Cinema 4D Masterclass: The Ultimate Guide to Cinema 4D | Ozgur Gorgun | Skillshare

Cinema 4D Masterclass: The Ultimate Guide to Cinema 4D

Ozgur Gorgun, Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

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88 Lessons (7h 45m)
    • 1. Welcome

    • 2. Getting to Know C4D - Interface

    • 3. Getting to Know C4D - Preferences

    • 4. Getting to Know C4D - Navigation 1

    • 5. Getting to Know C4D - Navigation 2

    • 6. Parametric Objects - Parametric Objects and the Attributes Manager 2

    • 7. Parametric Objects - Parametric Objects and the Attributes Manager

    • 8. Parametric Objects - Move & Scale & Rotate Tools

    • 9. Parametric Objects - Object Hierarchy

    • 10. Parametric Objects - Null Objects

    • 11. Parametric Objects - Solar System

    • 12. Parametric Objects - Creating a Table

    • 13. Parametric Objects - Grouping Objects

    • 14. Parametric Objects - Creating a Chair

    • 15. Parametric Objects - Merging Objects

    • 16. Editable Objects - Editable Objects

    • 17. Editable Objects - Selection Tools

    • 18. Editable Objects - Knife Tools

    • 19. Editable Objects - Extrude Tool

    • 20. Editable Objects - Extrude Inner Tool

    • 21. Splines - Intro to Splines

    • 22. Splines - Parametric Splines

    • 23. Splines - Text Splines

    • 24. Splines - Converting Parametric Splines to Editable Splines

    • 25. Splines - Splines from Illustrator

    • 26. Rendering Splines - Extrude

    • 27. Rendering Splines - Updated Caps in R21

    • 28. Rendering Splines - Sweep

    • 29. Rendering Splines - Sweep Chair

    • 30. Rendering Splines - Loft

    • 31. Rendering Splines - Lathe

    • 32. Deformers - Bend

    • 33. Deformers - Using Multiple Deformers

    • 34. Deformers - Squash & Stretch, Bulge, Taper

    • 35. Deformers - Wrap and Spline Wrap

    • 36. Deformers - Collision

    • 37. Generators - Array

    • 38. Generators - Atom Array

    • 39. Generators - Boole

    • 40. Generators - Spline Mask

    • 41. Generators - Subdivision Surface Part 1

    • 42. Generators - Subdivision Surface Part 2

    • 43. Generators - Volumetric Modelling Part 1

    • 44. Generators - Volumetric Modelling Part 2

    • 45. Lights - Introduction to Lights

    • 46. Lights - Three Point Light Setup

    • 47. Lights - Spot Lights

    • 48. Lights - Visible and Volumetric Lights

    • 49. Lights - Shadow Quality

    • 50. Materials - Intro

    • 51. Materials - Creating and Application

    • 52. Materials - Colour Channel

    • 53. Materials - Reflectance Channel

    • 54. Materials - Reflectance Channel Quick Tip

    • 55. Materials - Transparency Channel

    • 56. Materials - Bump and Displacement

    • 57. Animation - Intro

    • 58. Animation - Keyframes: Position

    • 59. Animation - Refining Keyframes

    • 60. Animation - Rotation Part 1

    • 61. Animation Rotation Part 2

    • 62. Animation - Light

    • 63. Animation - Timeline Dope Sheet

    • 64. Animation - Bouncing Ball

    • 65. Animation - Bouncing Ball Squash

    • 66. Dynamics - Intro

    • 67. Dynamics - Rigid & Collider Bodies

    • 68. Dynamics - Gravity

    • 69. Dynamics - Bowling Alley

    • 70. Dynamics - Collision Shape & Custom Initial Velocity

    • 71. Particles - Emitters

    • 72. Particles - Forces

    • 73. Particles - Using Fields as Falloffs

    • 74. Particles - Dynamics

    • 75. MoGraph - Intro

    • 76. MoGraph - Cloners

    • 77. MoGraph - Object Mode Cloner

    • 78. MoGraph - Effectors

    • 79. MoGraph - Using Effectors with Fields

    • 80. Cameras - Intro

    • 81. Cameras - Animating Cameras

    • 82. Cameras - Align to Spline

    • 83. Cameras - Stage Object

    • 84. Render Settings - Global Illumination

    • 85. Render Settings - Global Illumination with Luminance Channel

    • 86. Render Settings - Ambient Occlusion

    • 87. Render Settings - Rendering a Scene

    • 88. Conclusion

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About This Class

The ultimate guide to Cinema 4D.

This training course has been prepared to take you from knowing nothing, or just a little about Cinema 4D and teach you all the fundamental skills so you can start working on your own. 

Ozgur, who is one of the very few Maxon Certified Instructors in the world is going to show you how to create a 3D project from scratch, and go through the entire process of a 3D workflow, including modelling, lighting, texturing, animating and rendering. 

Along the way, you will learn countless tips and tricks as well as the industry standard techniques

If you are a graphic designer, looking to add that extra dimension to your work, or perhaps a 2D motion designer looking to take your animation skills to the next level, then this course is for you. It is no secret that you can earn more as a designer if you add 3D to your skillset. This course is designed to teach you just you need to know in order to advertise yourself as a 3D designer

Packed with over 8 hours of intuitive and easy-to-follow tutorials, this training course is all you need to kickstart your 3D journey. Together with each tutorial, there will be an exercise file that you can download and follow along. 

