Cloud Computing and Virtualization: An Introduction | Dr Monjur Ahmed | Skillshare

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Cloud Computing and Virtualization: An Introduction

teacher avatar Dr Monjur Ahmed, Experienced Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 57m)
    • 1. Why Take This Course

      10:51
    • 2. Course Overview

      6:20
    • 3. Intro to Cloud Computing and Virtualization

      18:55
    • 4. Virtualization Demonstration

      7:53
    • 5. Install Kali Linux on VM

      23:09
    • 6. IaaS PaaS SaaS Demo

      6:55
    • 7. Intro to Computer Networks

      7:42
    • 8. IP Address

      14:17
    • 9. Virtual Private Network

      7:20
    • 10. Accounting, Authentication, Authorization

      13:31
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About This Class

Overall Course Objective:

To understand basic concepts of Cloud Computing, Virtualization and Computer Networks.

 

Learning Outcomes:

  1. Understand what is Cloud Computing.
  2. Understand What is Virtualization.
  3. Understand Cloud Types and Cloud Service Deployment Models (IaaS*, PaaS*, SaaS*).
  4. Learn How to create Virtual Machines (VM) using Hypervisors (type-2).
  5. Understand Computer Networks and IP Addressing.

* IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service

* PaaS – Platform as a Service

* IaaS – Software as a Service

 

Course Outline:

  • Cloud Computing: Concept, Definition, Cloud Types and Service Deployment Models.
  • Concept of Virtualization
  • Demonstration of Virtualization using Type-2 Hypervisor and VMs
  • Creating a VM and install Kali Linux on the VM
  • Demonstration of IaaS, PaaS and SaaS through real life examples
  • Computer Networks: Concept, Gateway, Router, Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN).
  • IP Address: Concept, Public IP, Private IP, IPv4, Subnet.
  • Accounting, Authentication and Authorization(AAA): Concept.
  • Real Life Demonstration of AAA.

 

What a Student will learn?

This is a basic course to understand the concepts of Cloud Computing, Virtualization and Computer Networks in general. In this course, the lessons are designed with minimal technical jargons to ensure anyone with little knowledge about computers or IT can gain a basic understanding on the above concepts. This course could be an essential pre-requisite for those who aim to take any computing related training – specifically in Cloud Computing (e.g. Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure), Cyber Security or any computing and computer related course. If you are an IT person, you probably would not find anything new in this course; but may get help from this course to clarify your understanding on the topics covered in this course. This is a basic and beginner level course.

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr Monjur Ahmed

Experienced Educator

Teacher

Monjur is an educator with long years of experience. He has taught at tertiary level in New Zealand, UK, China and Bangladesh. Monjur's area of expertise are Business Systems Analysis, Big Data and Business Intelligence, Cloud Computing, Computer and Information Security, Database Design and Development, and IT Project Management.

 

