Cinematography 101 - Absolute Beginners Course! | Mitchell Bouchard | Skillshare

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Cinematography 101 - Absolute Beginners Course!

teacher avatar Mitchell Bouchard, B.S. Filmmaker

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 7m)
    • 1. Cinematography 101 Promo

      1:27
    • 2. Lecture 1 Index

      0:34
    • 3. Lecture 3 Use a Shot List

      0:48
    • 4. Lecture 4 Budget Cameras

      15:18
    • 5. Lecture 5 White Balance

      9:53
    • 6. Lecture 6 Exposure

      4:21
    • 7. Lecture 7 Color Temperatures

      7:57
    • 8. Lecture 8 LED Lights

      5:42
    • 9. Lecture 9 Composition

      2:59
    • 10. Lecture 10 180 Degree Rule

      0:38
    • 11. Lecture 11 Creating Depth Outside

      4:34
    • 12. Lecture 12 Colour Correct : Grade

      12:45
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About This Class

Learn the Basics of Cinematography

Join over 20,000 students learning from our courses!

Learn the Basics of Cinematography! You will Learn Exposure, Apertures, Shutter Speed and many Cinematography Fundamentals.

We will have several exercises for you to complete as well as at home training. You will also learn to shoot outside, while utilization open Apertures to achieve shallow Depth of Field!

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TOPICS TO BE COVERED:

. How to choose the right camera for you!

. Learn Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO

. How to White Balance

. Learn Camera Exposure

. What is Colour Temperature

. How to Film Outside

. How to Colour Grade / Correct

We will have several exercises for you to complete as well as at home training. This course has been developed for Beginner and Intermediate Filmmakers. 

So what are you waiting for filmmakers? Whether you are fresh out of film school, a screenwriter who wants to create his/her own content or just someone who wants to make a feature film this course is for you. 

They DON'T teach you this in Film School!

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What people are saying about our courses: 

THIS COURSE IS AMAZING!!! I'm learning SO FREAKIN MUCH from it, and it's totally blowing my mind. Thanks so much to Gil and Alex for putting this course together. I'm a director working on my first horror film, which has a bit of action in it, and this course is totally giving me rocket boots. If you have more courses from Gil, please let me know and TAKE MY MONEY! - Colby R Rice

Excellent content. But you'd better pay attention or you will miss something. This course is packed with loads or useful and well explained stuff. - Mr Mick Farmer

Instructor is clearly in command of craft and engages with questions, simple explanations and familiar examples. Video and audio are excellent. - Bill Halford

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Join over 19,000 students learning from our courses!

Learn Final cut Pro with a Professional Filmmaker:

In this course, you will learn to set up your edit, cut scenes, add titles, shortcuts and more!

Enroll NOW! Let's get started!