If you are ready to step up your design game and move into the world of 3D, let's get started!


1. Welcome: Hi and welcome to the cinema four D masterclass. My name's Rose. I'm a filmmaker, motion designer and a Maxell certified instructor for Cinema 40. I've designed this master class to teach you how to you see number 40 from the ground up. So by the time you completely training, you'll be able to create some amazing looking three D renders and animations. We'll start the training with the foundations of Cinema 40 so I'm going to assume that you're a complete beginner. But even if you have used this software before, you're still they're not on your tips to speed up your workflow that you wish you knew before. If you're being trying to teach yourself to your cinema 40 you know it's not the easiest application to learn on your own and your bounties on gaps in your knowledge. This course will starting to fill those gaps. We'll cover topics like modeling, extreme animation, lighting and rendering. I've been using Cinema 40 for about 20 years now, and I've created this course with the skills I've mastered over these years. So if you're ready to learn how to use cinema for you like a professional, let's get started 2. Getting to Know C4D - Interface: the first time you start cinema 40. This is the interface you'll be seeing now if you haven't used application before. I know this may feel and seem a little too intimidating at first, but trust me, by the time you reach the end of the Siri's, you'll be able to understand and actually work with all these different tools you see in front of you. So let's start with the basics. The interface of Cinema 40 is divided into different sections called managers. Each manager is responsible for a specific task towards the top right corner of the screen . You see the objects manager Objects manager is responsible for displaying every single object you create inside the cinema. 40. These will include things like actual three D models. You create reference files, lights, floors, skies, you name it. Whatever you creating cinema, 40 will first have to exist inside objects. Manager. Underneath the Objects Manager. You have your attributes. Manager. The task off the attributes manager is to display settings or the attributes off. Whatever you have selected right now, because we haven't selected anything because we don't have anything in this scene, it shows us the settings or the attributes off the actual project. These will include things like the units that we use. The frame rates, the color off the default objects that we create on more to the left off. The attributes manager is the coordinates manager, the coordinates manager who show us information such as position, scale and notation off objects and to the left off. The coordinates manager is the materials manager, but we'll see all the materials we create within the scene right above the materials and the coordinates managers is your timeline area. This is the area you'll be using a lot when it comes to creating and previewing animations right above the timeline. This massive area in the center is called the View Port. The report is perhaps the most important part of the interface. Using the reports, you'll be able to preview what you create. You can think off the view port almost like a window that opens into your three d world. You will be able to see animations that you create in here. You'll do quick renders here on more right above and to the left. Off the View port are some set of tools which will be talking about in a lot more detail later on and above the tools at the top. You see the main menu in the next chapters will be talking about how to actually use these different tools and panels in a lot more detail. 3. Getting to Know C4D - Preferences: in this video, I will show you how to reset the preferences in cinema 40. You may be asking yourself two questions. First, what are the preferences? Second, why do I need to reset them? The preferences are some set of files that dictate how cinema 40 works, and you do need to reset them every now and then in order to put cinema 40 back on track. Well, do I mean by that? As you work in Cinema 40 along the way, you'll find yourself tweaking the preferences sometimes on purpose, sometimes inadvertently, and there will be a point where you want to take all the preferences back to their initial states when you first install the application. This is where resetting the preferences can become really handy. Let me show you how it's done in order to first see the preferences we need to go to the edit menu here and then right towards the bottom is an option that says preferences. The shortcut is command E. Let me just go and click on this, which will bring up the preferences menu here, and in order to reset the preferences, you come right to the bottom of this panel on There's a button here that says Open Preferences folder. You click on this, which will take you into the specific folder on your computer that contains the preferences files. All the preferences files are in here in the press folder on All you need to do is to go and trash this entire folder by right clicking on it and moving it to the trash. And then you can quit this and then you can quit the preferences. And next time you start Cinema four D, it will recreate the preferences folder automatically so that it looks and behaves exactly the way it did when you first installed the application. While we're on the topic of preferences, they show you one preference that I'm going to turn off. Actually, right now, you may be seeing all these areas that are highlighted yellow. This is also a future or a preference, which you can turn off. These yellow areas basically highlight new futures in this current version, for example, they've updated this camera. So as I click on this camera, you can see on the camera that gets created in Objects manager and in the attributes manager. There's this spherical option, which is yellow, which means this has been added or updated recently. And as I keep clicking on the same button, you see the color will gradually fade away. And eventually, if I keep clicking again and again, eventually it will turn itself off because it will know that I've used this enough. So hopefully I now know what this spherical button does. Now, let me go and delete all these cameras first, by selecting them all by clicking and dragging on them, pressing delete on the keyboard, and then I'm going to go to my preferences on. Then this is the option that I'm going to turn off where it says highlight features. I'm gonna click and turn us off so that the yellow highlights disappear that I'm gonna come out of this. So from now on, it's not going to show me any of those highlights. 