Monjur's approach to teaching is to keep it simple and straightforward. Using real life simple examples in teaching, he aims to establish the fact that nothing is complex; one super-complex entity is just an amalgamation of some super-simple things.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Why Take This Course: Hi. Welcome to the introductory course off Cloud Computing on virtual ization. Before we start the course, let us discuss why we need to take this course. That's the first important point that we need to satisfy ourselves, that this course will be something useful for us. So let's get it started. So this course on cloud computing and virtualization as well, less on computer networks. What this course is all about this course is to understand the basic concepts of cloud computing, virtual ization and computer network. And we will explore all these topics from a general viewpoint on, uh, not from a technical viewpoint. And that is why we will keep the technical, juggles your minimum. And I tried to not to use technical journals drugs so as and where possible so that everyone can understand the concept of cloud computing, virtual ization and computer networks. So who can take this course? Is it only for the i d people or for I t professionals or someone from I t backgrounds? No, this course is for everyone. Regardless of whether you're from an item, background or not, this goes will be useful for someone from I T backgrounds to understand the concepts and for someone who is not from my kid backgrounds to family, Rice said themselves with cloud computing and virtualization and to get an understanding on the concepts off cloud computing and virtualization. So if you are from on idea background, probably you won't find anything new here. But still, this course might help you to verify your understanding on. But topics are to clarify your understandings. And if you are not from a 90 background, you're very welcome to the course because I discussed from a general viewpoint without being too technical so that anyone from no i did background can gain on overall understanding on can gain the big picture off the major topics that we have covered in this coast, which is cloud computing, virtualization and computer networks. So why someone should take this course, um, cloud computing virtual ization. If anyone wants to understand if anyone wants to work in this area, the first thing is that someone should understand the basic concepts. The what is cloud computing? What is virtualization, what they are all about, how they look like in real life. Do if someone have this basic understanding that it will make your someone's life very easy when they go on hands on training. Andi, without proper theoretical backgrounds without proper understanding on the basic concept and a big picture learner might struggle when they diving two hands on training. And for this reason, this course, this basic introductory course on cloud computing and virtualization may we may be a very useful prerequisite or introductory starting course before getting trains on any advanced course on computer networks are cloud computing or virtualization times. As I discussed that, I tried to keep the technical drivers to a minimum for so that everyone can understand on. I mainly try to keep this goes non technical and why we need to learn about cloud computing . Because Cloud computing is a contemporary computing approach, the latest completing approaches a booming technology all over the world. Organizations are moving towers, clouds, eso. We see a massive shift from non cloud based computing to cloud based computing, and that's why it already has become a very big industry with a lot of job opportunities in a lot of different aspects on in the future or in near future, we might see that any kind of a kind of computing is being done on the cloud. So cloud computing is already winning in computing field. So probably for for anyone who is in I T or No. 90. It is a good idea to get a solid understanding on what is cloud computing. And, as I say that Cloud Computing is experiencing a massive popularity, organizations are using a moving towers cloud more and more because cloud company health organizations to boost their business. As we'll see later in this course, that cloud computing helps you take specialized services from a cloud service providers. So it helps organizations to focus on their core business instead off thinking and investing a lot in ICT infrastructure. And if, and that's how cloud computing helps organizations to run, their business is smoothly because they get specialized assistance from cloud service providers. Cloud service providers means those organizations are those parties that offers cloud based computing infrastructure, which people can use by renting those infrastructure details. On this, we will see in in other teachers in this course. So we we learned about cloud computing and also the question comes that why we need to learn virtual is issued them without serve actualization. Cloud computing probably would not be as popular as it is today. This is the technology that has revolutionized cloud computing on. So that is why to understand cloud computing, our learning will not be complete if we don't understand virtualization. Virtualization became very popular recently because it helps organizations to reduce Ike. Infrastructure costs are significantly and the cloud service providers, as we'll see later on, that they say they rely on these virtualization technologies toe provision in different kinds, off services and offerings to exclaims. And when you talk about cloud computing, virtualization automatically comes into the context virtual ization and cloud computing. They go hand in hand with out virtualization. Cloud computing is cloud computing. But if we don't use virtualized, if we didn't have virtualization, as I say, that cloud computing probably wouldn't be as popular as it is today, not just in terms of service provisioning but also in terms off cost minimization and some other factors so I could find We need to understand actualization because we want to understand cloud computing. But why we need to understand computer need wives later. In this course we have defined what is cloud computing on where you see that when we say cloud computing. We are essentially talking about computer neighbors because just a quick note here that cloud computing means using the computer resources that remotely located, probably owned by someone or someone else or some other organization that we call cloud service providers. So off course, if we want to access remote computing resources, there has to be some kind of connectivity. In other words, there must be some kind of networking, which is computer numerous. And so if there were no computer networks, if there were no constant of computing computer nerd Joyce on Internet, probably we wouldn't see anything called Cloud competing, not the way we see a today. With the massive popularity, all the organizations in the world are moving towers cloud. It would not be possibly there were no Internet, there were no competent natures, and there were no technologies related to completion. It drives. So that is why we need to I understand competent neutrals Israel to properly understand cloud computing and virtual ization, and thus this introductory course will help you to get a start on the's topics. You will get a big picture. How about this course is not about training on how to use cloud computing or how to use virtualization or all the technical aspects off company networks are not part of this course. This course is a very basic introductory course for someone who wants to start their carrier. Or they want to learn about cloud computing and virtualization on computer networks in general, but don't have a solid understanding or have some confusion or don't know probably how, what actually scrap company or how they look like in real life and how complete Negress coming to the context of cloud completing and how the actualization is related to cloud computing. So this course will help you to understand all this aspect, and I hope that this course would be very valuable addition to your learning and in your carrier. Thank you. 2. Course Overview: Hi. Welcome to the introductory course on Cloud Computing, Virtualization and Computer Negress. In this course, we will look into the basic concepts off these three topics. We look into cloud computing, virtualization and company in extras who understands the basic concepts of behind these terminologies. So let's have a look into the course overview before we get started. This is a beginner's course onto the overall course Objective is to understand the basic concepts related to cloud computing and virtualization, along with company and networks. Having this overall objective in mind, let's have a look into the learning outcomes. You're the first learning outcome. Mr Understand. What is cloud computing? And also to understand what is virtual ization will also understand different cloud types for example, public private's community and hybrid clouds. We were also looking toe cloud service deployment models. For example, I A s, which is infrastructure as a service p A. S, which is platform as a service on board S A s, which is software as a service. The next learning outcome is, uh, to know how we can create a virtual machines using hyper vices which is related to a virtualization on and by taking this course will also be able to understand what our computer networks and what is I. P addressing will see some basic concepts on I'd be interesting is realized company Nicholas, for example. Routing get rid of something for and so on. So these are the learning outcomes, sir, For this course on bond legs explore a bit, father, that what topics we're going to cover. So let's have a look into the course outline. So first, we're going to talk about cloud computing. We learned the concept and definition of cloud computing will also look into cloud types and service deployment models that I was discussing. Idea I s P. A s and S A s. And then we will also discuss about the concept off. But virtualization. We will see some practical demonstration off a virtual ization. We lose type two helper visor. So what is tapping supervisor? Let let us escape for the timing, because during the coast, you'd really will learn what is type two happy adviser and what is virtual machines are of years. So another material is on creating a virtual machine and installing a new operating system on that virtual machine in this case we have administrated Callie Necks Andi smoothing on further we will also see the reelect Amar reelect administration off How I, a s p a s and s A s look like not just the miracle constituency a real example off this different cloud service deployment models by looking at us Cloud service providers provided tools to use to deploy in these said different deployment mortals who offer cloud services and then we'll move to understand computer networks. We will first understand the concept. What is a computer network will also looking toe some buzz words like get re what it is roger and douching. We will also talk a bit about local area network, which is known as land. And we'll also talk about white area network bonus when and then we will understands I'd be addressing will mainly focus on i t v four on what is I before we discussing a good time to look into the concept of I beg dressing or you will look into the categories of I P addresses which is public and private. I p and you talk about the I B version full, which is I PD for and will also learn what is sub niche. Next topic is Cipel A, which is accounting, authentication and authorization