Complete Electric Circuits Course For Electrical Engineering | Ahmed Mahdy | Skillshare

Complete Electric Circuits Course For Electrical Engineering

Ahmed Mahdy, Electrical Power Engineer

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
130 Lessons (8h 18m)
    • 1. What is an Electrical Circuit

    • 2. System of Units

    • 3. Definition of an Electric charge

    • 4. Definition of an Electric Current

    • 5. Example 1

    • 6. Example 2

    • 7. Example 3

    • 8. Definition of the Voltage

    • 9. Definition of the Energy and Power

    • 10. Example 4

    • 11. Example 5

    • 12. Dependent and Independent sources

    • 13. Example 6

    • 14. Introduction to Basic Laws

    • 15. Definition of Resistance

    • 16. Ohm's Law

    • 17. Open and Short Circuit

    • 18. Fixed and Variable Resistance

    • 19. Linear and Non Linear Resistor

    • 20. Meaning of Conductance

    • 21. Example 1

    • 22. Example 2

    • 23. Example 3

    • 24. Branch,Node and Loops

    • 25. Series and Parallel Connection

    • 26. KCL

    • 27. KVL

    • 28. Example 4

    • 29. Example 5

    • 30. Example 6

    • 31. Series Resistors and Voltage Divison

    • 32. Parallel Resistors and Current Division

    • 33. Analogy between Resistance and Conductance

    • 34. Example 7

    • 35. Example 8

    • 36. Introduction to Delta Wye Transformation

    • 37. Delta to Wye Transformation

    • 38. Wye to Delta Transformation

    • 39. Example 9

    • 40. Example 10

    • 41. Application Lightning bulbs

    • 42. Example 11

    • 43. Introduction to Methods of Analysis

    • 44. Nodal Analysis With No Voltage Source

    • 45. Example 1

    • 46. Cramer's Method

    • 47. Nodal Analysis with Voltage source and Super Node

    • 48. Example 2

    • 49. Example 3

    • 50. Mesh Analysis

    • 51. Example 4

    • 52. Example 5

    • 53. Example 6

    • 54. Mesh Analysis with Current Source and SuperMesh

    • 55. Example 7

    • 56. Nodal Analysis by Inspection

    • 57. Example 8

    • 58. Example 9

    • 59. Example 10

    • 60. Nodal Vs Mesh Analysis

    • 61. Application DC Transistor Circuits

    • 62. Example 11

    • 63. Introduction to Circuit theorems

    • 64. Linearity of Circuit

    • 65. Example 1

    • 66. Superpostion Theorem

    • 67. Example 2

    • 68. Example 3

    • 69. Source Transformation

    • 70. Example 4

    • 71. Example 5

    • 72. Thevenin Theorem

    • 73. Example 6

    • 74. Example 7

    • 75. Norton's Theorem

    • 76. Example 8

    • 77. Example 9

    • 78. Maximum Power Transfer

    • 79. Example 10

    • 80. Summary

    • 81. Resistance Measurement

    • 82. Example 11

    • 83. Example 12

    • 84. Introduction To Operational Ampilifers

    • 85. Construction of Operational Amplifiers

    • 86. Equivalent Circuit of non Ideal Op Amp

    • 87. Vo Vs Vd Relation Curve

    • 88. Example 1

    • 89. Ideal Op Amp

    • 90. Example 2

    • 91. Inverting Amplifier

    • 92. Example 3

    • 93. Example 4

    • 94. Non Inverting Amplifier

    • 95. Example 5

    • 96. Summing Amplifier

    • 97. Example 6

    • 98. Difference amplifier

    • 99. Example 7

    • 100. Cascaded Op Amp Circuits

    • 101. Example 8

    • 102. Summary

    • 103. Introduction to Capacitors and Inductors

    • 104. Capacitor

    • 105. Capacitance

    • 106. Voltage Current Relation in Capacitor

    • 107. Energy Stored in Capacitor

    • 108. DC Voltage and Practical capacitor

    • 109. Example 1

    • 110. Example 2

    • 111. Example 3

    • 112. Equivalent Capacitance of Parallel capacitors

    • 113. Equivalent Capacitance of Series capacitors

    • 114. Example 4

    • 115. Definition of Inductors

    • 116. Definition of Inductance

    • 117. Voltage Current Relation in Inductor

    • 118. Power and Energy stored in Inductor

    • 119. DC Source and Inductor

    • 120. Example 5

    • 121. Series Inductors

    • 122. Parallel Inductors

    • 123. Small Summary to 3 Basic Elements

    • 124. Example 6

    • 125. Example 7

    • 126. Summary

    • 127. Application Integrator

    • 128. Example 8

    • 129. Application Differentiator

    • 130. Example 9

14 students are watching this class

About This Class

Welcome To my Own course "Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering Circuits" , 

This course is designed for Absolute Beginners who has Zero Knowledge about Electric Circuits , i start from Zero until you understand all the Fundamentals with Hundreds of Examples !!

This also for Students who wants to Refresh their Knowledge !

So what are we going to learn from this course ?

  • know all the Fundamentals of Electric DC Circuits

  • know the meaning of SI units or International Units

  • Know the Definition of the Electric Charge

  • Know the Definition of the Electric Current

  • Know the Definition of the Electric Voltage

  • Know the Definition of the Electric Power

  • Know the Definition of the Electric Energy

  • Know the difference between dependent and independent Sources

  • Applications of DC Circuits

  • Know the principle of TV Picture Tube or CRT

  • Know about the electricity Bills Calculations

  • Know the Basic laws of Electricity

  • Understand Ohm's law

  • Difference between an Open Circuit and Short Circuit

  • Difference between Fixed and Variable Resistance

  • Definition of Conductance 

  • Know Difference between Series and Parallel connection

  • Know the Definition of the Nodes, Branches and loops in Electric circuit

  • Know the Definition of the Kirchhoff's laws

  • Know the Definition of Kirchhoff Current Law

  • Know the Definition of Kirchhoff Voltage Law

  • Know Series resistor and voltage division

  • Know parallel resistor and current division

  • Know Wye-Delta Transformations and Vice-versa

  • Understand Applications as Lightning Systems

  • Understand Nodal analysis No Voltage source

  • Understand Nodal analysis with voltage Sources

  • Understand the Supernode

  • Understand Mesh analysis No Current Source

  • Understand Mesh analysis with Current Sources

  • Understand Mesh analysis and Nodal Analysis by Inspection

  • Understand the Supermesh.

  • Compare between Nodal and Mesh analysis

  • Understand Applications as DC Transistor Circuits

  • Understand the Meaning of the Linearity Property

  • Use the Superposition Theorem

  • Understand Thevenin's Theorem

  • Understand Norton's Theorem

  • Maximum Power Transfer

  • Understand the Source Transformation

  • Understand Application as Resistance Measurement

  • Understand the Various types of operational Amplifiers

  • Understand Ideal Op Amp,Inverting Amplifier , Non Inverting Amplifier

  • Understand Summing Op Amp Circuit

  • Understand Difference Op Amp Circuit

  • Understand Cascaded Op Amp Circuit

  • Know the applications of Op Amp like Digital-to-Analog Converter

  • Know the applications of Op Amp like Instrumentation Amplifiers

  • Know what is a capacitor

  • Understand how to Simplify Series Capacitors

  • Understand how to Simplify Parallel Capacitors

  • Know what is an Inductor

  • Understand Practical Capacitors and Practical Inductors

  • Understand how to Simplify Series Inductors

  • Understand how to Simplify Parallel Inductors

  • Know how to get energy stored in Capacitor

  • Know how to get energy stored in Inductor

  • know the applications of Capacitors and Inductor as Integrator

  • know the applications of Capacitors and Inductor as Differentiator.

Some of My students Reviews

Sally Davy

Rating: 5.0 out of 5

"This instructor made the course really easy , i was having a lot of concern about joining the course ,but now it deserves every dollar i paid ."

John Bill

Rating: 5.0 out of 5

"Very Clear and Straight forward course , the instructor explained very well and smoothly"


Rating: 5.0 out of 5

"Even though he has an ascent, but I am able to comprehend. I am now doing basic circuit electrical and he has all the topic that is good enough to understand the foundation especially on calculations."

Muhammad Shoaib Khan

Rating: 5.0 out of 5

"Nice course on simple electric circuit for beginners."