Meet Your Teacher

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Mitchell Bouchard

B.S. Filmmaker

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Transcripts

1. Cinematography 101 Promo : buying rolling. In this course, you'll learn the basics of cinematography. Hi, my name is Mitchell Bouchard, and I'll be your instructor for this course. I've been directing and producing video content for the past 10 years. I'm also a master's candidate at the University of Windsor, where I have taught lighting, cinematography, another key filmmaking concepts. I will break down which cameras to use, depending on your budget and how to maximize your cameras performance, how to capture video while prioritizing aperture shutter speed and I s So we'll talk about cinematography and lighting, which is something most new filmmakers struggle with. We'll go over color temperatures in other key concepts. I will show you how to think more like a cinematographer in the final sections, I will guide you step by step and teach you how to achieve shallow depth of field while utilizing Andy Filters. In the last section will be editing on final Cut X, where we're going to color correct in color Grader Previous work. When I was 13 years old, I was completely lost. It was hard to find quality film making information. It is the best time ever toe learn, cinematography. I know you can do it. Enroll in this course today and I'll see you on the other side 2. Lecture 1 Index: congratulations on taking initiative and enrolling in this course. It means the world to me that new filmmakers are eager to learn and are going to be inspiring. The world we're living in the most technologically advanced times in filmmaking is changing rapidly. This course has been designed for you, beginning in intermediate filmmakers. We're going to begin with our first section in just a minute. Don't be afraid to re watch some of these sections take notes and gloat and film something . Using the techniques we learned in this course. Let's begin with the first section. 3. Lecture 3 Use a Shot List: a shot list is crucial. Even if you're filming a short project, a shot list can enable you to remember all the necessary shots that you plan on executing from the beginning. Think of it as a breakdown of the script for your cinematography purposes. You can draw and create storyboards, and simply writing it down may not be enough. With the shot list, you can have different focal lengths, which kind of camera movements and so on A great tool. I like to use a shot lister. I love this app because it's right on my phone. And for advanced filmmakers, you can type in the camera movements, focal lengths cameras used in so much more when you're on set and you have a shot list, especially when you have somebody else operating the camera. This is very effective. Don't forget guys. Communication is key. That's it for this section. We'll see you in the next one 4. Lecture 4 Budget Cameras: I've chosen to break it down into three different categories. Prices ranging in USD as a currency. Thes prices may fluctuate depending on the time of your viewing. The first range we're going to talk about is $500 for less than $500. You can pick yourself up McKinnon U. S. M. 100. This camera is a great option. It shoots in full. HD has 60 p. H. D. Is Compact takes SD cards in his Super Super Portable. It also offers auto focus, which is something you could utilise for blogging. Or it could be utilizes a B roll camera. It's something I wish I had when I first started filmmaking. This camera also offers an A PSC sensor. What that means is that it's gonna have a much bigger sensor, then say a micro 4/3 camera, which we'll talk about next. When you have a bigger sensor, you can achieve a more shallow depth the field without trying, you're gonna utilize mawr of that glass that you have because the sensor is going to utilize more the lens. One downside to this camera is that it's not the best in low light and we do not have four K. It's always nice to shoot at four K in downscale the 10. 80 p. What this does is create a much sharper image and imposed. You can actually crop your image depending on what kind of shooting you're doing all and all for under $500 to come with the lens. This camera is an incredible choice. Next up on her list is the Panasonic G seven, when Panasonic chemo with the GH for everybody was thrilled. We finally had a small compact DSLR that shot in four K. Now it all sounds grade and fancy. However, we always had a couple issues. One, the sensor was too small and the other one was at the battery. Life was in the best. There are a lot of pros to this camera, but not having shallow depth of field is really gonna hurt when trying to create a very cinematic image. Just because you're shooting in four K doesn't mean that you're gonna have an awesome image . That just means that you're gonna have more pixels in your image. But they're the pixels. Good. Are you gonna have high dynamic range? Those kind of things. All in all, this camera is amazing. You can shoot a 60 p. You have four K with a small sensor, and the micro 4/3 is very flexible in terms off finding adapters, and being able to get any kind of glass on that camera is really easy. We also have very good color profiles on the camera so you can chew flat and you concolor great a lot in post. Although this camera battery life is in the best, you can still have a decent report time and you can record straight to an SD card. All in all, these cameras of $500 is unbelievable. I remember when HD cameras were minimum couple thousands of dollars and the dynamic range wasn't good and we're nowhere near four K. Let's move on to the next category. The next price range we're going to talk about is $750 to $1500. Let's start off with the Sony A 65 100. I remember when the Sony A 63 100 came out. This was just an incredible camera. Sony has been killing it in the camera industry with their low late capabilities in bringing four K. Things have been booming for Sony. One thing toe look out for in these kind of cameras is the fact that the sensors aren't always very big, like we talked about previously. And another issue that you may experience is the color for me. Personally, I mostly care about dynamic range and sensor size for cinematic image. But in this price range, the Sony A 65 100 is probably the best all around camera. You can get hands down, especially at the price. The first pro want to talk about this camera is that it is a full E PSC sensor size there a lot of great things to talk about with this camera. First of all, it's an improvement from there, a 63 100 model, which I didn't want to include into this. The problem with the A 63 100 is that filmmakers would experience overheating issues. This camera shoots at 120 frames a second in full HD. This a shot I used for one of my commercials. Sometimes you want to utilize a slow motion in really capture. Good moment. This camera did an amazing job, and in post it was quite easy to color grade another great pro. But this camera is the fact that it's so dang small. You can also use Sony lenses, which are incredible because they use ice. Another pro to this camera is that the dynamic range is pretty high. So when you're shooting a four K or downscaling to 10 80 p, you're gonna have a really good dynamic range, and you're gonna have a lot of good detail in your image. A couple of great things about the Sony E 6500 is that it's a good, low light camera and has incredible image embody stabilization. One downside to this cameras that the battery length is not so good, but really all in all, this camera is got to be the best bang for your buck. The next camera we're going to talk about is the Panasonic G 85. Now, why is this camera different than the G seven? Well, a couple of things I've noticed. I've been using the Panasonic G 85 which is filming right there in that camera, and it's a very good camera. The reason I purchased this over the Panasonic G seven is because you can record for a longer period of time in the extra image, embody stabilization and updates are a little bit better. One amazing feature about this camera is that you can actually pull out your phone and operate the camera wirelessly. This allows you to do a lot of things. So if you're trying to get an overhead shot, you have a lot of control over the camera, and you don't always have to touch the camera or move it. Or it basically just allows you to have a lot of control in this modern age. Compared to the Sony 6500 this is a great camera. I