will learn the concept off accounting or education and authorization. And then we'll see a real life example of what these things mean. What it means when we say all accounting without medication. And we say authorization we look into a real life example will use Lennox operating system . And we'll see how accounting authentication and authorization works on that operating system. So these, uh, starting points to ggo and overview and an idea off one what this course is all about Once again, you are very welcome to this course. And I hope you enjoy this course and you learn something valuable from this course. Thank you. 3. Intro to Cloud Computing and Virtualization: hi in this video will see an introduction to cloud computing and virtual ization. So let's get it started. What is cloud computing? There is no a standard, single, unique definition off cloud computing. The definition on cloud computing varies. But if we look into different definitions, they stand on one page about card, completing that it uses remote computing resources that is under someone else's ownership and management, which we see eye. If I use a computer and computing resources, computers deputize any kind of computing resources. That is not you under my management on my ownership, that's somewhere else. I couldn't manage them, but I just use the resources then that is called cloud Computing. However, as I said that there is no standard this one standard definition for cloud computing. Broadly speaking, cloud computing means using a remote resources on, uh, the ownership. It might be under someone's someone's this ownership, or it might be under your own organizations. Ownership hasn't see later on. There are a number of definitions. Some researchers most of the researchers, agree on the definition that you see on the screen. Now that a Z I was discussing, it should be on a remote trigger center on ownership. It might be someone under someone else's ownership and management, or it might be within your own organizations ownership. But it is normally every mortal data center where you have the computing infrastructure completed naturalist computers and you were use virtual ization for results sharing in other video tutorials, we'll see what is virtualization and how research sharing is down. So just leave it here. But only by saying that virtual ization is eyes a very significant contributing technology in cloud computing. That is why, um, a lot of orders. Recessions include the naturalization aspire off the definition for cloud computing. So we have a remark. JICA Center. We have resource sharing using virtual ization ants. Cloud computing is on your mind service, which means whenever I need it, I should be able to get the service and we never I don't need to use it. I should be able to forget it. And the building is normally pay as you go. I should be paying on leave for Want that, Houston, For the time I used Andi helps you get rid off monthly Husa Bill. You can use men if you use something for five hours in a month. If you use a computer fibers in a month, you pay for five hours, even pay for the whole month and excess of IR Internet as the gate of centuries remorse. So access by ancient. So if we generalize that we can actually say that the some remote computing resources that is access toe through networking in this case we can say Internet on, uh, we use it whenever we needed. And we have way pay only for what we use, and that is what we can say. Cloud computing. So Cloud computing itself is not any technology. It is an approach. If we look at the definition, we see that in the remote data center we can use any computer on. It might be any kind of company. Competing technologies Cloud computing is remote resources, anche accessing by Internet and have some on demand pay as you go sort of things. So technically, in terms of technology, cloud computing itself is rather a computing approach, not technology itself. Um, so I argue that it is a conceptual approach to computing, and it can encapsulate any form of computing by definition. And since we save actualization is significant technology in cloud computing. We definitely need to know about virtual ization. So what is virtualization? Very roughly speaking, we can say using one physical computer for his job more than one operating systems that would run in parallel. It's not dual watching. It's simultaneous booking. You can see in job watching. You can instruct you operating systems, and you can run one or the other. But by using virtualization, you can simultaneously run more than one operating system on one physical computer, depending on the capacity configuration off the computer. So how you to have one of the measure help for that we get from virtualization is cost minimization. For example, if I can install five operating systems in one computer incident for her buying five computers, I am by just one computer, and it will help me to save the expenses for four computers. On There is a rough estimation from different resources. That virtualization helps organizations to save around 40% of total cost, which is actually and 40% cost money. Manager is a very big achievement, So to talk about virtual is if we look into this figure on this image, the moment I took this creature. You see that? My simply what was being used? Um, 25 president feet. Thank you for President Memory child passing of gays. Now you see that the rest of the CPU memory and disk space Probably not disrespect, but let's and memory and sippy. They're being wasted because no one else is using my computer. Now, if I could instruct other burning system and if there was a way by which I could like someone else, use the wester 75% of my CPU Listen, then it would be something good. And that is what virtualization helps. Asked at you cost minimization results, fearing on optimal use of resources. So let's have further illustration of actualization. How we do that. Here you have one illustration off type one hyper visor, which is also known as their middle hyper visor. If you look carefully, this is a place of follow my Cassa thesis, the completely physical computer and we instrument a piece of software which we're calling hyper visor. And this is actually the virtual ization platform on top off that virtual ization platform we instruct lives the operating system 12344 operating systems on four virtual computers. So we're calling this the host. The host computer and these virtual completely circling the virtual missions are virtual service now from outside through Internets from some remote places. If on and user is connecting to Let's operating System three, they wouldn't feel the different. They wouldn't understand the total center. You didn't feel a cowers. They'll just with that, they are using one operating system on one computer. And so if let's say that four different and usurers are connecting before different virtual machines from remote places, they would feel that they are using their own computer their own operating system. Where is because of using virtual ization? They're actually using one computer on the all those computers virtual companies, virtual machines and or virtual service. They're actually reciting one physical computer. And that's how this all these revolutions are sharing the resources off one physical computer, this computer host computer and that is how virtualization saves money reduces cost. Hang yeah, yeah, shares the resources, for example. All of them this for virtual missions are using the same A ram random access memory of primary memory of these physical computer So here we have seen the piece of software that is, the platform is known as hyper visor, and they're two different types of type of eyes. A type one. That's the one. We have seen it because the platform all the computer and then hosts other virtual machines . Andi Way discussed it is also known as bare metal. Happened was on the other hands. The other type of ah, hype advisor is called time to hyper visor. So the difference here is that this hyper visor recites on an operating system. For example, if you have a Linus or Windows operating system, you can install a type two up hyper visor. And on that hyper visor you can install the virtual machines in another tutorial. So we'll see. Type two Hap adviser. So where we see that on the guest computer, we install HEPA Visor on the operating system means jobs. And on the in that hyper visor, we is done Multiple virtual machines. However, type one or type two Um, that uses from I was sick or something feel any difference, and they're fanatics that they are exactly the same thing. So this is self actualization, a very significant revolutionary technology for the popularity of cloud computing. So what are examples of cloud computing I want to go through? And these complex examples you already are using cloud computing, for example, emails and email you use when you use email service emails. You care about the privacy security of your emails. You want to sing and receive emails on and other related functional. It is you want from the email communications, but you do not care where those emails are restored in which computer and how those computers are being managed. You don't need to stroll them locally, so you are actually using cloud computing, your MSR distraught elsewhere in some some service you even don't know, and you don't manage those computers. So you're using remote resources. This is cloud computing. There is no magic in cloud computing. It is, uh, recently it has become a popular, but it is not a new concept. Another example might be any online. The stories. We have a lot off clouded stories, we say. So this is a very example. Off cloud computing and high performance computing, for example. What is the reason if organization needs a supercomputer? Let's say for five hours a month, and it doesn't make sense for them in terms of money and administration management. Whatever is the reason. It doesn't make sense for the organization to purchase a supercomputer because they need it just for five hours a month. So by cloud computing with the clouds, those organizations that provide cloud services, they can have supercomputers. And there can tell people that, Hey, we have supercomputers. Use it whenever you needed for those five hours on just pain being only for that five hours and then just forget. And that is how cloud computing those who provide cloud services cartilage bridging can offer pay as you go and on demand service that we have seen earlier in the definition of cloud computing. So in high performance computing computing, some organizations may not afford or it might be physical to buy supercomputer super performing computers, but they can higher the computers for the time they will use from cloud service providers. So these are some examples off cloud computing. Now comes, uh, cloud types. These are all conceptual separation. When you said public cloud, you mean that the data center that we referred earlier is under the management and ownership of some miles. Anyone can use the data center, for example, your free treatment services that you have private clouds of here. The data center is owned by an organization, and it is used only by them, not by anyone else. And that is why the privately dissenter is called the private clouds coming in a cloud, um, could be a cloud that is provided by a number of organizations, and they use each duplicity in organizations. There came up a constant cycle decision that Okay, we will be in a cloud. And that will be a general cloud for all of us to you so that we can call community cloud hybrid cloud a mixture of any off the above three. You can have some of your service in the public cloud, for example. You might have