Wish you happy learning and see you in my course :)


1. What is an Electrical Circuit: Hi, everyone. In this video, we are going to discuss what is meaning or by an electric circuit. So simply an electric circuit is just an interconnection off electrical elements. So what is meaning? Buys is if you have some electrical elements in which current that can flow or the electoral or the charges can flu, for example, in a lamp in which an object in which had an interest in order a current yc and flew through it okay. And we have a better which is a source off the electricity or the source off the electric current. Okay. And there is an interconnection between them, which is a wire, which is a thing which will carrying the current or will carry there, electrical geologist. Okay, so simply, this is a very simple circuit consists off bettering, which is a source off the power of the force off the electrons or the force off current. And the lamb which will take or consume is this electrical boat. And we have some wires which will connect or just the air pass or transfers are current from the battery in tow. The lamb. Okay, 2. System of Units: in this video, we are going to discuss the system free on its What does the system of units mean? It means that when we are talking about the lens off something, or the mess off something or the time, or an electric current or some of dynamic temperature or temperature or eliminates in dynasty or sores each of these quantities or for examples, Allen's zillions off wrote. For example, it has a specific unit. It means that we can measure it in meter or we can say silence off this road is a two feet or 25 inches, and so on. So each one or each country or each nation has its own units. For example, as you know that the American or the British Unit measurement for excellence is, for example, feet or end. But most off the wall, it or the international system off unit. So just is that we should use as a meter as a standard unit. Okay, what is the meaning, boy? It's so units, it means that it is the international system off units. It means that all of that we will agree on the wall. It agreed that they will use for silence their meter. We will measure residents off everything in meters. Some countries will use inch okay, but it is not an it's our unit. It is as standard units tojust unifies the whole wallet in specific units, for example, time every or the whole roll. It is measuring eight in second as electric current is measured in and beer and this is the front quantities. For example, lens and it's unit is meter and it's a simple will be M and the mess it's a symbol will be there, kilogram or caging, and it's a basic unit will be killed. Graham. That time will be in second and the someone will be as and so on. Okay, we have another thing which is called the SRE Prefixes. What is a soy prefects assembly? When we are talking about a very small quantities or a very large quantities, we want to make it an abbreviation. For example, we're talking about a large number like this 600 million and I would like to make an abbreviation or a small number, which I represent. US is at 600 million, instead off writing all those zeros. So how can I do that simply by writing the number six and multiplied boy. Then power the number of years we have here 80 Then it will be 10 Power eight. Okay, so we have some abbreviations, which is the always the wallet agreed on. For example, we have here at M Bardo, which means ah, 100 number. It means there is the prefix off. It is Hector or it. Okay, we all know that kill, which is tell bore three and Mega timber six. It means number one and the beside it six zeros as it is a giggle which it means one end upside it mind zero reserves also terra, Which means one end of side is 12 as years and there is a beat. The answers except OK, this is for the large numbers and would like toa short cut it or represents is boy Lowell terms. Okay. We have also hear them bounding the one it means 0.1 and then go native to which is something opened a one. It means that instead off writing open toe 0000001 would make abbreviation for this by just writing one month of light in born into what or one month of lighting bonnet diversity and so on. It means you are moving that this small point from one in tow, their hand side by number off this boat again. When we if we have a number legs and doing multiplied it, then bar negative tow. It means that I am shifting. Is this point two times one and it will give us number six. And so Okay, where here also at m Born in diversity which is all the Emily born into six which is called the Micro and the Barnacles Mine. It's just called and we all hear about this unit and there is a larger unit which is Tim burning 12 a vehicle and then born into 15 Pinto which is covered by year. Stockman's win or doctor and simple negative 18. Which is it? Okay, so somebody in this video we talked about that. It's all units, which is means international system of units. All the people of the world agreed on a specific unit, okay. And we have here a multi employer, which means we can abbreviate or make some abbreviation or short of the numbers boy officer numbers which is very large or the numbers, which is very, very small. Okay. And we talked about what is each of them and the prefects and the symbol off each of them for examples of micro is like this and the mainly em on something singing and so okay. 3. Definition of an Electric charge: in this video are going to discuss their concept off an electrical charge. What is an electric motors? Electrical towers is simply an electric property off the atomic particles Off which matter consists is measure the incomes. So what does it mean? Assembly. You have an atom. An atom, as you know, consists off electrons, protons, neutrons and so on. Okay, so the neutrons, which you have a neutral charges or a neutral value, okay, and brought us what you have up postive. It's yours and the electrons, which is considered as negatively charged. Okay, for example, that it soars off the electoral, the amount or the quantity of the electron. It's amount is 1.6 multiplied by Temple Negative 19 column. It means that one electron consists off 1.6 months of writing more negative 19 colon. It means that that one column consists off one over this number. It means that each one column as a unit consists off six months 60.24 months of September 18 electoral, which is a very, very large number. So the column gives us a very amount off electoral. Okay, That's why the value voters are most likely in the peak or nano column or a micro. Okay. And its value is negative because it is a negative charge. We are talking about an electron which is considered as negative. Okay, also, there is a law which is called selloff Conservation. Off source. What does it mean? It means that the charges inside an atom cannot be created or destroyed, but only be transferred. Okay? It means that at some off the charges inside as paste or a system does not change. Let's say it again. If we have on Adam, which consists off a specific number off electoral specific number off it broadens. Answer seven numbers off neutrons. Okay, We cannot destroy this, the charges or creates them. But we can transfer them from one atom thanas. Or or we can add a mother charge inside this atom. Okay, As you know, for example, there isotopes, we are changing their a mass number, not the atomic number, because each off the atoms or each element has its specific atomic number. Okay, So are we can add our trousers or we can remove charges, but we can no destroys them. We can only transfer them. Okay, Okay. So now How does an electric current form it inside an electrical object? Okay, so now we have a battery, and we have a lamp, as we remember before. Okay, we know that when we add about that which has a postive terminal and a negative term, and it means that there is a potential difference, the potential difference can be considered as, ah hide them, which have when, when water moves from the upper part into the lower part due to at different heights or on the front of voltage or a different but in just bushes water from the upper part into the Lord board. So that battery assembly, an object, or air and electric power which he gives us at the front So potential different potential between the positive terminal and the negative. Timmons, this post of Tim and have a high vaulted on this thing that term has a law faulted so their fronts between them is hard. So it then this too Bush is their charges from that most of terminal towards their negative . Okay, But when we are talking about bushing is a source who are talking about which one is our most, um one or is a negative one. Okay, we are talking about the posted pictures. Why? Because of Boston pictures Inside and wire will be Make a rebel with a postive 10 minutes with the The stores are being pushed away from the positive Okay towards. Therefore, we are talking about the conventional direction off the current. The floor is considered as the movement off the Boston rituals. No negative source. Okay, That's why that electric current is represented. Boys is direction which is moving away from the post office chores, or that most of terminal off the battery. But the negative electrons are moving toward this are posted off seven. Okay, So assembly is that battery Just most of terminal attract is a negative. Electrons and bushes away their most of it's yours. And as you know, that most of sores are the same direction off their current, okay? And we know that in the middle's the electric current is formed. Dio toe the presence off a free electoral 4. Definition of an Electric Current: in this video are goingto discusses a concept off an electric current. What is an electric current is electric. Current is on time. Great off. Change off the charges. Mayors are the in and bear or its unit is a Okay. So what does an electric charge, you mean? Okay, it means flew off. Electrons, DiSarcina, conductors, Airflow off the sources inside the conductor. You while toe at battery or potential difference of sores. It just the bushes are charges towards the negative. A terminal. Okay, the rate of change off this source is moving in. The wires is called. Is there electric current? Okay, So assembly electric current is a rate over changes a variation off the charges with time. Okay. It's called the electric car. Okay, So what is Amber? Amber is a French mathematic and physicist. Okay, He's really well known scientist. That's why, as the name off the Mbare unit off electric current is and there is named after him. Okay, Okay. What is mathematical is a relation between the current charge, Q. And is a time assembly is the current which we're talking about is the rate of change which you mean? What does the rate of change mean it means that derivative off the variation off the quantity of which orders with respect to tow time. So the current assembly that dick you bidet easy variation off that wanted overcharge inside a wire with respect to toe that time and it is measured by and bear and bared its unit is one column above one second. Okay, if you would like toe get how many quantity of resources you a specific current, we will just make an integration off the current with respect toe a time. So we have here a total different types off current. One of them is called the D. C or other direct current ends. Other one is called their alternating current or an easy What is our direct? The current direct assembly is a current which remains a course to constant