is that as we discussed before that the sockets should not exceed 2000 of all time. Bear the number off sockets on one line does not exceed 2000 vault and bear second thing that each off this soak, it can be from 200 to 250 volt. I'm being. So we can assume is the lowest divine, which is 200 Walter and beer. Okay, 200 Walter and bear means an early 160. What? So each off this one is 160. What? So that's our mission off them will not exceed that. 2000 evolved. And there, as we said before, lots of things that why do we chose the lowest value? Because all of these circuits are not operating at the same time. Okay, if you look at your own apartment a room, you don't use this socket. And this one and this one and this one all at the same time, you're some of them. Okay, that is what scored a diversity factor. It means that all of the lords are not operating at the same time. We will see this in the panel. Skid one. Okay, we have here. And air conditioning. And it is has its own line. It is an hour or so get. And we will discuss how to choose the air conditioning for each off this room. Okay, we have Here are ways are proof socket in the kitchen. Okay. Is this one can be used. The foresee hater for the SEC. Foresee kitchen and the year honors our hater and another heater in each off these possums . Okay, the according to our code, the each off these hitters, or each off the kitchen or past rooms. Each one has its own hater. So find here a power circuit. Foresee hater off the kitchen. Another boat took it for theater off Z Pastoral and another one for the other pastoral and off course on other and normal circuits and power socket. So what are we going to go? We are going toe designs. E panic. Okay, So in order to design our Panelists, kid one, we will use the Excel file. Okay, this Excel file will be found in your own Dr or my own drive off Udine. Okay, So the first thing you'll find years e description for the circuit and here on a subscription, we assume that our apartment uses a three phase power. Okay, for a three phase when Z current exceeds 40 and bear or the loading exceeds eight Gila vault. And there. Okay. So again, we use a three face system for an apartment, which is the dominant. The case win. The power exceeds eight Gila vault. And there. Okay, so we have here the lighting circuits in this part, and we have here the power circuits or the sockets and Z off course air conditioning, the heaters and so on. Okay, We have here the wire size for each of them. According to that. Good for lighting, we usedto 0.5 millimeter square toe 0.5 millimeters square and the fourth e sockets. We can use four or three. Okay. Four or city millimetre square. You will find years that for each lighting outlet or for each circuit, we use three month the blood by 2.5. Why, that's three is divided into the face, the neutral and the earth thing. So we have three for 1 40 phase and one foresee a lighting or the neutral and the 3rd 1/4 the Earth thing. So face neutral and the Earth and Sam, for the sockets. We have lighting or the face neutral. And, er seems OK now for let's see each off the circuit. So we have lighting out that one, which is l. A one illusory alibi. Seven and nine and 11. Okay. And you'll find Here's that number off phrases each off this or a single face because we have a three city one for the face, one for the neutral and one for the air's. So we are using a single face circuit the circuit breaker rating. We'll discuss it later. Okay? Now, for the outlet for Z l one you will find here are why and be red, yellow and blue is a three phase circuit. Okay? And you'll find the year each off this line. We assume that one and the toe circuit number one and circuit number two have on have its own passport. And this part has a point. This point is showing a to Z red. Okay, you will find Here is this point. And this one and this one this means red this blue and this is yellow. Okay, again, this one red, yellow and blue. That left hand side one point is red and the middle one is yellow and right hand side. Dizzy blue. Okay, so we assume that circuit number one from the lighting and circuit number two from the sockets are connected. Toe the rent circuit number three and circuit number four in the sockets are connected. Toe the yellow and so on. So we'll find year. The 1st 1 are yellow read and write yellow and they'll Blue and the blue and so on. Okay, you can edit this point by double clicking on it. And the movie is this point anywhere you would like. But remember that if we move this point toe blue, then it means that this one will be blue and this one will be also blue. Okay, Now, let's adore Z at a panel off this apartment. Okay, So let's to go toe Elo on anyone that's open Z or Tokyo trying and the move like this. We have a one here we have in a Lawrence. See if one and safe to let's over the calculator. Okay, Now we have cf one and say photo. Let's see their values. See if one having 26. What? So we have how many off them 12 three and 44 in one circuit. So we will say four about the blood by 26 which is the first human years. Okay. Plus, we have here in the l one. We have fl Itoh. How many of them want toe three off, then? Okay, so each off these lambs is 72. What? So 72 months of blood boys Three. Okay, so 72 I want a blade by city. Okay, so there's something wrong here. 72 month blood by three. Plus 104. Okay, so let's religious 72. What? The blood by Syrian lost. 104. 700 twin. So let's go back to our panel. 720. What? Okay, but the unit here is skill. What? So we'll divide this by 1000 so we have always 32 kilo. What now? Let's of those is again for the lighting number three. Okay, lets see numbers. We here we have one off this lamb, which is eight Lumineers and f a little. So let's see it again. So we know that this one is 72 this one is 17 toe. So, um, that's a religious 72 Martha blood boy, too. It will be equal to 144. So let's get back to it. Mm, no, There's 100 mine, Tito. So let's see what was wrong. So in the three here we have this one on this one. Okay, Only this time. Okay, let's get back. It is eight multiplied by 15 and 72. It multiplied by 15. Okay, so it what a lot By 15. Okay. Plus 72. So it will be 100 mine. Tito. What? So let's see now. 192. What exactly? Or going toe online to Gil. What? Again for Z lighting number five. Uh, see if one see if one and another one of these. So see, a foreign blanc State form is is same as f l two. Okay. And the blocks this one would give us the same value for this sect. So I find it is the same or goingto 17 toa que nosy. Same. So I'm going to show you why. Okay, Let's see against a foreign and say for, uh, c f one. Okay, 26. What? Ok, they are not the same. So twin six work multiplied by two plus 120 off the eight long years. It is 172. Exactly. Ok, so it is normal that you make mistakes. That is not is not wrong. Toe make mistakes. But you have toe. Be careful when you does this. Mathematics okay for lighting number seven will do the same. And the line and 11. Okay, so what? What we did here? Assembly we some Z. What? For each off this long years. Okay, let's make this bigger and uses rally, huh? So far, only seven we will something. One, This one. This one This one and this one and this one. Okay, we will calculate the total kill. What? Absorb it in this line. Okay? Or in this circuit. Okay, so this is the first step for the lighting. It is very easy. You just to some Z values and so on For the circuit breakers. Air Force, the lighting will use a 16 and bear as a protection. Okay, so for all these values were 16 for the sockets. We use 20 or 16 and bear as a circuit break. Okay, the higher the better. But it is more expensive. Why do you use at least 16 you dozy short circuit level. Okay. The circuit breakers, the different values off circuit breakers also gives a different values off short circuit, living the short circuit level off an apartment or not, an apartment for a larger residential place or area depends on the value of short circuit, which dependence on the value which attended from the E tab. Okay, we can also add discusses the tab in this course, but I will see if I can do it. Okay, for now, let's does he have to do O Z in power circuit? So the 1st 1 is the electric heater. Okay. Circuit number two. That's to get back toe the sockets. Uh huh. Uh huh. For the sockets, we said circuit number one number two. Okay, since the way said that this one is even value. So this one represented hater. Okay, so we bought the hater as 1.5 kill What? 1500. What? Where did I get this value? I assembly social for an elector Kita, which is yours then I started it on websites like you can search on Amazon or eso or as Omiya Or any any website or al express any any website. Okay. And you're seeing core an electric cater. You'll see how many kill what it absorbs once I want, which I found is 1.5 kilowatt. Okay, 1500. What? So I just bought this value as it is. Now, let's have seen circuit number four. Number four. It's stopped. Okay, Okay. Was off lying. Let's concentrate. Uh, we now need to find circuit number four. Okay, lets see. Circuit number four, this one you will find. This one is an air conditioning for this room. So how I can call calculate this value. Okay, Let's get back to our PowerPoint slides because I find that for air conditioning, we can assume that for each one, horsepower can cover eight meter square or we can increase it upto 10 meter square. Okay, The number off horsepower increases as this pace required increase. Okay, But the most important thing that you don't have to do this the mechanical engineer exhausted. Those is designed in administration building, for example, when we are talking about H vac, which is calling off large building, then the mechanical engineer designs are required Make mechanical lewd and the required electrical load for this mechanical loot. Okay, as I required electricity to supplies a mechanical loot. Okay, so I will find that this among with the force about, is proportional to the area. OK, so one HIV can cover eight meter squares. Airport for a 12 meter square. We will use 1.5 horsepower. Now let's get back toe our area. So how we can calculate this any about using a command in cat, which is a which is area, and then we'll click on enter. Then we will draw the area like this and that's a click on this and click on this one and this one. Then, after choosing the area, lost a focus that you click on enter. Okay, you will find here a value 15,000 on hand for this value can be according to your own dimension. We will assume that we have year millimeter, So this area is 15 millimetre square. So according to the calculator, let's see now, 15 meter square over. It will give us nearly 1.875 horsepower, so we'll use our two horsepower air conditioning in this room. So let's get back to Z panel. So it should be air conditioning to transform from doors. Power toe. What will multiplied by 746 So where is the creator? Why did I stop it? Okay, so way said that 746 multiplied by two horsepower. Will you give us 1.492? Okay, so 1.4 line to now, let's get back toes. The US Another one. Which a circuit number six. Circuit number six. Okay, Where six. We said that we are in Sequels. 24 and 6123 and four. And five and six. And seven and eight. Okay, it So it's normal. Talked. So it eight months of blood by 160 What? Uh huh. Will give us one point to it. So one point, toe it. One point. Tow it. Gilo. What and the same for all of the other things Crazy are the same as before. Electric ator air conditioning sockets is eight months of blood by 111.6 or 160. What for the air conditioning. Let's take another one. Number 10 Number 10. This area. So it's like a Onda like this stick. Okay? And enter 8.44 Okay. Greater Zen, um, Zanzi eight meter square. So we'll see. 8.4. The wire by it will give us nearly 1.5 We can both one horsepower or it can both here on 1.1 point 25. Ok, so as you would like. Okay, um, this one, also 16 is also one horsepower. Let's do it again. I'm just doing more than one thing s so you can understand the concept. Okay. Number 10 number 12. Okay, so we assumes that it covers disease area. Ah, yeah. Like this. Uh huh. We can increase it. And 6.776 created is then, is that eight meter square? So we can both one horsepower and it will be enough. One horse school and the same as before. Okay, now 40 haters or the air conditioning Listen. Five horsepower is er single face Liz. Then five horsepower is a single face. So she's that towards power is on one face, one horse about one face and so on. And for the sockets. We said that we can put 16 or a 20 AMP air. Okay, now for the wires, we said that we can use four or we can use three. Okay, so after this, we have completed this. We have the total red, yellow blue for the lightning and red, yellow, blue for Z. So kits or the power circuit. And I would see here is that we have here on description, which is important for calculating is the power factor. So we have the lighting. We have a bar factor off 0.8. We assume that they are having a bowel factor point. It is the worst case and the connected load here connected. Kill. What is a summation off all of this? 0.5 plus points. Three plus points. He is at one point. Oh, okay, 00.6 a plus 0.5. But there is some more dismal points. So the submission of them will give us 1.2. Okay. The diversity factor. It means that as the roads are connected together or they are separated or they are not working at the same time. So as from the lighting sense, it is has a small load. We assume that we have a diverse factor off one okay. They are all operating at the same time because you have. Ah, Hello. I kill What? Okay, now for the kilovolt ampere. Kilovolt. Amber, as you know it is the s or the apparent Power s easy power as a power or the act of power over the power factor. So 1.2 over point, it will give us 1.5. The killer of our which is the cue. Thank you. Is the root off as square plus B square, So it will give us point it. Okay, this is the symbol. Mathematics from Z basics off electricity. OK, socket outlet or the circuits. We will just we have assumed that we have about factor point it and we assume that diversity off 4.85 and they can be lower than this. Okay, since they are not operating at the same time. So that's why we bought more than seven Roman years in on one circuit. Okay, now we have a killer, Walter. Amber, and we have connected Load, OK, Connected. Kill what? It is a submission off. All soaked. So we something slowed glasses. Plus this this one and this one And this one the submission off. Everything has the name sockets, the normal circles. So we some disease loads and we have finally 6.5 killed. Want the 6.5 kilowatt. But that is equal to the commission. Off this loads amount of blood buys a diversity fact. So again, the submission off this loads about the blood biodiversity factor will give us 6.5 and the kilovolt Amir is killed. What? Over 0.8? The killer war is the road or as a square minus. As the active power 6.5 square, the air conditioning is the same. Assumed the part. Actor 0.8 Diversity factor one and we use a connected load is a submission off all the horsepower Here in the kilowatt unit Z kilovolt amber is the same as before. Killer. What off? Because I'm fine. And that killed bar is the root off villa Volta and bare square minus kilowatts square. The electric heater. It has a part factor off one since it is our resistive loot. And the connected load is of submission off. Everything has electric. Eight. Zach, Kilovolt Amber is the same. Eskil What? Zero kilowatts. And by doing this, you will find that the program automatically calculated the power factor, the connected load, the diversity, the kilovolt, Amber and the Gilo. Okay, so now we find these values. According to this video, now, in the next seven, Jewel discussed how to calculate the circuit breakers and Z cables. 42. Circuit Breakers And Cable Selection: Now, in this video, we will discuss the circuit breakers and cables off course. We are not going to discuss everything about. We are going to discuss Onley, that singers or the topics, which is important for us in the low voltage. So first, there are types off circuit breakers. There are low volt circuit breakers, medium voltage circuit breaker end, as it is also high voltage. The low voltage type, which is used inside distribution network. There's three types of the miniature circuit breaker. The moulded case. A circuit breaker or mounting case or mall. The case circuit breaker and the air circuit breakers. This are the three times which is used in the low voltage in the medium and the high voltage. There is a vacuum circuit breaker s a for six circuit breaker and the airstrike Bricker camp used also in the medium. The Mitchell Circuit breakers has rating from 10 and bear the 125 members and the short circuit rating. It can withstand short circuit from 10 to 25 Kahlo Amber Okay, The range off the Mitchell circuit breaker from 10 to 125 example. There is a 10 circuit Breaker 10 and bear circuit breaker. They're 16. There is 20. It's 25 32 AM Bear 40 15 60 Stringing 100 Bear and so on. This is if the range off the current from 10 to 125 embarrassing, We will use this type of circuit break, but also according toe the short circuit Levitt is a short circuit level greater than these values. Then we'll start using the moulded case circuit breaker more. The case. That breaker has a range from 16 to 1600 bear and the short circuit rating is 17 Kahlo. And there this one has a fix it characteristics. We cannot control the curve or the relation between the current and the time or the time where the short circuit occurs, or how long it takes tow cut off the circuit. But this one has a fix it or adjusted. The air sector breaker is the same, but it is controlled the characteristics. It has a range of from 400 toe 16 62 100 bear or 6200 bear up 250 kilometres as a short circuit. So what is that benefit off the circuit breaker circuit breaker, user toe. Protect our circuit against mainly from the short circuit. Okay, a short circuit means that we have a face toe ground fault aligned to ground the fourth or line line toe ground the fourth, the line to line lying fault or line tow line, lying toe ground fault. The short circuit current during the short circuit. See, current is a very large value of for example, if our circuit absorb piston on bear, the short circuit, maybe 10 kill on bear. So if we allow this Thank you, Amber toe bust through our circuit to our wires lighting everything will be destroyed. So that's why we have asked Circuit breaker toe protect our circuit against this short sect . Okay, Now, how does electricity circuit breakers? We can select circuit breakers according toa these values. OK, for example, in our country, which is Egypt for a single face, we have 220 vote and the three phase at surrounded 80 volt is this values It changed according to is your own country. Okay for for example, As I remember in USA, we have 110 vote as I as I know it. Okay, so is this thesis to rules are used Onley in my own country, which is agent Okay, So the I load is equal to s or the apparent power multiplied by 4.5 or the horsepower multiplied by 4.5. This is for a single place. Okay. For a three phase, you'll find that the I load is s motto Blood 1.5 or horsepower multiplied by 1.5. The difference between them and is that you will find here that the current in single face is three times larger Zanzi current in city face. Why? Because the current it was a single face is divided into s three face each off the face take a specific current. So the current industry face is one of our served Z current in a single face. That's why you're finding is 4.5 and if we divides his boy stream, you will get 1.5. Okay, so now let's see is the year olds Where did we get 4.5 and one point by four other countries, then Egypt The current will be s multiplied by specific value or horse of our multiplied by specific value. This value can be obtained from the rules here. Okay, So for a single face, if we have a 2000 of all time bear, then the current I face will be equal to do, which is to kilovolt amber or s over being Okay. So it was that 2000. Okay. Over Xavi V phase, which is 220. You can change this value according your own country. So too much obliged. Boy. 1000 over 2220. Okay, so it will be quite toe to multiplied by 4.5. So Zs, Martha Blood by Z. A factor, which is 4.5 here. Okay. Now, for a three fair system, you will find that the I face is equal Toe Z mine, which is the power as a kilovolt ampere and 1000 years. And to have the road city multiplied by 400. So we have here 1000 overrode city multiplied by 400 or surrender. It is up. 400 is for lysine. Voltage drop. Okay, so as a supply for or relying tow line. History 108. But the outward vaulted from transformers 400. Why that the front at the difference between them is 20 volt. This 20 world is used the four voltage drum. So we'll find any. We'll get mine multiplied by 1.5. Okay. And this is a standard value circuit breaker. Roaches, cells, which we discuss the poor as their um all the case or the miniature. Because you have here 10 10 16 2025 30 to 40 50 60 string. And so Okay, so we'll find here we have a tool. 4.5, and then I multiplied by 1.5. So Zs multiplied by 4.5. In case off a single face and string in case off a three face will use the power multiplied by 1.5. OK, so let's see now, Why did we use here s or horsepower? Because here we have each one horsepower is 746 And if we assume a power factor off, point it, then we'll have an s off my 100 as you remember that the S is equal to the active power or be over the power factor. So 746 or 4.8 will give us on on 100 Wartime Bay and we assume 10% Telesis. Therefore, the S will be equal to 1000 volt Ambien. So we'll find that CS is 1000 full time there, the same as one horse. About one horsepower is the same as 1000 full time. Okay, assuming 10% Telesis and part factor pointed. If these two values change it, then it cannot be the same. Okay, now for a circuit breaker, the current off the circuit breaker Is it going toe? I load multiplied by 1.25. Okay, so we'll find that the circuit or the load current in our circuit, and then we multiply it by 1.25. Okay, for the edge, back or motor's okay, They have a starting current motors, which which I mean by in large induction motors. Therefore, in order to prevent dizzy operation off the circuit breaker during the starting of the motor during the starting, the motor Z current, maybe 6 to 7 times is starting current. So multiplies a circuit breaker current by Tobu and five. This will make the circuit breaker have a delay time during this. Starting off the amount. Okay, so again in the H back or the large induction motors we will use. The circuit breaker current circuit breaker will be called Toe. I load martyr blood by 2.5. Load is the North card, and we'll see that how we can get it. Okay. For the main circuit breaker, we will take the total connected load and the multiplied by diversity factor, because off course, they are not operating at the same time. This diversity factor can be from 0.6 toe 0.7 in my residential building, 4.8 or point allies the commercial because in the commercial places, who and nearly all the lords are connected together, But