4. Getting to Know C4D - Navigation 1: in this video, I'll show you how to navigate around three D space in Simmer 40. Now, in order to move yourself around or your camera around in three D space, you're going to need to use the one true or the three keys on the keyboard. And these keys can be the ones on the main keyboard or the ones on the numeric keypad, depending on the layout, off your keyboard together with most of the times your left mouse button. Here's what I mean, if you hold on Number one and left, click and drag. This is called panning, so you'll be moving around space like this so you can go up, down, left and right called penning. If you hold on Number two and then click and drag, you can zoom in or out. And if you hold on number three and click and drag, you can do this thing called orbiting, so you move around the space. While I was doing this, you might have noticed three arrows in the center of the screen. Now these arrows are called X axis. Why access? And the said Access X is always going to be pointing left to right and why is always pointing up and down and set is always pointing backwards and forwards, and these arrows are color coded, so X is always going to be read. Why is always going to be green and set is always going to be blue. One easy way to remember this is if you write down X Y and zed on top of each other on right next to it. If you write down RGB like the RGB color mode that you may be familiar with, and if you put them side by side, X always corresponds to read. Why always corresponds to green and said Always corresponds to blue. That's an easy way to remember it. If you ever forget these shortcuts the 12 and three short cuts, which are really useful, so you shouldn't forget them. But let's say you did. If you go to the top right corner off your view Port. You had the one key here and two and three. So if I click and drag this button around, that's the same thing as doing one and drag, and this is the same as clicking tool and dragging, and this is the same as three and drag. And there's one more button on the site, which is a middle click if you're using a three button mouse like the ones with the wheels . If you actually click on the wheel, it's same as clicking on this button. If I click on this, this takes me after the four of you, which shows me the perspective you, which is what I was looking at earlier, and then the same scene from the top and from the rights and the front. So these other views, called Orta graphic views are going to quite useful when it comes to modeling precisely on animating exactly where you want the objects to go to and alternates away off. Opening those windows up is by pressing F five on the keyboard. So if I just tapped Fife, it takes me back up to this four of you the autograph IQ views and I can actually use the F keys going from F one, which is the perspective you and F two is the top U F three is the right view on a four is the front view and a five finally, is the four of you the perspective top right and front views all at the same time. At any point. If I grew up here and suppress, if one that's going to take you back to the perspective, you where I was that originally earlier on, we said that the 12 and three keys are usually used with the left mouse button. Now, sometimes you actually use these keys together with the right mouse button in order to first change the perspective off the camera and, secondly, to tilt the head off the camera. Here's what I mean. Normally we know this. If I all down to and left click and drag towards right, we know that this pushes us in, and if I drag towards left, it pulls us back out. But instead of the left click, if I right click with the turkey and dragged towards right instead of pushing us in, it actually zooms in. So it changed the focal length off lens or, if I drag towards left it again, zooms out instead of pulling us out. So again it changed the focal length of the lens, going towards the wide angle lens now, and same thing works. If I hold down number three instead of left clicking, which is orbiting around the scene. If I right click with number three and drag towards left or right, this will tilt the head off the camera. As such, When you make a change like this and you want to go back to your previous view, the best way to do that is by going to the cameras menu at the top and you pick any other camera from here. Let's say I pick the left of you and if I go back to cameras and pick the perspective camera again, it takes us back to how it was set initially. 5. Getting to Know C4D - Navigation 2: depending on whether or not to have objects in the scene. The 12 and three keys are going to behave differently, especially the two and three keys. Here's what I mean, if I hold down true and if I left click and drag towards rights, you'll see that it zooms in away from the objects where my mouth waas and if I drag towards left, it zooms back out so I can see the objects again. But if I move my mouse towards the off this total and if I'd then left click with the two key still held down and drag towards write it this time zooms into the off the turtle. And if I drag towards left, it zooms out from the eye of the turtle. On the same thing applies to number three as well. If I hold on three and that's a I click on the head of this mushroom and if I click and drag, you see that the point that I clicked on becomes the anchor point for the pivot points for the rotation or the orbit off my camera if I click away from the objects with the three key held down and drag. It uses the center off the screen to rotate. From now, there's a really useful shortcut that you should know on that's quite specific. To see Number 40 you may be familiar with the shortcut controls that or command said on the Mac. For example, if I select something and delete it by pressing delete on the keyboard that disappears and to bring it back, we simply press commander controls Ed. And this command is called an do on its up here on the top left corner as well instead of command, said, If I press command, Shift said, this is an undue for the perspective change. So if I go press command, Shift said, it takes me back by one step and I can keep doing this. I can press command Shift said again and again and again. And every time I press command shift that it takes me back by one step to the previous view that I had before this current view, and in order to go forward by one step, you press command shift and why? So if I press command shift, why, it takes me forward by one step and again and again and again. So every time I press command shift, why it goes forward, Command Shift said. It goes backwards. Onley in the perspective, change off the camera, the regular undo and redo our command said on command. Why at this point I should also mention that you can only go back by 30 steps if you want to increase that number so it can press commands that more than 30 times. That's something you can change under the preferences. So if you go to edit preferences and it's going to be under the memory tab on the left on its this option here called undo Depth. So if I increase this from 32 let's say 50. This now means that I can go back by 50 steps. However, keep in mind that this is using the ram off your computer. So if you're RAM is limited, you may want to decrease this number in order to keep cinema 40 running smoothly. 