your data that are not very sensitive in public, lower for your organization and at the same time sensitive information. For example, your employees details. You might keep it within your data center. That is private cloud. So you're using hybrid cloud and makes off both so that we have four cloud types and does he have a service model or cloud deployment. Mortal searcher. Mainly noise, say infrastructure as a service platform as a service, AG software as a service. So what is infrastructure as a service when you can use the service providers? Cloud service providers, Infrastructure computer their computer networking that is called infrastructure. So when a service provide cloud service provider legs used their infrastructure that has gone yes. On the other hand, you might be given access only to one virtual machine. And you can use only one operating system, where you can install software and whatever we want to do on the operating system. If you're given to only debt level off access, then it is called Platform. As a service. On the other hand, you might be given access only to one software list of one website or when. There you become my usual er off a cloud based software on the weapon you can use only their suffering can't do anything else on that on the several where the software's instrument. Then you're using just the software, and that's why it is called software as a service. So if you look carefully S A s soccer as a service, it's just the software platform as a service means on operating system instruct on a virtual mission on on the other hands, just the whole computer. One computer and I is, on the other hand, gives him or take your freedom where you have computer made multiple company company made working and everything that makes on infrastructure for company knickers on if we look, the last part is it became a general term where we say X is something that is, prayer offered us a service on the cloud is known as X. It is, for example, seek US security as a service D. A s database as a service so x as the service began, the generate come for different cloud Service models that I offered by Cloud Service providers. So let's go through some terminologies before we conclude this material CSP we discussed Club service provider is the one who has the data center offers Are people Cloud Services Clark broker. You might find some organizations are some people who makes the deal between the classes is probably in there, And the people who use this, uh, the close services cloud auditor for a number of reasons a cloud service provider miking me to be take for compliance. And for a lot of the suspects, for example, data privacy and whether the data privacy X in any region of the world is followed probably by our CSP how authentic the CSP is. There should be some independent authorities to audit the activities of CSP s and they're known as Clara procedure. And finally, of course, whoever is using the cloud called cloud consumers might be an individual McGinn organization. So these are some candles just related to cloud computing. And based on that, understand this introductory, understand? One cloud company and virtualization we will forwards. Thank you. 4. Virtualization Demonstration: Hi. In this video, we'll see virtual ization in action. In other words, will see the virtual machines instruct on one host computer on how it looks like. So as you see here, this is my type two hap adviser, which is work of, um, virtual box manager I have created to virtual machines. As you can see here on day, I instructed to operating systems Callie Necks and the Penis means I will run these two virtual machines. In other words, a run callina axe and Lennox means on Windows operating system using attack to happen. Visor. That's how. But using virtual ization, I can use one computer, which is normally server. But I'm just trying on my home laptop, which is not a very powerful ones. So we might see it's running a bit slow over, so we will see that we are using one physical computer and we're running three different operating system. One is the host one and two other guest operating systems, which is Kelly Munich Science lettuce mint. So let me so these to a different virtual machines on going to start the 1st 1 it is virtually starting the mission much later thing really pushing the power battle on our computers starts. So Candy Lee Max is the starting. I am pressing. Enter have options of Cali necks. You take some time for the operating system to start. Here are some self explanatory modifications s I was going to do came to those. Just get rid of them by closing them on Dhere. We see the starting a screen. You will see very soon. So we have the strongest screen off our Lennox means I will. You usually exit route for the kind of being kind on. Give the press allege that I used to insulin eyes George Lanus. Callie Lennox. So this is my Dexter. This is running Kelly Lean axe on windows. I have virtually another machine on the virtual machine on if I need it to. Then I guess you're producing another computer. I can just instant here. Let Mr Another one limits me. And I selected that around the stars when I started this one. It has occupied some resources, for example, Ram hardest everything. Well, starting the second virtual machine, which is Lena's made it is going to take for the processor, some fire, some processing power. Some ram. So the more Russian wishes I run my host computer when you get slower. As I said that this is we hope that you're not a very powerful one. So we might not experience a very chipper for monsieur. And that is actually one indication that when you have a server, when you install virtual missions on the service, you need to be careful about how many virtual machines and can install on us ever. And you need to look into its power. In other words, configuration Ram, Huggies processing. How are how powerful X process There is harmony. Course that processed have all this will come into consideration. So now obviously could take some time because my left, it was not that powerful on. I have already run. I'm already running to computers. One is the physical one on fizzy computer. Have a window. See if you follow my confidence. My extra. So this is my windows operating system. Andi, I have instructed a hyper visor. I have to virtual machines while it is here that you saw The next trip is here. I have loved in on Llinas Means just started Let me lovin by clicking on my Yuzhin name and let me keep the Brasserie cigarettes cleaning. Okay on if you love in. So, however, this is a demonstration while the nisman starts locks in. This is the administration that you see. Now, at this moment, I have three different machines arriving to virtual machines on these 23 different operating systems at the same time, that is the purpose of actualization. Now I can to these two different operating systems, I can let you cious of remote users, the carnage to this computer and someone else I could give them to connect with this computer. If someone is logging into this country that they don't understand the same area that we see here that we have one physical computer host operating system and these against operating systems, they will not understand this. They're all they will see is the operating system that they're they're logging in. So, for example, if you give someone access to just Kelly Leanness they were logging and is in this next up , let's say and they want to understand that the only that there's anything in that computer and that's the virtual computers. They appear to the remote users as if they are accessing distinct, individual, distinct computer. And that is how virtualization works on the virtual. Asian helps us to minimize costs on day one we're seeing here different operating system. They are actually because so we are looking from the cloud service providers. And but when you are usually when you create you my C command line or you won't feel at this because you will get access depends on what you get access to on when you given access to just an operating system, probably something you feel that you you just see the operating system, you're going to see the whole infrastructure and so on. So that's how we use virtualization. That's a virtual ization. Helps us to run multiple the operating systems. Multiple is tenses on one physical computer. And, uh, that's how it helps us to many my school strand. It helps us to share resources. Thank you 5. Install Kali Linux on VM: Hi. In this video we'll see how we can instrument a virtual machine on type two hyper visor. As you can see on the screen, I have Oracle VM virtual box manager Instruct committees attack to hyper Adviser. It is attacked because I have instrument these on my computer's operating system, which is with us in this case, I have generated Oracle virtual box from these websites from their website. And so on this hyper visor we're going to minstrel virtual machine, which is Catalina's That I have generally from this from the candy website onto the downloaded file is I saved it on Dexter, which is the candidate X darch. So this is the the doctor I suffered that have done with it. So this is operating system that I am goingto instrument on this hyper bars on a virtual mission. If I don't have a computer, I can't installing operating system. So if I don't have a virtual machine, which is a virtual computer, I can't instruct on our self corrected. So the first thing is, I need to create a virtual machine where Andrew I will quickly on new. I need to give a name for the machine candy. Land X are we can begin, detective and click Leszcz. I will give one gig of Ram. I have six feet about of ram on give one. I can install more than one. Roger Mission. Here s Oh, I need to know the total capacity of my server and how much I should give to each machine. This is actually my discretion, but I have to plan carefully. This is my home laptop. So it probably doesn't matter much making this very important administration papers. But if it was a real life's over, I had to be careful that how much resource should I give? Enter. As you know, virtualization is all about resource sharing. So I have resource. My last job. I can instill more than one operating system. They run perilously, which is what I'm granted you now and tripe minstrel, other operating assistant, Kaledin X, that we thereon perilously in along with my host show operating system, which is Windows operating system. However, I'll keep it. There's one gig and I'll likely the next. I will create a virtual ease. The something with what's crazy about this girl. Not I'll create and the recommended size a gigabyte. Keep as it is on Click Create I will create. I didn't create any of them. Mary interested in Vehicle one This is more Universum standard. I'm click next nurse, asking me the story. Shutter. Hundreds scared. So I wanted to have fixed size or dynamic in the allocate. So what's the difference? Fifth size means if I say it guides, the mission will hold a giggle right off the off the host computer. From the very beginning, if I said dynamically allocated, it would keep a minimum space initially and grow. It's the stories as lead it, but not more than a year. But if I say that my hard drive will be eight gigabyte dynamically located, so I can use up to eight gigabyte Onda system will not. The hyper visor will not hold a kick about from the beginning, so I have in turn, weaken allocated and click Next. The name is Caroline Axe. I give a gigabyte is showing. I can just change it by just moving this later. I'm probably keeping H. That's not easier. Easy to give. Fix a number, so it's easier to go from here. It's probably just type by using my cable. That is better. Um, create. Click on. Create