would say that the coloring in this camera is a little bit better, and at four K side by side, they match quite well. One thing the Sony A 65 100 has that the Panasonic Dozen is that it has low light capabilities, an incredible so emotion you can't be 120 frames. Second, look how good this looks at 60 frames a second at full HD. This camera does very well in the color. Profiles are incredible when you shoot flat on a Panasonic G 85 you're gonna have a great look. And in post production, you could do so much work to make it look that much better. One other incredible thing about the Panasonic JT five is that it actually has a screen that you can turn around with the built in auto focus, which may not be better in Sony's. It allows you to do incredible of logging and gives you a lot of control, like even right now in filming, and I can see myself. Another good feature is the layout of the camera. Now navigating different cameras, especially when you're first learning, could be difficult. I find that Canon and Panasonic do a great job at laying out their menu, so being able to format cards change your color profile and just anything is very easy. Compared to Sony, it's a little more messy and kind of hard to find some things. All in all, if you have the money, I would go with the Sony A 65 100 because that camera is just a beast. But you will not be disappointed with the Panasonic G 85 so we're now into the 2000 and $3000 USD price range. It was really hard to choose to cameras that would fit well in this category. I kind of wanted have two cameras that were a little bit different. However, one isn't all around camera and the other one is kind of a beast. For reasons that will talk about in just a minute. A very good candidate is the Sony A seven s, two or three, these cameras, maybe a little bit more than $3000. But they're very close. They're not going into the four or 5 to $10,000 range. Now the first camera want to talk about is the cannon C 100 which generally comes with no lens at about $2000 USD. No, now the cannon C 100 has been my go to camera for the past five years. When I first got this camera, I noticed a few things. Unlike a standard DSLR, you actually have a top handle, which is great for audio. It has different preempts, which allows you to use better microphones, and it gives you more control over the audio. Most cameras. I'm not going to talk about the audio till our audio section because audio was very hard to get on a DSLR and you really want to go external? The pre amps and your cameras on a DSLR are not going to be good. So you want to bring the preempts low when miking a camera directly into a DSLR. But really, the best way to do it is to get a camera like the Canon C 100 which offers that feature but is also more bulky. So there's good sides and downsides Now. The cannon C 100 is kind of a hybrid DSLR and maybe upper level camera. One amazing feature is that it does have good low light capabilities. This camera can shoot at about 20,000 I s o but gets a little messy. I wouldn't go over 6000 I s O. Otherwise you're implementing some green. Your native eso is 8 50 on this camera, so it's gonna be more sensitive to light. This could be good or bad, but let's talk about some of the other amazing features you have to duel SD cards. You have incredible 2 to 3 hours battery runtime, depending on which model batter you get. You do of the top handle. Like I said, you have a Super 35 sensor, which gives you a lot of depth of field. It's actually the same sensor in the Canon C 300. You have a sensor that is not four K, but his Fourcade down skilled to 10. 80 p, which is a very, very sharp 10. 80 p image. We're going talk about resolution and frame rates later. This camera also shoots in si log, which is a very flat image, which you concolor great impose just like this. Another amazing feature, which is hands down. My favorite are the built in and D filters. So on the side of this camera, you flick up the switch and you have Andy 2 to 6. And what this does is allow you to shoot outdoors when you're in two brightest situations and you want to capture shallow depth of field, which is something I want to teach you guys in the outdoor section how to use and D filters with our red keep films variable nd filters. Because you have dual SD cards, you can actually record to either both cards at the same time. So when one gets full of goes to the other or you can record to at the same time. So if you're filming a wedding and one card breaks, you have the option to have redundancy when filming on this camera. It's also much bigger camera. So when handling handheld, it works. Very good. Very good for documentary in all. All at all, it's a very great documentary camera. The screen does not rotate, which is probably one very big down side you can get caught up in the gear. The specs In so much about camera gear, the story is the most important thing to think about. When filmmaking, You don't want to get caught up in the camera specs or anything like that. One thing I love about the kid and C 100. While it may not have four K, it doesn't have a swivel screen. You do have everything else that you need. You can pick up this camera and film anywhere. You could film anything you can film when it's dark outside, not pitch black but pretty dark. It's it's an actual video camera, and it gets to be a step beyond Digital s Lars, and just because it doesn't have four k doesn't mean that people aren't going to think that you're shooting in four K with this camera because the dynamic range is incredible. You have tons of detail, especially when you shoot at the eat 50 native. Now the next camera want to talk about is the Panasonic GH five. Now this camera came out more recently. Kim was air coming out all the time, so be aware of that. The Panasonic G 85 is a very special camera. This camera, you could say, is the best bang for your buck getting into the 2000 and $3000 range, but it doesn't have a big sensor or good low light capabilities. But if you're lighting your scenes, if you're using lights and you know what you're doing in your utilizing techniques, we're gonna talk about and you get a couple accessories. This camera takes everything to the next level. We have four K with almost little to no compression. We're going to get to a point where we can shoot four K raw in a small compact camera like this. One very important thing to note about this camera is that you do have a micro 4/3 sensor. So you either want to use micro 4/3 lenses or if you're using a cannon, your crop factor is going to be implemented. If you're using a 50 millimeter prime lens on the C 100 it's not gonna crop in. Too much is going to be around the 1.3 to 1.6 crop. But on the GH five, you're gonna have a two times crop. Now we do have a lot of great micro 4/3 lenses and we'll talk about more lenses in the lens section. Prose about the GH five, it shoots high quality four K image. The Panasonic GH five doesn't compress your images much, so you have a lot of quality and a lot of information there. However, you're gonna Philip cards much quicker, and you are gonna need better cards that are more expensive. Instead of compressing the image, it retains all that quality information. However, your cards Philip much quicker and you're gonna need a better computer to edit with the GH five footage. The G H five has amazing color profiles. I was quite blown away. I've used the log before. Ah, Here's some shots. We actually use this for the surviving the door intro. And this camera in slow motion is very good. It shoots at 120 frames. But also, when you start shooting in a slow motion, you're not gonna have the four K. You're gonna be stuck with the 10. 