6. Parametric Objects - Parametric Objects and the Attributes Manager 2: next tab is the objects have. So if I go click on object here, you not see the parameters off this specific object. Now the object tap is going to be different for each one of these objects that you create. So, for example, for the Cube, I have the size X Y and said, as well as the separate surfaces option and the fill it option will talk about some of these later on on as well as the segments on the side. But if I go and create, let's say a different object that's going click and hold it down here on Let's say I select this fear, which is in the same places the Cube. That's why I can't see it. So if I go to the sphere welter coordinates and that's how I would like this to move up. So if I go click and drag this up, you see for this fear. If I go to the object tab instead of the size, I now have a radius. So if I go and set this, let's say to 25 it makes the radius of the sphere 25 units and each one of these Parametric objects will have different parameters inside of the object tap. So if I go create, that's a tube object have off the tube. Shows us the inner radius, the outer radius, the rotation segments and the rest of it. So they're all going to be different from one another. So let me first quick go and delete the tube and also delete this fear, and I'll select the books again. So if I want is to be any elongated box, I can go and change the X from 200 to, let's say, 500. Andi, I can make this a little shorter. So if I go and set this to, let's say 20 and instead of pressing, enter if I want to change the set as well. So that's the next field up. If I go press tab on the keyboard that switches the currently active field to the next one so I can make this why they're now on the set. So if I go 500 so on the exits 500 wise 20 and said is also 500. There's also an option down here called fillets. If I go take this, you see the edges will be round it. And I can control how around the edges are by changing the radius off the fillets so that you're gonna set this, Let's say two, maybe three. And then down at the bottom, you had this fillets subdivision. This is the smoothness off the round of areas. So let me zoom in here so I can show you what I'm talking about. So I'm going to hold down true and left, click and drag. So it zooms in here as I decreased this You see, the edges will become a little rough. And as I increased this, it's going to make the edges smoother and smoother and smoother. So every time I press edges become smoother and smoother, the higher the number, the smothered edges. But the more segments you'll be creating so that the slower the processing would be, so keep an eye on that on in order to quit, zoom out so I can see the entire object again. I can go impressive letter. Hate on the keyboard on that pulls the camera back out. So it shows us everything in this scene, which is the single cube or the box that we have let me go and delete this box for now. So I'm gonna go select the box on on the keyboard. I'm just going to press delete, so that disappears now. And instead, I'm going to go and create a sphere. So if I go click and hold it down and then go to the sphere option here than Neco, I now have a sphere, and you may have noticed that there's another icon that we skipped. It's this one here on all the icons. The right of this tick here are called tags. We'll talk about some of these tags later on. If I select this one. You see, this is called the Fung Tag, and what this does is it smooths out the surface off the object without having to create many segments without the phone tag. This is what the sphere would normally look like. So if I go and delete this phone tag by selecting it and pressing delete on the keyboard, you not see that this fear looks like this. So it's quite edgy. And if I select this fear in order to make this look smooth, I would need to increase the segments so I can go an increased number. And you see, the more the segments, the smoother the sphere looks. But that now means that I have to deal with more than 150 segments, so that's going to slow down the computer. But instead, if I reset this back to its default by right clicking on the arrows here, I can go and add a fung Tak to this, which you can do so by right clicking on the sphere and you go to cinema 40 Tax. And then this is an alphabetical list. So it come down to Fung and you click on that. And then, instead of adding segments, you've added the phone tag to make the surface off the object looks. Mother, I'm going to go into the atmosphere again on I will show you a parameter that's quite specific to a sphere. So on this fear, you may have noticed that there's an option here, down at the bottom that says ran their perfect. What this means is this. If I go and set the segments to quite a low number, let's say, for example, I decrease this until this fear looks quite rough like this. But if I render this If I press command are you see this fear? It looks perfect now that's because they ran. The perfect bottom is turned on. So regardless of what you do to a sphere, Cinema 40 by default thinks that you want to end up with a perfect sphere. That's why it turns this option on by default and adds enough segments to make this fear look like a perfect sphere. So if I don't want that, I can go in, turn us off and knife I rent There, you see this fear looks like what you saw in editor view except for the lighting off it. So if I go press A, you can see there some funny shadings going on here, and that's what the form tack is doing. So the phone tag is trying to smooth out the surfaces, and in this case we don't want that. So I'm going to go and delete the funk tax. So if I select it and press delete on the keyboard now, you can see the shading off the sphere properly. If I now render this, that's exactly what you're going to get in the rendered view as well 7. Parametric Objects - Parametric Objects and the Attributes Manager: in Cinema 40. There are different types of objects, and they will appear and behave differently, depending on how and men use them. The first kind of these objects is the primitive or the parametric object. Now the reason why the object is called a parametric object is because when you create it, Cinema 40 we'll give you a set of parameters that you can tweak. And depending on what you do with these parameters, the object will appear and behave differently. You can find the parametric objects up here to Cuba is. So if I click and hold it down on this cube icon, this is a list off all the parametric objects that you get. So let's start with the most basic one that say, for example, the cube. On As soon as you created, you've seen the Objects manager. The Cube appears as well as the objects manager. The attributes manager will also get populated with the parameters off the cube now, so let's have a look at what these parameters are. So let's start with the basic top. Inside the basic tub. You have the basic controls, like the name which I can change your so fucking and double click on the name here. I can change its default name from Cuba to, let's say a box. And as soon as I press enter, you'll also see that the name changes in the Objects manager so the two are linked to each other. And just below the name you get the layer field, and underneath the layer field, you get the visibility for the editor and the visibility for the renderers. Now, what is the difference between the two? Let me explain these too, By the way, the visible in editor and the visible in render are the same controls as these two great buttons up here. These buttons are called the traffic lights, and you see why they're called the traffic lights. Because when you click on that, say the top one, you see it turns green, and if