with time and remains constant as a value, and they may be may be very with value, but it'll direction is the same. So that mean purpose off the naming a direct. It means that it has the same direction. It does not change its direction with the time it is just Afghanistan, the wizard time. But if it changes its a valuable by a negative, it became is an A C value. Okay, so the difference between our director current and an alternating current director Kalyn, is constant and remains a constant away the time. But the alternative current is varying Sinus or daily with the time it makes our sign with as you see. So as you see here it is a constant was time. It has the same value all over the time and the same direction. It is always our boasted, very. But the A C has a very variation in both off the magnitude and desired direction. It is sometimes posted and sometimes turning Toby a negative value. And it depends on the rate of change off. The quantity of soldier was time. If this value is the same and has the same direction or it is varying about same direction , it is called the D. C. So that easy again is Constanta with the time and maybe reading with the time but the most important thing. It has the same barracks and there's a C. It is dick. Your bidet e is always changing or giving as Sinus ordeal wave changing with time. Okay, 5. Example 1: So in this video are goingto take some example about with their electric current or electric charge. So the example. Number one, it says How much a charge is represented, boy. 4600 electors. What does it mean? It means how many columns are there in 4600 elected? So we know that only one electoral or each electoral has NATO 1.6 multiplied by member Knight of 19 corn. That is for each electoral. What if I have 4600? How many columns are there? Therefore, it is very simple. We will multiply this number, boys. Negative One morning, six blood by the morning writing it will give us a negative 7.36 tumble. Negative. 16. So very example. Example. It says that you'll find that in for each of for 7 600 There is a negative 6.36 to 9 months obliged by timber. Native 16 called. Um okay, 6. Example 2: Let's take another example, it says. Here's a totally George Entering the eternal is given boy is a Q equal 50 Sign for party Millie Column calculates a current at a time equal 500.5 seconds. OK, so is giving here that fume or the quantity off charges as a function off time and our Sinus or deal with OK, and it tells us that he wants us to find the current at a specific time. So we know that the current is the variation or the dick you biting off the quantity of charges, therefore, is very simple. Is God on equal Dick you by DT equals divided team. We were just derivative Get that derivative off their cue off this equation. So simply, we're going to get that reputable 50 signed for biting Millie Coram. OK, so, as you know, from mathematics that inevitable, the first multiplied by second itself blast that directive off the second multiplied by the first itself. Okay, so that is what he is. Somebody that just derivatives are first about obliged that second the same plus that there was a second multiplied boy zephyrs. Now we have the drifted off their current or that the lift off Zach, you. Now we have the current as a function of time. He wanted that current at time equal 0.5 seconds. So we just substitute substitute with 0.5. In this equation, you will find that the current at a time equal 0.5 2nd will be sort of 1.42 milli and be OK . 7. Example 3: now another example. It asks us for that total charge entering gas terminal between chemical one second and the time call to second if the current bossing the terminal is current equaled three D square minus steam. Okay, so simply we would like to find that quantity with yours. And he has given that current we know that the current is the Q by deity or the derivative of that quantity of stores Voice respecto time. So would like to find Zach you So we'll just integrate their current would make an integration for the current with respect to time. Okay, And tell us between time, equal one second and Primakov to second. So we were just about at the beginning of the directive over the integration. It take all one and the final value will be, too. And all integrates assembly and you'll find that it will be a call 5.5 column 8. Definition of the Voltage: Now we are going to discuss their definition off their voltage. What is wilted voltage? Simply their energy required toe. Make some work to move some electrical charges inside a conductor, so simply by definition, is a voltage or mathematically. The voltage will be that derivative off the work. The amount of work or energy required to move only one unit charge from a specific bowing to call a tow another point quantity. For example. Here for a battery, we have a battery which have a different the potential difference A and D being okay. That potential difference between them means that the war could done toe move. Sores from a Toby will be equal toe a specific amount that DW boy Dickie or the rate of change off the work in Jewell with respect to tow the quantity with charges or column. And this is Walt, and it is named in the owner off the Ayatollah and physical Volta. That's what's called the vault. According to the Italian scientist Volta Okay, who invested on vengeance efforts, vaulting battery and the one volt equal ones old above One column or one Newton meters over one Coolum. Okay, so again the potential difference is the energy required or the work done toe move. I you knitted source through an element measure the involves. We would like to move outsource or a unit. It starts from one point into Amazon. So that is what it means to buy a voltage. And we can but ever present it. As I said before, as a high dam, when the water moves from the upper part in the lower part because there is at the front of potential between these two points. That's why the water news from the upper part in total one part. Okay. Same as for the charges source moves on the higher reasons or the crowded reasons or high voltage reason in tow, the lower voltage orders and this crowded reason. Okay, you will see here a polarity which is postive and donated. It means that that the current will move from the postive from Boston Van does the negative . Okay, now, if we have to their front potential difference. One of them is nine volt and someone is negative. Mind what? What does it mean? It means unbolt. It means that different a potential between a NDP is nine for the post of timber and any system, if about the mine has a negative value, We were reverses the polarity off the battery. Okay, When we reverses the polarity, it will give us a negative. It means that that v a b the potential difference between and Debbie equal negative. The potential difference between B and the the A B will equal to negative, Phoebe, because the current will move from A to B in here, and we'll both a negative polarity in VB 80 make that kind of move in the same direction. Off course we have here toe negative voltage and the most of voltage, which will give us a most of contending for current. Also, we haven't an easier voltage and I d c wilted and easy. What it it would give us a variation of the water joins the time, but that is he will give us a constant current with respect to dying 9. Definition of the Energy and Power: Now we are going to discuss the concept off the power and energy. We know that as we hear that the lambs, for example, it has a specific number off. What we hear that there are 51 land border 60 watt lamp. And so what does what mean? What is a unit of measurement affords their power. What is power? Power assemblies are time great off expending or absorbing energy measure? The in what So again, bar assembly. The rate off a change off the war couldn't bear time. Or it is that Zarate of change off the energy bear time. What does it mean? It means that when I try to move on electrical charge through an electrical element, we need some work toe bush. This electrical charges through their element. The variation off the work done across the time is called the power. But the work itself toe bush there, electrical charge is called their energy. So again, the energy is the work required toe bush at source. But the variation off the work or the energy bear time is called their power. Okay, so the power assembly that dw bidet e the variation off the work in energy or goals by time or DW by Dick you Did you buy Doodie? Okay, it is a seems a mathematical formula. The double by DT is 1/4 DW by Dick Ridicule. Want the blood by decay? Over DT Did I ridicule? We know it is a voltage, and this is considered as the current source of power. In eventually is the Walter Jamaat blood by current. So we need to know this power is a supplying about or a consuming about. What does it mean? It means that if this power does it consume, does it? So I require it toe lighting and M or something, or an electrical device, or this power is supplying about, like battery or generator or so on. So how can we don't know that simply by knowing is a long polarity off? The power it's about is a positive. It means that it is a consuming about. It's about is negative. It means that it is our supplying about. So how we can know that we can know that popularity using that, Walter, Just fine. Enza current sign. Let's seem, for example, as you see, here we have this Walter job plus on the miners and you'll see here Current moving through it. Okay, So is this air consuming, vote consuming element or a supplying element? We see that this posed a polarity, okay. And this is a voltage source. Therefore, it is that current moving through that element and making air potential difference or a voltage drop. Therefore, it is a consuming element. As you see here, the current is this us applying force. You have to think this is a postive and this is and if it is supplying the current will getting away from the postive sign. But as you see years, a current is coming toward is a positive sign. Therefore, it is a consuming, and it is an element which absorb this current, not supplying current. But if you think about this element, you will see that the Boston is right here. Therefore, it must bush the current away from the most of what you see. The current is moving reversing toe the sign. Therefore, it is also a consuming element. Therefore, some power will be a quarto city. Multiply it by four, which is that we'll vote okay, lets these element this element is considered as are supplying. Why? Because if you were watching the post of terminal, you will see the current is coming away from it coming from it, it means that it is ah supplying element. It is a source. Social provides power. Okay, so now we understand the difference between those are blowing and the consuming elements. Also, you have to know that's a power. Absorb it as a positive sign. As is that well, what is equal to Native Albar supplied with any negative signing because it is opposite to it. The absorbent more plus a forcible must be equal to zero according to the local starvation . Off energy, all of some power equals zero that consuming about and is that as supplying bar must be some mention of them equal zero and the work or the energy will be the integration off the power as we remember. That's a power is a derivative off DW by DT or the inevitable fork with time. If we want us a worker, we will just integrate the power with respecto time and simply their energy is the capacity to do work because, as I said