80 p. But it still looks really good. If you have the money, I would definitely pick up a GH five over the C 100. It's much more new, but again, it comes down to what you're filming. There's really not much you can film unless you need slow motion. I would pick up a G 85. Thank you for watching the section. All at all, depending on your budget. These so the cameras that I would recommend 5. Lecture 5 White Balance : white balance, so I don't have to learn it. White balance is vital to your overall image when looking to capture beautiful images when looking to capture beautiful images, The last thing you want to dio is have poor white pounds. In order for your camera to distinguish what is true white on your scene, you must be able to properly white balance your camera. To do this, you'll have to be familiar with color temperatures and how they were. In order to understand color temperatures, you have to understand the measurement of light, which is calculated in Calvin When capturing images on your DSLR, you only have so much wiggle room imposed to color grade. If you don't get this properly in the initial set up, your colors are going to be shifted and you're gonna have weird color shifts from green, red, blue and it's not gonna look good. It's gonna be amateur. Let's take a look at ways in which you can set your proper white balance so you have the right colors and right Hughes in your perfectly set up for post production. What we're gonna do right now is talk about white balance and how you can get accurate colors within your image when you first record instead of manipulating and fixing them and posts. Because, like I said previously, it is very important when recording that you set your white balance properly, or at least very close, you're gonna be starting on the wrong foot. You're gonna be using footage that is very wash now, and it's really hard to recover, especially when utilizing DSL. Ours or cameras that don't that don't allow you to manipulate your colors much impose. You know, it's not like we're shooting on an Ari right now. We're shooting on a camera that is limited, and you have to maximize your camera in order to be able to shoot professionally with it. And so what we're going to do right now is kind of analyze what we got going on on the shot . Right now we're recording, we're gonna We're gonna have to stop it a couple times and then restart it because the camera doesn't allow us to start shooting and changes settings at same time. Um, so right now we have a Rubik's Cube represented on the table, and we've also got just an old lens which has a little bit of green on their red and white and black, and I just want to be able to get accurate colors within white balance settings. Um, for the shot. As you could tell, it's very blue. The colors aren't showing up very well on the Rubik's Cube, and that's because they're white. Balance is set incorrectly. So what we're gonna do is basically take the image like this and turn it more into something like this, using a custom white balance and just going through the Calvin settings, which will talk about right now. Let's stop the recording for right now and let's go into our white balance settings. There's a little WB right here I gotta do is hit that button. And right now we're in the Calvin Settings, but we're gonna go to the beginning already right now, if you go to the auto white balance, it doesn't pretty good job. It's able to calculate the light within the camera and, you know, tell the camera Hey, this is way and we serve the colors that should be represented. This isn't bad. This is that this could actually work very well for you. In most scenarios, however, you're gonna have issues when you're moving the camera around. You know, the camera may have a little mind of its own, and it may actually shift colors while recording, which you do not want. And that's represented right here in the auto white balance right here that a WB, Um, the next one is daylight. So if you're filming in daylight, which this scene is pretty accurate to daylight, it's a little bit different because we have mixed lighting right now. But delight is pretty much where we want to be, as you could tell the shots pretty good. Now, if you were to bring that in a post, this would be a very good image. Now, cloudy is gonna be a little bit different when you haven't overcast. It's gonna be a little more blue heading in a night time so that color temperature will be different. Um, it's anywhere from past 5600 and just heading and heading in a blue. That's that's the representation. But because our shot is 5600 around 5000 because they're shot is around 5 5000 Calvin. And if you were to tell your camera that it's supposed to be 7000. That's why we're going to get Mawr orange in there. It's gonna look a little more tungsten. So there are ways to manipulate the camera when you are familiar with all of these. Um, when you're familiar with white balance and how Calvin works, you can really manipulate your show. You could make daytime look like night just just by utilizing different lights. Um, you know, you could film during the daytime and make a look like night, or you could film at night. It looks like day. It's all about manipulating the camera. It's just a big magic trick. Um, you've also have other settings. Here is Well, um, you have your tungsten setting. So right now this is telling the camera. Hey, the shot is tungsten, which is 3200 Calvin or less, and that's why it's being represented. Is blue. If this was tungsten, this would be accurate. It would look you would see the colors being represented properly, but now, right now, the represented poorly. It's blue because it thinks it's it's blue right now because it is telling the camera that hey, this is orange. So it tells it. It's orange. It brings all those colors all the way up, which is represented wrong. Now, these little tickers here are custom white balance settings. There's four of them. They kind of look like a flower we're going to do is show you how to get a custom white balance is hit up and get a white sheet of paper, a white card. You should be using a white card that you can get from Amazon, which is a more accurate representation. It's very important to not have the camera too far away, because then it's gonna be setting the white balance to where that camera is and where you take the photo. So you want to take the photo pretty close to where your subject or your talent or whatever it is you're filming right now we're pretty close, so it's fine. So I just took a photo of that. It says completed and now it is stored. So we go to your white balance and number one is the custom white balance right here, and that is what it looks like. This is a very accurate, um, white balance much better than our first set up, where It's very blue. Um, and this is one thing that's going to distinguish you as a more professional, more serious filmmaker. Um, her always issues. Um, you know, the first thing I notice is that most people will mess up the shutter speed, and then it's white bounce. I mean, when you're when you're going into post production, even though you're gonna fix it up, if you set your white balance, you know very poorly and you don't understand it, you're gonna have a lot of issues trying to recover your image. Do you want to get in and out again? Tap. Just tap the photo button halfway. That helps you. A lot were displayed button or menu. Right Now, if I film here again at this location and I have the same lighting set up, all I have to do is go to this first ticker in press enter, and that's going to set my white balance properly. And this is a good way to kind of speed up filmmaking. If you're doing a show and if you know this is my set up and these are the lights that are gonna be here. This is such a very important tool. Now if you move over to the Kelvin, as you could see, it's gonna be represented from 2500 Calvin Teoh 10,000 I believe. And what that's telling the camera is, um, it's It's a very accurate way. Teoh set your white balance. I often times use it. I go to Calvin and depending on the room I'm in, you know, I kind of look around at the lights, depending on the project, right, But for a lot of small corporate shoots or YouTube instagram stuff, if I'm filming outside, I will go over to the Calvin. I will hit up and I will go to 5600 which is not going to be like our custom setting, but it's gonna be pretty accurate. It is what it looks like, so that's a pretty good photo, much better than our blue. Um, it's very important to practice and understand different lights and kind of get to know the Calvin of them. It may sound nerdy, a little bit of work, but what you're doing is matching color temperatures, which is representative Calvin, and you're telling your camera like, Hey, this is that color and another important note to think about is this Rubik's cube that we're filming? That is our subject. So you know the Calvin, the color temperature on the background. I know that's going to be 5600 for sure, cause those are the lights. But the light that we're using to like this camera is not a day late. It's it's a little more cut back. It's a little more like 4800. So we're gonna have those mixed color temperatures and yeah, that's pretty much it for that. Thank you. 6. Lecture 6 Exposure : just like we talked about in the shutter speed aperture in I s O section