I click on it again, it turns red. And as soon as it turns red, you see the object from the report will disappear. And if I click on this again, it turns back to Grey, which makes the object visible again. Now, why is that true? You may be asking yourself, there's something in cinema vote he called rendering. And simply, if you press command are you will get rid of all the extra information, like the grid, the floor and the lights and everything else, and it will show you just the objects that you created insane. Now this effectively is what you'll be saving out from Cinema 40. And when you want to go back to the previous you, you can either click on an object in the scene or you can press a on the keyboard to redraw the scene. So why do we have two buttons here now? The top button is the visibility off what you're seeing right now in the report, as you edit to see. So if I go and click on the start button once, twice so it turns red. And if I render this now, so command are it will still be visible because I didn't turn the visibility off on the button underneath. So if I press A to redraw this, I can make this appear again by clicking on this red button now because gray and if I come down and click on the bottom one, so if I click once it turns green click again. It turns red, and this means that it will be invisible when you render it, which means I cannot see it. But as soon as I press command are, it will be invisible. You may be asking yourself the wise, this a useful thing. Imagine you're modeling your house now where your modeling the house. You probably don't want to see the outer walls. Otherwise they will get in the way, and you won't be able to see what's happening on the inside so I can make the outer walls invisible while you're working. So that would be the visibility in the editor. And then when you render it, you obviously want to head out of walls. So you then make visible in the rendered view, but you make it invisible in the editor of you on. Another example for the exact opposite is, let's say, for example, you want to use this cube that we have in front of us in order to line up six different objects around the Cube. Now you're going to be using the cube Onley tow line things up, but eventually, when you render, you don't want the cube to be there In that case, you can make the Cube invisible in the rendered view, so that would be the second button. If you would like to change both of these buttons at the same time, you can hold down bolts on the keyboard and click on either one of these, and it will turn them on or off both at the same time. So if I hold on Olt and click, both of them will turn green. And if I hold on all 10 click again, they'll both turn red an old click one last time. We'll take both of these back to their default, which were great. Now the fact that we had the gray option as well. The default option is going to be useful when we talk about parenting on the parenting is one of the most important subjects in cinema. 40 on. We will be talking about that in one of the future movies. Next to these points is a little tick mark. I can go and click on this tick, and it will turn into a cross on if it's set to a Red Cross. That means that the object is invisible as well as being disabled. Now there's a difference between being disabled on being invisible, for example. Imagine you're creating a floor on you on the floor to be invisible. Now. We can do that by using the visibility options, which has talked about. And if there's a floor that's invisible, you can still make that interact with other objects. For example, let's say you want some bulls to bounce off the floor. You can make the floor invisible, and still the bulls will bounce off that floor. But if you make it disabled, which is this Red Cross, the object will behave as if it doesn't exist. So if it's disabled, it won't be able to interact with the objects. It won't be able to do anything. It's as if it doesn't exist, whereas if it's invisible, it does exist. It's just not visible, and the enabled or disabled states off. The objects can also be changed down here, so if I go to enabled I can turn us on, that's going to turn to across to a green tick again, and if I click back on this, we'll go back to across again, which makes the object disabled on the neath enabled button. There's another button called X ray. This makes the object semi transparent in the editor view on Lee, so you can see what's happening on the inside or behind object. And this is only for the editor view. So if I go and render this command are the object is going to appear fully opaque, I'm going to press a to redraw the scene above. It is an option that says use color by default. The objects are going to have this grayish bluish color, which is something that you can change in the project settings. If you remember, the shortcut was command the and inside the project settings down here where it says default object color. You can change its from grey blue to, let's say, 80% gray, and you see the default object that you create are all going to be this 80% gray color. You can customize that as well to whatever you like. So if I go and click on this custom button, I can click here on the color picker on pick. Any color that I like and the object that will create will have this color. No, I'm not going to change this. I'm going to leave this on the default gray and blue, and I'm going to go back to my kuhb, which is the box, and then come down here. What's his use color and all changes from off toe on? On this way, I can change the color off the individual object rather than changing the color off old objects that are created by default. So let's say you want to make this a green color. So if I go click on this color swatch on, go to Green and I'll increase the saturation of this and then I'm going to press okay and object becomes green. Right now, we can still see through the object. So let me go and disabled X ray so it doesn't appear as if it's translucent and they're ago now the object to actually render with this color. So if I go press command, are you actually see the object appearing with this color. However, if you want to change the appearance off the object and you want to have the full control over the appearance, you would be better off creating a material and applying that material to the object, which is something we will talk about later on. And the reason for that is because when you create a material and apply it to an object, you can control more than just one color. You can control things like reflection, transparency, displacement as well as the color on a lot more my using textures or materials. We will talk about materials when we come to that chapter next to the basic tab, you have the coordinates tab. So if I go and click on this coordinates tab, this shows me now three different properties. It shows me the properties for position, scale and rotation. So you always have the X y and Zed positions, and they're by default, all measured in centimetres. However, it doesn't matter what these units are. As long as the relative distances between the objects are correct. You'll be fine. You may be asking yourself now, Well, what is then the resolution of this file? That's something you decide right towards the end. Before you do your