before, it is a world which will Bush electron toward Is there electrical element and the process through it. OK, 10. Example 4: Hello again. Let's take now an example about the energy and power. Okay, so we have on a problem here, and energy source forces Afghanistan to current off to, um, beer for a 12th floor through a light bulb. If the Boeing three kilos ole is given off in the form off light and heat energy, calculate the voltage drop across. Okay, so he wants us to find the voltage drop or Delta V. And he has given us a Toronto for nine and bear for 10 seconds. And you given us the energy or the work for 13 gave George. Okay, so we have a low here. The voltage drop is considered as the w over the check. You OK? Which means that the energy or their energy, given over their quantity of what charges we have now is the energies given by Tobin. Three kills old and we want to find the quantity futures. We know that the current is equal toe the quantity over charges over time. Or dick you Boyd et. But since we have a constant, the current therefore the acquainted with charges will be constant for a specific type. So that quantity over. Charges will be equal Toe current multiplied by the time which is 10 seconds. What? We have lost 20. Okay, Now our voltage or vehicle Toe is that toe One streak result over there. Okay, so we now have a lot of voltage. There is another way to solve this problem. As you know, that the energy equal toe multiple power multiplied by the time because about is the energy bear second or the worked on to move I unit a torch bearer second. Okay, so we have here that the power equal toe their energy over time. Therefore, there energy will be equal, which is 2.3 killers Old will be equal toe the current multiplied by voltage which which gives us the power multiplied by time. OK, which is the same equation as here. It will give us the same result again. We have a two point streak. Unusual equal toe. Their power multiplied by time. A time which is 12th and their current multiplied by vaulted. We want to find the voltage. Therefore the one city close or above number multiplied by 12th gives us there. Walter. Jerk. Okay. You have to think for the problem in or than one 11. Example 5: here is another example How much energy does Ah, 100 watt electric ball consuming two hours. Therefore, we have the power which is given by what 100 watt electric bulb and gives also time equal to ours. So the energy will be equal toe the power multiplied by time and the time is in second. Therefore, we have 100 worked which is considered as a power. The time, which is two hours trance fare from a two hours into second amount applied by 60 part or 60 month blood boy 60. Therefore, we have now our what equal for our energy. Equal toe, 720 kilos. Okay. Or we want it as up eyes bear our what? Our simply we will multiplies 100 watt multiplied by the number off hours which is 201. 12. Dependent and Independent sources: in this video are going to discuss the elements off an electric circuit. So now any circuit consists off two types off enemies number one, the best of elements and the active element. What is the difference between an active element and a passive element on active element is simply an element which is in there. It's energy or which is providing go and energy. Or it is a supply or a current source or a vaulted resource and so on. For example, generators, batteries, operational amplifiers, open arms and so on. And the best of element is a consuming is a power, for example, there resistors, capacitors in doctors and so on. They are elements which you consume that bar. Okay, so now we know the difference between a development and active element. Now we have for his active elements, there are two types. One type is called the independent source and dependent source. So what does it depend on? Source Mean and waters and independent source meat. Okay, so assembly, as you see here in this figure, you see this source, which is a circle and plus or minus. This is concerned, or the US Air and Independent source. Okay, and this is considered as independent source. It means that it is providers a specific voltage or a specific current, which is completely independent off other circuit elements. It does not depend on any. Are there circuit alums? It depends on itself. It just to provide Afghanistan the voltage, the current or if it is, as he easy. It does not depend on the value of any other elements and signs a circuit adjustments own itself, but they're dependent. Or a controlled source is an active element in which is a source quantity controlled by another. Walters your current. For example. We have this voltage resorts and this current source, and it looks like a books about this considered as a circle. The difference between them is this source is in is dependent source. It means it depends on the value off another voltage or the value off another current or another voltage insides a cirque. Okay, it's a value is equal toe the value off a man's or element a current or voltage about the blood by a specific value, and they will show you an example for this. But fittest, there are dependencies are there are different types off them. For example of all take control Voltages source. It means that as a water source is controlled by a voltage current to control the voltages ALS it means that we have a voltage source control the by a subsidiary current have water to controlled current source. It means that we have a current source. Control the boys a value off a voltage inside the circle. Toronto controlled current source. It means that we have a current source controlled by a current inside the circuit. Okay, let's see. Now we have this circuit. Okay. Is this is considered the s and independent source. But this diamond shape or the box a shame or are are a square shape is dependent source. It depends on the value off Another element Is this considered there's Havel to the source because postive and negative. Okay, it's a value is equal toe. Then I So what is that in? I is a current, um, moving inside the cover story, OK? Or this element of number. See? Okay. So the current moving here multiplied by 10 give us a value off the voltage result. So they're voltages source V equal to 10 multiplied, boys air current moving in him and it's a value or its unit is a quarto world not on bare, because you are dealing here with a voltages source. I don't concentrate on this. Used to concentrate on a visa. Vaulted amount equal to 10 multiplied by I or a number or a current moving in another element. How much vote? Okay. 13. Example 6: Now let's take an example about what? Their power. Okay, so that we can understand the concept off the active elements and suppressive element. So now we have a circuit here which is having a 20 volt have water source, and it's not dependent. Source. It is independent does not depend on any other element. And there is a current five amber growing through this element, a number Beato. And it is a passive element because the current direction is always a tools is polarity and we have year on Other element Zabaleta it off. It is always a to the current. Therefore, cities are consuming or abusive element, and this is a consuming or offensive element. And this is a supplying source. But this one is what is this one? It assembly and in ad dependent, the source. It depends on the value off the current or going to toe multiplied boy. Oh, and now he wants to find the power supply are observed by a chairman. So we give some sign for H. Bauer. What I mean I mean that I give them supplying about and negative being and they're consumed is considered as lost value. Therefore, the power of the sources. 20 volt multiplied by five Mbare. Okay. And we give it and negative sign toe represents that it's a supplied power. Let's see this one. You will see. Here, there. Six. Amber multiplied eight vault and give us a 48 s orbit. Bauer. OK, And to be toe 12 multiplied by five to give us a sec. Christie off. Sorted power. Okay, now we need to find some power off dependant source. Simply boy or going to tow the current. Okay. Gives us the value of the controls multiplied. Boy, it's a vaulted, and it's a Walter. Gee, is this one which is a vault? Why? Because we have a two elements in barrel. Therefore the voltage across this element will be equal to the water jar process. Sentiment. Okay, Because they are connected in barren. Therefore, the value off this source will be ordering to toe multiplied by one multiplied by eight volt, as you see here. And it has a negative value because it is also blowing the source. So as a check, we can add the one beetle history before, and it will be equal to zero as low conversation off the energy. The submission off the powers will be equal. Zero B one B two B C before will be equal to zero. Or that some mission of the power supply It will be equal to the total power. Absorb it, Okay. 14. Introduction to Basic Laws: in the previous section we have discussed about the basic concept of such as a current voltage and power in an electric circuit. So in this section we would like to find values off these variables in a given circuit. So we have to understand some fundamentals laws such as gets a little and Andulo okay, And using this low, we can find the values off variable elements such as as a current voltage power. And we in this section we will discuss their resistance in Syria's pattern. That's the worry connection, Why orderto transformations and so on. We will discuss a lot of things in this six, and so I hope you benefit from this section and see you soon. 15. Definition of Resistance: in this video are going to discuss Angelo and what is meaning by it. So first, any material in their world consciousness, off specific lens and a specific role section area and this material have a specific the resistive ity or role. What is meant by resistive ity? It means that that any material in the wallet will resist is a charges or resist is a current that flows through it. Okay, so just prevented the current or revenge charges from moving through it. So that's why we have a material with high resistive ity means the high prevent or high stop for the charges or the current and materials with Laura's festivity, which means it will make the current bosses or makes electron bosses more Isley. Okay, now, such as for this material is there are good conductors such as copper and aluminium, and those have Lori's estimate is. That's why you will see all of the cables in the hold almost off the cables on mid off cover and aluminium, and each of them have it's Antoine Chances and watches wire. There are insulators, which are maker and way where they have the high resistive. It's the resistance a current. They are very aggressive with the currency. Just prevent it from moving or decreases that current waas Okay, now in the resistance in sold it off any material will be equal toe role about the blood boy is Alan's divided boy. That cross sectional area where raw is a resistive ity off the material in O meter and Elin's offers a material in meter and the area is informed Cross sectional area in meter square. Okay, so now any material can visit presented boys this circuit assemble current bossing and the resistance off the material itself. And there is a voltage drop. What is mentally a voltage drop? It means that that our battery or our source off power will consume some energy here so that the electoral can boss this resistance or the charges combos this resistance. Okay, if we have no voters, there will