in the factory or industrial plants, you will find that most likely that all the induction machines are operating at the same time. So we'll have a large, diverse factor point and I know one, which means that the roads are nearly connected together. So let's have an example so we can see it like this if we have a demand off 17,450 of all time there so that the divers fight load in and residential building will be equal to 17 350 multiplied by 3500.7 equal 14,000. Wartime beer. What does it mean? It means that if this is a demanding loads the total connected load but senses it's connected. Laws are not operating at the same time. We will assume our diversity factor in the residential 4.7. Okay, now is the current will be Quinto 12 multiplied by 1.25 Why? This room is the one. What? You discussed the before here for a single face system for a three fair system. Sorry, three first system. We have us multiplied by warm 15 cents Z load, 17,000 which exceeds eight Kilovolt Amber. It means that we will have a three first system. So we multiplied Boise s or Z kilovolt and bear, which is 12 multiplied by 1.5. OK, so we get load current off 18 and bear. Okay. Now the circuit breaker is equal toe. I note multiplied by 1.25 18. Want the blood by 1.25 which will give us 22.5 amber. So the circuit breaker, which is the nearest the standard which is 25 there now for the cable, which will be discussed in L. We will take this current on divided by 0.8, so we need a cable, which was a stand 13 on bear. So now let's see how that cable will be chosen so that cable selection we have a different types off cable with. They are the violent according toe, their construction. We have a conductor. It can be cover or aluminium. Copper has, ah high conductivity, which means have a lower festivity and also levels drop and but and also lower losses. But the problem off it it has ah, higher Air Coast, the second by which is aluminium. It has a lower conductivity, high resistive eating and higher ones drop and high losses, but it is less expensive. Zanzi cover. We have the type of insulation for protection off the cable we have BBC or Cross Lincoln Police selling in Cross Lincoln Bully Strain or Exelby. This one will stand 50 to 70 solicitors agree on. This one wasn't stand minding to green. We have that she's which is be received collection. We have also bidding, which is something in the conductor or D cable. We have also the arming armoring which is used for mechanical protection off zk will against the mechanical stress. We have also a still tap our morning and see who are arming the selection off the cable is according toa different factors number 10 it'd vaulted is our cable is in the low vaulted which is upto one kilovolt or it is in the media for Monterroso etc. Kilovolt, Or it is in a high voltage 6262 220 kilovolt. So we'll find here that if a cable has this name 457 151,000 it means that the phase voltage or rated phase voltage is 450. They rated line wanted you 750 and the max voltage that the cable can withstand is 1000. Now is the rated current off the cable, the line or the load current must A bill isn't a circuit breaker, and the cable current must be greater. Sends a circuit breaker current. Okay, that cable has the highest current capacity. So the cable current is equal toe I circuit breaker off our A D rating factor. Okay. Is this in case off a low power, which is our case. But if we have a high, corrupt or high power, we will have the current tomato blood by 1.25 over a diverse effect. Okay, is the current which is a load current wanted blood by 1.5 the same as here. Okay, that directing the factor what you'll find in Z catalogues off the power conductors or the cables which would see now has a city factors effects If why effort set the multiplication off the three factors This really factor, the dependence on the temperature is the steps off the pairing off the conductor. The magnetic factor is the troubling or the groping off a Z conductors when the conductors are close to each other, the distance between them. We have a different times off course. We have a single courtroom, only one wire, and we can have to one month blood by city. It means that we have a two wires, one core, which is a three millimeter square cross sectional area, or we can have a multi core toe Coursey core for core four core with a reduced the newt. Okay, this is a different times off Z cable according to their construction and the selection factors, which is voltage current and the number off course, we will find that the current off the cable is against a circuit breaker. Current tomato blood by 1 21.25 or one went toward the five is the same as one over 10.8. Okay, they are the same. So you can don't confuse yourself. So if we don't know these factors we bought as the diversity is a deteriorating factor by point it now, another thing which we will be found is the unbalanced percentage. Okay, we have. Is he vaulted over? Theme is the radio not the voltage about the loading off each off this raises We have r and s anti or red. Yellow blue. Okay, The red has a specific loot, and the yellow has to serve. Recruit. And the blue has also a specific load. We have toe balances. The Lord's between them. Okay, so how we do this? We get Z vault and Bayer Average, which will be the vault. Amber average off our as of all time. Bear off our the world number off s and vote Amber off t on the vital boys. Three, the average off the total of all time bear. Okay, then the percentage off the imbalance will be the maximum of all time Bear Z face, which has the maximum full time bear minus Z average value, which we calculated the year over the average value. Or we can say the average or the vault. Amber maximum the maximum built hamburger phase. Miners, the maximum the minimum full time bare face over the maximum of all time. Bare face multiplied by 100. This arm balance, the percentage does not exceed 10%. Okay, now I know that you it seems to confuse the for you. But time's going to show you how we can do all of this. We have this Kozeny. Okay, So now let's get first toe our panel we have here the loading off our the loading off the yellow blue. And here's the same. Okay, you'll find that Zack cell. She calculated the total loading off our total loading off. Why? Daughter loading off the blue. Okay. Eight point for kill what? 6.1. Kill what? And 5.5 kilowatt. And you will find here the total demand the kilovolt I'm bear. Okay, which is 24 which is calculated the year. Okay. Was a program just automatically. But it here and the bar factor is the year and the demand and the input voltage. You'll find years our voltage in what is 230 over 400 toe. Prevent the voltage drop or for the voltage drop until you get the value. 220 over 780. The frequency here in Egypt is 50. Hertz is, and you can find it in on other places like USA 16 artists. The actual number off circuits is here. Your seals that we have 123456 seven And mine 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1920 2122 20 c. So we have actually 23 circuit breakers or 23 circuits. Okay, Now, um, we need toe find dizzy line. Amber current. The lying current is calculated automatically also in the programme which is 34 there. Okay. So, as we said before that, the main circuit breaker or circuit breaker which are going to use is the line and bear multiplied boy safety factor 1.25. Okay, so I forget the calculator. My exists. And almost a blood by zeroed current about the blood by safety. Factor off from 0.25 which is 42.5 Amber, the nearest evaluates court MBL. OK, so we'll use this circuit break. Okay. Okay. Now you have to know that this ah circuit breaker this current does not have a reverse effect or because you are talking about one apartment here. If we are talking about a large number of her apartment or a residential building, then we will take the diversity factor off 0.6 point seven. Okay. So again, the diversity factor is between the different lords or that same lords, but they are not operating at the same time, such as their front. Our apartments. Dan also have to know that this 34 amber is depending also on the diverse defector off the sockets. This diverse factor can also be less than 340.85 can be a 0.6. So this one is means that all of these lords are operating at the same time with this diverse effect. So again, we have the road currents 54 the nearest is 40 Mbare. We can also in defusing 40 Mbare. We can use the nearest as a Ron, which is 50 on bear Now we need toe finds Fuhr type of feeder, which is the cable Discover, which is the conductor and Z Cross linked bullies in in the type of insulation ends as she is. But let's cover be busy. The 3rd 1 is the earth, and this one is the fares and Senior. Now let's find our feeder. We said that that feed our size is equal to the 14 member. Okay, that circuit breaker Monta Blood body one boy 25. OK, Uh huh. Okay. 40 multiplied by one boy in 25. Okay, which is 50 and beer, or which is the same as we did 40. Divided boy, is that ah de rating factor, which is buoyant. It will give us 50. Abby, it is a scene. Okay. Now lets us easy catalog what you'll find in Z. Um Jodi Mean drive. Let's get back. This one is else, Sweetie cables. Now we'll find here it is 100 and seven ting in pages. Anyway, you will find the Let's see sees a factors you'll find here. Idea. Rating factor. For example, if we have a cable, BBC cable, which is off course 70 solicitors degree. If it is at 15 solicitors degree, it means our cold wizard. Then we can use our diversity factor off 1.25. If it is a 20 then it's 1.2 19 if it is 20 fives in its 1.13 and so on. So as the temperature increases Zinzi de rating the fact or this is over and 65 Okay, so it means that our cable can being overloaded in gets off. We have a law temperature, then we can overload our cable. But if we have a height in Britain, then we must de rate or the crazy load. OK, we have also an air temperature is the temperature of the surrounding air and each generating factor. Okay, we have the depths obviously bearing. If it is this sizes meter and you'll see the cross sectional area off the cable selected cables, you will find this is a different dating. Factors also that soils her marriage festivity. The rating factor that we ve Z rated this are there pronto types. And you will find here that if we have a three single core cables Okay, you will find that if we bought it in this form the stream, the front tables. Okay. And if we want it in this form, then this type has a off course aggravating factor. And this one has also added a rating factor. This is a large field. Okay, so you cannot just this causes it. In this video, you can see everything old like in NZ. Ah, of course. The drive game. You'll find this fight. Now. Let's see how to select it. We'll find the era voltage and which one we are going to see. We want to ask three. Cool. Okay, you will find here we have a single core cape. Okay, but since we're using nothing, a three phase is in. It is more likely to choose as three core type. You'll see here. Now, this recall this one is a sequel. One and two and three yellow, which is one red and the blue. Okay, a Sereni phase are its anti. Okay. This cable can be only a taco or can be a StoryCorps or can be Ah, forecourt. And each one of these has its own gross section. An area in millimetre square. Okay, you'll see his at 16 millimetre square and you'll find here Z were most likely. Our cables are laid in the ground, so we'll finds that. Or was it current for examples? Ask Christine can withstand 75. And you have to know that we are talking here about a forecourt killed. Okay, 16 which is 75. That 10 millimetre square can withstand 60 Amber Force at the five and so on. Okay, so we need a 50 amber. Okay, so the 50 amber six can withstand 45 but the pain can withstand 60 so that 50 required. And there, which we calculated here. After multiplied by 1.25 the 50 amber, we will use a cable off. Which one? This one. That 10 millimeters square can understand a 60 be so we'll use this time. Okay. That four core four core multiplied by 10 millimeters square. This represents is a three face plus the neutral and the plus one. Water Blood by +61 What? The blood by six is one core and 60 millimeters square this one? For what? For the else. Okay, you will find your also in Z cattle rock. Four core cables with a reduced the newt here. Four core cables with one reduced the newt. What does it mean? It means that we have a 4 35 and 16 millimetre square as a reduced in Newton. I will find that the videos the neutral means that this one, this one or the neutral is nearly half off the man value off these three face. Okay, so why do we have reduced in neutral as they reduce the neutral is use the when we don't have or the imbalance is very low. Okay, so the imbalance means that Z as a three phase are and this anti Z current flowing in them . Okay, you know that for a three first system or the star connected system R and s anti and the neutral. Okay, the submission off the three current are you in the r and the current in the s. And the current density? The submission off history currents is the current flowing in the neutral. So in case off the balance of system, no current is flowing. Is a neutral. So we will use a reducing your But in that residential building or the residential area, the Lords are unbalance it. Okay, you cannot balance this lords because he are totally different from each other. So in this case, we will use that neutral, which has the same cross sectional area as the phase. Because it takes is the imbalance it current. So when you now selected Z the cable for our apartment Now, the last thing is that we need to find the arm balance. A percentage. Okay, this one is old. Okay, So lets you delete it. Okay, so we said that we can find the imbalance A by doing a simple mathematics, which is okay, we can say is the maximum value, which is 8.4, huh? Minus the lowest value. 5.5 over is the maximum value. It point four, which will be equipped to what's the blood by 100. It will give us 34.5% on talents. Okay, 34.5%. Okay, so we said before that this unbalanced value must be less then 10%. Okay. Okay. We were richer to it after this one. okay. Would rusty sewing use a Two different messages are finding the ambulance. So the value will choose, which is maximum value, which is 8.4 minus minimum 5.5 over the maximum eight point forward. What? The blood by 100. Now let's find the other would mess old. So let's do it. We will take the average 8.4 Blust 6.1 plus 15 take one. Why buy stream, which is six of 1 67 Okay, then we will take the maximum minus the average after getting the averages in. Maximum minus is the average over the average. Okay, Z maximum. Which is a point for mine. A six point 6667 over 6.666 seven. What? The blood by 100. Give us 25%. Okay. They are here toe missiles about. They give us their front of violence. Anyway, you can chose the worst case, which is 34.5. Okay, now you'll see that the imbalance is 34.5 in our apartment. Why? Because you will find years that the red fares is overloaded and the boss be or the blue is under loaded. Okay, So what we can do now? OK, we can do two things. Number one is that we can transform some always the red loads and dozy blue ludes. That's the first thing. Second thing we can do is that weekend transform? Of course, this or this, or we can leave it as it is. And we can We know that our our extension building nearly have the same design, the apartments, and then we have the same thing. If we have a building and it has the same design, then what we do is that we have, For example, this is the first apartment. Is this first apartment? Overloading is, they are. And on the loading be so we can do another thing when we are talking. About what? Apartment number two. Then this apartment number two will be overloaded in blue and under loaded in red. Okay, so we keep doing this until this unbalanced will cancel each other. Do you understand what I mean again in apartment, the number one are is overloaded and the blue is under load. Okay. In another apartment with those I reverse, we will overload be on down the road are so the unbalance between them is the imbalance in the whole building. Okay, Are And this year are supplying the whole building and the imbalance is between them. Okay? Or you can if you are talking about one apartment and you would like Toa corrected the imbalances in we can both this load 1.5 and 0.3 on the blue, for example. Okay, so the red will decrease and Z blow will increase Okay, by transforming this point and transforming this into here and this into here. So I hope you benefit from this long video. But I would like toa give you what I know about distribution. OK? If I if they desire any chance that I make the tip, I will just to send you an announcement. 43. Single Line Diagram For Industrial Area And Riser Of The Residential Building: in this video, we are going toe. Discuss the riser off the building off the residential building and ze single line diagram or s L d. Okay. So first we will discuss the riser off the building, which we made the Panelists Kidwell about. OK, so as you remember that the Panelists Kidwell waas a nearly 24 kilovolt and bear. So for our buildings, this is our building. It consists off ground floor. First the floor, second floor served and force a floor. And each of these floors we have toe apartment 12 one toe. Answer one in the ground floor. We have also toe apartment. Okay. Now, at the entrance off the building, we have immediate be or the main distribution board. This amend distribution board or main distribution panel supplies power to all of this apartment. Okay, this main distribution board gets its power from seeing transform. Okay, so we have here the each of these apartments is 25 kilovolt and bear. As an approximation. We calculated it in the panel schedule, and they found that it is nearly 24 kilovolt ampere, so we assumed it is a 25 kilovolts on bay. You will find in. Also, in that description we have here, this one is Let's zoom in to can seen. Uh huh. Okay, now you will see here. Kill what? Our Which means that meter off each apartment. Okay, meter used to measure the consumption off electricity. This one is the circuit breaker. We assume that our apartment have a circuit breaker off a 40 Mbare. Okay, this fort Amber can be molded Case circuit breaker or miniature circuit break according toe . The short second. Okay, now we have here the cable off this apartment we found in the panel Skittles that the power off 25 kilovolts. I'm bear. We will need a cable off. Four off the blood biting is that three phase and the neutral plus Zine airs off course. Okay. For month. Blood by 10 plus one month blood by six millimeters square. Okay, So for each off this apartment have the same sex vacations or the same values because we assumed here in our buildings that all of this apartments are identical to each other. Okay, Now you'll see. Here is that forms the men distribution board. We supply a large cable or the riser off the building, which contains that three phases the neutral and zee earth for the four apartment. Okay. Here. 44 apartment here and Donna's along 44 Apartment E. So we have here 123 and four. We have 100 kilovolt and bear. We will take this power and multiplied it by one point. Wife toe, get the maximum current or Z load current and then multiplied it by 1.25 another 1.25. So we get the current and then which is our cable from the cable catalogue, which we believe are provided in the previous. Okay, same here about this one. Just the same cable, because they are the ground, the ground floor, them in distribution board is on the ground floor and also this toe apartment in the same living. So we'll use the same table here, which is four months of blood by 10. Okay, so this is what's called the riser off the building. I will provide you with this file on our drive so you can download it any time. Okay, Now, let's see. What is that single line diagram? This is what's called a single line diagram. We assume that we have, Ah, large industrial area. Okay, This area consists off number one residential buildings. This is a sheep residential building. This one is luxury or expensive is a residential area. This one is an administration building. This one is a factory. The lighting off the factory and then is a group off motels. Okay, in the same factory. Okay, so we have here for boards. This 140 residential building. We assumed it is a 50 kilovolt and bear. After doing the panel schedule, this one is the main distribution board for the residential building number 250 kilovolt. Amber, where did we get this value? We assembly Goto the riser. We know we have 123456 78 Mine. And then, which means that we have a 250 de la volta and bare as the total laws off our residential building. And we can assume air diversity factor. As we said before, from 0.62 point seven. If we multiply by 70.6, we will get 150 kill Walt and bear the under and 50 kilovolt. And there is this one. Okay, So the same force that is nation building in a bar. One diversity factor off going toe 10.62 point seven. The administration building the same. The factory. We assume that it is, has our diversity factor off one. Okay, since nearly all of the roads are connected together and for the commercial, as we said before in the power point slides, who said it is from 10.0.8 toe point. My Now So we have Here is the load for the official 12 administration factory, lightning and sockets. This one foresee machines or the motors induction waters in our factory. Okay, so this is the first step. Second step, we will choose our cables. We have a 50 kilovolts. I am bear. So we need to choose the cable we assembly, get their 50 kilovolt and bear and multiplied it by 1.5 again multiplied by 1.25 another 1.25 as we did before in the Panelists Kidwell. Then which was our cable? And then also we choose our circuit break. Okay, so now lets you see the cables or the catalogue and out to select them again. just a 40 or so. So now we have our cables here and would like Toa find the values off this circuit breakers and their value off the cables. So first, Alexis is a 50 kilovolts. I'm bear, so we'll see here. 15 multiplied by 1.25 about the blood by 1.25 gets the value of the circuit breaker, which is the nearest one is 100. Where did I found this value? From here we have the miniature circuit breaker 10 16 20. And so on. So the after mind stream is ah 100. And there. Okay. And the will choose. I miniature all molded case. I will choose Molded case toe provide higher short circuit level. Okay. Now, for the cable multiplied by 1.25 equal, it will be Ah, 117. So let's seize the cross section. Area required. 117 z nursed. One is 35 bluff 16. Okay, this one can withstand 120 35 plus 16. Okay, Cover and BBC and ABC, Okay, we use in the distribution area will use a cover, but for the high voltage and medium due to large distance. We will use aluminium. Okay, because the aluminium is she Barzan cover. But it has a lower conductivity is and cover and high resistive ity. So we'll use as the aluminium in large at a distance like high voltage or the medium worked . Okay, We use a cover in that distribution part. Now for 350 115 multiplied by 1.5 to get the maximum load current, it will be 225 not the blood by 1.25. To get the circuit breaker, it will be 281 and the nearest value here, 281 Xena's to one value is 400. And there. OK, so we'll choose a circuit breaker. Molded case circuit breaker 400 now for the cable were multiple. Another by 1.25 as a deteriorating factor. 