final export to change these values, I can either just go and typing. So if I go and typing that's a 50 press enter, it will move the object towards right by 50 units and for grand type and, let's say, minus 50. So if I go minus 50 you see the object we move towards left by 50 minutes. So an important thing to remember there is that a positive number will always move in the direction off the arrow, in this case, the Red Arrow here and the negative number who always move in the opposite direction from their Oh, So if I, for example, want this object to go down, I know that's now the Y axis, so that's the one that's going up and down. That's why if I go and change its value to, let's say, minus 2 50 you will see the object will shift down by 250 units. Now, another way of changing these values is by using these arrows so I can just go and click on the apparel to increase this, and it will do it unit by unit. Or as I'm doing this. If I hold down the shift key on the keyboard, I can do that by 10 units at the time. So if I don't shift and quick, you'll see you'll increase by 10 and I can decrease it by 10 as well by clicking on the down arrow. And if I hold down the old key and click on these, it will move in decimal points. So instead of moving by 10 units, it Moore's 1/10 off a unit like that. And whenever you want to reset these values, of course, you can go in double quick and then type in zero, provided that you know the default value of zero or the easiest way to reset any of these values is by right clicking on these arrows. So if I go and right click on any of these arrows, you see, it will take it automatically back to its default. So let me just quickly show you another way of doing this. So let me just go 30 50 and 250. And if I quickly want to reset these values, I can go right Click right, Click on right, click one alternative way off. Moving these objects around using the arrows here is by clicking and dragging on these arrows. So if I go click and drag you see it will go rights. And if I drag it down, you'll go left. So this is perhaps the quickest way off moving objects on the single plane like this. I can do the same for why, On the same force it and to reset them all, I could go right click and then right click and then right, Click on the arrows if you want. Actually reset them all at the same time. So let me just changes again, randomly. So if I go up and then maybe to the right and also closer to us. And if I want to change all of these back to their defaults, I can click on one of these letters P letters here. So that will highlight all three. At the same time I can there, right click, and then just select reset to default. So that takes it all the way back to 000 Next to the position values, you have this scale values here so I can change the X scale or the wild is that scales and next to it are the set of controls for rotation. Now, the rotation values, as you may see, aren't X y and zed. They're called Hey H P and B and they stand for heading, pitch and banking. Now, heading, if you're used to using another application, is your wife rotation. So if I go click and drag this up, you'll see the object with rotates around the Y axis as such. And then the pitch. Let me just reset this first, and then the pitch is the rotation around the X axis on banking. Is the rotation around the set access instead of using these sliders? There are actually some tools you can use, and these will be a lot more visual and sometimes easier to use on, for example, in order to move the object up and down. If you're going to select this tool called the Move Tool, which is E. On the keyboard, I can now use my mouse and then click anywhere. It doesn't even have to be on the object. I can click anywhere and then dragged object around so I can freely move this around. And this is actually something you don't want to do in three D space. If you're looking at the scene from the perspective, you which is what we're seeing the scene through now, it says here, the perspective you. You don't want to be clicking on the object or away from the object and moving in like this , because when you do this, you don't really know where the object is. Moving towards it all depends on your perspective. 8. Parametric Objects - Move & Scale & Rotate Tools: as well as using parameters to move scale or rotate objects. You can also use these designated tools. There's the move tool scale tool, and then they rotate all let me go and create a cube first so I can show you those tools. So if I go crazy cube instead off using these parameters here on the right, I can go and click on this cube. As long as I have my multiple selected, I can click on the Cube. In fact, if the Q B selected, I can click anywhere in the scene, and I can just drag this around and you see as I dragged this, it's moving freely. But this usually is a bad thing to do, especially if you're in the perspective. You, which is the view that we're using right now, because if you do this, you won't really know where the objects are going. It will move relative to your current perspective. For example, if I move my camera down by holding down three and then left, click and drag and let's say I like the object to go left on back. Maybe so if I go click on the subject Drug left and back. And as I change my perspective now again, if I hold on three and left, click and drag, let's say on the objects or used the object is my pivot point. You see the object actually went left, so that's correct. It didn't go back as much as I wanted to go back, but it also got shifted up. That's all because I was using a particular perspective. So the object moved in that perspective. Instead, let me go back a step song going to press commands it, and I'm going to press, hate to reframe the whole scene and I'll zoom out. So I'm gonna press true and left, Click and zoom out and three and left Click and I can move around instead of freely moving the object around. I'd be better off using these arrows here. So if I want the object to move on Lee on the Y axis, I can just click on the Y axis here at the Green Arrow and just click and drag this up or down and you see the object will not go anywhere else, but up or down. Even if I drag left and right, the object doesn't go left and right. It wants to go on the up or don't and the same thing can be done for the blue arrow. Is that access on the red one? The X axis. Now, as I move these objects using these arrows, I can also hold down the shift key. So if I click and drag and then hold down the shift key, you see that the object will be moving on the INTEND Unit increments and I can do the same for all other axes as well. So I click, drag and hold the shift key down. You see, then it moves on Leontyne units increments. And you may have noticed I'm using the shift key after I clicked on there. Oh, if you hold down, shift before you click on the arrow, it actually disables DeCero. So if I go hold on a shift, Q On my cursor is on this arrow. But before I click, it disables Acero and Cinema 40 assumes that you want to move the object anywhere except for this axis. So it moves in this case, the object on the X and the set planes. Those are the two arrows that are highlighted. So if I move my cursor here to the Red Arrow X arrow and if I hold on a shift before I click, you