be no current because that charges will not be able to watch this resistance. Also, as you see here, this table shows us there is a festivities off a different materials such a silver cover aluminium, gold, carbon germanium, silken, papermaker, gloss and so on. You will see here that that there is a festivity. Off silver is the lowest possible and then cover ends in aluminium. But is that I think that silver is more expensive than cover. That's why we can not use it for making our conductors. Okay. Cover has a lower resistive. It ease and aluminium. But aluminium has a lower weight is an cover. Okay, there is a lot of that. One chance at lunch for both of them, okay? 16. Ohm's Law: So now what is meant by bombs alone? So Assembly state is that the voltage across a resistor is directly proportionate to the current flowing This rosary system. It means that the voltage drop across a resistance. They bend this on the current directly proportionate means that as the current increases is a Walter to drop increases to Rose's resistance. Okay? And they found that that there's a constant or the proportionality constant. Is there resistance? Okay, it means that the voltage across any resistance will be equal to the current. The busing through it multiplied boys, this resistance and the resistance is a constant proportionality. It means that the bolted direct, terrible, personal with the current and we removed is a proportional. And we added the resistance toe make it equal toe OK, and it's unit will be on the unit off the resistance. Okay. And the resistance again is an element which resists is a flow off electric current, and it measures in home okay and the resistance will be equipped with a voltage divided boys 17. Open and Short Circuit: Now let's compare between an open circuit and the short circuit. What is the difference between them if we have a small wire like exists? Okay, Onda, we bosses are gone through it. So what will be the voltage drop? It will be equal to zero. Why? Because the resistance off the wire will be nearly equal zero so we can neglect it. That's why the voltage will be equal to zero. Because, as we said before, that's the voltage will be equal to current multiplied by the resistance and the resistance off this short circuit will be very, very small and brushes to Xeno. Therefore, the voltage will be equal to zero. But for an open circuit, okay, the current cannot be or the stores cannot. Boss, there is a sense off this air, okay? Because it is an open circuit, there is no what's between them so that the charges can bust through it. And the resistance is nearly equal to infinity. It is very, very large. So the current will be equal to zero. Okay, because the current will be equipped with a voltage across this two points and the resistance avoided boys. A resistance senses a current toe equal to zero. It does not mean that the voltage will be equal to zero. Okay, there is a huge difference between that Being a short circuit source circuit means that all of these points have the same potential. Okay, Therefore the waters will be equal to zero. There is no resistance a year and the voltage off each point is the same. The toys. That is more potential difference. But for this one, the potential here is the same. And the potential here is the same. But the difference between two points with an air gap is not equal to zero this point and this point does not have the same voltage. That's why we can not consider the voltage as zero. It is our moon, but the resistance It is infinity because it is an open, sir. 18. Fixed and Variable Resistance: As you see here, there is a different type off resistance. There are resistance or is the stores which are having fix it value. And there are which have ah, variable resistance. Okay, this shape, so is our constant or affixing resistance does not change with time, but they are having different composition. Why won't the type as this one and the carbon flame time Another type which is variable resistance. It means that it it changes. As I changes this tab, there are a composition pipe and the slider put time Okay, You can't change the resistance. As you would like by just a rotating this You are changing the resistance. You can actually toe take all the resistance or toe take are part off the resistance. This is a general variable resistance. But this is considered as a put on some eater you are taking and Bart off the that resistance. A boy game 19. Linear and Non Linear Resistor: We have to understand that there are two types off resistance. Okay, Other then being fix it and valuables. There are resistance which called the Alinea resistor. And another one which is called the nonlinear resistance. Zeleny Resistance is a resistance which obey arms alot, that is essence will be equipped with a voltage divided boys are current but on on linear resistance have no linear relation between it and Andulo. It is like a curve. As you see here, we're having fixing the slope which is called the Are the voltage across the current Okay. And the slope will be equal to ours. This is a fix It all A linear does not change with voltage under current Does he have a fixed value that issue between the miss fix it. But the nonlinear resistance is changing with according to the voltage and current. Okay, It is not constant 20. Meaning of Conductance: another quantity, which is well known. It's called Is there conducting? What is conducting it? Is same village reciprocal off the resistance, one over resistance or current over and voltage. It is when an element which represented how will an element will conduct electric current will bosses electric current? Or how will the electric current will bust through this element? OK, other than the resistance, resistance is as ability off the material toe resist is a flow off electric current okay and they own it off. Conductor is instead off. The resistance is room is one of our own or is broken off or another unit which is called Siemens. Okay, therefore, as the current casino will be is a voltage over resistance and one over resistance is called G or their conduct. And as we know, we can represent to the power off the resistance by boy voltage multiplied boil current or removing is a current and boating voltage over the resistance, the square over our or removing the voltage and adding I multiplied by our I square for our I am multiplied by R K. And we can represent a boy Jean by replacing Hor by one over regime. Okay, so it's very symbol. Just by knowing that fundamental no laws, you can you can prove on other laws, okay? 21. Example 1: Let's take an example if we have an electric iron, which it takes tow, Um, bear, this is our current and the voltage off 120 volt finds a resistance. So as we know that the resistance of from home zero assemble is a voltage divided boys are current, which will be equal to 60. A very simple example. 22. Example 2: Let's take another example. Example to now we have this vaulter source which is 30 volt, and we have a resistance five kilo own. It means that we have five months of blood by 10 power three or 5000 home. Okay. And he wants us to find the current moving here across the resistance. And the conduct on city ends up or be so simply as we know from home so that the current will be equal to the voltage divided boy resistance. Okay. Therefore, it will be 30 divided by 5000. It will give us six similarly and bear now we would like to find genes are conducting which will be won over the resistance. Okay. And the one over 5000 which would be a pointed toe, mainly Seaman's. Now we would like to find the power the power would be. Somebody will be equal to the voltage. Amato Blood buys a current on the square over our or V squared multiplied by Jean or I square multiplied by r and so on There is a whole different or various ways. Toe calculates the power 23. Example 3: another example here, a voltage source off a water source off 20 signed by Team Volt, which means that it's any C source. It is varying, goes time and connected across a five kilo ohm resistor finds air currents Rosa resist or ends up our dissipated. So simply you want us to find the current. The current will be equal to a vaulted divided by is a five game home resistant okay from, um zero. And they want so finds a power. Power would be equal toe every square over our or every month obliged by oy and they give us ating, sewing square fighting Millie walk. 24. Branch,Node and Loops: in this video, Argo Metal discussed the definition off nodes, branches and the loops. So we have this circuit. Okay, we have a water source. We have a resistance five home resistance to whom? And resistance three home and the current source off to Amber. Okay, so we have cities. Things who would like to know. Number one. What is mental boy? A branch. A branch is a single element, such as that water source or air resistance. Okay. It represents only and single element. We have a water source here, therefore is it's considered the s a branch and five this. Consider the s one branch because it contains one element and this one is considered as a branch. This one is also a friend and this one is also a branch. It represents only one enemy of Walter source or a resistor or even a current source. Okay, now what is the definition off then? Would note is a point off connection between two or more French. We have a branch here and we have a branch here. Therefore, this point is called the nude because it is a point of connection between the old French at this point is a point off north because it is a connection between this Brescia and this branch. This point is also an moon because it's a connection between this branch and this branch. This point is also an won't because the connection between that toe Mbare ends a five room okay or the connection between these two boys or the connection between two points okay and same here. But when we have two notes and there is no elements between them, we can consider it as our one node. Therefore, the all of this is one more because it has no elements between them. Also, see has no elements between them. Therefore, it's considered as one but a and this point has a branch or an element between them. Therefore, it is not one more it is to the front. Let's see the circuit. We have a 5 to 3 home and toe on bear 10 volt each of these 12345 branches. How many notes that we have? We have this note because connectors between 54 months, then vote. We have also this known, which is a number C and we have this known We can simplifies this shape in tow. This more simple shape. We have connected all of this not as a single lord. We have joins them to wizard and the meat only one point which is being. And we made here one point which is seen. Okay, now what is meant by a loop? A low base. Any close? The boss in a circuit? Let's see again. We have this close boss from here starting from Newt A and returning to it. This is considered as an lube. Another one, which is from a bossing still be ends in C and again, Toby to a It is considered as a loop and this one is considered as aloof and this one is considered as a loop and this one is considered as a. We are moving from one month and returning toes and one without repeating the mood. We just goto one mood and start again. Okay, The initial point is a fine same final point without re beatings. And now, before discussing what's difference between CDs and a parent, we have a relation which it tells our sets. A number of branches will be equal toe the number off independent groups plus end, which is a number of months minus one. Let's see again, we have this. We have three notes and how many branches We have a five branches and how many lobes we have? 12 and three lobes. Okay, three independent rooms and we have three lobes. Plus as serene. Also will be equal toe six minus one will be five. Five is the same as the number of branches which is given. So the relation be equal l a blouse or in lobes of glass. Number of moons of minus one is correct. 