The's are the three ways in which you can control the final exposure of your image. How much light is coming through? The lens is a result of the opening and closing of your aperture. How long light is hitting your sensor, which is the measurement in fractions of a second is also known as shutter speed and how sensitive your sensor is toe light, which is determined by our I S O or so it's important to note that there are certain pros and cons to each of these working variables. You may have a good exposure, but you may be also compensating wrong. I suggest if you're not familiar with how these three exposures work, then you may want to re watch the shutter speed aperture and ISO section. So you understand 100%. How do we know if we have the proper exposure? One of the downsides to working with the DSLR is that we're limited when exposing our shots . Unlike most higher and cameras, you may not have the ability to expose shots using way for monitors or by false color. A way for monger is great because it represents the exposure from zero i R e all the way to 100. We'll go over how you can accurately expose your image in the editing section later on in the course, which we use way for monitors and vector scopes for color. On most standard DSLR cameras, the exposures are read by little notches, and it's represented with the plus zero. When you're properly exposed, you may notice a chart, also known as a hist a gram, which is represented from shadows, mid tones and highlights from left to right. This works well for photography, however, with video, you don't have as much leeway imposed to get an accurate exposure, especially because you're most likely not shooting rock. That being said, there are several different options when it comes to exposing our shots with our cameras. The first option, which I do not recommend, is to use an auto exposure mode. To do this, go into the motion picture tab, click on exposure mode. This is where you can set your camera to P. A s or M. I recommend that if you want to shoot notto to click on the A, which allows you to change a control. Your aperture shooting and auto is never the best, mainly because you have no control over the shutter speed or the potential green, which may be implemented when shooting at a high rise owes. This will still allow you to capture great images, and it works well, depending on your final presentation. The downsides to shooting an auto again. The camera may open and close the aperture or do other funky things to compensate for the lading in different areas when moving. So how can we achieve proper exposure manually? The best way for DSLR is utilizing the spot meter. This will allow your camera to read the exposure of the lighting that's falling on your subject. This is great. When filming faces, which is usually what you're gonna be exposing, I find that the trick is to be around two notches underneath the zero. What you're seeing in this particular shot is two ticks under zero, and it works with my skin's complexity. If you are however whiter or darker than I am, then you may want to compensate for that. Blown out is a term used when the image is too bright and cannot be recovered. Impose. A pro tip is to under expose your shot. So when you go into post production, you have a little more leeway. Your DSLR camera only has so much of a latitude dynamic range is your camera's ability to have a great range within the mid tones. Highlights and shadows. Dynamic range is the ability to shoot at a greater range, which will allow you as the filmmaker to expose both the foreground and the background in routine detail. You may have noticed that when you're filming outdoors with your DSLR or near window, you pick up a big blob away. While you're subject may be perfectly exposed, the background is always blown out, depending on which camera you use. You may not always have that flexibility, so it's very important to practice in really know your camera. In the next video, we're gonna talk about capturing slow motion. That's it for this section. I'll see you in the next one 7. Lecture 7 Color Temperatures: guys, welcome to the lighting section. Now we're gonna talk about color temperatures, and this part of the fundamentals of filmmaking is really important to me because I found that lighting was the one thing that always scared me. I was afraid to utilize lights for any kind of work I was doing. My goal for this is to dumbed down how lighting works and I want to simplify it for you guys. Yes, you. The first thing we're gonna talk about is Kelvin. Now. What is Kelvin? I'm sure you've seen it. It's a big K. Kelvin is a way in which we represent color temperature in filmmaking. Color temperature is different, depending on if you're shooting indoors or outdoors. It could be very difficult to understand what Calvin or what color temperature to set your camera at, depending on the time of day that you're shooting either indoors or outdoors. Since most lights are different color temperatures and their different lighting temperatures in different rooms, this could be very difficult, and I want to make it so you can begin to understand what's going on in the room, and you can utilize different lights for your work. Once you understand the different types of lights, then you can. Then you could utilise them to set different moods, different tones and ADM or motion two year scenes as this is the fundamentals of filmmaking . We're not going to go crazy and death, and I'm not gonna overwhelm you with things. What I want to do talk about, though, are two main colors that we're gonna focus on one being orange in, the other one being blue. Now, why are these two colors important? I'm sure you've noticed that in films these are colors that you see all the time. You'll see a teal and orange kind of look. The main reason we utilize these colors is because of the sun, and at night it begins to get cloudier and darker and lighting looks more blue. We're gonna talk about lighting temperatures from 25,000 Calvin all the way to approximately 6500 Calvin. And this is gonna be in the range of extremely orange and very blue. In order for you to begin to familiarize yourself with these color temperatures, I've separated them into five different categories. The 1st 1 is Sunrise Sunset. The 2nd 1 is tungsten. The 3rd 1 is fluorescent lighting. The 4th 1 is daylight in the 5th 1 is cloudy. Now the range of color temperatures will begin lower so you could have what is called candle lighting and you can go even further blue all the way to the other end of the spectrum. But for the purposes of the understanding, if you can understand these five categories, then you're gonna be able to understand further as we progress throughout this course and when you progress after the course. Now, when you hear sunrise and sunset, sunrise and sunset is gonna be a color temperature that is very orange, I'm sure that you've noticed in the morning the walls look really orange. That's because of color. Temperature is anywhere from 2800 Calvin all the way to 3500 Calvin. So the 1st 1 again is sunrise, which is all the way to the orange side of the color spectrum. Beyond that, getting even more tungsten, more orange beyond that, getting even more orange, you're gonna be getting in a candlelight. But don't worry about that too much, So that is the 1st 1 The 2nd 1 is tungsten Now, this is a lighting that you may see in your home. So tungsten can be anything from a fern l light, which are beautiful Ari lights. And these bulbs are very good. And cr i when it comes the lighting, which will talk about a little bit later. Tungsten is a color temperature anywhere from 3200 to say 4200 kelvin. It begins to get a little more white, but it's still predominantly orange in its features. So if you're shooting in a room where you've got tungsten lights, you look up in the bulbs aren't fluorescent, but they're orange there, most likely tungsten lights. So set your camera to 3200 and your white balance will be corrected. Tungsten lights are very popular. I would say that in daylight, those are the two main lights that you're gonna be utilizing. So a lot of indoor spaces, um, or homes, they're gonna be utilizing tungsten lights or daylight. The 3rd 1 we're going to talk about is fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent lighting will typically range anywhere from 4200 Calvin all the way to 5000. Calvin. Now you're getting into a light that is getting much closer to daylight daily is 5600 Calvin, which is almost pure white. So when you look at