see the X arrow will be disabled. So I can now move my object on the Y and is that axis and the same thing happens if I move my cursor here, Hold on. Shift on. Now the movement will be limited to X and Y planes. Or if I go click and drag object will move anywhere but in the set access. I'm going to press command said Toe under that a couple of times until it goes back to it was initially and after that you also get this scale tool. So if I go click on this, you Nancy, the arrows will turn into little cubes. I can click on any of these cubes, and in fact, I can click outside and drag. It'll scaled objects up or down. And as I do this again, if I hold down the shift key, it was scale in 10% increments. You see, regardless of which one of these cubes I click on the Cubans scale proportionally, That's because this is a parametric shape, and it's a cube, and Cinema 40 wants to keep. This object is a perfect boob. Regardless of which one of these buttons you click on, there's a way you can squash and stretch this by using a specific access. That's only possible when you make the object and edit herbal object, which is something we'll talk about in the future videos. For now, if you want to change the size a bit more visually, you can. Actually, instead of using these buttons, you can use these yellow buttons here. So if I click on these yellow buttons on drag, that makes the Y size shorter, and then this changes the exercise and this yellow button here changes. Does that size? I have been using two separate terms. One is signs and the other one is scale. So if I go select the cube you see under the object, you have the signs, and then under the coordinates, you had the scale. The way this works is that this scale is a factor that's being applied to the size. So if I want this quickly to be half the depth off its current depth, if I go, coordinates change mindsets scale to be 0.5. It's going to look at the size, which is about 733 and it will half that number because my set scale is 0.5 and the result is going to be half off 733 which is about 366 units most of the times, you'll find that if you want to be precise, you leave this scale set toe one, and you change the size often object instead. So if I want this to be an exact Cuba, let's say off 300 units by 300 units by 300 units. I don't from the size and not the scale. The next tool in the set is the rotator. So if I go select this or press are on the keyboard, the arrows or the cubes will not be replaced with these rotation bands on. If you're now going, click anywhere except those bands. You'll be rotating the object freely, so if I go click and drag you see, I can rotate the object freely and the press command said toe under that, if I want to limit the rotation to a single axis, I don't go and click on one of these rotation bands, so if I just want to rotate it on the screen, run, I can go click here and then you see, it will not rotate anywhere but on the green access there. So this is changing the heading off the object right now again as I rotate this. If I hold down the shift key, it locks this to rotate 10 degrees at a time. Once again, the shortcuts for those tools R E for the move to t for the scale tool and are for the rotate to these tools are the ones you be using quite a lot. So I recommend you memorized these shortcuts E, t and R. 9. Parametric Objects - Object Hierarchy: object hierarchy is one of the most important topics in cinema 40. It's really important because it explains the relationship between objects. Let's have a look at how it works. Let's say we have a Cuban the scene and as well as having a cube, let's say we also have an object called the Platonic object. By default, they get created in the same place. That's why the platonic is inside the Cube, so we can't see it. So let me go to Platonic, select it and then come down to Rex's coordinates and I'm going to move it on the set, access forward by let's say 2 50 and I'm going to select the Cube and then move that backwards by 2 50 So I'm gonna go minus 2 50 Now, these numbers tell you how far the objects are from the center off the world, which is this point here. But how do you set the relationship between the objects themselves? So how do you tell how far the object is from the other object? You do that by using what's called parenting. So if I select the platonic and if I click and hold it down and move it on top of the cube , wait for the white arrow to point down. And if I let go now, the platonic became the child, and the cube became the parents. What does this mean Now? This means now that the platonic tells us the distance from not the center of the world, but the center off its parent. So the platonic is 500 units away from the cube, and also, if you select the cube and move it or scale it or rotate it, the platonic will do exactly the same thing as the Cube does. So if I select the cube, get the move to click and drag around, you'll see the platonic follows it exactly because it's relative. Distance to the cube remains the same. So if I select a platonic, you can see that X zero y zero and satisfied 100 relative to the Cube. When you move the cube around, that doesn't change. That remains the same. However, if I select a platonic and if I take this outside the cube, look what happens to the coordinates of the Platonic. Now the coordinates revert back to showing the distance from the center of the world, not the center off the cube. So if I put the platonic back in, you've seen on the coordinates displayed the distance from the center off the Cube. Let me select the Cube and Zeer art all its coordinates, so the cube goes to the center of the world. So if I go right, click on right click on my click. So the cube goes to the center of the world, and the Platonic follows it again. There's 500 units distance between the two objects, and if I go and rotate the cube, let's say on the heading. If I go click on the heading, rotate this. You see the cube, you'll rotate and the platonic we'll follow it because the relative distance or the relative rotation in this case off the platonic doesn't change. The only thing that's changing now is the rotation off the Cube, and that is driving the rotation off the Platonic 10. Parametric Objects - Null Objects: no objects are useful for all sorts of different things. In this case, we're going to use the mouth in order to control the rotation off the tube around the Cube . Now we know already. If you want to rotate an object around another one, you simply put that object inside the 1st 1 as the child. So if I go select the troop, for example, in fact, before I do this, if I select the tube and go to my slice options, if I turned a slice on, that's going to take half off the troops away from the scene. So it's going to be easier for us to see what's happening. And if I go select the truth now and if I drag this inside the cube on Niko so that the tube becomes the child and if I select the Cube now and if I rotate it, if I go to coordinates and if I change the heading off this so if I go selecting drag us up , you see the cube rotates on as well as the cube. The tube moves with it, or it rotates with it. Now what if you want to rotate the troop around the Cube, but you want the cube to stay static. This is when the null objects come to play. So