25. Series and Parallel Connection: Let's discuss was the difference between a serious and barrel elements. Two or more elements or serious FC have sharing one single note and carrying the same current. But a two or more elements are embarrassed if they are connected to the same tune moods and they have the same Walt Ege across them. Let's see again. We have this French and we have this printed. Both of them are sharing only one more, which is a therefore both of them are in. See, it is also the current moving through. Here is the same, moving in five. Therefore they are Boston series. Let's see Number two home and three home. Both of them are in battery because they have the same voltage across them. The are sharing is the same notes they are chairing. Note number C and the note number be therefore CRM baron and having the same world 26. KCL: Now let's discuss what's meant by Curse off. Slow cash. Have solo occurs off the German scientists who made this close, which is called the curse offs. Key CNN and the Kirchoff TVL was meant by Kissel and given Kiss Ellis curse offs, Gorontalo and curse offs. Walter Joe is a k V l. Okay, so first it is based on the law of Conversation Off charge which requires that the jailbreak some off charge within a system cannot change. It means that all of the charge insider system is the same, does not change its algebraic sum of them is the same also that difference between Zaki Sale and to give in first first off the current low eight estates, or gcl. It states that the algebraic sum off the currents entering and or a closed boundary is zero . It means as a some mission off all the currents entering and would equal to zero. Okay, where that number off parents will be toe unequal one until in which is a number off branches, connected toes and would Okay, let's see again before has a simple note like this. This note, therefore according to, occurs off So Casey and It means that the summation off the current centering za lobe will be equal toe the submission off currency leaving is or leaving the lobe or getting out of the room. Okay, let's see again. We have I want entering. We have ice very entering. Who have I for entering therefore, some mission off my one plus I city plus I four will be a quinto the some mission off elements or currents leaving Zanon which are I five and I toe you'll see here I want glass I three plus I for which are the one entering someone will be ableto I two plus I five which are livings and would okay or by booting is entering nude entering currents with the most of sign ends living with the negative side The submission off all of them will be equal to zero. As you see here is the entering. I give him that most of sign and then leaving I give him a negative sign. The submission of them will be a quinto zero. Okay, 27. KVL: now for Gersh Offs, second law or a voltage alot A sensors are jailbreak, some off all voltages around that close, the boss or alone is equal to zero. The some mission off and voltages across air, new or a close, the bus is equal toe zero fromem equal one which is considered as being M M voltage and them is a number of voltages inside cell. Okay, let's take an example. We are there are water source and of all the source, if we take a TVL or a lube or applying cuts off voters loans or is this long, it will be equal to zero. Let's seem, if we give them that's a mission off the supplying bar. Equal toe the consuming about all the consuming. Walter. Let's see everyone, which is our supplying those up our or sublime votes. And before which is supplying we want blood reform must be equal toe the voltage drop grows as three resistance. We told blows Visit E plus V five. Okay, some of the voltage drops will be plumb off, the voltage arises or we can use Amazon missile. Let's take a vote, and as you walk, you will see those hein this sign, but it as it is, if we make a look like here or applies, I give a low. You'll see here negatively. One US Veto blouse Visa free minus before Blas V five equal to zero negatively. One. Blas Veto Blas Visa three minus 34 plus 35 Quite cozy. It is the same as as some of the voltage drop it was. Some of the waters rise. It is the same. 28. Example 4: Let's take an example if we have ah voter source 20 volt and we have a two resistance toe and three on on door Would like Toa finds everyone and veto. So assembly everyone will be equal toe The current moving here multiplied boys a resistance and we too will be called to the current tomato blood by city own. Okay, so we don't know the current about We can apply Curse off Salo, which is a some mission off the water just across the group will be equal to zero. So first we have a 20 volt sort by applying these and hope negative 20 volt will plus I multiplied by tomb blood Sirri multiplied by I OK, so I have a negative 20 plus toe. I blustery or he assumed descends of all to drop in a negative direction. Negative blouse. Assuming that the current moving like here and the current moving here, his assumption you would like to find every toe and he assumed that the signs is negative Bolster. I don't care about that. I know that the voltage drop will be equal toe current through here, which I assumed multiplied buys and three home and I assumed that the current moving gear according toe the blast sign. So we have negative 20 blocks story velocity, always the current will be equal to four and bear. So we know know that everyone will be equal to four months of blood by to which is added. Vault and veto will be negative. Toe negative. I multiplied by serene, which is negative. 12. So biologic veto must be a negative sign because the Walter's room must be postive Negative . No time. Postive and mono, but not a negative Boston Rob the opposite. Okay, But I find what he wants. He wants to find Rita, which is assumed that negative, okay? 29. Example 5: Let's take another example we have here dependent source or 0.5. I know and I know is moving here and we have a B note for him and we have current source and they want to find I know and they would like to find the note. So assembly I know it will be equal toe according toa que sale or the car until oh, okay, we have here or bring five I note plus city and bear will be equal toe. I note the submission off the known a The submission of the currents entering the new day will be ableto the currents leaving the body. Therefore city plus open five final will be quite. I know. Therefore I know it will be six AM bear and we don't want to find V note which will be Quito I know which is six AM Bear multiplied by four toe. Give us 24 vote 30. Example 6: in this example we would like to find that current and Walters inside this circuit. So we have here. We want to find the one veto and history and the current I want and I toe and I Sorry. So assembly. We know three equations. What are they? They are simply at Newt A. We know that Are you on? Will be acquired toe I toe Plus I city this equation number one number two We have a loop here and we have another Lupien according toa ourselves A voltage alot So according to the log number on negative 30 plus I want multiplied by eight Home city multiplied Boy, I two Okay, so now that seeing equations we have here Negative 30 Plus it I want blustery. I too will be equal to zero This is quick question number one Question number two will be ableto in this loop we have as we move Like here we have a negative I too because you are moving in the opposite direction. Off I toe negative I toe but the blood by city own and moving like here it will be I city But the blind boy six over And we know, and we know that I three will be equal toe I to I one minus I to Okay, so now we have two equations with two unknowns. We have I want and I toe eyes on unknowns so we can find I want and I toe and the ice three . And then from that we can find the voltage. We want a way toe and V three justice or by doing some simple mathematics. Very symbol, okay? 31. Series Resistors and Voltage Divison: in this video are growing Talk Siplin held toe combine at all resistance in serious and how to combine at all resistance or more in barrel and how to use a voltage division and the current division. So let's start with this. We have a small circuit like this and we have a voltage source and we have R one r two r one has a water drop off plus minus. We won and Arto has a voltage drop off plus minus veto. Okay, so now we are going to use give in. We know that the current moving through our one and orto is the same and we name it I and would like to find their voter drop here and the rupee okay and help to combine r one and r toe. OK, so use at the end we have a negative plus a one but the blood by our one or plus everyone Blast veto or plus I multiplied by arto and equals zero we have here negative ng plus V one glass veto equals zero and we have the one equal all amount of blood by our one and veto equal toe argument blood by our to. So now we have that Ving equals V one Bloss veto Equal toe I multiplied by r one plus arto So the current side is that it will be a Quito voltage over r one plus r two and r one plus arto will be are equivalent off the circuit so we can combine R one and R toe with one equivalent resistance equal toe their combined nation or the submission off the values off the two resistance So we can make all circuit become are equivalent and have one Walter droop which is equal to the voltage drop off the source, therefore are equivalent will be our one glass orto. Therefore, when we have toe resistance in theaters, we can combine them in one resistance which will be equal toe r one plus r toe plus our city and so on until the submission off our resistance. Okay, as we see here is our equivalent off a series Resistance is will be equal to r one plus r two plus until are in, which is equal to the sum mission off our number in from in equal one toe in capital. Okay, Now we would like to find the voltage drop across each off this resistance everyone, everyone will be equal to the current multiplied by R one. Okay. And we know that I is equal to the voters divided by our equivalent which is equal to the over our one glass arto. Therefore V one will be Quito are one but obliges current, which would be a quinto r one v over R one glass are too. Okay, let's see here everyone would be Quito. Their voters total multiplies the resistance would like to find the water drop of own it over our Ramblas Arto and the year for veto. We would like to find the voltage drop on their resistance. The number two multiply the total voltage over the water resistance. So simply if I wanted to find the voltage drop convene number in it will be ableto total multiplied by the resistance. The number in over the are equivalent all the daughter resistance in series. Okay, As you see here 32. Parallel Resistors and Current Division: Now let's talk about the power of resistance and the current A division. If we have more than one resistance in battle and would like the equivalent system off this resistance, how it will be like we know that in series we are combining them. It will be our one plus