battle. Now, now here You see, the machine has been created, so I have another machine. This is the machine virtual machine. And so you can see virtually like a physical one. It's powered off Now. If I turn it on, I need your instrument operating system. So what we're doing in physical competence, we put a portable CD or DVD, and then we kind of the computer. So here on my gown with Canada leanest relies on next, as in this is has been written on a virtual city. So this is the portable city. Let's tell this machine that lets inside the portable city into the sick room in this virtual machine. How do that click? Seconds, We go to system boot oda. Okay. So you can see different things that would order. I don't have a floppy agnico flocking. It's also now I'm optical is the first processor. I just wanted people to give it to see your mom. This player, only because it is a storage. Now here you see that the city around this empty I'm going to I selected these. I click on this icon. I said, Choose virtual people. This file I go to the for the way I have saved does downloaded what I so fine. Callie, Nick's eyes sit here. I select at one and I prison open. Now I have incited my breakfast city into the city room off the computer that the virtual computer that you just created, there are some other options you can go through. However, we just carry on with the installation, as our main purpose is to see how we can use virtualization and how we can install on operating system one about your mission. So click OK, No, what is the scenery? We have a machine, but she'll want anyway. And we have incited applicable city, which is Kelly Lennox. So if we start the mission now, it should show us it should distract installation like any other good writable CDs. So let's see what happens when I click on the start. The company is being a star started the virtually the actual companies being started. Now here you see that the portable CD and it can actually finds that I just minimize to this maximize the screen so we can I'll go with the graphical his job. I used my keyboard. You can go with the mouse capture, capturing features off. This is specific hyper visor. I just leave that for the time being. So I think on graphical install. So if I capture the needle automated capture mouse in the screen, I click capture. So years and once, once that installation is started is asking for the language and you can see some messages he or committed came. Andi. I'll leave it for you to read because they're self explanatory. I'll just constant leave them at this moment, so languages English continue. It will ask for locations. Since New Zealand is my location, I'm sitting that one. Continue. I'm getting my chemo lounge, the one that I have, and the very system will run some scanning to find out. So the system where to install the had the machine where the brings it would be strong on what you see here is not is not anything different from if you were instrument? Kelly Olynyk stone Physical computer is exactly same. The only difference is that instrument, instead of having a physical computer, were using a virtual computer of actual mission construct this operating system. So now we'll keep the host. Amass candy. Are you can domain name? I'm gonna have a domain name. Just continue. And it is asking me forward passwords. I give a password. Of course. You know that you need to give a very strong passwords. Strong passengers are the ones that are not easy to predict. Table uses a different points off combination of key keys, for example, upper case, lower case numbers, special characters and so on. However, I have given my please continue that is asking for the time zone. My keeping all planets, my time zone country ring on the installations detecting disc disc just off was actually in this case, I'll use the entire disc to instruct my operating system might not go from the disk partitioning click on so detected. The virtual heart is that we have We're using Ingesson. Continue. I'm Yes. Let's keep all fight in one direction. As Americans, we have just one partition because our main purpose is just to see how from Israel. Lina Saleh Virtual machine on July, marking through prison detail off other aspects of loneliness. Installation on so on. So all five seen one partition were happy with that in Click on. Continue on is we're happy it has automating and creating the saw partition, and it has created is part prevalent present just for the tap. A quick note that so position is something that you must have for Leanness installation. Who works as the virtual memory? If your physical mission runs out off Ram, then you can use some kind of the hardest who actually called our Children. Worry for the computers. This is sexual hard drive and where this is the route. This is Texas points and under hooch, the loneliness five system it started. Still Rolex Root points for Leonard Far system. So we have everything ready in your happy will finish rationing and right changes to disk. Let's click on Continue. It's asking us whether we actually want to do what's on the disk just as a caution, because sometimes you might have guessed that might contain data. Just a warning and a to double check with you. Whether you want this other changes that are going to happen, which is reversing also, whether you want this happened or not, we want that so yes, Now the system will this is being installed, which takes some time. So once installing the system is done, we'll come across this problem where just asking whether we want Teoh Instant specify network nearer, which is good software updates. We can include there. We can see yes and continue. And if we if we what we can specify here the process information. We can just get blank and continue and you got TA to search for the mirror site for week and gamma cupcakes. Now this country during the package manager, As you can see on the screen on, uh, take some time and stand, we'll go to them next to steam. And now it's installing the grab book loader after installing the system when we were looking into the first instructing screen would see that the grab will be loaded, which will give us the option. I'm Jeb Way. Ask us for whether we want toe start this operating system on. If we have magical operating system that grab looking over, we show all the operating systems instruct on a system that helps us to choose the one that we want to start, however accept almost done. It's asking three wanting still grab book in order to master boot record ways. Yes. So injured that because this long operating system, or even if it wasn't I personally, always perfect. We use Mr Crabb of the NPR, which just master, but record will click continue on. And it is asking as if we want to east along the master boot record. We'll see. Like our device will continue. So it could be to get the instrument that master book Cokes furrows in the end of the installation process takes a while to instruct. Grab loader Waas crab workload. Right. Installation is John. My stroller will finalize the installation processes and are finishing the installation process. Andi s Oh, we will reaching the end off the installation process of Candy Lennox. - So once the installation is complete, we'll see this message on the screen. Andi will ask us to make sure that we really have any installation Media Huggel don't care much because really instrument virtual machine. We will click on continue. We'll see. Very soon it will ask us to reboot the system. - So once the installation is finished, the system will automatically restock and we'll see the grab loader where we have Kelly. Kelly Lennox, What will you do now? We will just knows this system if I go to file close, um, power off the machine. I just turned up the mission. I go to settings again. And now if it would assist in sittings again and now I will take this boot or from good or optical. I'll take it off because I will instruct I don't need the Bookable city anymore. So my first would devices. Heart is complete. Okay, knife around the system. I'll see that the instruct calendar next operation system of historically Steigauf starting the installation process. So I've instructed the system they're just making for screen. So this is Callie Line axe on Empress Options. But that's out of the scope for this video tutorial on just click on Kelly Line X and just It's a starting. I have no Sarah notifications again. Just close them as they're self explanatory and leave them. It might run up big slow on my computer because this is not a powerful service, just a whole laptop, so I might experience a job slower Perfume is, However, I think that we're not effect our understanding. Oh, our purpose off this beauty Israel. So, waiting for callin extra starts. Now we have the start screen. Exactly what we can see here is exactly what we will see if we instruct killings on a physical because allow Here I give my tradition him and the password that I gave when I was in strolling the system. Like making another secret click lock in. Since I I could remember my passwords on the systems is starting. We'll see them. Dick, stop. I just keep you for config. So now this is Kelly Lennox. We have under going into our father Gitanes off. How can we make it fully screen on so on? So this is other operating system. Everything related with Callie. Linus is here. Probably not all of them. Maybe we might need to install, download and install them on. Uh, so if I minimize this window, So here we see, this is my host operating system Windows. This is my type two super supervisor, which is work. Go of our show box on which I have instruct Callie Linus, which is running at this mind. So there is, however actualization work. It lets us use resources to provide also missing this case, Instead of choosing to computers, I could install two operating systems that I could be still even more did believe in the power configuration of my base. A host computer. I just moment I have two operating systems running. This is Kelly Lennox on. And this is the host. So much like the same way I can install more virtual machines. What? You appear here and then so we can create a virtual machine American, install an operating system on that virtual mission. Thank you. 6. IaaS PaaS SaaS Demo: Hi. In this video, we will see a practical demonstration off service deployment models for cloud computing, which is I s infrastructure as a service P A s bathroom as a service. And, uh, case A s software as a service. No, we discussed about cloud service provider Amazon. AWS is one of the worst leading a cab service provider. I I have locked into my A gambler's account. You see my name here, And this is my started screener home screen From here. I'm not going too much detail about eight a blizzard of services which is out of scope for this video tutorial. Uh, our main purpose is to show how it looks like I s P s and s A s in real life. So I'll go to one of the AWS services, which is easy to on here I am. A witness has different data suggests in different regions of the world. I am using the signature of the singer. As you can see here, if I go to instances here, you see, I have instances four virtual machines I could have more on just to show you quickly that I can have major interfaces on security settings and so on. So here you see that in the signature center, AWS has physical computers, which I don't see. I don't manage. I just connect through this web interface on I create virtual machines I install softer and whatever I want to do with my virtual machines. I can do I can act better interfaces, Aiken, make virtual private network. I can make virtual networks so I can use interfere the infrastructure that is provided by these CSP. So this is this service that, you