the lighting outside, it looks more natural and you don't have too much of ah blue shift or an orange shift. Fluorescent lighting is something that you'll see in hospitals or commercial buildings, and it's a very popular light source as well. So if you notice that you have fluorescent lighting and it's hitting your talents face, set your white balance from 4200 to 5000. Calvin. The fourth color temperature we're going to talk about is what is known as daylight. Now. Daylight is probably one of the most popular color temperatures right now, mostly due to led lighting. Now a lot of led lights are set to 5600 Calvin. So for my background lading right now, I've actually got to led panels which will show you later on, and those lights are 5600 kelvin. So if I'm near window and I want ads say, hair light, that's what I'm gonna use. I know it's set to 5600 Calvin, and it's a very white light, so it doesn't have blue or orange within it as a rule of thumb. When you're filmmaking and it's not very cloudy outside, set your camera to 5600 Calvin. This is going to give you the proper color temperature when shooting outside unless it's too cloudy or it's still kind of shifting for morning. That's what you want. Do though, set your camera to 5600 or the little daylight bar on your camera when filming outside or near Big Window. Now, the fifth color temperature we're going to talk about is cloudy or overcast. Now this is getting similar to daylight, but you're gonna be heading towards blue in your color temperature. When it begins to get dark outside, you're going to notice that the color temperature begins to get really blue, and it's gonna range all the way from 5600 all the way to 9000. Calvin. I'm sure you've noticed this, especially when being indoors and it's nighttime and you look out the window. You've probably noticed that it looks blue. That's because your eyes are trained and they're looking at 3200 or, you know, daylight type of lighting, and then it's gonna look even more blue outside when you're filming outside and it's very cloudy. Set your camera from 6000 Calvin all the way to 6500 Calvin, if not greater, depending on how blue it looks. This is one thing that you want to set properly because if you don't do this, you're gonna get mix ups in your color temperature. So just a quick reminder lighting for the most part at least beginning filmmakers remember that sunrise is going to be a very orange light in anything getting into nighttime is big is going to begin to shift to a very blue type of lighting is going to shift to a very blue color temperature. So keep those two in mind, and in the middle is, I would say pure white daylight, which is around 5600. Calvin. In the next video, we're gonna be looking at led lighting, tungsten lighting. I'll see you guys in the next video 8. Lecture 8 LED Lights: what we're gonna do right now is talk about led lighting. And they're a couple of things that I want you to know before buying a led light. Now, I would argue that one of the best things filmmakers have had in the past years are led lighting and specifically, ones that are portable, Just like this one. I'm gonna turn this away a little bit. It gets to be quite bright, but led lighting is unbelievable. And it's something that I think a lot of us overlook. Um, right now you can get a 95 plus C r I L e d light. That is like a flex panel right here. I can actually take off my panel, turn the lights back on so I can get, like, a little panel on the light. And I could put this anywhere and dim it down. Didn't this all the way down? And this is something that I think is completely invaluable to especially young filmmakers because this makes things so much easier when starting out as a filmmaker, I can change the intensity with one button, which is unbelievable to me. So what are you looking for when it comes to buying or purchasing your first led light. Um, I would see that you want to get something that has a good C r I. Now what A c r I c R I is your color rendering index. And that's going to be the quality of light that you're getting with the light that your purchasing now a lot of lights that are still expensive will be, you know, under E T c r I. And that's not really good, because when you're lighting your subject, that quality of late is just a Zim Porton as the intensity that's out putting, for instance, this late when it follows on my face has a really good um cr I rating This one is 95 for $100 to get 95 cr I is unbelievable. The next late I want to show you guys along with this led panel, I'm gonna put this in the links below as well. This is an aperture amron, and there's actually another one. And what this is is a small little led light which I have been using for this course. I like to set this up behind my talent and give him a little rim light or kicker light. Um, or you could even use it as a key light, depending on how you're shooting your scene. But again, this light is 40 or $50. And combined with this led panel, you've now got lading that you condemn up and down with the press of buttons. And they're not only affordable, but the quality of the late is unbelievable. Also, test thumb up against lights that I purchased 45 years ago. And it's not even close. Guys just think about it. The fact that you can shoot an almost pure darkness you could you could use this is a key light. I could set this up and bump up my i s. So I'm just saying you don't I don't recommend bumping up your eyes so and not using a lot of light. But we're getting to a place where we can use less light and expose of seen. So But yeah, lighting with led ease has just been much more easier to do. And we more accessible than ever before. Um, you know, to be able to have a remote into dialling exposures like look a break this latest, it gets unbelievably bright. I just used two of these for my background, and that's just a white background. Depending on how you expose it, it's going to be, you know, either a pure white or grey or black. It should look pretty great right now. Make sure that your color rendering index your seer. I is at least 90 CR I or more and that you have a decent output and that you have a decent open. So go on YouTube, check them out. I'm gonna put a link to this one below. I would recommend getting something like the West Guy Flex led light, which is a phenomenal late. It's just very expensive, but yet it's very portable. This one, you do have to plug in, Um, but for the price, it's just unbelievably, it's right there now situations in which you would use these two types of lights. Um, if you're filming outside in pure daylight, you can use these and this will match your exposure. You know, if you're near window, you could use this and use it as a hair light or your key light for interviews. Another great characteristic of these kind of lights is that when they're on, they don't get hot. Um, it also has a little bit of diffusion to which we'll talk about later. Very important relating in terms of quality. But yeah, unlike tungsten lighting, which we're going to talk about next. Thes lights don't get hot to the touch. So the pros are they are good and CR I they're cheap, affordable, more portable, and they don't get hot. The downsides is the output isn't always the best. But I say within two or three years, it's just gonna be lights out A no brainer to be using led lights. And we're only gonna be talking about a couple of different lights. And I would say, the head, uh, picking yourself up a couple of these flecks L E D lights with the controller is the way to go for filmmakers of today. So we'll see you in the next video where we're gonna talk about tungsten lighting 9. Lecture 9 Composition: composition is what separates a good cinematographer from a poor one. For example, a shot with too much head room looks bad, and unless you're trying to reveal something in the background or in the scene, you might want to till down a little bit, because you're going to run into issues. Um, then you're going to run into issues where you're at least gonna have to crop imposed composition is were. Your subject or object lies in the frame. As you become a better filmmaker, your composition will naturally improve its one of the things I've noticed that has gotten better over the years since practicing with different cameras. And it's really given me a great edge when it comes to filmmaking in general, when telling a story, composition can be extremely powerful. Here are a couple ways you can improve your composition and ways in which composition can