arto blah sorcery and so on. Okay. And for whom the previous circuit for the serious assist off. So we know that the current will be constant about the voltage is changing. But however, in a barren system in this are one And in this resistance are toe the voltage across are one and the Walters across Arto is the same Walter douche Quinto is a voltage source v ok and the current will be divided. I want through our one and I told through our toe So what are we going to go? We simply will make a k c. L. We know from Kirsten Gorontalo that the current oil will be quite so I want plus I two okay , and we know that I won will be equal to the voltage e v over r one, since the water source is the same here the same here because they are in better. So the current I one would be Quito voltage over our one and I too will be Quito. Voltage divided boy are too. Okay, now we have equal one plus I to and we know I won Will be Quito. Voltage over the R one and the bluffs V over R two, which is considered as a way to we can take the voltage as a common factor. Therefore, the Walter Edgemont Blood Boy one of our r one plus one of our our two, which is our equivalent. Okay, therefore, one over our equivalent will be you, Quinto one over R one plus one over R two in a barren system. Therefore we have our equivalent will be our one, but the blind by arto r one plus arto Okay, very simple. In the bregas section were made there in a barrel system in a series system with Austin make Tvl Senses of Altar is saying is changing. But here we made Akkus. Ensign's currently the changing, So it is very simple. When we have a voltage, constant will use cases like here and when we have a current, the constant will use a tvl as a previous video. Okay, now the equivalent resistance off any peril system will be called toe one of our are equivalent equal one over R one plus one over our toe and so on until one over our in. Okay, So now, if we have our one equal or to equal are threequel are for until our end, then assembly. We can combine them in n over our in over our since one of our our blessed one over R plus one over r until one over r okay. And the submission of them will be in over our one. Therefore are equivalent will be Quito are one over in or are over in, as you see here. So now we have the voltage will be equal toe the current moving inside a circuit multiplied by our equivalent the equivalent resistance which, equal to our one multiplied by arto over our one glass art. Okay, so now we have the voltage. And do we want to find the current moving in the resistol number one, which is I one end. There is a store. Iittle I want would be equal to the Braves voltage which we calculated over our one and you see here are you one will be ableto the braves Voltage month of divided boy are one If we divide this equation by our wanted to live I arto over our one glass arto And if we would let to find I tow it will be a Quito The voltage divided boys a resistance are toe and it will give us all your one over r one plus arto Really symbols Austin playing with equations . 33. Analogy between Resistance and Conductance: Now let's talk about the difference between that conduct intense and their resistance. We know that the conduct on city or its unit is Siemens, and it is the reverse off the resistance. It is one of the over the resistance. So the conduct insane baron behave as a single conductors, which is equivalent of the some of them. The way David one conductors, it means that the conductors in barrel behave as existence in Syria's. Okay, so now if we have this barrel system are one or tow, then that we can consider Ed as one of our equivalent to call one of our Ramblas one of our arto. Therefore, they're one of our other equivalent equal G equivalent and one over R one equals G one and one of our Article two z two. Since that genes equal toe one over R, therefore we can find that G equivalent equals G one block Zito, plus history and so on in a parent system, sensitive equivalent will be equal to one air are over are equivalent to plus one of our r one plus one of our our toe and so on. Okay, But the conductor in Syria's will behave as a matter as a resistance in Barrett. Okay, as we know that in a in a serious system, are equivalent will be able to r one plus R two. And since our equivalent is one over Z equivalent and are one equal one over G g one and R two equal one of RG two. Therefore, we have from this equation that one of our the equivalent equal one of 41 blast one of RG two plus one of RG three that it was that laws in conductors and those in the resistance are opposite to each other. When we are talking about that Carol resistance, we say one over our equivalent equal one over R one plus one of our our toe and so on. But when we are talking about G conducted in barrel, we are talking about as if they are in serious, it will be the equivalent ecology one block Zito processing and so on. When you are talking about conductors in Syria's, it will be as if they are embarrassed. Little BG equivalent one over the equivalent would be Quinto one of 41 blast one of Ardito And so we have a short circuit and a barrel open circuit inside our circuits. Lettuce in What we will do if we have asshole circuit legs, is that his essence will be equal to zero. Therefore, the current I one would be equal to zero. Why all the current will bus through our toe and prove it by equations. We have I one will be going toe arto black by I totally over our Ramblas or two. And we know that our two is a short circuit. Therefore a brushes toe zero therefore are told will be zero and the current will be a quinto. Therefore I want will be equal to zero. Okay? And I will be going toe total since article busier. And I I want to let my are one over r one. It will give us all and we if we have an open circuit, we know that the resistance will be infinity and we have here and infinite ing. Therefore I too will be equal to zero. No current will pass here and all of the current will bust through our one. Okay, so in a short circuit, all the current boss threw it in an open ticket all the current bosses. So rules are other resistance in cities, resistance is tender Store infinity so current will not be able to Waske. Okay, We can also find the current instead off using the resistance. We can find this using the conduct mince. Let's see again we have here that I I won would be called to our toe over our Ramblas. Arto if we replace it off resistance by conducting still be won over the toe one over the one plus one over Zito and we can multiply above and down Boise one g toe. Therefore it will give us I one would be equal to G one over a G one Boss Vito. Therefore Weekend Express. I want in terms off G instead. Off in terms off resistance. Okay. And we can find that on the current, A number in would be quite g n over d one bloody don't lost and so on until G in cabinet all of this month of blood boys, a total car 34. Example 7: Let's take an example. If you would like to go find the are equivalent for the circuit, we have year resistance for room and the current will be divided here. Okay? And then we'll get back toe the lowest potential point. Assuming there is a voltage difference between this point boasted negative and the current will Buster, we're going. All of this and then get back toes are almost a point. So we see here that would like to find the are equivalent the equivalent off all of this system simply. We have here one, and we have a 512 branches and there is a common note between them and they are not chairing another mood. Therefore, one will be serious with five home, so we can combine them as one, and it will be six. Okay, Now we have six home and this three home. Both of them are sharing the same note and the beginning and at the end of the bench, therefore, six Anderson are in barrel so we can say six barrel to city home. It will be six multiplied city over six, a blustery too. And the equivalent resistance a year will be in Cedars with toe because sharing one only one known. Therefore, we will combine toe with whom it will give us a four room since they will be in serious and we have a forum here. But it was a six room and the combination off them whose eggs this same law it will give us four months of blood by 6/4 plus six equals 2.4 room as here to home and toe combined with each other. And the parent was six home That resultant off this which will give us toe point for we can replace all of this with only one resistance toe went for and all of the city or in Cedars , therefore are equivalent will be for a equals four plus 2.4 plus eight called 14.4 35. Example 8: What if we have a circuit which you have a larger number of missions and would like to find as a value off this circuit, using mission analysis by inspection and set off making active ill here and another Quevilly. So in the model analysis, we meet as each off resistance as a conductor. Us We replaced each are by one version, but here we are dealing with the resistance. So the difference between them first, we deal with conductors now inside their mission analysis Will will deal with resistance for the Koran. Off the voltage. It will very pleased, replaced by the current. Okay, I want. And I toy story. And so on. I lost two column, which is our boat or the answer metrics will be replaced. The boy that Constance off the circuit, which is their voltages. Okay, here. Now let's see again. You will see that this is a general former were places a voltage. Boys are current here, and we're places Are Toronto boys A vaulted Okay. And again that the resistance er 11 same are one toe and are 13 and so on are 21 or tow the same formula, Officer mission analysis The mission analysis Bike inspection is the same as a zanno. Tell Anderson Ban Inspection acceptable. Replacing Hee by our and their blessings of altered buys. A current and the current wiser voltage. Okay, so what is? I want I toe I end as they are the currents, for example. I want it is the one which is our moon. I torches on moon and would like to find them in the previous one, which is a northern. We would like to find V one v two, V three and so on. So what is we want? What is veto and what is until all of this There are other sources which contribute to the air for example V one and I want everyone is a some off the voltages which acorn contributes or increase the current i one. Let's see an example If we have all circuit here as we remember For example, this one for we are talking about i one What are the voltages inside this group which contributes with his I won as a voltage eveyone only. And what are the voltage? A. Here it is negatively to every toe decreases I Serie. Therefore it will be a negative veto. Okay, let's see. Again. You will see here that everyone is in. This gives our current in the same direction off. I won, but veto gives current in the negative direction off I toe okay. That's why we added I negative value. We're and we're meant it most value. Okay, But in the previous one inside that modal analysis, what did we do? We simply bought here voters. And here, currents on the currents are the one which is our entering will be about the value. Hands on. What you are leaving will be a negative value, okay? 36. Introduction to Delta Wye Transformation: Now we are going to discuss that Delta. And why transformations? Okay, now, in our NATO, in our networks we have was a delta connection and our star connection or ah, why connect? We have here a connection off the resisters, okay? And we have here they're in. But Walter, for