see is I A s infrastructure as a service. I'm using AWS in frustration. They are providing me it as a service. I again started to stop wretchedly. She's a secon. See you at this moment in running this work press certain server. Yeah, I just see like this one. I'm running this work for several here. I have other. I just turn it off to avoid unnecessary building time. However, for this work per server, we see this is the public. I bet Chris, just copy that. I'd be in Chris on because this is a work, Chris, This is a virtual machine where a white process instrument a sample one of your Cudi show. So if we go on a brush in it So this is, um y Procida is install. Now, this is I A s infrastructure. As a service, I'm using their infrastructure. Their CS piece cloud service providers, which is AWS Amazon Web services create virtual machines I'm using some other resource is a spite of the infrastructure. I'm not going into details here. That's why this service I can call infrastructure as a service. On the other hand, this is the public eye progress. If I give if I was given access on Lee to this computer, for example, let me show you amusing party to remote logging to this computer. You see, the same i p address? I'm giving the standard. You sending for the workers suffer that I was told. Now here. You see, if you look just into this window here, I am able to If I give you access on little this, you will be able to manage on Lee to this computer only to this computer, and you can install any operating system. Sorry. Any software you can affect operating system, anything you can do on that computer? This virtual computer So this is I s because I'm using infrastructure. This is P A s. Because I'm using only the platform and I cannot do anything else. I have to do whatever I want to do. I have to do within this operating system for So this is the common line, though. Another sinner you is Bench. I don't give you access to this, which is I s I don't give you access to the operating system, which is P s. I give you access only to the software that is installed in that server. In this case, I give you a user account like stagnant user account on these websites so that you can manage these block sites as as an end when you can add use using and post blocks and what we want to do. So here. You see that on this computer I could have more than one websites in the Web server that I have in this computer, and I can give 10 websites, two different, 10 different people on they would be using just the software, not the whole computers. So that is software as a service. On the other hand, if you have access to the whole company here. Then you can configure in your way, which is so platform as a service PS. On the other hand, if you were given the whole infrastructure where you can play with multiple computer as he can, the provision complicates. And you can be in company and networks virtual networks. Then you could be called I s Oh, that's how it looks like in real life. What is I different? Cloud deployment service deployment models. However, this is how it looks like from one CSP from AWS. Depending on your cloud service provider, the look may be different, but the theory and the concept remains no scene. Thank you. 7. Intro to Computer Networks: hi in this video wouldn't see what is a computer network. So this is an introduction to cover your networks. Let's get started. A computer network is and arrangements where we have more than one. Computers are more than one computing devices, and they are somehow connected and themselves. It would be through cables. Oh, by miss some things off wireless connectivity. So any any arrangement where we have more than one computers, our computing devices that are connected about himself. Such an arrangement discards a computer network. So let's look at an administration off computer network here. As you can see, we have to six signee, and Oakland makes that we have a lot of confidence here and in singing a lot of confidence here in Copeland and these computers connected, you know, constantly. All the computers are connected them themselves and in sickening there also connected and themselves. And in real life company, just all over the world can can itch among themselves by using Internet. So in this illustration, we will look into some concepts like giggling. So what is gay? Agree? If we look here, let's say that this is, uh, the sitting singing and this is the city or planned. And if you want to go out of the city or if someone wants to come into the city, they have people through a gauge exactly the same concept. Replies were called Talk About Gregory. Get is a computer for a server that acts as a bridge between on inside working outside world. It might be one organization that might be a building, or it might be a 60 or it might be a country to the moment. So all the computers was your comics out of Sydney. They go through some central, several single company is like saying it might be wanted, maybe hundreds. But these computers that are connecting the city, this city with outside world is, uh, persons that degrees there. Nothing but service. They're the gatekeepers we could see, and they said they had known as their degrees. On the other hand, when you goto Internet, which is represented by this symbol, is a stand a single for probably in Internet. Nowadays, the cloud here you see Roger Suraj, Hermes, those computers intermediary computers. That's Hells, a company that defined routes to other computer. For example, they say this computer from Oakland wants to connect to this computer in Sydney, and we know that there are a lot of the country's cities. So how this computer will know which way to travel on the digger, that you consent to travel that so that it can reach here in the minimum time on some other factors. Israel, for example, using less computing resources. These Roaches, these help get re works with the Rodgers and throws the data outside off this boundary. And the rockets help decide the fastest road or the shortest route by which that data would reach to the destination, will, they say here in Sydney. So this is what the Rogers do have a season of introduction by I'm like being taking Hill here, just giving you the concept of what is Roger, what is gave her and so on. So when computers want toe go out of their boundary of the public domain and they want to connect to some company just somewhere else and through Internet Rogers help to find the roots on get rid around us. They all are nothing but computers just that they may not look like what we know as company . For example, these pieces, they may not looking just like a box, but there are nothing but computers. However, um, we also talk about another term which is a land local area natural. Now, if we look into Sydney and if you think that this is our every hour locality or if we think about Oakland on weekends thistles our locality, then this is our local area. So the network computing in all the countries that are connected in my with in my local area he's long as local area network. On the other hand, when we see white area network, it means that my local area network and some other local area network somewhere else probably some another city, your brotherly in a couple of my subway, another building, and that we call all together. This whole network might be treated as white area knickers, so land and when they are sort off consentual, understanding us when you have with your own organization with one locality or provide eyes , you've been constituted as lamb. And when you go out of your local boundary even called, it s aware, for example, if we have a computer network moving our house, it is a letter. It is definitely land. But if we want to make a computer network from begin my house on my friend. You know the situation of the country that we definitely be where or white area Natural. So that is what we call computer networks. So computers in one network might be connected normally connected to some devices chewy call central devices the central connecting device. So if a computer wants to this one Waas Joe communicated this computer people through this central device which is called search. And if this computer wants to commit to somewhere else out of this locality if here they would go here and the switches summer, understand? And throw that understand that the destination is not in the local area. So why gear in a drawer somewhere out of the local area? So you're throwing to the gauge way and they get you take help from the Roger to find the roach, June Teoh, convey the gator to the destination. So this is a non technical conceptual description of what is a computer network and what is gay agree And Roger, And based on this understanding, we will move forward too far. The topics. Thank you 8. IP Address: Hi. In this video, we'll talk about I Petrus off computers, um, essential potro in any completing that Metris. So let's get this started. The first question comes, is what? He's an idea. Chris Adul I. P s stands for Internet Protocol and I'd be address is the unique identifier for computers , for example, we send letters from one house in one country to another house in another country. And the way the letter gets delivered is because of having a unique door number. Our house number apartment number for the house were singing. And there is a postal system that helps us to deliver the latest from one country out of the country, much like the same way if we want to deliver some data from one computer in another country to another Camp Athena, the country, we need to know whether temporaries and we need to know how to find the computer. So much like this is the same way we have our names by which people know us. And if they call our name, we know that we're being called. So in the same way, the company just have ipad resort unique identified them names, technical names, you can see on their unique identified for computers. Of course, otherwise we won't be able to understand. Distinguished from one computer kind of the computer. When someone sends me a letter, it should not be delivered to someone else with the same them. There might be other people with my name. I'm sure they are. So it should have a mechanism. My progress that will uniquely identify every single computer in this, uh, planet. There are two versions off I p addressing Scheme One is I p four and the other is I PG six . Simply It's ah, segments. I be the version for his i p before an I p v sixes I p version six. In this discussion, we will consider I be before and the total number off i p address in this planet is limited executed technical limitation, which you will see when you discuss Father. So now let's consider this In network working century, we have Lexa juicing, singing and Oakland. They are connected via Gateway, a router, and so on. A typical average mention that to illustrates the company in interests between two cities and how they're connected. Um so if we look here we will discuss about two car to concerts. Public I, P and Private I P. For example, when we sit public and private, this are something related toe the cream eyes, that is private pre mice and public promise. For example, if within my house it is not private space. The moment I step out of my house, I go on the street. It is a public space. So if we look into this diagram carefully, we can say that this is our list, sir, this is our private space on this is our private space on from Gateway because it just is standing both in outside and inside of our privatised space. So we can say that this rich human get your after an Internet, their public space. Now I see I p address mints, computer identification. Now, if I have a computer name here a in the public space and