751 source around 51. Let's see what cable can withstand 151. Okay, the nearest one here 5445 surround. The 51 is the nearest value. Here will choose 240 plus 120. Okay, So since it is very near towards Israel. So for 240 plus 120 now for the search of the one and the administration building 500 must abide by one 0.5 to get the maximum current 1.25 to get Z as the safety factor with a circuit breaker 937 and the nearest one is off course. Air circuit breaker with us A 1000. OK, so 1000 here. Circuit break now for the cable, 1.25 equal. So we need a 1271 and bear. Okay, So what we can do here? Let's easy cable. You will find years. A maximum value here is 500. And can you also stand 419 Mine. Okay, so what we can do? Okay, we can see this value and white in boy for example. City. Okay, you will see us 290 bear so we can get city off several 100 Blood 150. Okay, City fancy 200 blows. 150. Or you can design another thing. Okay. Now, for seeing on this one, Okay? I don't know where did this Come are this This one is for the factory. Okay, so factory is 15 25 kilovolts. I'm bare metal blood by 100 1.5 for the road current 1.25 50 factor 46.875 for the circuit breakers with the nearest values for course 50 more. The case or miniature? 15. Okay, now another one point 25 we will get 58.54 z cable. So let's see what can withstand 58. This cannot stand 120. So let's to go back. This we need 58. So 58 can be was a standard boy 60 mil 60 Mbare boy a 10 millimeter square, 10 millimeters squared, plus one multiplied by six. Okay, now for the waters. Now we need to find Dizzy as for at factory in the circuit breaker and the value of zika remember that our motors here are connected in Delta Connection. Not like the factory or any other part. It's like administration or residential building. All of this. The other loads are connected in store connection with a neutral. But this one says we have induction machines. They are connected in Delta Connection. So in order to find the current, we know that the current is equal Toe s over Syria three multiplied by v. Okay, or since so we are talking about the lying current, then it will be equal to to remind seven over, uh, 1.7 serene, divided boy so 118 equal and want the blood by own so them. So they required a current zeroed current is 451.77 Okay, now for the circuit breaker, Here's the situation is different, boy, because you have induction motor on the induction motors have a starting current. So if I just multiply this by 1.25 then circuit breaker will during the starting off the motor or a circuit breaker Wilton off or cut Z circuit. So in orderto buses this we will just multiply zero Toronto by a factor. Gold 2.5. Why? Because we have year are starting the current. We have starting the currents in the induction machines. This will be equal 1129. Okay, so this is the current required by the circuit breaker. So let's sing the values of circuit breaker, which is nearly 1600. 1200. 1250. Okay, so 1000. Okay, 1000 250 and at the same time, we will choose here. Air circuit break. Okay. Yeah. Air circuit break. Okay, so now we found our A circuit breaker. Now for the cable, we were just not at the find it. Boise. Starting current about Willie will define it, boy Z off courses in normal loot. Okay. And so this is the load current, and we will do the same as before. One point. 20 five. Much obliged. Boy. One a point during device again. So we need a cable off. 705. 705. Okay, lets see. So 705 we don't have any off them. That's divided by two. So we can use at two off 240. Okay, Two So far. 240. Cover on. Of course. Be releasing end on BBC four. The insulation. So now we chose the different. Here's the front values off the circuit breakers is the different values off the cables. Now we would like toa flying dizzy value of the transformer required. Okay, so how we can get the value of the transformer? We will just something total. Lords Door 97 plus 25 plus 500 plus, uh, 150 plus 50 kilovolts. I'm beer. Andi Unequal. So we'll have here 1022. Okay, this is a total connected loads. Okay, Now all of this loads are not working together, so we'll assume a diversity factor between them. The diversity is multiplied by 0.8. So our connected load is it 117.6. Okay, so we need a transformer. Toe stands is value. And remember that since we are using here and oil transformer, no dry transformer are using here oil. Therefore, what does it mean? It means that our transformer must be loaded by 80%. Okay, So in order to do this, we will have a transformer off 1002 kilovolt amber or one mega of all time. Okay, so if we have a transformer 1000 kilovolt and bear and we have a load off with 117. Okay, So 817 divided by 1000. Okay, then the loading off the transformer will be equal to 81% okay. Or 82% of which is acceptable for the transform. Okay, so we choose our transformer hair again, boy, something goal of this loads and the multiplying by demand the factor or a diversity factor . And we have finally 817. And then we will choose the highest or the higher value of transformer. And at the same time, the loading off the transformer does not exceed 88% accepted by small value. Now we'll see Here is that we have here a passport. This part's bar can withstand a 1600 bear. Okay, where did we get this value? I will tell you now. OK, so we have all of this loads and the demand is like this. We need to find the main circuit breaker for all of the system after the transformer. So we'll go toe eight 17.6. And the motto. Blood boy 1.25. Okay. And a GameBoy one point. Fine. So the nearest the valley to 1533 is 1600 air circuit breaker. So 1600 air circuit breaker is the first step. Second step, we need to find the cables. So what? The blazes by one 0.25 again. So we need a cable to withstand the 1916. We can divide this by four. It will give us for cable, which you can understand. 479. Okay, so we need a value off a current 479. So we choose that one mine on six 0.25. We'll divide it by. Ah, for my nine. We need four cables off the 500. Okay, so we'll choose four cables off some 500. Okay. Lets in this for cables off the 500 now for the half of the cable at 140 que 200. So I have here for for the faces in the three phase and the neutral and one for the earth. And we said before that would choose inaugural is the same as the three. The faces, because we have large unbalance loads. Okay, large and on balance salutes this lords are unbalanced. Okay, on the three phase, So which was our transformer delta? Since our great is a little connection toe eliminated Z harmonics, and we don't taint off courses in neutral. And here we connect as a store with neutral because we need here a three face or a star connection blasting Newt. Okay, so we now, in this video, we selected all of this value and the weeds causes He also the riser off the building. Now we need to discuss Zien on as an extra video off courses in eat at how toe draws is in eat app and identifies the voltage drop and the short circuit in our system. 44. Voltage Drop In Low Voltage Distribution System And Manual Calculations: Hi, everyone. In this video, we would like to discuss Z voltage. A drop calculation inside our power system. So what is the voltage drop vaulters, Rob? Simply It means that if we have a supply like this 1 120 evolved a scene. This is our import supply voltage. And we have a wire connecting between this supply and our loot. So between our supply and our load, there is a conductor or a cable. This K will have a specific resistance and specific reactions. So this means that this resistance or this inductive will cause a voltage drop. So if we have an input voltage 120 volts, a C Z vaulted, which reaches our load is 112 World A see why the difference between 121 112 is considered as a voltage drop inside our sect. So we have a difference off aid vault is this A vault is a vaulters drop due to the presence off our cable as we remember that the voltage drop in any circuit from the circuits. If you don't understand, what is the electric circuits or anything about the literal circuits. You can inject my own course for electric circuits, so the voltage drop across any conductor is equal to the current. Multiplied by that that is the impedance off our conductor or that equal to the square. Root off our square that resistance square bluffs, ecstasy, square, ecstasy, excel, not ecstasy. Exhale L. A Square is the reactors off due to the presence off induct ins off the conductor. So the vault's trump having you toe the presence off that off the wire. So in our power system, we would like toa calculate the vaults trope. So on our course, we discussed how toe calculate using Z E tab program. In this video, we would like to discuss how to do this but using the manual calculations. So before we start going to two z calculation, part Win would like to understand what is the effect off having a ball to drop inside our system? Number 14 electric motors. Remember that from our course for electric and machines, that's the torque is directly proportional to the square off the supply voltage. So you see that supply was 120 world, but the voltage Richard toe Z load is 112. So we have years. A torque is reduced by square, off the value due to the presence off all troop. So the reduction in the voltage will cause that starting talk Toby decreased the torque off the motor. Toby decreased maximum torque will be decreased. All of this will affect our at moat. Now another thing that four lambs it will that reasons off the vault drop will cause the light intensity or Z beam becomes weaker. Also in the electronic against our very sense stuffed ozy voltage variations. So the vault's trouble will affect them. Very, very. Hi. Now, as an example, what is the value off the accepted vulture drop? So if we have a low voltage system taking, it's a power from the public utility utility, okay? Or the public low voltage distribution system. And if we have a low voltage instal installation, but it is supplied from a private low voltage supply. So I fought waas from a low voltage distribution system, or itwas from a low vote private supply, my own supply, a generator, for example. Then if I if you are using it for lighting, then The accepted value is if you are taking from the public utilities and accepted values 3%. If we have a private level supplies in accepted value 6%. Now, if we are talking about a general use or a general usage in our system, then if we are taking from public utility then we will have ah, 5% Walters drop only. But if we have from our private supplies and it is 8% so generally wouldn't we're talking about our system. If we have Z system 5% we already take the wardrobe as a 5% from our supply. Okay, we usually when you are talking about eater, for example, we would like to make the votes drop less than 5%. Now as an example, what is the exceptions tothis i e. C. Room that previous values are according tothe e i e. C 60 64-5 dollars 52 stunt. So what is the exceptions to this rule? Number one. A greater whole strobe may be accepted for number one electric motors during the starting period. For us, our electrical equipment having high in rush current such as the transformers, have high and rush current. So is this can cause higher votes drop, but it can be accepted. Why? Because it is for a very small time but provided that in most cases that the voltage variations should remain in the limits satisfied in the relevant equipment standard. So what does it mean? It means that our equipment should have a specific under voltage and specific over voltage . Okay, so we have a specific limit, according to Z, that a sheet or according to our equipment, so this limits would not be exceeded. Okay, according to Z equipment itself, now is the following. A temporary conditions are excluded from the votes rob restrictions. So what is the example of this? Number one if we have a vault is transient. If there is an increase or over voltage or under vaulted uto switching as an example. If we are adding glued, then devoted will be reduced the four and specific time or if we are removing glowed so the voltage will express over voltage. All of this are considered as a vaults transience which are just a for a few moments or a very small time. So this values are accepted from our I e c standard also the voters variation you toes the abnormal operation. Okay, You toe any abnormal conditions in our persist Now, how to calculate divorces rope in our system simply the boss's office The cable is calculated from by obtaining a value called these evos drop percentage or votes Trouble from our catalogue This is found from the cable itself You're finds that the cable was drop is equal to many vault Baehr and Baehr berm it Okay, so we can take the type of the cable then goto our catalogue and get Is this value for the voltage drop as well See now that percentage off divorces rob what she cannot exceed 5% is equal to the actual value The actual voter of value in involved over the base voltage for example, If we are talking around a single face system then it will be for my own country 220 volt as an example If it is as three face system then it will be the lyinto line Voltage, which is 180 vaulter for my own country multiplied by hundreds will give us a certain percentage This percentage representing Z voltage drop inside our system which you cannot exceed 5% if you are taking the power from our public utility. Now let's have an example. If we have supply vaulter like this one frequency called 50 artists voltage equal 400 vault . And we have here are motor three phase motor off a 75 horsepower and we have a cable connecting between this supply and the small. Remember that Z 5% is from the supply. Does the load OK, so if we have a passport having other loads then we should have is evil or calculated was dropped from his e supply itself Does the load OK, so if we have another cable, then we will take it in consideration. Now as an example, if we have a passport like this and we have another load here, another one here, then the vultures rope we have here our supply and here a cable and on other cable here. So we have to calculate the balls drop here Blust divorce rob here and adds them together to get the total votes drop which should not exceed 5%. So is the vase drop is from the supply to our looked OK. Now we will have a simple example if we have a supply and a loot. And between them. This cable, which is three, multiplied by 70 plus one month. The blood by certified Okay, three face plus Z neutral. Three face off a 70 millimeters square and the neutral 35 millimeters square. The conductor Time Discover and Theo Insulation, BBC and the She's is also BBC. The lens off this cable is 120 meters. So what, you are going to go first? We have a cable off three multiplied by 70 plus one month the blood by 35. So we should go toe the catalogue and they get the ball to drop off this scale. So let's goto the cattle look now as an example, we have this cattle of four else with the cables. We would like to get the value off the voltage drop. So will goto the catalogue all's rosy catalogue and search for divorce trope. Okay, so we have here of also dropped Let's zoom in so Voss rubber for a single call levels. Here we have a three phase or a multicourse three months. Three core or multi core plus neutral. So let's search for this one. Miles de corps. Okay, so this one is the multicourse Now is the montecor we have here at BBC installation and be vz BBC. She's across Long kit Police Selene, and we have here another one. But what is the difference between them? Okay, let's see what is the difference? You'll find that this one discover conductor and this one is aluminum conductor. So we said that we have a copper conductor off 35. Let's get back. We have a value off 70. Okay, 70. So let's to get back. Okay, so we have 70 cross sectional area 70. So for BBC inspiration, be busy. She's vulture. Drop is equal to 2.5 to 4. So the vault's drop value from the catalogue or 40.5 to 4. So now simply you have got to Z. You went to toes, depart for the catalogue off the wall, strope and you take the cross section 80 off 70 and you know a discover BBC BBC. So we will find that divorce room is open 5 to 4 and mainly vault. Baehr and Baehr permit. You will find that this value is written inside the catalog, as you have seen Now, in order to convert is this waltz drop toe Z actual value. Then we will multiply open 5 to 4 by temper. Negative three to convert. Dizzy mainly vault toe walked. Okay, So this part representing Izzy a voltage. Okay, now this is the voltage, but it is bare. Impair their meter. So in order to convert it to vault only we will multiply by the current and the multiply by Zealand's so lenses given as 120 meter. And this is a story fear system now is the I rated how to calculate the irate. The I rated is the current which absorbed by our lord, which is 75 horsepower. So how to calculate this? Remember that from our Corso said that Z current rated in case off a three face system is equal to 1.5 months blood by kilovolt and bear or 1.5 multiplied by horsepower. Okay, we say that we have said that inside our courses that the kilovolt ampere is nearly equal to with the horsepower. So 1.5 month blood by 75 will give us 112.5 and their 75 is the horse power. Now, if you don't understand where we go to the 1.5, let's remind you now, remember, that is the kilovolt and bear. We said that Z one horsepower is equal toe. How many? What? They photo seven for six wattage. Okay, so each one more support equal to this value off wattage. Now, if I would like to convert Izzy Power or the active power, which is 746 what do the value off Z kilovolt? I'm there. So we divide by power Fact. So the power factor assumed in our system is 0.8 divided by point it, you'll find that it's equal mine city 2.5, which is nearly equal toe one okay, or unity. So we say that each horsepower is nearly equal toe one kilovolt ampere. So that is the first thing Second thing would like toe get Z current. Remember that the current is equal toe s Okay, let's write it now. Remember that the current is equal to Z current from our system senses. This is a star connected motor Since the current is equal toe s over three multiplied by beef is okay or wrote Three month obliged by and we face or a rotisserie multiplied by relying tow line. Okay, Both of them are correct. Now, if we have our supply, here are supply. Here is 400 volt or 180 volts. Is that the Francis for Walter's drop? So we assume that here that motor reaches is 780 vote as a lying toe line. Voltage off course. So we have city motto Blood by the face. Now, this three phase will be equal to 220 volt. Okay, we face, but the line is 180 volt. Now s here is given ask you of all time beer. So in order to replace is this s which is involved on bear us in kilovolt on birth. And we will have to most of light here by Tim Parsing. Okay, so we can both 75 kilovolt and their motto Blood by temporal three. Okay. To give us the vaulted and bear. So temper city over city multiplied by 220 will give us nearly 1.5. Okay, which is this value? So what did we obtain this value? Remember that the current is equal to with the apparent power s over three months, the blood by the face or roots remarked the blood by relying tow line. So V phase is 220 or line to line 380 volt. Okay, remember that 400 is a supply and devoted reaching A to Z motor is 780 vault. So that division off Tempo city over three Monta blood by 220. Give us 1.5, which is this fact? Now we have our current and we have our lens, which is 120 meters. And we have the balls drop value 0.5 to 4, multiplied by timber. See, so we can get divorced. Rob is 7.74 vote Okay, is this is the voltage drop in our system here. Now, in order to get the value as a percent sensitivities as three phase load isn't that percentage balls drop is equal to 7.74 over the 780 vault, which is the line to line voltage multiplied by hunted, give us 1.861% Okay. Is this percentage representing busy vaults drop in our system here from this supply toe here. Okay, so you will find that 780 volt here. We assumed it is the vault in which reaches e moat. Okay, if you take for hundreds and it will give us a lower voices drop now how we can solve the problem off divorce rope. Remember that the resistance off the conductor or the cable is equal to roll or the resistive ity motto. Blood by silence over the area. So number one weekend in trees. The cross sectional area. If we increase the cross sectional area off, the cable isn't the resistance will be lower. Therefore, the voltage drop will be lower. This is the first solution which we always do. Second solution. Increasing number of parallel cables Increasing number off parent cables means that the torta equivalent resistance will be reduced. So if we have one cable like this, offer resistance R and we added on other cable imperil with another resistance. Goldar So the submission off the total resistance will give us our over two. We have a two para resistance. That sort of solution. Is that a reduction off the distance so we can reduce the distance from the supply to zeroed if we can. This will cause the daughter resistance, Toby reduced and in doctors to reduced, which in the end will cause the total votes dropped to be reduced. But usually is that the solutions are increasing Zach Cross sectional area. Then, if we exceed, or Richard the maximum cross sectional area, then we will choose to cables off lower cross sectional area, which is the end of radios. That oughta resistance, which will reduce the voltage drop. The last defector is the perfecter correction. By adding capacitor banks, we can supply a Q or reactive power to our system so it will reduce the theme the X or Z reactors off course, or the effect off the inductions and in the end, will improve our voltage a profile. So in this video we discussed is the voltage drop. It's effective how to calculate it and the solution off the vulture drop 45. Short Circuit In Low Voltage Distribution System And Manual Calculations : Hi, everyone. In this video, we would like toa understand dizzy short circuit analysis using the Manuel calculation. So what is a short circuit means? So if we have a single line diagram like this one, we have here our supply supplying power toe a passport through a different circuit breakers this circuit breaker off course, then this bus bar will supply some roads. One of them is this one which is having another circuit breaker. This one have another circuit breaker, this one having another circuit breaker supplying a pass bar. And this was part supplying two loads with their own circuit breaker. So of course, circuit breakers are used for protection. So what is a short circuit mean? If we have our supply voltage E, which is 400 volt and we have, for example, here and equivalent set. Okay, they said, which is connecting from the supply toe, This passport is it representing, for example, the cable and