example, and the outside world So we don't know the equivalent resistance off all of this system or the Delta connection or a by connections ers both off the books the seem okay, But we don't know if this resistance R B or C r A. What is the relation between them or or the in series, or are they embarrass? No, we can't identify for the sittings because, as you see here, if this an import voltage, therefore the current would be moving here and it would be dividing through our B and are seen. And then the current will move. Ah, Barto fitter will be divided in our A and Alberto will be going outside the circuit or going outside. So we don't know if this RC and or you are embarrassed because they don't have. You don't have the same Walters. Therefore they are not embedded are they in series, Norm? Because the current here is not here. Okay, so we don't know if your in series you are embarrassed and so on. Same here. And this is our boy model. And this is a delta connection. They are the same form, the our boss. We don't annoys the autumn series or embarrassed. Now we have another system which is called as talking Nixon or a Y connection. This r y already or a star connection. Does he have a sharing? Only one point, which is is a point or neutral point which is connecting between all of the city resistance . We don't know it's a city year resistance or in CDs or embarrassed if we have year and input voltage and our good Walter we have here are current moving year. Okay? And then the current will be the violence who are to end or three. And the arteries a current or moving sore. Number four and order will be moving like here. Okay, so they are having the same note, but they don't have the same wattage as a vaulted from the neutral in tow point for is not the same as water from here to here. Therefore, they are not buried And the r Moten series, because the current year is known the same current here, or the guarantee look moving in one direction. OK, so they are not in serious same for our one end or toe and or three. Okay, that's why way. If we wanted to deal with a Delta or a while system we have toe, sometimes in our networks would like toa transfer from as a y in tow, edit. Or sometimes it would like toa transforming from my delta into why, according to our network or according toe, is that a prom artist we are dealing with? We need sometimes to transform from one system in tow honors game. 37. Delta to Wye Transformation: Now, if we would like to transform from a delta into why connection? How we can do this assembling as you see here, This is a why connection And this is a delta connection. We would like to transform from this one from why in tow a delta connection. So assembly we would like toa transform Mrs and form at three resistance with a neutral point. Here is the auditing more number one, number two or four and the number serene. OK, so would like Toa makes this three points have another three resistance are one or two or three and they have a neutral point. We won't transform from this into this. So assembly What are we going to go? We are going toe finds the resistance between 0.1 and two and finds a resistance in between 20.1 and toe Assuming there is a voltage here. Okay, and there is no this is an open circuit, no output voltage. Therefore we will find the resistance or one toe which will be equal to our one and blows or serene OK, in this Roy system and for a delta we won't find the resistance or one and a two and assuming this is an open circuit, therefore, this point as a current will be moving here and moving in are a. Therefore, our A and R C will be in serious because there is no output voltage and our C block sorry will be parallel to R P. Therefore simply we know now that the resistance are 12 will be R one plus are sitting and here will be R C plus or a barrel with are being now let's see again we have here are 12 will be one or one blood sorcery and our one toe in a delta connection will be RP better to our A plus or C By equating this talk questions we have are one plus sorcery r p r a plus RC off our tables are people. SRC now similarly will find the resistance between our one city and or three for in a different connection in adult Anto star connection. And we will equate these equations so we will finally have our one a block or two equal RC are able Zarb e R. Abel's or B plus, or C and the same for our +34 so Now we have a see equations with the three hormones are one or two are three. So what are we going to do? We are similar. We're going toe R one plus sorcery. We are goingto minus eight from our Toklas, our city. So we'll have our one minus or two. Okay. And we will subtract both off this and it will give us the same. Now we're going toe some this equation with r one plus orto So we will have a final equation with only our one which will be acquittal R B or C for our A plus or people SRC Okay. Similarly, with Arto, we'll have our c r a. Over our M plus R B plus or C and R three would be our A plus RV multiplied by r B over our A plus r p plus R c. Okay, so you are single. You'll need to memorize this equation. No, not at all. It's very easy. You can. It's also by looking goingto the circuit again. Identify are one or two are serene. So let's see again. We have this delta connection and we transform it into a store and we would remove all off R B R C R A will have always a star connection. So if we want to find our one, let's see it connected toes A branch A It does that not a ends A neutral point. Therefore from is a good number it will see the branches are C and the French RP therefore are one will be equal toe RC multiplied boy RB over the some mission off the city values R B or C or a our A plus R B plus RC. And for our one, it will be our Piemonte blood by R c. If we would like Toa find our tow, it will be our Seymour. The blood by our over the submission are seen multiplied by Ari over system mission For a number sitting are sitting It will be RB ari over the submission or a RB over the submission. So simply you look out toe resistance you would like and the toe adjacent and resistance from the French or from the north. Okay. And Dwight by all off their three resistance 38. Wye to Delta Transformation: Now, if we would like to find why to death, the conversion will simply see that are one or two or three are one is Interpreters Beach. Okay, so are one will be much blood by arto and all tomato blood by are sitting and they are one will be much blood by our three to get a specific equation OK? And we will use this equation toe find another thing we have our one or tow Plus, our two or three plus r c R one equals this sittings. Okay, And we have this equation and this final question would like to find our A our being and our scene. Okay, so simply if we divide our one or two blocks are tabla sorcery ir three plus RCR one divided boy This equation which means that if I devote it by our one or divided by arto or divided it by our serie we will find that are a equality sittings and R B equals this equation and the RC will be equipped with this equation. So somebody what are what we did with us? Divided this equation, boy divided it by our one in both sides. So we divided here by are one and we divided here. But R R one and R one will be equal to as we remember, our C wanted black or be over our A plus r p plus r c. So finally we get this simple equation which is our one or tow plus our Tobler, our city los, our city or one over R one and so on. So to memorize or toe just under the voices from Cirque assembly if you would like our A, it will be equal toe. We will look at our circuit and we'll find that our tow mater blood by sorcery plus are one that the blood there are three plus our one month the blood. By arto we find their possible multiplication off the three resistance which is again, or one or two, or are one or three and arto Plus I'm not blood by Arsene. Okay, this is a possible multiplication off any three resistors a year. Okay? And we'll divide it, boys. Adjacent boy, What I mean was that if you wanted to find our a c, there is a store which is, as we see it's perpendicular or making a right angle over it, which is our one. If we would like to find Arby's and more divided boy or two, it would like to find IRC will find divided by r three and so on. Okay, assembly, as you see here are a Is that one which is perpendicular to it is R one R b Is art always broken too close to it and our see our cities perpendicular it and so on. And if we have our one or two or three are equal and are equal our vehicle RC, we will find that in why connection it will be equal to our delta divided by city or the Delta will be called three times our boy. So nearly as you see that our delta will be equal toe one of our Siri over the resistance off the delta and the are off the delta will because three times are off. Why, okay, 39. Example 9: Let's take an example. We have here a very large circuit with 12345677 Mission analysis seven. The very large number toe. Just get them or evens an order you see here. We want me to be three before larger number off model analysis. What does he want in this? Probably wouldn't that known Walter Geometrics. He would like Toa make and model and is therefore we will make the one veto this review four. Ok, but instead off making Kissel here gets a Lear said here this year we will make a more is your equation. What is it? We are going toe assembly. Use our inspection Our new Surrey So we will make a first will make a two mattresses. Okay, the 1st 1 which is for simplistic. Okay, we have everyone veto this three And before I leave this metrics alone for now. Okay. And we would like to find the current the currents which are entering everyone. The currents which are entering veto the currents which are entering misery. The currents which are entering before off course. If we have a current living will subtract it. Let's see V one for voltage a number V one. You will see here only three and bear entering. Therefore, it will be a boasted value for veto. We have a two currency leaving toe on bear and one on bears. Therefore, it will be negative. Siri, Amber for Vito For history, we don't have any water source inside this case. There's therefore it will be equal to zero. For no note The number four, we have a two and they're entering. And for I'm bear entering. Therefore, it would be six and bear in a postive value because they are so currents which are entering our and north number four, you'll see it. Three Minor city 06 again city is that that got on sources which are entering everyone and veto the submission of the sources entering veto minus the submission off the sources leaving veto And we don't have any entering all our living. Therefore it will be a negative value. History does not have any current source before have only had toe sources which are entering before now would like to find this matter Sees as we remember again we won. It will be g 11 Do you want Oh Ji Wan Citi Z 14 Okay, because we have a four and once. Therefore, it will be until G 14 and for Vito Zito, one g, Toto G 2304 And for history, it will be just 31 Just three to Jesse three. Just 34 Onda for not number four. It will be G for one g four to Jay for C J for four and so on. So let's go find each of these value for G 11 Let's find all that is Ah, diagonal off our metrics. Okay, You want one? June Toto registry CJ for for Let's see everyone one for voters, number one or the old, The resistor or saggy or the conductor's connected toe. We one or one of our five one of our thing, becau