if I have a computer named be the gaijin in maybe or let's say be east, I p address is die progress. Now here. If we look carefully, this is the private space. So in another private space and in Auckland, another computer can have the same i p address because this I p address this identify is not known outside off these six local boundary at the same way this is not known Outside of Apple is local boundary And these these are the I p address that we say private IBF versus So these are the private one. So that would be used by any private met drugs. But there is a difference when it comes to public. I pictures never be If you look it is on the street. As I said that if the moment I go out of my house on the street I am in the public display in public space you cannot have the same name for two computers to rob just two entities. So if I have this gate B, nothing in this public specimen all over the world when you were out of your private network cannot have another computer of the same name because it will make a collision. You can make a logical clash that if someone wants to deliver to be, which be because this is the public is that they should be only one. On the other hand, if we say someone wants to deliver to a now you might ask which a is in the air under the gaijin br is it that a under the other gauges? So you can figure out that if in this public specific have this as being this has be, then it will create a huge confusion. And that is why you have to have the public eye piece as unit one. So, for example, if I want to say this router, I want to give this after than I practice be. Well, I practices are not like this. A BCG will see later on. But for the time being, let's say that we gave I p address be to this outer. It will create a logical clash collision and it will not work So we cannot use, say, my pages tries the public domain on. That's why those air called public eye peas. On the other hand, the private eye piece they can be used in any kind of private address any in northern bother. And those are called private eyepiece moving on, having this concept in mind. So how, exactly I p addresses looked like to our human? We'll talk about I P before just ran a front for you that the will not deal with I p 86 in this tutorial. I previous six has a different formats. So whatever we're dealing here, what we're discussing here is IPTV for Internet probable aversion for which has, ah, full quarts of disease. It's so it looks like a door beat or cedar e r exactly. Numbers. So you can say it looks like 1234 Every quiet here may have to 56 numbers, which is from 0 to 2 55 I won't go into the technical details of why it is you 2 55 on Hawaii. Two starts from zero and white is 2 56 in total weight is not 500 lesser, for example, on leave those technical Paris Technical Big Sur out of the scope of this discussion as we are looking into the concept of all this computing cloud company, other things from a non technical perspective so far, the timing. It should be fined for us to know that each x each quad can have 2 56 values which is 0 to 2 55 so it can start from 0000 to maximum 255.255 to 4 to five. Let's have on example. So these all R I p addresses. If you see this is I just want these ipad just to this is. And if you keep going like this 123456 Then you are going to have 2 54 And in 2 55 that in the last one. Now, this is just one a person. Now you can change this bitch. The third quartz. Want you three from 0 to 1 on all of these once and then you can again have 0 to 2 55 in the same way you can keep. Keep moving, so you can have to do to 55 32 to 50 for and so on. Now. So I'll go up back. S O. This is the I. P. Address for me. So this are You can locate all these actresses into different computers. This is a computer number one. This is company number 2 56 Harder. There is. This is not all of the story. There's something more to edge that you actually can't have The first and last one located to any computer. Why? We see after what? So let's keep moving When? So this is where we start discussing on something that some segments sub networks. You have one network on computer company network. Let's say you have 300 computers in one network. Now what you're doing, you're saying No. I'll make three sub networks 100 companies in image work in each separate neutral. But altogether they will be in the same bigger nature. So that network and have its own a smaller portion of nature, which is called some next in computing. We called him summits, so subject minutes smart, dividing one majority into multiple networks. And here comes the concept of network get rece on broadcast address. If you can remember, I say, if you divide, you cannot use the first and the last address from an actual. So if this is Lexus is 2 56 their I p addresses we have, we actually cannot have 2 56 computers because the first, uh, if we have a network, we need to know which network. And for that the first actress is always reserved s the network address. The first I p He's result is the network I pages. So for this nectar of the iPad network, accuracies zero exerted Wonder zero and broadcast actresses the last Raptor broad customers sending something to everyone. And for that, the last iPad Just his results of this zero exert one. But 2 55 is reserved for Brooke as broadcast address so that any broadcast related things can be done on this network. So in this network, actually, we can have have, um, to less computers, which means we can have 2 54 companies, is not to 56 computers. Now, let's say we want to do, like this network this network into exactly to equal network. So to 56 is missing. Half of it is 1 28 So one can take me 0 to 1 27 So this is our first network on the second network is starting from 1 20 to 55. So from zero toe to 55 to 50 60 divided into two portions. Now, here, you see, that's not We have First Natural Natural, which has 2 54 computers first and last one is network and broadcast address. We divided them into two different to submit was to Father Submitters from this network. Now again, we're going to have the first and last one as network and breakfast actress with this sub net and in the same way, the first and last one as the broadcast and network and bracket. And just for this Sunday. So here you see, the more you divide a network, the less you will have the number of hostages every single time you're losing. Two more I p addresses. It's a subject one A. It has wondering. Six computers on submits a to let's say, has one trying to seize computers Now here you see, we have incident having a journal of to 54. We are going to have a total of we will be able to have total to 52 computers in these two natures. You can divide this further and this father, but exactly the same way. If you keep going, the more you divide, and they dropped to seven minutes. Onda more the lesser every little hosting gig because two addresses for each summit will be reserved for network address and broke a broadcast. Actress is good or bad. Well, it depends when you learn further when you become now advanced user and have advanced knowledge on computer networks even see that they have this submitting of networks make breaking it down into a father. Southerners have their own advantages and disadvantages. So you can't just planning to say that this is good a bet. So summits we were talking about some next sub networks. So this is our probably a visual representation of House that next. Locally, let's say, in Oakland we have just one network, and in one network we have the business, we have the houses and we have the shops. Now we say the reason of making all of them one natural. Let's make all the businesses, um, one natural all the houses and other Netherland, now less of all the grocery shops into another. The sort, of course, their business. But let's say that this is That's all we're thinking now. We make three different subjects, but all of them are in Oakland Network. So we can say these three separate nickels are actually part of the whole network, which is the Oakland Negro. So this is a network within a network, so that is what we can say submit. These are subject or so something. So we have We can have sub networks like this and they're just the constant offs off sub network with a network with a compassionate work. Thank you. 9. Virtual Private Network: Hi. In this video, we'll talk about virtual private Network or VPN. So let's get started, Joe. I understand VPN. Let's look at the illustration of the screen. Let's say we have some sub networks in Copeland's on some other suddenly drives in Sydney. Now, if we look carefully, let's assume that does network and signal that we have, um, is not in our private network this on what the other similar private and public natural and the sub dangerous that we have these to the in Oakland. They are also private network for Oakland. Now virtual private network means we want to create a private network, which is in space. And really, they are not in a private location, not in a land. In other words, not in a local. Every nature is still we want to connect computers, the which are not in local every nature in such a way, so that they act as as if they are in a local area, nature. So virtually we connect them to make us in such a network that excess a land or local area network. And that's why we call them virtual networks virtual private ***. So now, if you. Let's say we want to have this subject in Oakland and this on network or something in Sydney to be part of one network. So they one private network, local Edgewood. They are not local. Definitely they're not. They're in different countries in different cities, banks, they are in not in the same land. So if we make them one private network, then it will be virtually major private new drug in real life. They are not actually co located, not located in the same premise. And that is why we call them Virtual Private Network. So what do you do if we look carefully when I go out of our private space? When you go to the public space? Um, a lot of people, a lot of organizations have their own traffic, their own communication link. They're using data and everything, much like the same way when I park in my garage than the I part, only my car. But the moment I am on the street of the public space, I cannot prevent anyone else to drive their vehicles on the streets. So much legacy Winner, Go here. It is not on the our data. Our traffic a lot. Other people will have their traffic so but if we want to make a virtual private network with this sub net, we need to make a connection, which we call V C. Virtual Circuit. We create establish a link using the public network part of the public communication infrastructure, and that is a week. We call them a connection. Lex non taking any speaking on since this connection, this link is not owned by us. It's a public LEM communication infrastructure. So this is actually not our own link or circuited wear creating in such a way, so as if they appear to be our own link. And that is why they are virtually ignored actual link that are owned by us. And that is why we call them Virtual Psychic Link is also telecommunication there cause Skordas circuits and that has the name virtual circuit. So this subject, when it creates its own path, which is on creating this own better to establish a dedicated connection to this network and dust did both become same network virtually on the virtual space because that's when we have a virtual private network and we call private natural because the main purpose. The white. We call it private virtual, except for actual local image work. Fine. But what you call the private network. And there is a reason if you look carefully, theoretically and logically, we can use this