dizzy resistance and in doctors off the circuit breaker so that the year representing Izzy's at off circuit breaker Blust visit off the cable. Now, if assault circuit Okay, what does a short time circuit means? It means that if this point this bus bar as an example is connected to the ground. Ah, fault. OK, jazz a single line toe ground the fault line. Tow line, toe ground fault three lines together or cell lines to ground. All right, if all of this are considered as false this inside our power system. So if we have a faulty years in instead of the current going this rosy passport is in supplying our loads, No, all of the current will fit our fault. Okay, Current going through circuit breakers in those e four and the no current will bus here is this current is very high end is considered as a short circuit current. If we did not clear this fault or removes the open circuit or clear this fault off the short circuit, all of our passports are goingto be burning and fire will occur and very very problems are going toe care to our parole system because off course is that short circuit current is very high in kilo and bear, which you can damage Our passports can cause fire in transformers such as all transformer having electric arcs and so on. Social circuit is a very very bad phenomena inside our poor system. So your circuit breakers, in order to clear this short circuit for So this current is equal toe the supply voltage overseas that okay, supply voltage as a phase voltage overseas. That which is from the supply toe the a point off fault. Now, another example. If we have ah, fault King here, for example, at this point, then the that will be from the supply going here that off the BuSpar, then does it off this cable. Okay, so the search short circuit will be lower. So as we go away from our supply, short circuit current decreases. Why do toe the increase inside that said Orza, impedance. As we approach closed toe, the supply is the short circuit current will start to increase. Now, why do we do a short circuit analysis in order to select number one circuit breakers which you can withstand this huge short circuit current and we should select US passport, which again with stand for a few moments off course, this high short circuit current and this passport and so on. So this passport will so stand Ah, high sorts of current. But this one is lower. Why? Because that distance from the sublight were is higher and more impedance are found now how we can get the short circuit current. So in order to get the short circuit the current we need the voltage over these That okay Ah vaulters over the equivalent. So the industry faced system you'll find as a short circuit current is equal to the voltage over that as the voltage as a phase voltage over that. Or is the voltage as, ah, lying toe line, voltage or face to face voltages Line to line. Overrode three. This which is lying toe line off Route three is equivalent toe really face. Okay, so the short circuit current is equal toe V phase over that daughter where that the total is the square root off are square or the total resistance inside our circuit blesses a total inductions are second from the point off supply. So the point off for so we have in tow some all of the resistance and all of the actors in our system. Now that most important thing is that number one we need to understand what is the resistance and or the what is the impedance off the network itself is the equivalent resistance and induct ins. What is the equivalent Resistance and the inductions off our circuit breaker. And what is the equivalent of our passports? The cables, all transformers? All of this we need to understand. Okay, in orderto get an accurate result. So starting from our grid or zee network is the impedance off the network having the following simplifications Number one if our network having a short circuit kilovolt and bear off 250 to 150,000 kilovolt and bear, which is at 250 Mega vault and bear and 500 ming of Alta and bear. In this case, we will have our short circuit or the resistance equivalent and ex equivalent will be for these values. OK, as we remember that in Etem who are going to use these values inside Z Thebe program itself , you will find that inside the program it requested the X over our issue. Okay, so we can use this values in order to put it inside the program. Now what is a short circuit kilovolt and they're mean. It is equal toe road three multiplied boy V line to line lying to Ryan. Voltage multiplied by Z are short circuit. Okay, so the power or the s or the apparent war produced by a short circuit current is equal toe this value OK? Or this value. Now you will find that said, or disease that the base which you are saying or the off this network in order to get it your funds that that is equal toe every square over being. So what is the square? The square assembly is the faced off. A is no load low voltage or the face to face voltage. Okay. Or lying Toe line. Voltage. Relying tow line. Okay. And the be here is representing. Izzy s a short circuit. Okay, this is the apparent short circuit power. A parent short circuit power. It's called the B in orderto prevent. Is that confusion? But this s is representing Izzy three phase. I've all three for a short circuit fault delivered, expressed in kilovolt ampere. This is representing is the power equivalent to this short circuit current now in order to Brooks assembly, you know that's the s or the apparent power is equal toe V square over that three V square over that where V is the phase voltage or we can say that it is equal to the square over sent when we are talking about what we as a lying toe lion Voltage. Okay, so we are talking here about lying toe line, so it will be the square over. That now is a three facial circuit fault is expressed in Q on Bare Z are short circuit or in mega volt amber, as you see here. 250 mega volt amber. So it is supplied by the Power Supply Authority. You don't assume this values or you don't adjusted the Does some calculations for this value? No. You take this values from the utility itself. Okay, You asked for this information and you can find also the equivalent impedance also from them. Okay, Now, as an example, if we have an 11 kilovolts network, then the S equivalent orgy Short circuit power. It's 500 mega volt and bear. If we have 20 talking evolved network is in, it will be 750. Mega vault and beer. Now we said about the impedance off the network. Now for the transformer, we can get those It very somebody. How? Remember that the event we said that it is the Reliant Line. Oversee power. Reliant Line square over the s apparent. Okay, this representing in a power system. It's called Z Zed. The base. Okay, is the based impedance. Okay, so this is a quantity inside the power system, okay? From the bay's values, such as the S, a vase or dubious. A parent power V base, that is voltage. All of these values. I discussed it in my own course. Four symmetrical faults. So we multiplies Is value boy the that percentage or the short circuit impedance a voltage off the transformers. This value is found from the data sheet off the transformer. You'll find NZ data sheet for the transform money or fine, this value as a 4% for example, Okay. Or 5% or five or 6% and so on. So this value is obtained from the data sheet for the transformer itself. You take this value and what it by 100 the multiplied by Is that debates which is relying Tolan Square over Z power or the apparent power, which is that rating off the transformer? Okay, Is the apparent power s which is the rating off transform. So you get the head off the transformer. Now we need to get that resistance and the reactors so the resistance can be also obtained from the data sheet For the transformer, you will find that the Kabul losses inside the transformer is equal to three. Since you are talking about a three face system multiplied by Z current square which is a full load current nominal flute, current martyr, blood by the resistance. So this power can be on 10 from the data sheet and dizzy current. It can be obtained also from the data sheet or it can be equal to the S or the apparent power over Siri motto. Blood by the face. So as a street fair system. Okay, very somebody getting dizzy for low current so you can get that resistance from here and you obtained already size it off the transformer. So the X will be the square root off the square minus are transformer square so we can get the X, and we can get is er now as an example for veterans former impedance your funds that if we have a transformer, kilovolt and bare 50 100. And so on. 500 kilovolt and bear will find that Z is that the percentage off it is 4% girlfriends. That, he said, is simply 4% 4.556 and so on. So as a rating increases your funds, that is that the percentage increase you will find also that in the data sheet, Z are equivalent and ex equivalent for each time and disease it daughter. Okay, this is off course for the oil and Mercer transformer. And this for the cast arisen. Transform. Okay, this is depending on the type off the transformer, and it's a kilo vault and bear. Now, what is the impedance off the circuit breaker and the passport? So in low one circuit, the MBI agents off the circuit breaker upstream off the fault allocation, which means that it is a near Tosi supply must be taken toe account. The reactors value is assumed the 1.15 many own bears beer, each circuit breaker. Why is the resistance off? It is neglected. So we have an X equal to 1.15 many own for each circuit breaker in our pass. Now, the possible resistance is also neglected. So that's the impedance is practically all reactive. So it is excess him as the circuit breaker, and its value is equal to 0.50 million pairs meter off the passport, okay. And doubling the spacing between the passport increases every act and supply about 10%. So in the end, you will find that this value is 1.50 million home and appoint 30 million is a very small venue off resistance. Okay. Very small value. Very. For someone. Value cumber, the tool that resistance and the impedance off our cable and our transformer. Okay, so you will find that usually instead of just getting them into our calculation, we neglect Izzy prosper impedance and circuit breaker impedance. Okay, because you are very small. Remember that neglecting impedance inside our circuit provide this more safety. Why? Because the current remember that the short circuit current is equal toe V We over that. So as we decree, is that Zeb? Okay. As we decrease that, then then we assume ah, higher short circuit current. So you provide more safety to our equipment so that cable impedance is given as that resistance is equal toe roll over as the area okay, or S, which is a cross section of any off the conductor. Zero is the resistive itI and assumed as 22.5 men leave home a millimetre square per meter . So silence here is in meter. The cross section area is in millimeters square and dizzy value over the resistance or tent is in mainly home. Okay for cover. It will be a lower resistive it off 22.5 and aluminium off certain. Six, mainly on Zealand's off. The conductor is in meter cross section in millimetre Square. Okay, so we can get that resistance assembly now. 4 30 Actimates your funds That it can be obtained from the manufacturers, for example, is a cross section ity off less than 50 millimeters. Square reactions can be ignored, but in the absence off information we usually use or going toe it mentally or member meter , this is eerie. Actimates Gary Acton's or 0.8 million number meter for 50 Hurtis system and all point online. Six. Mainly Orme Burr meter for 60 yards system. So in the end is the X is equal toe open toe it many own bear meat also multiplied by Zealand's for 50 earth system and open toe online six mainly on bare meter for 60 hertz system. Now remember that these values are for that Serena faced system. So for that three for system we use or point or eight mainly on bare meter. But for a single first system will use or pointed wife usually is a circuit breakers in a torque and prosper impedance are neglected. Neglecting it means I are short circuit current, which means more safety and design. So now let's have an example on the manual calculation off the short circuit. So, as an example, we would like toe get the short circuit on the passport. Okay, Is this WASP or if it has a short circuit, I would like to find its event. Okay, short circuit here. So we have here our grid, which have specific impedance, is that R and X, and we have an old transformer off 500 killed. Walt, I'm bear 2020 to kill evolved over 400 vault as that. The percentage is four and the passport is in a circuit breaker. Is then Z original passport. This passport, of course, is in some cases instead off using a world so we can use past bars in order to connect. Okay, so how we can does this first we need toe. I neglect is the send off the circuit breaker circuit breaker is the upstream network this network and bus bar impedance. So all of this Syrian business are very small Come Bertuzzi transformer. So their value will not affect entirely our short circuit analysis. So we are going toe get only these that off the old transformer. So from that a sheet or data sheet having the following off the transformer number one, Aziz, that the percentage off the all transformer is 4% and 500 kilovolt and they're all transformer. Having a WC WC is considered as a couple loss wattage. Okay, couple losses inside Z transform or 55.5 kill What now? We need toe identifies the X and disease resistance. So if we need a short circuit at a media be or them in distribution panel. So these it off the transformer, as you'll remember, is that the percentage which is four off 100 this is four, okay. And the multiplied by said the base is that the base is relying Tow line, line to line Voltage, which is 400 vaulter. Since we are talking about short circuit in the low voltage decide Okay, Here and dizzy s is the apparent power off the transform. Okay, which is at 500 kilovolt and bear 500 kilovolt ampere. So we have all of our components. Now we can get that that the transformer is equal toe. Well, we're going to eight million. Ok, remember that as you said before that the circuit breaker of US 1.5 million home. So it is a very small value can be neglected. Now we can get that resistance off. The transformer remembers that the resistance of from the gallows were discussed is the couple losses which is 5.5 Kill What? This value, Mata Blood by temple 35.5 kilo. Multiply by timber three Over three months, the blood buys a full load. Current followed. Current is simply equal toe s or the apparent power over three multiplied by V face. Okay, where is the S separate? Boris? Why Contra kilovolt and bear the defense assembly. Quito 400 volt over route three. Okay, so we can get the current and we have the couple losses. Then we can get that resistance off the transformer, which is 3.52 Medley on. This is an ultimate our own, but mentally Okay, it should be by but as many Now we have the X off the transformer is equal to the square road off is that the transform square minus are transform a square, which is 12.3 million own. So you can say that the short circuit is equal toe V, which is the voltage line to line voltage over roots three. Most of blood buys it. Okay, so you can say at two parts number one, you can say V over roots three multiplied by. Is that the daughter? Is this is that okay? And at all for going to eight million on or you can say that route RTR square plus 60 are square. Okay, this square blocks this square is giving us this value. Okay, so they're square road off their square is equal toe said transform. Okay, So is this a step is just to get the resistance only ends in doctrines only. Or that the actors only okay, now with the short circuit in this part is 18 kill on bear. So it in kilo amber is at this point, So we don't have a passport which can withstand this value. So we got a passport off a 20 kilo and bear. So we say that we short circuit at immediately or the main distribution panel is equal to 20 kilo and bear now, this was the first time is now the second dimension in order to get the short circuit current off the transformer. Since we don't have anything except the transformer, we can say that z a power transformer. Okay, The short circuit power off the transformer in Case also said is equal toe the apparent power over that the present. It okay s aerated over that. The percentage this is another law is this 500 over or going to afford will give us the well over 5000.5 mega volt amber, which is the short circuit power off our transform. Okay, Now, having Z power, remember, that's the s is equal toe Road three relying tow line multiplied by the current so we can get the short circuit current easily. So the sold circuit current is equal to 12.5 Mega Volta and Bail Overrode City, which is 1.73 multiplied by the voltage lying toe line, which is a 400 volt. So we got the short circuit again, the same value 18 kilo and there. So the short circuit is again 20 kilo. Unfair. So we got here the short circuit at Z passport here or the means tributes in port. Now we would like to get the short circuit at at this point, for example, at this panel, which is 50 kill of want. And so the difference is that we have a circuit breaker and Z cable. We will neglect to circuit breaker as usual. So neglecting circuit breaker upstream and torque and possible impedance the transformer. Having that seemed that a sheet, which is the percentage four and 5500 watt, and we obtained the that the equivalent or the resistance off transformer and Ex Transformer as before. Now, to get the short circuit at this point, we need to get Z's it off the cable. The resistance ends in doctors, so symbol is a resistance office. Cable is equal toe raw senses. This part is made off cover. So the resistive ity is 22.5, multiplied by row. L Z lens. This lens is 20 meter over a row. L over the cross sectional area. So we chose here cable off 50 millimeters square. So finally, we have a nine mainly on. Okay, this is that resistance off our cable. Now the inductions off our cable, we said that the X or their actors is equal toe open toe eight month of blood violence, so X off. The cable is equal toe open toe it since it is a Salafist systems remote about my 50 blocks in neutral. So this one is a three phase system. So we'll use or point or it if it is a single face, then I will say or point to 12. So your point Oy, it must blood buys a lens, which is 20 meter will give us 1.6, mainly home. So we have the resistance and we have the X off the cable and we have the resistance off the transformer and ex off the transformer. So we can some the resistance together and the X together, So our total is equal to 12.52 million Exit total. Served important tonight, mainly on which is from the point here from Sigret. Does this point if a short circuit occurred here. So this representing art or extorted from here to here. So the short circuit is equal to V which is 400 volt over rotisserie toe. Get it as a face multiplied by Wrote our total plus execute Okay, which will give us 12 vehicular on bears. Who will find that here? The short circuit is 12. Vehicle on bare lower than before So the standard value is 15 kilo and bear, so we can get here. They're panel. That's tribute from Beneteau Wizards Stand 15 kilo Unfair. And this main distribution banning can withstand 20 kilo on bear. So this one is a 20 and this one is 15 kilometers. Ok, so this is the first message off. Obtaining is the second part. So at the beginning we obtained Is this so circuit here by your Zynga's E V over that? Now if I would like the short circuit here or here or here, Do we have another missile? Yes. We have another message. What is this missile We can use tables, toe tens, the value of sorts of hell. Okay, let me tell you so this one is a 20 kill on bear and this lenses 20 meter and its cross sectional area is 50 now going the two z cable add to the table. Sorry, not cables. The table itself will give us the value of the short sick. So the 1st 1 is that the cross sectional area off the conductor? What is a cross? Section it off? The conductor we selected from the main distribution border tool Z distribution boat or D V one. We will find that we talk city multiplied by 50. So this is a cross sectional area and Water Zealand's. We said that Zealand's is 20 meters, So let's move like this. Moving, moving or find no value 11 or 21. Okay, so 11 or 21. And we said that we have a 20 meter so the clothes are value is that went to one. Now, what is the second step? We will go down one like this. Okay, so we said, Let the 21 go down. Now we have this line which will go like this now What is the upstream short circuit? What is the short circuit? Add the higher level, which is a 20 kilo amber. We said that it is at 20 kilo Mbare, right, 20 kilo Amber and the job history. So moving as a to indicate on Berlin. This moving, moving, moving. Okay, lie exist. And this one is coming. Okay, so we'll have a value off 11 kilo. Amber, this is the value off the short circuit at zero or value Now in gives What is this case in case off a fusing at 21 meter. Okay, so this is that war. Stick it as the best guess off two into one, which means lower short circuit current 11 kilo on there. So we have an option off 11 kill on bear. If which was the previous 1 11 then we will have a short circuit level off 40. Ok, so 14 kilo and bear is the highest short circuit level and 11 Killer on bear is the low short circuit level. So we can use instead off this values. We can say that it is 15 kilometers, so we find that here who said that the short circuit is 12 icky Noam Behr and from tables by 20 meter or 21 meters. We attend 11 Colombian. So in both cases we are close to the 15 kill on. Okay, but the value is accurate and close to the one which were obtained from here. Now let's have another example If we have this circuit as before or the single line diagram and we have the short circuit here a Sertic, you on bear. This is the main distribution and we have here. We need to find the short circuit here. So how we can obtain this. We have a 50 millimeters square, a cover 11 meter and the upper circular Amber. So let's ago delete all of this. So we have what is the cross sectional area? Cross section of 50 millimeters square. So 50 millimeters square. What is the lens? 11 meters. So going like this lens off cable 11 11 11. So we have your our 11. So this is ing lying. What you are going is room and what is the short circuit levels for certain iss Sertic, Yohan bear so served tqm bear So going like this moving like this. Moving, moving, moving and this one woman goes like this and this goals like this so they will intersect at a 19 year on there. So this is the downstream short circuit living 19 kilo and bear. So you will find that it is very easy to obtain the downstream using the table instead off calculating Izzy Cable and finding its values. So I hope this video help you understanding is the short circuit and how to do the manual calculation off this world sucked. 