empower your shots. Composition is very powerful, and what it allows you to do when done properly is to focus your audiences attention on one thing or several, for example, when you're doing an interview or you have somebody talking to another, try to direct your subjects, eyes looking across the screen. Now you have movies like The King's Speech in other new indie tight films, where the composition is actually reversed. I'm not a big fan of this, however. Sometimes it works if you're going for that feel. And look is being able to reveal exactly what you want your audience to see. Composition is responsible for the background in the scene. You know, who are you going to see? And it really helps to understand focal lengths and to understand how close you need your camera to be to your subject. Composition may seem subtle, but it's very important to master, especially when it comes to cinematography. Composition can be powerful within wide shots, close ups, medium shots, cowboy shots, you name it. Here's an example of a beautiful composition, as you can see most of the empty frame where the character is not is leading our eyes into where the character is headed, and it's also composed and compressed with a much more zoomed in shot test. Oh, different focal links with wider. You go the close, the wider you go in. The closer you bring in your camera, you will get that feeling that you're right there with your subject for me. I love the wide angle shots anywhere from a 27 millimeter all the way to a 35 and bringing that in real close. In this shot, my character is taping up a hockey stick and I have the hockey stick in the right side of the frame as the character is looking at what he is doing, and it really pulls you right into the scene. It's taking me at least seven years to figure out how to get the best composition and why I am doing so, and you will also be able to do the same as you practice. 10. Lecture 10 180 Degree Rule: the 1 80 degree. The 1 80 degree rule is a guideline for the relationship with your characters and objects with innocent. As you can see in this diagram, you want to have the camera to stay on one side or the other. Which one do is drawn imaginary. Line through your scene and keep cameras on one side or the other. But this doesn't make your seen more believable. When you do over the shoulder shots and the cameras air crisscrossing and breaking the 1 80 degree rule, it's really hard to follow. So next time when you're filming, keep in mind that you draw a line and you keep the camera on one side or the other. 11. Lecture 11 Creating Depth Outside: Hey, guys, Mitchell Bouchard here and we're on set. We're gonna be doing our outdoor shot right now and what I want to teach you guys says how to utilize variable and D filters or regular Andy filters to achieve shallow depth of field outside. So we're outside with my sister Chanel, Chanel Say hi. And what we're gonna do is utilize some of the proper settings on the camera to get shallow depth of field. And I want to show you guys how important and how vital Andy filters can be. So let's jump right into it. So, as you can see, our shot is set at shutter speed of 50 r. I s. So is that 200 So it's quite low. This is the native on this camera, I'm pretty sure, and our aperture is at F 5.6, so we're pretty wide open. I'm gonna show you how most people set up the camera to get a good exposed shot. Most of the time, you're gonna have somebody close down the aperture toe, let in less light. But we're going to use nd filters so we can open up the aperture and let him or light and achieve more shallots up the field. So right now we're going, Teoh, change our aperture and the shot is perfectly exposed now. Sure, I'll smile. So we have a great shot here. The problem is, we don't have a lot of shallow depth of field reading F 22 so it's not letting in a lot of light. And we're cutting down a lot of that background late because we want to get a more cinematic image. We have to use an ND filter. Now this is a variable nd filter. As you close it, it lets in less light. So let's see what that does. Make sure to check your filter thread size. This one is a 77 millimeter filter threat, and this is actually our products. Um, here it read Kate Films, So it's a variable Andy filter. As you turn it, you let in less light. So as we open and close, we're letting in less light. So let's go to our desired aperture. We're going to go to an F 2.8, so this is wide open right now, as you could see the images very bright, and we're going to utilize the nd filter to basically offset all that light coming in. So all we're gonna do is close to a good exposure here. Perfect. And she No. Can you smile? So if we hit, focus right here. As you can see, our shot is perfectly exposed. And we have so much more shallow depth of field in comparison to the other shot we have. We have a much more blurry background right now, and this is only achieved because of variable indie filters. You can get them where they come in, you know, different stages just like this. But this one, all you got to do is turn the lever and set your exposure properly. And that looks so much better. So again, if you want to achieve shallow depth of field, utilizing nd filters will help so much. Now, one important thing to think about is our location. Our light. I wanted a have a scenario where the sun is really bright and its coming down from an awkward angle. Usually what we could do is actually diffused the light and have the light coming at of ah , at the talents who in this purpose, you know, however, I wanted a back later hair. So as you could see, Chanel has long hair. We kind of wanna We want to use that, Um it's nice and globally, and we just want to keep a nice solid, you know, farm. Look, that's kind of what I'm going for here. So again, you put the variable and d filter on at the proper shudder, angle or shutter speed in this case, 50 shooting at 24 frames a second. And if you closed down, should all smile one more time, so we'll focus. Now we have a much narrower focus, but look how blurry that background is. 12. Lecture 12 Colour Correct : Grade: Now we're going to talk about color grading in correcting. Um, it sounds like a lot, but this is what's gonna elevate your cinematography. And it's something that I wish most filmmakers would do more often. At least when I film, I like to shoot flat. We talked about this earlier, but what that allows for is a lot of flexibility imposed. Now, when I shot this particular clip, which we're gonna be using, I just again grabbed it from up here. Um, and I dragged it onto our timeline. If we hit command nine, it's probably still rendering, um, which is not We're lucky here. Um, but yeah, it's a 12th clip. Um, Well, now it is because if a hit B, actually, let's go here, let's cut. No, a couple of seconds at the beginning here. So now it is about a nine second clip, and that's what we're gonna be utilizing. So it's just it's just a little, um, slow motion shot. This shot at 120 frames a second at twice the frame rate. And basically, I want this particular point in the action toe look good. One cool tip is to hit the M, and what that's going to do is put a little dot here. And if you double click on that dot you can set a marker like, um, you know, for this I will be this. I'll just write this spot causes where, um, I really want the image to pop in tow. Look good. So let's add a little feed to this as well, just to give you a little bit of bonus stuff. So little cross dissolve at the end. Let's shorten that. So now the shot will just feet away. It's extended a little bit like this and let's start with one as well. So it comes in nice. And then, you know, we want the image to look good from anywhere from six second mark, which is represented at the front to about the eat second mark. This is something that you would utilize for wedding film. This is, in fact, what that's for. So how do we color? Correct. And how do we agreed this? How do we know if this shots exposed right? You know, how can we tell these things? Um, on his forehead. I mean, you know, this is like a live event type thing. I don't have that much time to manage the lighting as I go, but what you can do is kind of look at the forehead area here, Um, the everything that would be kind of in the background, um, would be more of your highlights. So, you know, the sky, Everything kind of higher up in the frame here, the skin tone is going to be more or less your mid tones and the shadows is in the shadows is gonna be your shadow areas. So, you