General rule links circuits to transfer data from this part of the sport. So why we need a separate link that I showed in green here to make it do call it a VP In the main purposes, when we want to securely communicate, we create a different link. And we passed data through this link in such a way so that no one else are able to read our this private transition off data private communication. And that is why, when we have a communication virtually a communication in between these two, they become a virtual local network and this virtual network, when we make them private than we call them virtual private network, which is very useful for the organization's. For example, let's say a bank has, um, a branch in Sydney and another branch in Oakland, and they want to transfer sensitive, transition related data information among the between district branches and probably VP and is a very good solution for them so that they can communicate and a za one majority. Yet they can keep their communication private, um, so that no one else can bring them. And that is what they can achieve through a virtual private network or VPN am. And this is the century that describes the concept off VPN on. Uh, this is not a technical description. Um, so I must give you one up front or that for the NTC. Esto, like Teoh started further Dick Father, that I say that keeping everything private through this communication link, which, um can be achieved by using encryption. However, inclusion is not part of our discussion with this topic. So we live it here. And so that is a virtual private network to once again, virtual private network is creating a network, uh, with two or more different 3 march different networks as if they are in one single computer network. And the purpose to create such, um, network is to have secure private communication through public infrastructure And that collection off the neck towers that have Rachel collection system published for private secure conditions are treated as a VP and our virtual private network. Thank you 10. Accounting, Authentication, Authorization: Hi. In this video, we will talk about accounting, authentication and authorization in computing and in computer networks in complete operator in operating systems over what accounting, authentication and authorization mean in computer. So, therefore must be known as Triple A. Accounting means having your name listed do excess a computer, any resource. It's Let's think that it's like you want threatened some events where you are a guest and only they invited. People are able to act in there, so your name must be on the guest list. So having your name on the guest list is something that you can say accounting. You have a a guest name. Your name is as a guest name there. On the other hand, authentication means that. Okay, when you go to act in the event, the event organizes organizer's need to know that it's you, Andi. Probably the mind to be able to know that if you have the invitation card with you that they sent you earlier, so accounting means, uh, having your namely stayed in the event and all education means that you can show them that you are actually the person whose name is listed as one of the guests. And now comes the authorization park. Authorization means that. Okay, so you are on the guest list. You have been invited. You are given an invitation card. You go to the event and you show them that Yes, you are who you are. You're claiming to be by showing the invitation card. So you have authenticated yourself. You have proved that it's you whose name is on the least. And then when you are entered into the revenge, you fall within the authorization. What you are able to do and what you are not able to do. For example, well, of course, you can enjoy the young foods said at the event. You can socialize it people, but probably if it's let's see if it is. Ah, about your event and a run is bringing some gifts. I believe you will take some gifted to the range as well as a guest. You problem not allowed to take all the gifts home because it is for the person who's by the party is that one. So authorization means you what you are allowed to do and what you're not allowed to do. So now this is a real life example. Um, now, if we want to be more specific toe computing practices, accounting Miss Yuzhin name. So we have email address on, um, we When we looking into computer, we give user any account where we log in. It has different names that we normally called vision name, and the authentication is probably. We can say that if I have a usually I have email and password so anyone can type my email address to log in. But if it they don't not know, pass right there won't be able to look into my email account on my email password is something I should only on Lee I should know. So accounting means having a usual name on computer or on email server. Having email address authentication means when I give password, I log into my computer using my user name or when a long into my email account using my email password. I authenticate, and I prove that it's me who is actually looking in. We are assuming that your song it me who knows the password now, once I logged into a computer or into my email account, there are specific permissions that I am able to do and I am not able to do, which is authorization. What am I allowed to do and what I am not allowed to do, For example, like whether I can read, write or delete fais When I log into my email, I can read emails. I can write him. It's I can send emails. But when I send an email to someone, probably I will not be ableto uncensored that email. Or probably I won't be able to see someone and sister inbox that is I'm not authorized to do. I have not been given any permission. So this is watch we in actual accounting all indication and authorization on some important things that we need to keep in mind, too, that, as we said, that accounting means the usual is actually the user accounts. There are different types of user accounts, which defines the level of authorizations. We're talking about authorization. Now, in a letter supporting system, you will come across super, usually with a super Ed Ming, who has the highest power I can't do anything with. The system can do everything in the system. On the other hand, Super usually is one kind of administrator But when you said administrators, but they have a bit less religious than the super USIA. For example, a super user can create some administrator users, but an administrator user will not be able to create a super usual so super you sure can create any other roles, but not vice versa. Um, the administrator accounts at those which can do some administrative past, for example, creating a user account and new user account deleting and existing user account. It depends that super user can define that. If this is an administrator account, what they can and they can do so super usually can create administrator and said to the authorization in the same way Administrator can create normal or standard users and set the authorization level for them. What a normal or standard use your can do or can do So I'm a really firm example between two. Give you the difference between an administrator in the normal luxuries. Probably not. Mr Traitor is able to install a software on a system which a normal or standard is. There is not on Another example might be an administrator is able to create a normal or standard user where a normal or a standard user is not able to create any user. It's a normal, standard, common practice that tells us the level authorization off different accounts. One I love Tom. We can say that super user is the root who can do everything. Even if you were the super USIA, you should create some administrator account and log into that into your system or into your network using an administrator password, not the super usual one. It is not recommended that you always use the super user account belonging to the system is always better not to. And that's why we create other user council, for example, administrator accounts and give them the level of authorization that they can do, which certainly not up to the level off a super user. So once again, we should not use the roots. Are super user account to access our system act? It might postpartum shall secure to risk risk for the system to be had been compromised this kind of things. So now let us have a real life example off how these authorization authentication, accounting things work or look like in real life. Let's have a look in tow. Linux operating system, and you will see how it goes in practice. So here, um, to see a practical example, this is, Ah, virtual machine that I have Lennox means let us, Mitch virtual machine that I started. I'm running this virtual machine on my attack to hyper adviser, which I have instructed on my this Windows operating system. So now this is Lena Smith, and I make it fully screen, and I have an account which is on my name, and this is accounting. I have one account on this system, so I can actually authentic it myself by giving the password, and I can look, let me give, um, the wrong password. Let's see what it says. So here, you see that incorrect user name or password? They just must be type in the correct case. So that is, um, which means I could not authenticate myself because I gave them. I couldn't assure them the invitation card or I actually, in this case, I could not type my password correctly. So let me click my account again. On it is asking for password, which is asking toe authenticate myself that Okay, you are saying that you are the usual mantra orbit decayed proof that you are. You and I need to give the valley passwords. This time I gave the correct password, which let me keep a secret what the password is. Um, I'll click on the Okay. Abduction. Now here. You see, we are logging in into our Linus means Dexter. Which means not at this moment I have an account, and I have been all indicated to use the system. Uh, my chicken a bit, Uh, just like the linear smidge. So now we have started a Kleenex means on and this is the deck stop off the next mint closed. This popped up notification. So I have accounts. I have bean. I have authenticated myself that exist me. Now I can use the system. Now, let's see. Authorization. I am right clicking on this. I am creating a new documents giving it a name alone. Onda. Um that Well, the one that comes into mind is Hello, world. This one. Yes, I will do it at the beginning. So typing something on the file, saving this file this close to the fine. I haven't sent to fight on my next job. Double clicking on that file opened, and I see. Yes, it is here and right clicking on that. Deleting the file, asking me why you want to live. Yes. So this is authorization. I am authorized. I have permission to create a new file to save that file. And to delete that fun. Let's see a bit more. Let me go to the Lenox file system. I don't go into much detail of Lena's file system as this is not the focus of our trade, Riel. Not in the students. I forgot to file system. Uh, here, you see, um, one photo called route. Let me double click on it. I wanted to open this, and my account has been authenticated, and I have certain level off authorization. And based on that authorization, I could create my a new file. I could read that fight. I could delete that file. But this folder, whatever this for her, is I have not been authorized to view this Ford our it of work. Any contents of this for that? You can see from this error message. This tells us the live. So this is a practical administration off. What is authorization? So, from using this Lindesmith instance on by using a user account, we see what is accounting all education and authorization. Thank you.