46. Voltage Drop And Short Circuit Calculations Using Etap: Now, in this video, we are going to transform our single line diagram in tow eat program in order to find the voltage drop in our system and the short circuit level. Okay, so the first thing you should know that they wanted a drop in our system, which we designed the before should not exceed 5% as a fall as a voltage drop. Okay, so the first thing we will goto e tab I'm using here eat up 12. All of them are nearly the same. Except that Senor versions e higher on more effective version then before. Okay, So the person who will click on file and then new project we'll name this one as a voltage drop and short certain that's short sucked. Okay, His in. You'll find years the unit system in my arm. Country. I used the metric. If you are in another country which use English, you can select English. Okay, Zen more. Click on. OK, now you'll find years. He was a name. And for name and description and the access level permissions. OK, I will just take all of them because they I am the only one here. Then we'll click on. Ok, ok, now we'll maximise this window in order to put our elements. So the first single should know is that we will collect on project okay, and then you will find their information. If you are having as subsisting project in a company, then we can Both these details when we export our final document so we can brought the project of items educations. The contract is the engineer re Marcus and comments. Okay, this is the first thing. Second thing is that we can click on Project on. Then we can click on standards. Okay, So, Sears that according again, you to your own carting are you are using at 50 hertz or 60 or 100 frequency or a 250 artists or 400 so on. So in my own country I used the 50 Hertz system against the own insisting English or metric . I use metric. The standard in your own country are you are using the icy or I or the dancing system. Okay, I'm using the I easy. So see here that here we have the different elements of what you are going toe design that single line diagram you will find here we have a C components and here's the measurement part, such as the potential transformer, current transformer and so on. Here we have the D c component. So this all of these temples are based on the I C standard. If I change it to you and seeing OK and then click on OK, you will see that all of this symbol it change it during using the standard, which is the dancing could. Okay, but since I'm using is the I. C. I will change it back toe easy. Okay, Okay. You will see that all the symbols are back here. So the first thing you will see that single line diagram you will find Here we have a transformer and this transformer taking its apart from a great Okay, So the first thing we will draw Izzy. Great. So with this one is called the power grid, you will collect on it. And just like this, you will find the air you can about it anywhere. So I'll just click here Now I am having my own power. Great. Now we'll double click on this. Great you'll find here it's anymore. Z names the connections three face or a single face off course. It is three face and you'll find here more information which will can find the from sea power grid in your own country. Okay, so you see, the transformer is getting it's a ball from a power grid. You find this information from the government about, or the electrical distribution company about the power. Great. And then you about this information. For example, here you will find that rated kilovolt in my own at Zion year we use than 11 over or 110.4 . Kilovolt 11 is the vaulted, which is in medium voltage from our great. Okay, so I will both here the rated Walters as 11. Okay, Now our it is balances or on balance, it I will assume it is balanced it because I don't have the information off the imbalances . This information are talking from the courses, the distribution company again, or from Seapower Grant. Now we will see is the short circuit Okay, you will find here Mega volt and bear short circuit. Okay. For this off course again from the border it on my own country for the 11 kill of world, the mega volt amber Short circuit is 500 and the X over our issue is 10. Okay, I'm talking about my own country in case off 11 kilovolt 11 and my own country, which is easy. Okay. According to our own power grid and this information, you can open it from the government or the electrical distribution company. Okay. These values on you don't preserve them in your own mind. Use us to get them from the ad distribution company. Okay, Then we'll click on. OK, now we have a source for our power, which is a power grid, which has a 500 mega volt ember short circuit and operating at 11. Kilovolts is the first step. Second step. You'll see it. We have a transformer. Okay, this transformer is 11 over. Opened for Delta store grounded, and you'll find 11 overall 110.4 kilovolt. Okay. And so let's and one mega vault and bear. So let's get that transformer you will see is a symbol of the transformer is here the winding transformer and it like here. And just to connect it from here toes egret. Okay. And of course, all of this are one note and this is called as a connection between them with Abbas. OK, so in orderto make it saw or showing zing. And plus, we will right click on this or the bus and then you'll see. Here, Take owns the note. We will remove it. You will see is that we have us part here now, at hearing and you'll see here also the voltage beside it. 11 kilovolt. Okay, now let's go to the transformer. We have here a transformer at the winding transformer. This transformer has of course, if if you have a substantive claim for systems for money but it year is a standard. Answer your eye easy and you'll see here as the different types off the transformer shell. Or course remember for them if you have this information. Okay? Now the important thing is your rating. Zero. Eating off the transformer you'll see, is a voltage rating. The primary is 11 kilovolt. It took this value from zing. A power grid senses the primary is connected. So this a great So the program automatically body living kilovolt in the primary, off the transformer, the secondary is opened for kilovolt. Okay, Now is the power rating for the transformer is one mega volt and bear. You can change also from Mega Volt Lamberto. Another value, which is kilovolt ampere, as you would like. Okay, Now you'll see here that we have the impedance for the transformer. Okay, you'll see that. Typical as it and X over our article X over our this the program or eat up has he that are based for a different types of transformers? Okay, we'll see. Is that it is one mega volt and bear I easy liquid transformer, which means oil transformer. Add 65 freezers degree. Okay. You can change all of this from here. Okay, You can see here on the shelf or in your event, or you can also Blais in this. See things they will find here. For example, as the type liquid filled or it is all right. Transformer, we'll find use a term brittle rise, Zeke. Losses. Okay, the subtype. All of this information you can fight according to the transformer in which you will buy for your own distribution or industrial area. Okay, so let's get back to the impedance. So we will say that we don't have the values, so I will take a typical set on X over our. So our program will automatically both values from its database or library about dead on X over art. Okay, now we will find years. He tabbing. Okay. Normally, we don't use the tearing except after Wednesday voltage decreases or the voltage increases in our area. OK, so we're normally, but it zero here. Okay, Then we would click on. Okay, so now let's make sure that our transformer is Delta star connected. How we can do this. Okay. You will see here a menu, this play options and yours here for each type off elements. You. But in this you can choose whether you have the idea rating kilovolt and bear Delta store connection or that. Okay, so Forsett Power Grand. I would like to see its kilovolt the motors off course. Kilovolt on Dizzy. A bus kilovolt. Okay, is in order. You can say kilovolt tool. Now, let's go to the transformer. Okay. I would like to see it's the connection delta y stabbing. Okay, Andi kilovolt. Okay. And for the cables weekend forget about them and then we can click on OK, You'll hear that all of the values would like Toa find. You will see we? It is now beside our element. For example, transform a delta. Why and one. Okay, so it is connected, That's why. Connection. Let's get back toe The grounding and you'll see is that is our primary is delta connection and the secondary is why and solid ground it. OK, you can't change from Delta Tau. Stop. Okay, now we have our transformers. The next step is that we have here cable. Okay, here we have a cable. Four cables for motor blood by 500 copper PVC be seen and four months or about 100. Okay, so we have here. Forget about the earth in this voltage drop calculations. Okay, so what we concern in a row? It is these values. Okay, so we have Here's before the three phase and the neutral having a 500 millimeters square. And do we have four off these values? OK, so for each phase, we have four for the primary or 44 cr 4 40 s. Four cables affords ET and four cables for the neutral. Now let's define these values OK or both. Is his values into our program. So the first step we will goto cable. Okay, and click like this. And the connected does the transformer and you'll see your our past. We can right click and transform a toe wound and then this cable double click on this cable . Okay? And you're seeing different times a number off conductors able phase. Okay, so we said here is that we have four conductors for each phase. Okay, this four means r s city and the neutral for means that we have four off r and S t and the neutral. Okay, RST and the neutral. We have four of them. So the number off conductors, the bare face is four. Okay, For each phase, we have four cables or four wives. Now, for the lens will assume assorted meat that that's just an example in the actual place or the actual industrial plant he will find. And the measure this actual distance. Okay, now we all find years the library. This library will give you a different types of cable. You'll find the year different types on the front, the numbers off course according to your own design, you can select which off them. Okay, So for our thing, we are using their believe a mile right, which is BBC, and at the same time, we are using greater than off course point for kilovolt. Okay, We'll find your 0.0.5 point seven and the cross sectional area is 500. Right? Let's see. Restriction and area is 500. Okay, So you will find here that the one which is selected automatically. Where is it? This one having a cross sectional area upto 35. Okay, so it's not meant for us. Okay, we need 500. So let's sees your 0.7 here. The system 0.7 has on Tel 506 100 self. Okay, that's a pretty good. Okay, so will he choose this 1 500? We have your cover 0.17 vault, which is okay, since our watch point for. And this cable can withstand upto 0.0.7. Okay. And the bullet vermeil as we require, or as required. Then we'll click on. OK, so we have a cable off 500 copper and 0.7 kill vote. And at 50 hertz, which we are operating on now, let's go to same Beaton's for the impedance you will see here is that we have if you have the values you put them or if you don't have them, the program automatically. But them from the library. Okay. Then we'll click on OK, okay. So we boots the values for our cable. Now let's go to another thing. We have year after putting this one, we have here a passport. Okay, so let's draw this past bar. Ah, bus. Then lie exist. And then we click on it and drag, click and right. Okay. Now we will. But like zest toe connected between them. Okay, so now let's see homes or thing we have the first still would. Here is 50 kilovolt and bear 155 100 so on. So and as you know, that this one is a residential area. OK, so we have way have dynamic loads and we have static loads by and I'm includes means that we have motors and we have a static loads like Lamberts and things which does not have or absorb starting current. Okay, So our loads are not be your resistive or of your inductive here or here or here, or even here. Okay. The factory lightening and power socket is the administration building residential building one and the two. All of them does not have a view resistant or Buren Inductive. Okay, so zeroed. What? You are going toe, but it's called lumbered alone. Okay, you'll see. Here. Lumbered load. Okay. This lumbered load means that our Lord is makes it between a resistive and inductive. Okay, so we'll double click on it and they will find here some information will goto a nameplate is the mega volt and bear. Here we have 50 kilovolt and bear so we can change this toe kilovolt. So click on 50 kilovolts. I'm bear. Now we'll find there another thing. Ziebart factor We assumed in our project 80% okay. And you will find the loot type. You'll find your Afghanistan tickling, kilovolt and bear and the constant that Constanta kilovolt amber means we are talking about the dynamic loads. This one means the static lutes. Okay, so most off our Lord's here in this fourth things or the four different ludes are called. Of course, 80% off them are static loads. We don't have much motors here, so we'll click on here and drag it to 20%. So that means that we have 18 20% kilovolt amber or dynamic loads and 80% constant loads. Okay, then we'll click on. OK, so now we draw our first loot. Second thing, we will do our cable game. So our cable here is a form of blood 35. So cable, my exists connector between them and between our BuSpar here. Right click Morzine Haute. Okay, double click on cable. We say that we have a 35 right? Okay, So a number of conductors is one. Since we have here one for each phase and is in neutral now, let's seems are like, very okay. We have this type political. I'll again 0.5 kilovolt. Okay. And we need 13 5 then. Okay, so we have here for and 35 Millimetre Square Zealand's. We will assume 14 meter. Okay, we'll assume 40. Okay, then. Okay. So draw. Now we draw our cable and our first true. Now we can assembly select all of this on the right click. Ok, And copy. Okay. And then right click and best. Okay. Like this and or control v apply exists best. We have four loads. Andan other one best is then we connect. Ally exists when nectar like this and the move it like those on Uh huh. Okay. Okay. So now let's see each of our Lord's. We have here 150 under 500. So this 150 100 15 Okay, on this one is 500 and play it 500. Okay, this one. Okay, this one, this one is 25 which is asserted one that seem okay when he five. Okay. And the last load is 200 mine seven. But remember something here? Door mind seven. Okay, but here our lost loot is ese industrial motors or induction motors. Therefore, all of these loads are dynamic loads. So will it change? Zero type toe 100% toe dynamic loads, okay. And zero static clothes. Because all of this 297 killed Walter, Amber is made off and motors or induction motors on Lee. So it collects on. Okay, like this. Okay, now we will change the cables. Let's see this one. This one is 214 millimeters square soul. Just to go toe library 240. Okay, we can find this in 3.7. 200 for okay, then on Dylan's is 40. Let's make it 30. Okay, Now, this one is a four month blood by 703 cable. So we have three. And we said, That's 700. Okay. So, like, very again is in Wardle 0.7 on the 300. Okay, Now let's goto this cable. It is. I remember there as then, okay? For months ago by ton. So then Okay, We can just take it from here then, then. Okay. Now is he lost one here. Battery, Boeing seven. Now, let's see. It is a stream of blood by 240 the to okay, 240 don't. Okay, so we have to then. Okay, now we drew our single line, their grand in E tab. Now we would like toa find the values for our voltage drop and short circuit and analysts. So the first thing you'll find here that this point or this pencil means that we are editing our single line diagram. When you are doing is the load flow analysis or the float flow? Of course. Tosi Z direction off the active underactive power end at the same time, we see the vaulters drop. We will click on this Now we have the low voltage or seeing load flow analysis. Now we will click on this run road flu as in Okay, you will find the year different virus. Let's move it like this. Okay, so we'll find the Is this value us off B and Q and you can find this from this. Screens play options you will find. Here. Is that a scene for the different saying this light transformer. Who would like to show the kilovolt? Okay, the power grid kill Walt. Is he more toward Okay and cables and all. We need passport. Kilovolt. Okay, Now is the result is here. You will find that the bus voltage each off this percentage represented the bus voltage and I would like to see as actual values. So I will click on vote. Okay. You can also choose to see the magnitude or is here or the angle or both of them. Okay, Now we'll find. Here's the powerful, these values. OK, we'll find here P and Q finding A and B plus Jake, you the active and reactive power you can change. And as you would like, you can choose and bear what only Or as a key. Only answer. Okay, now we can click on. OK, now we will find that here is the values. Change it for zero flu. One year we have the MBA tear 11 kilovolt on the past bar and also throws a transformer. Now, for this passport, you will see that we have a voltage offs around 38.5 Walt. Which means that the most off the voltage drop is on the transformer from 400 to around 83.5, which means nearly 16.5 vault voter drop on this transformer. The cable has only vote. Drop off a three. You'll receive the difference between them. And finally 20 to have surrounded 77 runs, 76 So on 77 answer. So we have You will see that here. Do toe the large impedance off the transformer. You will see that all of these values dropped the residents around 80 volt. Okay, so again, the 5% vultures rub in order so that from the Alberto Transformer dozy load we need at 0 to 180 vote. Okay, so find his at the voltage drop is greater zone 5%. So do what we can do. OK, we have two choices. The first thing is that we ended this transformer. Okay, double click on it and then it changed the tapping off the transformer. Okay, you know that when we are dealing with a transformer high volt side, which is 11 kilovolt and the second secondary or went for we will change the having off the primary. Why? Because adds the high voltage is a current is lower, which means we have lower sparking. But if we change the tailing from the secondary or Z low voltage since the current would be high and see as spark will be Okay. So we changed the timing off some transformer from Z Brian money side. So the changes it having abroad in negative 2.5. What does it mean? It means that we change the number of tennis. We decrease the number of Turness by negative 2.5 is actually dizzy secondary of the transformer toe increase. So we'll click on OK, Zin will click on run load flow analysis. You will find here that Z voltage increased. You will find its around 87 on the 86 87 88 7 and so on. So the voltage here increased. Okay, so that is the first and second message we can do is that that's indeed exists. Uh huh. We know that the induction waters or forcing industrial blend the bar factor must be at least a point of mine. Okay, if it is, listen, going to Ryan's, then you will have a banality your toe having a low power factor. Since our bar a factor here is a point it we can do something instead off. You know that this transformer supplies current. This current carries is A B and Q the active and tractable. If we adhere a combust auto supplies e active bar. And since the current absorbent buzzer transformer decreases, therefore the voltage drop on the transformer will decrease. What? I mean, let's get back towards the editing and act investor. Okay, like this and we'll both the value off the combustible. For example, 200 Walter and beer in the information rating. Okay, 200 king of all. Okay. Now we for your on Ziebart clue, you'll see that the voltage here increased. Okay, No greater sensor on the 80 again exhausted by adding this cup a store. We improved dizzy power factor by adding Zizka Pastor and providing Zack you and decreasing . Zack, you provided from the transformer. Therefore we were able toe decrease the voters drop on the transformer and increased all of this voltage and instead off. And the timing was a transformer is the same zero. Okay, so this are the total solution. If you don't need to change the transformer, we would like to make it zero tabbing Zen will but era Cabestan orderto improves about factor and decreasing the voltage drop again. Okay, so that is a second thing. Okay, now let's of the just. Uh huh. Now we learn until now, have toe design or identifies have also dropped. Now let's go to the short circuit and narcissistic this one in the short circuit and anuses you will find here that grant sitting you can do OK, we'll find here as three face fault. You will find there a single line toe ground fault you will find here line, toe, ground line to line toe ground CVS faults and so on. And you will find here on trans central circuit Run arc flash According toa I easy and so okay. And of course, here we have the ability options, the display you can display as a big or written squares. The important off us is the root mean square value off the current Nazi beak. Okay, so now let's is the worst type off short circuit is the string face Short circuit. So we design our short circuit, or is the capability off our cables, motors or everything? Bus bars on the three face short circuit, because it is there are wars pipe sort second. Okay, So where are we going to do the folks? Okay. We need a fault on this passport, right? Clicked and then click on fault. We need a fault. Here. Here, this one and the Let's see what will happen. Okay, Now, if we're on the city face short circuit test. Okay, You will find here the short circuit current in case so far, short circuit on the past bar, you will find that the current is 28.8 kilo on bear. So our passport must always to stand a short circuit value. Greater then this value okay off course before our short time. Not is the short circuit rating off the passport must to be greater than 28.8 kilo. You will find that this value is 24.897 from the source or sigret 2.5 60 kilo on bear from the induction motors as emotive, transforming toe generators enduring trans entry off course during the short circuit here opened all for five or 28 mine mine or went 071 or goingto nine Kahlo. And they're OK for the short second, for example, here you will find on this past bar you'll find 17 and bear coming from all over the other components and 2.7 from the motor itself. 