know, on the coat you know, the blacks in the trees here and also the main three things you want to keep aware of. The mid tones, highlights and shadows. Um, this camera's got decent dynamic range. This is this has been shot with the GH five s, which has got which were tweeting, which retains a lot of details within those three areas. So how do we do this? One thing we can do is another shortcut. Command seven. And what that's going to do is open up our scopes. Now, if you do go to, um, the different windows and work spaces, you know, if you do go to our view section. Um, you can show the video scopes here if you look to the right. Actually, you can see this command, which is this little symbol command seven. And that's how we opened up our scopes. For now, let's close this section right here and this right one we actually need so we can open and close it. But for the colored rating, um, were more or less just gonna be color attracting, making sure everything's fine color, correcting and grading kind of goes hand in hand, at least for my type of work. I just want this to look bright and vibrant, so let's get right into it. So we go to this little Tabarre here, it's the effects browser. So that's command five. If you want to use that to let's do it, come in five. And we have our color correction. So if you grab that and you throw it onto the clip on the top right here, we've got a color correction one so you can hit this on and off. Since we have been done anything, it's not going to be a parent, but yeah, we're starting to really get into Thean Midge here. Let's actually drag this a little bit so we can see our screen. Um, what we're gonna do is talk about the left side here. Now, so is what's known as your way of four monitor, which was represented from zero, which you can see right here. Zero i r e all the way to, um 1 20 It's typically goes toe 100. So you want to play around with the 0 to 100 and you want to be familiar with the 50 mark? You know, talk about that right now. If you go onto the color correction one, you click this little tab again, This little arrow very simple. Quick, the aerial. And you've got this whole collage of colors here. What we're gonna be doing is messing around with the mid tones and we're gonna be messing around with the, um we'll be messing around with the shadows. So the mid tones again are your skin tones. So let's grab that and let's throw it a little bit towards the orange here and let's right , click on the left side and open up the vector scopes. Um, let's talk about that in just one second. But right here as a rough estimate, you could probably see that vector scope moving around funky. But you throw the mid tones to about this orange mark and then the shadows a little bit in the blue. This is how I do it. This is what I find gives a really good image. And as you see right now, it doesn't look great yet, but we will get into that. Um, Now, as for our exposure, let's fix that first. So you go to away form and this camera, actually, one more saturation. So as we bumped that up, the colors will be a little more prominent for this camera. It's really important to get to know them. I think in 25 looks great. Um, especially for wedding setting. You know, I want more of a saturated look. I want this to be colorful and vibrant. When we shot this original clip. There's already some color in there, so let's pull back a little bit. Let's go to 15 under the exposure. Um, this is where we've got her shadows. So if you look at the, um so if you actually move this tab around you can see that we're messing around the shadows and on our way for monitor. We want to hit just above zero here. If we go too far down, um, that means that we're losing information. So we want this to be at about zero in our highlights or clipping here. Um, clipping is because we are over the 100 mark. That means we're losing information. So, as you can see, especially if you look at the forehead, we're not gonna be able to recover that because, I mean, there's just so much sunlight. It's really hard for the camera to, you know, be able to expose the face properly, the background in the shadows at the same time. That's where better cameras come into play. It's not necessarily the resolution. It's what's called as it's also what's known as dynamic range. So when people are shooting at low ISOS and they've got, you know, R E minis and Ari Alexa cameras, they have a very good dynamic range. You know what's known as you know, anywhere from 14 toe whatever 20 stops. Um, that just means that you're able to really retain a lot of detail in the highlights mid tones and shadows. So let's click on our highlights and let's bring that to 100 and then the mid tones that is gonna be our, um, our actual face on our subject here. So let's bring that down. As you could see right here. This is this where we want to end off. I know it's hard to see. You have to practice all at all. We want this to fit within our we for monitor. Anything that is above is clipping. Anything to Farlow is under exposed. And our highlights I typically like to bring that to 80 or 90. Um, in this case will bring up to 100 and then we could bring this up a little bit. Um, what we can do is set this up here. We don't want it to be over 50. It's hard to see it represented, but this is kind of our area here. You know, you can actually kind of see the face within the we form under. So is where we want to be. If we go back to color and we go to our vector scope, what we want to do is get this clip so that it's on the line, just a little bit to the left. So if we can get close to the dot in a little bit so we wanted about here, um, this is where we want to be for our color grading. So this clip what it looked like before already, just by looking at the scope, it looked like this, which is kind of flat, you know, Um, you can see that we're really making everything pop a little bit. He's a little bit orange. Eso What we can do is add just a little bit more to the shadows. Here we can bring that closer to the line, but already this is looking much better. Let's add a little more saturation just to really make this pop. And then once you move around the vector scope in the in the way for the kind of play hand in hand and they change a bit. So you have to work back and forth, making sure everything's fitting properly again. We could add a little more contrast to our image. Let's go to exposure and just bring that down a little bit. Now we've got very, um, dramatic type of look going on right here. Things are popping, the skin tone looks good. And in comparison to before, you know, this is a much flatter image. And then if I click the color correction one, you really see this pop and it begins to come to life, and this is what you want to do. You can do this with all the other clips as well. So what I can do is, you know, take a shot here of the bride and because we've got trees, there's a lot going on here. But what we can do is, you know, just do a basic little cut, and what we'll do is just throw the color correction on what was the stab and the same thing applies. You want your highlights in shadows, make sure you're not clipping, and then you can expose their Feess is within your mid tones here, and it's kind of one of a kind of the look. I'm going for a here again. Bring up your saturation, go to your vector scope through your mid tones that left here and then your shadows to the right. Just a little bit of blue and, you know, make sure this it's on the line you wanted to be. You know, um, you know about here And the reason I'm using this clip is because this is really hard to, you know, we have all these green that's going on. So you could you kind of want to mess around with the global a little bit too. Um, you know, the main thing for this particular size you want to dress to look white. You know, this is basically the fundamentals of everything, and it can get very tricky. A lot of the professionals air just incredible at this. And, um, yeah, these shots can be very tricky to get right, But once you get it, you just end up with such a flawless image. Let's go back to our way form. Um, you know, let's just brighten this up just a little bit here and you can see the bride here. This is an incredible dress she had on that day. So as you could see, if you go to the original shot, it's so flat and you could see so much green in her face but were able to fix that and add a little more life there. Ah, practice, practice, practice and you'll be on your way to creating stunning shots.