20 kilo and bear. So this one must withstand 20 kilo on bear. Okay, this 1 to 1 71 bear this one I went to 1.5 kilo on bear 15.8 7.4 kill on bin. So muscle design our elements according to the short second or the wars to case. Okay, we consign all of this as a 25 kilo amber and this one as a 30 kilo on bear. Okay, so finally we will click on report the manager and then you will find. Here's a possible click like this if I would like our results is the summary and everything about what we did now in the short circuit analysis and we can. But it has a video ward or any four. And then we'll click on OK, now for the load flow analysis, we can run it again. Then we can click on report manager and dozing. Same. Okay, Bdf or anything? Okay, By doing this here, we can find the the front things we have done in this broken. Okay, so now in this video, we learned about when voters drop and how toe can create the short circuit level using e. 47. Effect Of Current On Human Body: hello and welcome everyone to our videos for the Earth thing system. In this videos, we are goingto discuss Z meaning off nursing system, Z types off nursing system and how to design the arcing system. So first we would like to understand the effect off the A C or a D. C. Current owns the human body is the reason for this We will understand. Is the effect off A C or D? C? Then you understand. Why do we use the nursing system? So the effect off an easy or D C current on human body depends on three main factors. The 1st 1 is the amplitude off the current, the value off the current, which, as a human is exposed to number two the duration off the current browsing through the human body, the time in which is the current of passing Strozzi Party and the frequency off the current bossing it is D C off zero frequency or a C with 50 Hurtis or more and no more force of direction or the pass off the current. So let's start by discussing each off these factors. So the 1st 1 is the effect off the electric hazards or the or the current on the humans. For example, if we're talking about the a C current and its effect on the human body So for a current one million bear, you will feel or a slight sensation off the current. Okay, you will feel a small current hear from until from one million bare toe five million bear five member representing Z maximum current, which is still harmless towards the human. Okay, so five mil amber, you cannot sense it or you cannot even have any harmful effects from 10 to 20 million bear . You will find that in this case, the loss off muscle control. In this case, you will not feel you cannot control your hands muscles and you cannot let go the electric suck. OK, so when you are, the electricity captures you and you cannot leave it. So at 50 million bear, you'll find that there is a difficulty off response oration from 100 to 300 million bear Z praising stops and eventually it would lead toe Fattal authorities Fattal, which will lead toe this from 1000 to 6002 million bear and above. Of course, the internal organs and tissues starts to burn in the human body. So where we have the value of Z current and the effect off off it on the human body. So now let us see the effect off the current with respect to time. So if we have a current from zero toe 00.5 milion bear and providing it for continuous time , then it will have no effect. So from 0 to 4.5 million bare toes, I hear my body does not have any effect for any range off time, starting from 4.505 million and bear continuously to your finds that involuntary muscle contraction but no harmful effects on the human from 5 to 30 million and bear now if we happened that the human is exposed to this amount off current four minutes, then this will cause muscle contraction and difficulty from separation off the circuit or difficulty off separation from Cirque. You cannot let go of the circuit now if the current increase to 30 to 50 million bear for just two seconds, this will cause difficulty in praising and loss off consciousness for more than 100 million and bear and exposed to more than 20 milliseconds. This will finally toe this. So in this table we see is the amount of current and the time exposed to it and its effect on the human body. So we'll see that in the nursing system. We need toe protected the human against this values off current and all. See that how the Earth Inc will effect or protected the human from this amount off current . But first lets us easy maximum current that the human can withstand with respect to time so approximately we can say that the current in which is a human can withstand was respect to tow. Time is equal to 116 million bear over the square, root off the time in second. So, for example, if we have our time off 10 seconds and would like to Megsie human or the amount of current that the human can withstand in a time of 10 seconds, so we'll take 10 and substitute here. So 116 over road then will give us the amount off current that's a human can withstand. During a 12th without any damages served 6.68 million bear So if a human exposed toe this amount of current for just 10 seconds, the human can withstand. But remember that 12th is the maximum current. Okay, so this formula can help us toe get the time or the current that the human can withstand was respect toe by So I the effect off frequency off current. So a C or D C current most off them can cause damage to the heart at high enough levels. But Z at a C is much worse. Zanzi d. C. Why? Because for d c. For a C, we will need 30 Millie and beer as a road many square value as on our investor value at 60 hertz. OK, but for d. C, we will need at several 100 to 500 million bear off D C. Current toe produces the same effect off the 30 million bear off easy, so you will find that the EEC is more dangerous. Zanzi d c as you'll see that the amount of currently need here is certainly amber only, but in case off this you will need some 100 to 500 mainly on bear. This means that more d c current is required to produce the same effect off the A. C Z. A low frequency A C current is more dangerous. Ascents high frequency easy. So the 60 Hurtis a C current is much worse than one kilohertz a c about now, the effect off that direction off current the current campus through the human from foot to foot. Okay, from that left to right or the right to left and the compass from left hand right hand, for example, and come bus from left hand toe feet. One was a feats and kind boss from the right hand toes defeat. But the question is, which one of these is a Waris? The case? The worst case is hand to hand, for example, from left to right. Why? Because from left hand, right hand or right hand to lift at the current bosses through the heart and Z. Also, another case, which is the worst, is from the left hand Does defeat Why? Because from left hand to defeat the current world pass so rosy heart. So the worst case is hand to hand or left hand toe feet, as both off them will pass through the heart 48. Types Of Electric Hazards: So what are the types off the electric hazards, which is a human exposed toe? There are two types. The direct hazards, which is a result off direct contact with the life parts and indirect hustles. As a result, off the insulation failure and deleted, you can't. So if you look at this, if we have here are bus bars Z line 123 or red, yellow and blue. Okay, that's three phase and the neutral. Okay, So if a human touches this Gaspar, then the current will go through Z BuSpar and passing through the human and toothy ground. So here, z a hazard or the electric hazard or the electric shock. It's called a direct because the human touching Z passport or the life part and the current bosses through it through the ground. Okay, Now another type is called the indirect hazards. For example, if we have an electric motor here, supplied boy as three face okay, For example, it is a delta connection motor. Now you will find that this part or this body the enclosure off See, motor itself does not have any current normally, but in case off insulation failure. Okay. For example, the insulation failure off phase number two, then Z current. A small leakage current will boss through the body off Z at machine itself. Okay, the body or the enclosure off the machine itself. Busy outer surface off the machine. So when a human touches this surface, the current will boss or the record you can it will pass through the human and throws the ground. So this is not called a director. But it's cold in director because it is as a result off insulation failure and leakage current. So how we can protect its human against Z like chocks and against and artichokes for the direct choke. So we can first we have toe insulate the life parts. Okay, It's the passports should not be easily exposed to tow the human because anyone who touches it will die from Chuck. Okay, so we have toe insulate our lifeboats. Number two, we have to protect the the human by putting the barriers between Z or enclosures in between the human and the life parts. And we can also protect the human against a direct to contact the boy something called a residual current device. All our CD This result world current voice it sounds is the leakage current OK, when's the leakage A current exceeds zine for example 30 million bear which is the value of current which will be harmful to humans Then Z residual current device will trip the circuit. Okay, so protect is a human Now is a prediction against indirect chokes Baeza Usage off, er thing which you are going to discuss in this videos. So what is nursing her? Think it's simple, Easy process off Transferring the immediate this A chores off the electrical energy directly towards the earth. Boys help off the low resistance wire. Okay, so we simply take Z leakage current and give it a pass throughs. Ears Boy is a usage off a low resistance. Why? To prevent dizzy current from flowing into the human, we allows the current toe pass through the earth by the usage off low resistance wire The electrical er thing is done by connecting is in on current carrying part off the equipment . For example, see enclosure which should not have any charges or the neutral off supply system to the ground as we'll see in the different er sing systems, the metallic frame or the enclosure off the machines is connected. All stores ears. Because any charges which is at for Mitt or any static charges which is for Mitt on the party off the machine should be dissipated. Toe the earth, so protect off course. Any humans from the shock. So we need toe compare between that usage off everything and was out using Earth. So first we have here our equipment. Okay. And we have here a leakage current. Okay, so this wire and we have here a livewire and the neutral wire, the live wire carrying current and we have here and insulation failure. So leakage current will boss through the surface off or the enclosure off the electrical equipment. So when a human body touches it, then what happens? Z current flows through the human like exists, as you see here, then goes through the earth's and then get back to is a neutron. Okay, because it wants us toe return back toe the life. I Okay, we have here. See, for example, is the beginning and the end. For example, during the post of psych. Okay, we have a sea off course, but we are discussing dizzy positive cycle as an example, so do your exam. Postive cycle is the current goes here bossing here and some leakage current goes through the human and back toe the earth throws in neutral and then goes here like this back to the life Ryan. So the current will use the human as a passed over the ground. So this is an electrical system without with er thing and the causes off course, shock does the human body. Now, as an example, we will use the electric system with, er thing. Now. When everything was said that we will this is the enclosure or the metallic frame. We will connect. Is this frame or C None current carrying apart with ears. Okay. With the dosage off law. Resistance. Why? So we used the here. If we have a leakage, a current, for example, here are fault. Then he can It will boss Rosie body off the machine. But the human body have a resistance. For example, one kill home, okay? Or it can be higher as an example. Of course. One, kiddo. So the current has told direction easier to go through the human since Rosie Earth's and the back here. Same as here, Or it can chews Togo through Z everything. Resistance. Okay, so it chooses the Earth thing systems since this resistance is from two five or listen five home. So when's the current Cesaire five own Parenteau. One kill home. It it chooses off course, is the five home. So most or 99% of the current will go through the five like this and get back through the ground, then two z life wire So the human will be protected, boys, A usage off earth. So this is the benefit off you that using off the earth thing because it protects our human against electrical shocks. 49. Classification Of Earting Systems: So, what are the classification off? Nursing systems. We have as many men types off er sing systems. That 1st 1 is tne system. 2nd 1 is DT system Answer. The one is our I T system. So what is the difference between them is the first example representing is the connection off the supply neutral with the ground. Okay, War with the earth. And the second simple representing the connection off the neutral or the enclosure. This will depend on type of system with the Earth thing system. Okay, so the 1st 1 is related to the supply. The second simple is related toe zem loot as an example. The first Alor letter is for source relation with the Earth thing. If it s t, it means that the neutron off the supply, for example, a store connection this neutral is connected towards the Earth thing or the ground Z I here in case off our I T system means that we have no connection with our things in Notre is not connected with the arcing system. The second letter is representing their relation off zeroed or the relation off the enclosure. If it is d, it means that this enclosure is connected to the Earth thing system. If it is n, it means that the enclosure has a relation with a neutral and we will see in case off the end system. So the first type off systems is that titi system here t means that our sources connected toe the earth. The neutron is connected to the earth. Anti here, which is representing the enclosure, means that the enclosure is connected to the Earth thing system. So, as an example we have this system which is D T system. So we have here at Delta Connection, for example, then toe a store connection. So in this, a star you will find that we have here is an your turn. Okay, we have the stiff is Z his number one off. It's A and D and we have here is a neutral. Okay, we have the three phase and the neutral because we have a store connection Now D means that the neutral here is connected to the ground. As you see here, this line is a neuter, okay? And this one is a neutral. So all of this is connected toe the nursing system or we say is a ground. Okay, Now you will find that here we have seen three phase and the neutral going it to the front lutes. Now, for example, we have this load. Okay, This one is a star connected, lewd with us three phase, which is connected to the three phase here and the neutral here connected with a neutral here. Now we will find something that the enclosure itself, which is this. What is the enclosure off the machine is a teen. What does that he means? It means that as this in closer is connected to the ears. So we have year and the goals Rose ears. Okay, so this one Okay, let's delete all of this. So is this one. It's connected to the earth through our arresting resistance. And this one is connected. Toe the earth through an earth through an earth resistance or er thing resistance. Okay. So have to understand this simple things because it will help you to understand the difference between systems now assumes that we have a fault on this face. Okay? This face has a fault. So which is the same face here? Okay, so the current goes here. Rosine Machine and some leakage current will boss through the outer. Okay, this line is on the outer surface or the enclosure off the machine on the metallic frame from Zambia. So what happens? Does the current is he can't want us to go back. Does this face okay? This face has an insulation failure. So is this part has insulation. So it's connected toe Z enclosure. So the current goes here and will go through the Earth's my exists. Okay, This frame is connected toe the earth so without resistance are as an example. Okay. And this one is our to So the current will possible. See frame itself, then goes through the earth's or the ground isn't it goes like this through the earth It wasn going back Do Z fares which has default or having an insulation failure So it finds that it goes from here through the enclosure. The central is that first are Zeng Gong's was a second or so the fault. The current in this case will be quite to v Fayez for this face For example, at 120 volt 20 vault over ze resistance or the total resistance which is r plus R it will be equal to off as an example, we said that the resistance, for example, will be lets them five phone. So we'll use at five homers an example, So we'll have no matter. Blood by five, which is then 220 over 10 will give us at 20 to and there. Okay, so is the current here, or the current passing through here is at went Ito and bear, the circuit breaker will not feel this amount of current so circuit breaker off the face will not tripped the circuit. Okay, so in this case, we will need here and are sitting okay, a residual current device in order to senses amount off current so 22 bear as a liquid you can. It is a larger value. So in this case, the RCD will have a relay which senses this current and finally will causes circuit to trip . So in this system, it is the simplest solution to design and install. And at the same time, we have to use our city because without our city, we will not senses this amount off current. Okay? We protected the human because if a human touches this enclosure. No current will bust through it as the current will boss through the ground. But we need our city in orderto sensitives Current in orderto tripped the circuit due to the basins off a fault or insulation failure. Now let's this easy second system we have tienda system and we have two types off the tee. Any system we have a t Any seeing Which is mean the combined system and TNS which is that the end separate system. And there is Acti and CS, which is a combined separate and will not discuss it. But anyway, that TN combined system lets us yet at first here T means that Z neutral here is connected to the ground or the earth's. Okay, the end, it means that What does it mean? It means that zem enclosure itself is connected to Z neutral. Okay, so let's see, we have the three phase here going through the machine and you have the neutral off the machine, the neutral off the machine. You will see that it's connected here. Does he in closer which is at the same time connected to Z neutral here through the Earth thing system. So again D N c here we say combined because we combined the neutrals together. So he means that the Neutering here is connected to the ground and means that NBC means that the neutrals are combined. So we'll see that here's a neutral here is combined with the enclosure combined with zing neutron here. Okay, so this is the first type off DNS system. The second type here is Tien, but seven it. Now let's see the difference between this and this tea is also connected to the ground and we have the three fears. And then you turn. Okay? Just notice what we are doing here. The three phase here is connected to this reef. Is here is a neutral here. Okay. Is this neutral? It's connected toes and neutral here normally. Okay. Same as here is. I knew to run here. This is a neutral is connected. So the neutral here. Okay, Now notice why it's called separate. Separate because he in closer itself having a separate line. Okay, The enclosure itself is connected through alliance, then dozy ground. Ok, so we'll find here. Is that this line off The enclosure is connected toe on earth thing line, then through the ground. OK, but this one it's connected to Z neutral Is that toe? Neutrons and Z ah enclosure are all connected together in one line. Okay, all of them are combined. But here you will find a separate line. We'll find here Want to see for four lines that force one which is the neutral and at the same time the one which combines all of this and in closer. But here you will find 123455 Flying's the faves One is a separate one for the Earth thing off the inclusion. Now let's see what will happen if we have a fault. So assume again a fault in phase number two here. So current will go here like this, then goes through the body or the metallic frame or the enclosure off the machine itself. So where it will go? It will go through here. Okay, so it will go lie exists isn't going here then going like this through Z faulty face. Okay, so the current goes here through the fourth face, then through the metallic frame or the enclosure, then goes here through the line here and goes back. So in the end. It does not go to three years. So what will happen in this case? Now see that Z fall to current here will be quite to that voltage, which is, for example, at 120 vote over the total resistance. So where is the resistance here is that resistance in this boss is only their resistance off Z faces. In this case, Z face itself having a low resistance, for example, in Milli on. So, as an example will say Attenborough negative three own. So is a voltage, Which is that his voltage over that resistance off this poss, which is a very low resistance since it is a wire, so it would be equal to a very large amount of current. Okay, not at 22 vault. No, not 22 bear as before. It is a very, very large value. So what will happen in this case in this case, is the circuit breaker weather senses the faulty current and trips a circuit. And this is this system will also have the same amount off current. Okay, this or this. Okay, but the difference is that we separate the earth alone. So in this system we need No, our city is required because the circuit breaker will senses e fall to current. And in this case, the circuit breaker will trip. Okay, They really off course while senses and gives a signal toe circuit breaker to trip. Okay, But before the circuit breaker does not sense any current. And we needed our city here in orderto senses the fault account. But here's the current will be very high. So circuit breaker Well, trip. Okay, But we will need our city if z k Poland is very, very long. What? I mean, wisest remembers that the resistance is equal to roll l over z area. So in this case, you will find that the lens as violence increases, then the resistance off the wire will increase closings, the current two to decrease. Okay, but this will need are very long lens. For example, Toby, more subservient a few kilometers. Okay, will cause the resistance Toby High and will cause the current Do not be sensitive. Boise in circuit breaker and in this case will need our city. And in this configurations at the end systems a circuit breaker. Well, trump c circuit. Okay, now Let's see that lost conflagration. The this conflagration is called ICTY. Oh, you as we said before, when it is t, it means that the neutral here off the sources connected to the ground or the Earth thing system. But I mean that Z neutral is not connected to the ground. You see that here is the line which is an ultra, and between them again does he or the ground? So this neutral is not connected to the ground and a T means that our in closer is connected to the ground. Okay, so our inclusion here is connected toe the ground. Now we will see that in this case we have that's reefers entering our load and let's see the effect off the fall to current assuming that the fault in this face as before So the current will go here and a leakage current on the surface, or the metallic frame or the enclosure off the machines. This is the outer surface off the machine or the body off the machine. Do you tow current will boss or Alec into current? It will pass due to insulation failure Now is the current here will go through here is in going through the earth as we did before. And then we'll go back here. Okay? This is an assumption. And I will tell you worry. You cannot goes here and then wanted to return it to this point. But you will find something that this part is open circuit. So the current will never get back toe is the source here. So what does it mean? It means that despite the reasons off, yeah, insulation failure here. No current old boss. Why? Because you cannot will go here, then toe the ground and the cannon. Go. Cannot get back. Does in your truck. Okay, so no current will pass. So in spite the presents off our installation failure, the machine will still continue toe operate. Now the question is what will happen or why do we use the party system? That solution here offering the best to contain 20 off service during the operation. As an example for this, it is used in hospitals. Okay. For example, enduring Z when a doctor is doing an operation on that patient Z, we don't need we don't want is in machines. Toby, turn it off due to faults. Okay, so in this case in case off I t system. Despite having insulation failure, Z machine Will is still operating despite this insulation failure. So this can be used in hospitals where the machine will continue to operate until the doctor and this its operation and all See, how do we do it, Detective Z fault here. Now the problem is, let's see if we have ah fault here on this face. Okay? And a current will not past due to the presence off a ground. But assume that has this machine also by accident. This machine was also having a problem and having insulation failure as an example on the same face. So what will happen is the current will go here, then go to the ground. Then what? It will go here. So the same part? No. Okay. Because you are connecting the same face. For example, we are connecting two points together, okay? Over the same face so nothing will happen. So if the current here connected to the ground and this one is connected to the same point so no current will flow between them because they have the same fears. But if we have a different face for examining for abscess phase has an installation failure and this one has an installation figure. Remember that This one representing this face and this one representing is this fees. Now notice that win this one. It's connected to the earth. Okay, Leakage current. So this fears it's connected toe this point and this fierce it's connected to the same point. So what does it mean? It means that is this phase and this phase are connected together. So what does it mean? It means that we will have a short circuit are lying toe line fault. So that's why we cannot leave one of if we have a problem with insulation. We have to fix it after doing the operations, for example, in hospitals in order to prevent this sort second. So again, this fears it's connected with this phase with the nursing system so lying Klein fault will . Okay, so we would have toe use Zine and Z I m ity, as we will see now, our committee which is this equipment in orderto detectives he falters in our circuit. So I m idi or the installation monitoring device is used toe the tech dizzy insulation failure So how this I m idi injectors current with a different frequency. For example, if our machine is operating at 50 Earths or Secretariat is zero will inject a current at two hertz, for example. So this inject this current So the current world bus here, for example, If we have a fault on this face like this and going like this so the current will go here Rosie, 45 years Zentz Rosie frame off machine, then going through the nursing system. Then this point will go here back. Does the i m. Iti so he can't injected will go back due to the prisons off a problem here on silly or insulation failure. So the insulation failure help. It's the current injected by I am ET toe get back to our committee. So the immediate gives a flesh that there is a problem here or inspiration. Video. Now, in case off, no problem. This humidity injects current like this for examining this fees. Then it will go through the machine and cannot go through the nursing system because there is no insulation failure. So it will justice stop inside the machine so that installation monitoring device help us us toe detectives e insulation failure inside the machines. So those are the different types off the Earth thing systems used in our er thing equipments now in Jennings the video. So we will discuss more about the equipment or the components off the nursing system and how toe designs the Earth thing systems. 50. Components Of Earthing System: in this video, we would like to discuss Izzy components off the Earth thing system. So our nursing system is consisting off a few components which are really important. And in this an extra videos we are going to discuss help toe design each off them. So starting with the first component, which is the earth in conductor, you'll see that here, for example, this is a TT network or tt er thing system we said that we have here is the enclosure off our equipment Then this in closer is a connected through air conductor and electrical conductor and the two and earth's or toe the earth throw another component, which is the earth thing electoral. Then finally, all of this is immersive inside z soit Okay, so again, another picture or another image of for this you will find years. This is an hour, er think a cable. Okay, Our earth in conductor. It takes the earth in conductor going through an electrode and this electrode is immersive inside a soy. Okay, so is that first component is the earth in conductor. Second component is the er thing electrode which is this one? Okay. And finally the type of soil, which is our component immersive in tow or our roads immerse it in. And another thing which is the off course, is the connection between the conductor and the electrode, which is known as the accessories termination fittings, bonding, wilding gets and other materials. So this are the main components off their thing system. We will have toe identifies the type floy, then how to design the nursing electrode. And what is the material made off and the Earth thing conductors. So at first, let's is he here is that we are talking now a powered Z Sawyer. Is this white itself having a specific resistive ity or O meter? They resisted pretty off the soil affected. See nursing resistance. OK, so as you remember that from our previous videos, we said that we would like Toa obtain at 205 home as a resistance or off course Listens is so in order to produce a very low resistance. So we have to select a Z electrodes and designs addict roads, the conductors and all of this components together in order to produce a low resistance so the soil plays a critical role in the earth existence Okay, you will find that that resistive ity off the soy is a factor inside the equations off the resistance off the conductors or the resistance off their electrodes. So we have toe identify that insensitivity off the soil. So there is a video of the song Depends on many factors. The 1st 1 is the composition off this way is the soil itself is clay or moist, or it is as handy or a limestone or etcetera. OK, so each time off this soil exactly the sand Z limestone. All of this have a different resistive ity. So this is the first thing which it blames an important role in the restive ity effect. So, as an example, your finds that the clay have a low water sensitivities ends at limestone. The reason for this exactly, or things type off soy, you'll find it has a large amount off salt. So as the amount off Soltis inside destroy itself increases, the resistive ity starts to decrease. So as a percentage off, the salt content increases the safety off the soaring decreases. Okay, so this is the first thing so one of their components or one of the solutions available for us to decrease the earth existence is toe both more soldiers inside the soy. Okay, so this is the first defector. Second factor is the moisture content off this way. So as the moisture also in much on percentage increases that raises devotee off, the soil starts to decrease. You will see that here as 10% 20% and so on until 100% You'll find that rest if t decreases or change it from as an example from 6000 toe Lizin 100 for example. Okay. So as the moisture off the soil increases zem reserved over soil decrees, another thing is the temperature of the soil. As the temperature off the soil increases that raises a Vitti starts toe decrease that depths off the soil. As we go deep bar inside the soil, you will find that the rest ft off the side starts to decrease. So here you will find here at a depth of one meter, 1.52 meter, 2.5. As the depths increases your finds that the festivity starts toe decrease. Okay. And you'll find here 1 41 curve for the dry soil and 1 40 weight. You know that the wet off course is having a higher percentage off Meishan off course. Zan zar dry so see wet is having a lower resistive. It is Enzo Troy. This one is a dry on this one. Is the at wit so fine? Here's a wet at 0.5 depths 1000 and this one is nearly 2000. Okay. As an example, of course, and another thing which it changes them. Er thing. Resistance is the number off electrodes use as the number off electrodes used increases. Zen Z er thing. Resistance will start to toe decrease because this electrodes are connecting in all connected in parallel. So as the barrel connection increases, Zen Z sold receptivity starts to decrease or the total er thing. Resistance starts toe decrease. So that sort of safety, for example, for the moist soil is a 30 0 meter for a clay soil 100 meter and increasing. You'll find that other dry soil 1000 home meter and at rocky Ground you will find that it is a 30,000 resist empty. So that Morse, the difficult one, is the rocky ground in this rocky ground is very difficulty toe reduce the grounding system . It's very costing. So how toady Crazy sores, safety in the poor soil. For example, If we have a soiled with a high resistive ity so how we can decrease it. So assembly We can do it by using chemical treatment off soil by adding soldiers to the suede. Off course is the salt is as you know, that it increases that conductivity off the material. Okay, this hold in water is there is on four conductivity OK, so increasing Salter's in water increases the conductivity off the water or here, this way. So we form holes at a distance 10 centimeters from the anecdote and at the lips off certain centimeter, and will start ending this sorts. We feel this holes with soldiers such as e copper sulfate, the magnesium sulphate or sodium chloride. Okay, or in a C l. All of this helps to increase the conductive soil, which in the end leads toe a lower soldiers festivity. And again, that's auras. Lefty is a really critical and important factor. NZ and the resistance off the electrodes and the resistance off the conductor inside Z s Oy 51. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Electrode 1: So now when this video would like to discuss is the earth thing electrode. So what happens here as we remember that we have our conductor going to exist, then going toe one off the electrodes? Okay, that electrode, which is immersive inside Aziz way. So this is our soy. Okay, so this part our soil, this one is our electrode. And this one is the conductor coming from zee Earth Sing part. Okay, so this one is a single electrode. So what happens in real life, we will have regret or a grounding egret. Okay, like this one. Okay. Like this lying on a line, you will find this in a tap. When we discuss it in another video, you will find that this rent is designed in a tap. Okay, So what happens? We take the conductor here and toe this Great. Okay, so this great is this one? This part is a conductor. This one is another conductor Ersin conductor. This one is an arson conductor on other on earth, in conductor and so on. So all of this is a conductor. All of this is immersive inside the soil at the specific depths. Okay, so this one is considered as our grounding. A great okay. Advent is forming off only conductors. Now, if we would like toa decrease the total resistance, we start adding in extra words. For example, we will add electrodes here. Adds the edges. Okay. Like this? Like this. Okay, all we can increase number off electrodes and the intersection points like this, Like this and like this and so on. Continuing all of the great and all of this immersive inside this way. So we have here all of this is a conductors. And this one is er think electrode this one every single throat And this one is er thing electrode. So we'll find that all of this form or all of this components are parallel to each other. Okay, as an example, here is the current or the short circuit current is entering like this is NZ. Current will be going through all of this conductor. Okay, then it will be divided inside the electrodes so we'll find that Z conductor itself is barrel toe the electrodes. Not serious. Okay. The current can go through conductor is then go through the air, Single throat or continuing other conductor does the ground to the electrode. Okay, you will find here barrel combinations. Okay. So you will find that the equivalent resistance is the resistance off the conductor and barren tools. The equivalent resistance off the electrodes. Okay. So we can form a grounding grid off only conductors or form a ground Great off electrodes and azeem conductors. Now, in this venue we would like to discuss is the er thing electrode so that material off this electrode can be made off a galvanized iron or copper or any highly conducting material. Okay, because would like toa conduct it all of this toe take the current A to Z ground. So it must be a conducting material. The material of the Earth's indirect roach would be the same as the arson conduct. Okay. What does it mean? It means that this conductor and the earth thing electrode and the conductors here in the grand our should should have the same er thing conductor. Because why, in orderto revenge, dizzy corrosion off our electrodes or our conductor do toe the connection off a day front of material, but it uses that potential difference between them You will find us up with is a voltage. Normally off the conductor here is there front of from the voltage normally off this conductor, for example, for having a galvanized iron and cover as they are having at the front of voltage or a different potential difference between them. So this will cause the corrosion off one off this conductors or the arcing electrode or the conducting er thing conductor. So all of this should have the same material. So the question is, how toe calculate the resistance off fire? An electrical wrote or er thing wrote. So the earth in growth having this equation? This is the resistance off only one road, so the resistance will be quite toe raw, which is here the soil resist Efty. So we'll find years that the resistance off the conductor itself or the Earth single ECT wrote, is ah, function in salt is devotee. So as thesaurus activity increases, the resistance off our electrode increases. That's why you should have a low soiled resistive ity during the ground. Overtop i l where l is Ellen's off the road in meter, Log it and which is Zealand's off zero over D, which is the diameter off the road, minus one So by substituting in this equation, we can get the resistance or the Earth thing. Resistance off one electrode. Now, there is a different methods in boating the electrodes. Okay, we would like toa reduce the minimum value off resistance. Okay, we said that we would like to produce, for example, five own. So in order to reduce our five all, we have to connect a lot off electrodes in batteries. Okay, so we have a different combination for this. Electrodes. This electrode can be in the form off a whole square or can be in the form off, equal it or a triangle, or can be in the form off. L can be in the form off T and so on. So there is a different configurations for the earth, Ingrid. So, as an example, we are going to discuss this the whole square, and they call it right. So for the whole square, we have this one, and it means that whole because inside it there is nothing. Okay, you were found here. We have electrode electrodes, electrode, which is the red one. And between them are conductors, the black one connecting between them inside. This way. So in this one. We will have number off electrodes in one side is equal to four in minus one. So for end minus one. Representing the total amount off electrodes. Okay, inside a hole. As an example, if I would like. Here we have. 123456 If I would like six egg electrodes bear site, then ourselves. Stood here by six minus one will give us five. So five months, blood by four Give us 20 electrodes used. So if we want to 3456789 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1920. Okay, so all of this are 20. And the one side we have six. So six minus 155 months. Will it forgive us? A total 20 electrodes. So now we'll have to see that resistance. That resistance here is equal to the resistance off one electrode. Okay. Which we obtained this brave use formula for it. One plus lambda a over in. So we have here in is representing the total number off electrodes. Daughter number off electrodes Okay in the square. And we have here Lunda and a London. They are two factors of which he we did not discuss before. So see that here Lunda is obtained from tables. Is this table which is effective? Lunda? You'll find the number off electrodes along is this side of the square? So we have here. 123456 six electrodes on one side. So we'll go here at six electrodes. We will have a factor off 6.663 six of 16 feet. Okay, so is this one for our example? Here were our London. Okay, Now our factor e is equal toe role, which is the soil resistive ity over two pi r Are is the resistance off one direct route. Martyr blood by S s is distance between two adjacent electrodes. When you are doing this, any tab according Toa Tripoli, you'll find that the distance between two electrodes should not exceed 2.5 meters. Okay, This is a need that should be not be greater than 2.5 meter or greater sent 22.5 meters. Your finds this any tape. So as this is the resistance in case off a whole square. Now, another one. If we arranged our electrodes in line. Okay, Like this electrode, it brought electrode and connected between them with a conductor's. Now, in this case, we have number off electrodes and 123 So we'll go here. Three and 1.66 Then our resistance will be the same as before are one plus Lambda a Lunda over n n is a number off electrodes Lunda from table A from row over to buy R s as before. So this if our electrodes are arranged in line now, if our electrodes are arranged in the form of equality training. Okay, so this is our equilateral triangle where the city sides are equal. We have here as three electrodes as the Vergis is off the equality tranq. So that, er thing resistance will be one of our three to look it over. The were l is Ellen's off the road, zealots off the road. The is the diameter off the road, minus one minus one plus toe. Unless where l Zealand's off the electrode and s is a lens off one side or the distance between two electrodes. Silence off one side or the lens or the distance between two electrodes off course. We don't have here any lumber, because in the equilateral we have only as three electorates. Okay, so this is how toe calculate the resistance off. And in truth, okay, in a different system such as the whole square or equilateral tranq. 52. Design And Resistance Of Earthing Conductor 1: now in this video we would like to discuss is the Earth thing conductor. So our thing conductor, which we said before it can be copper or aluminium or steel and galvanized iron or galvanised steel is a good choice. Why? Because our parrot pipelines and sea building structures are made off state. So, in order to prevent Izzy corrosion off the material, who said that the earth in conductors and the electro should have the same material? Okay. And you see that this wires off this conductors, bosses, Rosie building structure. So the all should have the same Ah, value off Z resistance, okay. Or the same material. This combination will not cause collusion. Do toe this similar metals. So most of them are when we are using a galvanized steel for all of our materials. Then there will not be any corrosion, do toe non reasons or due to the absence off their fronts in potential potential between them. So how to select our er thing conductor? So I have here. Yeah. If you subsist Occassions would like to discuss, would like to select our sim conductor According toe, it's a cross sectional area. Would like toa identify Z cross sectional area off the earth in conduct. So we have Here are formula for it. You will find that s which is the cross sectional area. So might be should be at least greater than or equal I rooty over key. So I is the war. It's the case current We are war stick a short circuit current And when we're talking about the worst case who are talking about the three phase short circuit current Okay, so this'll cable or this earth in conductor should at least withstands this short circuit current for a specific time, which is team the is the time which is a conductor. Cancel stay in this short circuit current before the circuit breaker operation. So as an example, if a three phase short circuit current cares and you assume that all 30.5 2nd until circuit breaker switches off the circuit so well. But here's a time equal 0.5 2nd and the current is the worst case short circuit current which obtained from eat up Or if we know that the value of the transformer we can get the short circuit count over the key where K is a coefficient. How to get zk This game is equal toe another constant decay or sometimes called Alfa the Square root off Lenti two plus Peter over t one plus beat. So according to the metal, it is copper aluminium misty, we have the constant decay which is in a bear per millimetre square. And we have that coefficient pita in Silesia. Okay, this case, or sometimes called Alfa okay, are given in this stable. So according toa copper, we have these values and a mediums. Values steals his values and so on. It is ah, large table so we can substitute with the gay. Let's point on it. We have this value from the table and we have here Z beetle from table and we have t one entity toe, the one representing initial temperature and Tito's a final temperature, the initial temperature. It means that the temperature at which hour cable or our conductor is installed in, for example, we will assume our war. It's the case off 50 citizens degree as an example in my country z the bridge or is a 36 degree. But we will assume a 50 degree for the worst case. So this one is a 50 solutions degree and final temperature is the maximum term rituals that is this conduct or can withstand. So we can both here at 1003 years degree if it can withstand okay, off course on seven cylinders degree in a certain time. So during that short circuit current. So I assume 1000 successively and we can get a Z factor K. Then we substitute in this equation and we get a value in Millimetre Square, which are representing Z cross sectional area. Then we get a larger value by 10% or the next larger value. As an example for this, you will find here Cal Karenzi Cross sectional area for unearthing conductor used the for nursing 1.5 mega vault and there. So I have here are transformer off 1.5 mega volt and beer, and we have the expertise on it for the transformer or point off life. Very On it we have the line voltage 380 vote find and that initial temperature 52 seizures the final time, Rachel 240 is the Alfa or six Logic 826 beat out 234.5 now would like to find the area. So in order to find the area we need see current We need C k. We need the time. So first, let's find the current. So we have the mega Volt on there and we have the expiry on it for the transformer. So we have our relation. In short circuit analysis tells us that mega volt and bear short circuit is equal to the mega volt and bear base over the expiry on it. So mega vault and bear base is at 1.5 make of all time bear and expiry on it is given as all going toe five. So dividing most of them will give us the mega volt amber short circuit which is a 13 mega volt Gambia. Now, in order to find the current, you know that see, current is equal to s over road three about the blood by evey lying. Right. So the current short circuit is equal to Omega vault Amber short circuit, which is 1.5 not 1.5. The 30 make of all time bear Okay, is this is a mega volt amber short sick. So 30 mega volt Ambien overrode three re line off course in kilovolt, which is points three it in Ginna vault. The vining. Most of them give us a 45.58 kilo and bear as a sort second. Okay, this is the short circuit current. So have the short circuit current, and we assuming here that our circuit breaker will operate after or switches off the circuit after a t ake 1.5 2nd 0.5 2nd Okay. And the key can be calculated from Z function, so we know that the area it would be great. Or zan We said theory. I short circuit what the blood boy wrote the time t move on key so gay will be calculated from this. Factors substituting in the rivers equation. We can get sticky. And we have almost a blood by roti where t is or 0.5 2nd warty. Okay, we assume the here out one second. Okay. Never mind. Okay. We assume the in one second and I short circuit is assumed these as 45.58 killer on there and we have year affect off six. What does 60 million one over K after creating Zeki and one of our key will give us six hours of you. So this will give us at 173 point for it millimeters square as an area. So by going to Z catalogue and searching before an area greater present value, we will find 100 millimetre square as a nearest standard, the Houthis. So this is help to select our er thing conductor from the Prospect, or see from the point of view off the cross sectional area. Now we would like to understand a zine value off the resistance off the Earth thing, Doctor, so that resistance off the Earth in conductor is simply equal toe our conductor equal toe raw over to buy El Len and square over 1.85 HD where role is again the resistive et of the soil. So you will find that here the Earth's in conductor, depending on the shortest if t so find that sort of safety is a critical value or a critical turn. Which affect is both off. The are saying conductor and is the er thing electrode l Zealand's off course off the conductor, and it is the depths off the electrode, okay. And the is the diameter off the conduct. Okay, remember that each year is the dips off the electrode, which means that we are talking about regret itself. Okay, as we remember that that conductor here and another one here, all of this are electrodes. Okay, Grobe, off. Electrodes connected by conductors. Okay, inside Z soy. Okay, So this one is both at a dips off etch, which is the depths off the electrode. So the depths blaze a critical role off also inside their resistance off the contact. So after creating the value off the resistance off the conductor and resistance off the road, we can get the value off the resistance off the system. Remember that both of them are parallel to each other. So the resistance of the system is one of our our road plus one of our our conductor. And the result will be the embers. Okay, So if the resistance is listen five home, okay, then it would be accepted. Or sometimes that we will would need lower values. And this we can require our one on, for example. Okay, this is the burning on Z subsidy occassions required. So it gets off that resistance is greater sends a requirement. Okay? It was a resistance graters and five home. What should we do? We can increase the lens off the electrode. Remember that increasing violence off the electrode means that the lower resistance off the electrode increasing diameter off electrode also decreases that resistance in grazing Z number off electrodes. More electrodes means more parallel combination or more resistance where more or lower equivalent resistance off electrodes. So crazy number off electrodes well, decrees that resistance and members of the resistance is inversely proportional. Toe one over in. Okay, as it is, walls a function in end adding salts to soil. This is that we can add a copper sulfate or in a C l in order to decrease or decrease the festivity or increase the conductivity off the soil. All of this belleza critical rule in decreasing czar soil resistance 53. Measurement Of Earth Resistance By Megger and Three Point Method: So the question is how toe measure that Earth is deputy or disorders Deputy, so are going to measure it. Boy, the four point measured four point message or the mega missile, which is the most famous and most accurate missiles. So have our maker or the auto air sister consisting off a 4 10 minutes. Okay, or four electrodes. This electrodes are married to the ground and between them, fix it. Resistance core, fix it. Distance called a. Now we have to current electrodes and the two potential electrodes. So the measure assembly injected a current Ciroc one and C one the current to go through the soil and then back to see to okay, and we have a potential difference between B one and B two. So what does that make her do? That maker measures is the potential difference between B one and B do, which will give us, for example, V and measures a current flowing here through electrodes C one and C toe Give us got on the only. So dividing is the voltage over the current and give us at resistance. Okay, This resistance is not Sarah's sensitivity, but that resistive ity will be equal toe to buy a lot of blood by the resistance Resistance , which is obtained here. Yeah, representing once the distance between C one and two B one or B one and B two or B toe and see toe. Because the distance between them are equal, so raw will be going toe to buy a car. Give us the value off the festivity off the soy. This is one of the most common message. Another method is the three point to mess with. We have here three electrodes and we have Here is the 1st 1 x y and z it This one is called dizzy grounded electrode on the test. The 2nd 1 is a potential electrode or the potential spiking toward Final One is the current spike anecdote. So have your ex, why and that. So we apply a current between X and set. So our current flows here goings was the ground Does the current spike. Okay, I'm back, does the device. So we measure the current X that and also we measure the voltage between X and y. So, um is our Here's the current Oh, boy. Meter is the vaulted year by vault meet After doing this, we can get the Resistance boy dividing Zia voltage here over. The current flowing here will give us the grounding resistance. Okay, so this is a mother method which is used off course toe tensy resistance off the ground. 54. Design Earthing Or Ground Grid Using ETAP: Hi, everyone In this video, we would like to discuss how toe design and er thing. Great using Z e tape. So the first step we have here, our e tab we are going to goto file is in a new project. And all name this project for example, as or sink. Let's get back, er thing. Great. Okay. Now, in my own country, I use the metric units. OK, so according to our own country, then I will click on OK, okay. Yes, save. Okay, so now I opened a new project in a tape. Now I'm going toe maximize our editing window. Then I'm going here. You will find a here ground great or unearthing egret. Okay, so we'll click on it, then brought it here. Okay, so we have here regret which you are goingto design in our project. Now I'm going to double click on it. Then you will find here study modern using the trebly Mehsud or a finite element methods. So for me, I am Rausing is e ar attribute e message. So I'm going to click on Ok, now let's see our here. The concession off our ground. Great system. So the first thing you'll find here. Here is a spark. Representing is the soil type here, representing Z figure or the shape off our grid you'll find here are rectangle adding an L and equality trained. So as an example for our video, we are going toe discusses E Rick Tank. So I'm going to click on it, then click here. So now I am having here at Grant which are not designed yet. So the first thing I'm going toe see is that I'm going like here is in double click on it. Okay, so this representing our rectangle on great you will find here in Z editor or the options will find Here's our conductors which he can be added or and dizzy number off roads which you can be added in the regret. So the first thing Z conductors you will find here is that great size So the size off this great. How much how much lens and how much wins, or how much lens in the exit direction and how much lends in the Y direction. Okay, this is depending on the space available for you when you are designing your own grant. So, as an example we will say a 50 meter in X axis and 50 meter in. Why accessible about this as a 15 minute Now we will find another option you will find here . Number off conductors. How many conductors in X direction and how many conductors in why dykes. So, as an example, I will assume here at two in X direction and four in wide Alex. Okay, Now we all find here is the depths off this Conductors the depths off this conductors inside the soil or the inside See Grounding credit. Okay, so find here. This is the shape of the swing. Okay, which we are not. We did not edit it like now. So you will find here this representing Z conductors inside the greatest conductors. Okay, Enzian a plan view or in the innovation view, to be more specific is like this under a specific depth. This depths is controlled from here. So as an example I'm going to tow boat. Is this great? At the tips off two meters you can choose off course is a size off the conduct. Okay, which are going to be used? Another thing is the type off the conductor you will find here at their front types off conductor and each one have its own conductive ity. The alpha factor which we discussed before. Zk not factor Also, it's caused before the using temperature off our conductor the rest ft. Off our conductor and see Sir Malcolm S T. So as an example, if we click on this one, we will have this values. Now if I chose for example and medium, you'll find that the conductivity is 61 lowers NZ cover and alpha factor keynote, fusing temperature and so on. So for our when you are going to truth is the best one which is covered and kneeled Soft drone So we chose our number off conductors as we desired. And of course, here you can change the cross sectional area off the conductor used off course is this will cause the number off conducted to increase or decrease. Okay, if we chose ah higher cross sectional area, this will cause a lower number off conductors as we'll see. So this is our conductors now for our roads will assume that there is no roads there for now. Okay, so you will find here. Is that the arrangement? No, ground roots in order to see how the red looks like. OK, now click on. OK, so you will find Let's zoom out. This is our great Okay, this is an assumption you will find here 123 and 44 conductors in Z Y direction and two conductors in the X direction. So let's see if I double click on it. Uh, like this soul, see, toe conductors in X direction is this is the X direction. He's a horizontal line. So we have one. We have to in the X direction and the four in one direction. 123 and four. Okay, this is 50 meter. This one is 50 meat. Now click on OK, so this is our example off a grounding. Great. Now let's see easy pipe offside existing. So I'll double click on this you'll find here is our soil editor here is that surface matillion which are goingto both on the upper layer off our soy That usage off this layer in orderto isolate between the person or the human and the grounding grant off course is the grounding grid takes is the leakage current or C sold circuit current losing ground so I wanted to isolate between the human and this grounding bread which she carries the short circuit. So when I am standing on ze ground went, I'm not affected by attach a voltage, Okay, because there will be on isolation between it and the ground lit. So, as an example, we will choose here gravel. And it has arrested pity on meter off at 8534. Okay. And we can choose its steps here. We will find that tips off 0.5 meter. Okay, We can keep it like this or increase it. Then we will have to values here for our sweet. These values are attended by the usage off maker. We will see the highest sensitivity off the soy and is the lowest receptive for this way. So I would say that that top layer is a type off moist soil and the lower, for example, a dry sweet. And you see that here Z program itself changes the values. Okay. And you'll find here also the depths off this layer. So, as an example, we will say five meter dips. Okay, four, we will say that here at a Serie meter for example to see the difference here. So this is the grounding. Great. At a distance off a two meter and three meters representing dizzy top layer off course. Now let's see. What if I change it like this? You can say that this one is a dry and this one is the moist. Okay, nothing will change. Then I'll click on. OK, you will see that here representing Z dry soil depths. Okay, we said that this one is a three meter and this one is at a to meet. Okay. And to find here's that revel and the dry soil NZ moist This way. So now we have designed for now designs the great. Now we're going to click on this in order to study our great to see if it will be effective or not. So we'll click on this case, which he calls study. Then you will find here that the weight off the person standing on sigret as an example we will choose at 17 kilograms and will choose that ambient temperature as a force Reasons degrees is a temperature. Where's the person exists now we're finding out the front of missiles are a tribute e 82,000 and so on. So I am using the are terribly 82,000. This is depending off course on you. Now is the faulty duration. You'll find years at full time clearing time and that settling time forcing a circuit break . So I'm showing that this fault will exist only for half second or 0.5 2nd as it is now. Is he drowned in the short circuit current. So the short circuit current, we will assume according to our calculation, from Tab or according toe the value of the transformer, we will assume 45 kilo and there x over our depending on the ratio off the grant. Okay, Not the ground. Great. But is in power grid itself. So, as an example, would say 10. Now, here we have the great current factors. This factors representing the amount off current off the short circuit, entering sigret okay or entering the ground. Great. So we assume that our current will not cause a short circuit current will not be divided before it reaches a great. So 100% means that the 45 kill on bare, all of it going to regret it will not be divided before it. Then I'm going to click on. OK, so this is our study. Now you will find here when I click on this in order to see the analysis. If our great will be effective or not, so I click on it is in. OK, now we will see that here. Ah, lot off Eros. And of course, this is logic you'll find here. Is that calculated Voltage is Itachi voltage when you touch is a machine Are you goingto be shocked or not? You will find that the touch of voltage is the one which is allowable is 2857 But the calculated by the usage of this great during short circuit will find that it is a 212 volt Kino vault, Of course. So this is a larger venue. So human touching and electric machine, which having a short circuit will, of course, get talked. And of course, here that's the voltage is at 1000 and here's that Tolliver. Terrible value is a 10,000. So, of course is a step. When you are stepping on this great, you will be off course shocked. So the maximum touch of voltage exceeds that rubble limits and the step vaulted seem. And our founders of spacing between battered conductors is a smaller cento 0.5 meter or graters and 22.5. So this is another area. Okay. According to the I Tripoli standard, you should not be lowers and 25 or greater than 22.5. So let's understand this. You have here one, 23 spacing okay in the x axis. So if I get my own car Creator, let's move this. And we sent that 50 over as three is basic. This will give us a 16.666 And if I look at this one, for example, we have here one conductor don't conductor. Okay, so the 16 is allowed. Of course we have 123 This is spacing is allowed. But let's look at the Y direction. We have one to this basing between them. This 50 meter, which is great, Tarzan at 22.5. So this one is not allowed. So what are we going to do? We have to change. Is this values is on a boy going here. Double click is in editing as an example, we can change the number of conductors and the number of conductors in my direction. Okay. Or I am going to do something which is much more simpler. The program itself allows toe calculates the optimum conductors and optimal number off roads. So as an example here, you will find here is this one is conductors only. So if I click on it, you will tell you that the off demise the solution for this grant is not achieved. Why does a limit off 2.5 meters spacing or 40 conductors in one direction so should not exceed our 40 conductors and as a spacing should be at least off course, 2.5 meat. So if I click on OK, you'll find that in this case, the optimum solution is 21 conductor in X direction 21 conductor in why direction and the resistance will be highly annoying and the voltage off course will be, of course, high. So this off course does not solve our problem. Okay, so we cannot use this time use Another solution is that we can add roads. If I click on this one, you will find here is the optimum solution by using I regret and roads Okay, you'll find there's a touch of voltage. Is Liz Enza terrible value and the step also. But I will use seven conductors in X direction and seven conductors in my direction and that 2243 roads with a grounding distance Aito So find here at 2000 roads. This is a very large event. Okay, so what we can do, we can at first we can. It changes the amount off his base as the great size increases the number off conductors required will decrease. So as an example, I will see 100 and the 100 and I'm going to choose a higher cross sectional area as an example 240. Now I will click on OK, using words out. Now I'm going to see the optimum number off conductors. If I click on it, you will see that again. The optimized solutions not achieved due to limit off 2.5 spacing or fourty conductors in one bikes. So let's see, if I use are 41 conductor and 4 to 1 connect with the resistance will be lower than before , but again see maximum and dizzy. A step will be exceeds the limits and the number of power conductors will also accept Syrian. So in this case, we don't have any choice except by adding growths. So we can add at 25 in X direction 25 why direction and a large number of fruits. So how we can improve this again? Okay, lets the thing cook together. OK, we can double click on this and we see here if I change is the size of the conductor to 400 . Okay, we said that during our rivers and answers we said in order to withstand this short circuit was sent at 300 and we can say ze rods. We'll see a grounding the growth we can say at the front selection or a different arrangement. So I'm going toe chills the roads, NZ corners off the bread here, here and here and here. Number off roads ist for zero amet our Zealand's off it. You can choose as you would like and the type of the copper and kneeled off course and its values. Now let's do another thing we can increase. Here's the number off conductors. Example six, and it then I'm going to click on OK, so we have here our get with the roads in the corn. Now let's see if I can have a lower value. Okay, you will find here at two home and you'll find here. That's the problem. Is the only that torture value exceeds the terrible values, and we'll find here is a step is lowers and see limits and the resistance is low Now if I asked, the program toe reduces the optimum number off road. The end Z when doctors will find here, is that the optimal number off exit direction is six. Why six and a larger number of roots and often on opened five home. This is according to the program. Now let's do again. What if I change this to as an example then and another thing. Okay, let's see if this will be allowed to or not. If I click on this, you will find here against the touch. Voltage is our problem. So if I increases Z, our cozy, optimum amount will find here a large number off roads. So what if I change it? Seen or improved? Dizzy layer off soy so Let's see if I double click on here and the boat's E read at an example, Air five meter dips does this will cause a change or not? Ah, now this is N. C. You will find years of torture voltages again. Hi, but let's see if the optimum will change. The optimum is again a large number of frauds. So what if I edited again? That's, for example, choose a type of soil, moisture soil or according to our measurement. For example, it waas and then or let's see 70 and another 100 with this course that changed on. So if I click here, you will find here is that the soil is the one which effective. That's why we sent before that there is definitely off the soil is really effective in our analysis. So when we choose at very low resistance, we produced on a very low resistance. Boy, is that a safety officer soy So actually 170 is actual values, not an assumed the violence by me. So if this one is ah high value, then you will need a larger number off roads. As you said as you seem before 1000 throats in order to produce and all values or in order to reduce it to rubble, voltage and in case off his touch and step voltage. So this is our example on how toe designs the arse. Ingrid, using Z anytime.