if I press command said toe under this and if I separate these two away from each other now, so if I select the tube on drag this outside so they're no longer linked to each other. And if I go on creating Mull, which is in the same place as the Cube, so if I select that on, hold it down and if I create another here, it sits right in the center of the world like any other object does when you first created . If I know a sector known, drag this inside the Cube on a connection to rename this to make it easier for us to understand what this is doing. So if I go select the name and double click on, if I call this tube control, I cannot put the tube inside the tube control mouth like so. And right now, if I select the nun and if I rotate it, it's going to rotate its child, which is the tube. But it's not going to touch its parents, which is the Cube. Now this is how we can control the rotation off one object around another one without touching the second object at all. Let's say I reset this back to zero so I can right click to reset that if I change the pitch of this look, if I go click and drag this pitch up, you can see it goes up and down like that again. The null is rotating the tube, which is going around the Cube. Now. I can actually do this with my rotate tool as well. So if I go grab my rotate tool and I can use these bands now. So if I go click on this red band on drag this you see, I'm not rotating the tube per se. I'm rotating the mull, which in return rotates the troop. And there's a really useful shockers I want to show you here. Whenever you're moving something, scaling it or rotating it, you can hold down the command key on that's going to create a copy instead of moving the actual object that's going to create a copy off that. Together with that, if I hold down the shift key that's going to lock that to 10 degrees like that, and I can click drag again with shift on command keys, another 90 degrees. There you go. I now consider the cube and rotated, and that's going to rotate everything. All the males and the tubes inside those nose like that. 11. Parametric Objects - Solar System: by using knows you can create something quite similar to the solar systems set up. Now, here's what I mean. If you go and critics fear by clicking and holding down on the cube. And by the way, if you find yourself doing this a lot clicking and holding down on the menu, you can actually click on this area here, and that will put the menu as a separate menu here. And if you have a second monitor, this is particularly useful so it can put some of these menus on the second monitor there. But in this case, I'm just gonna move it on the side like that. I'm gonna create a sphere, and I'm gonna go and rename this fear son on to make it easier to see. I'm going to go to the basic tab and change the use color option from off toe on and I'll give us a yellow tint. So I'm gonna go to this play color, select it and I'll pick a yellow color, and I'll increase the saturation as well. No press OK on. Instead of creating this fear again, which is going to be our earth? I'm going to go get my move tool, which is already selected here and then more. This object on the Red Arrow holding down the command key and that will create a copy off the object instead of moving natural object. And I'll do that one more time. Command, click on the set, arrow and just move it. And then they go three miles first, then the command key. And then that's going to rename these Israel. So I'm gonna go here and change this to Earth on the other one. I'll just change this to Moon. So I'm gonna go call this moon and let's give these ready on the colors as well. No, it looks like I missed NH there, So I'm gonna go at an H. So I'm gonna make the earth not yellow, but more like a bluish color here on then the moon. I'll make that gray. So if I select here, an army is a great color. Let's say like that and I'll change the size of these as well. So I'm gonna go to the earth and I'll select it. Change the object radius from 100. Let's say to 25 and I'll go to the moon and change its radius from 100 to, let's say 10 and I'll bring these two closer to each other again. So I just pushed us here and actually all going close this as well. So that's getting in the way. For now, what I want to create is a set up where the earth moves around the sun and then the moon follows the earth and it also moves around the earth. But the sun stays static all the time. So here's how it works. Instead of putting Earth inside the sun and the moon inside the earth, I'm going to make use of multiple knows now. So I'm gonna go create enough and let me call this now Earth Controller. So if I go and double click on the name And if I call this Earth controller on making sure that this Earth controller is inside the sun like that and then the coordinates off this Earth controller are all set to 000 I can not put the earth inside the Earth controller. And now, if I want to rotate the earth around the sun, all I need to do is to rotate the Earth controller. But to do the same for the moon. I'm going to go and creating, you know, and I'll call this one moon controller, and this one will go inside the Earth like that. And I also need to make sure that the coordinates off this object are all set to 000 So the mountain is in the same place as the actual Earth. And then I put the moon object inside the moon controller. So if I select the moon dragon inside the moon controller, making sure that the arrow is pointing down like that no, I can select the moon controller and I can rotate. Let's say it's heading like that and that's rotating around the earth. And I can do the same for Earth Controller, which is going to make the earth rotates around the sun on all the while. The sun is static. It doesn't move at all, but the earth and the moon are moving around it 12. Parametric Objects - Creating a Table: using all the skills that we've learned so far. Let's see if we can create a simple table and some chairs to do that, I'm going to start by creating a cube. So I'm gonna go creator Cuba here and then rename this cube to be tabletop. I'm gonna go double click and rename this and then I'm gonna change the object size by going to object and then the size and I'll change us. Let's say to 600 on the X and 10 on the why and 300 on the set. I'm going to create one more cube for the leg and I'll rename this to be leg one. I'm gonna go typing leg one and I'll change its size 10 by 300 by 10. Now that we have the two objects that we needed to create the table, let's go and align them. So for that, I'm going to use the auto graphic views which, if you remember, is available on the middle click. So if you go and middle, click anywhere in the view port that will take you to the four up view on the top right corner of you is the one that will be using now the top view. So I'm going to meet a click here as well to maximize this panel. Now the first thing you need to do is to figure out which corner you want this leg to go to . In this case, I'm going to use the top right corner now for that. I know that this leg needs to move towards right. So that's going to be a positive move on the X axis and it also needs to move up, which is going to be a positive move on the set access. This actually is quite straightforward. If you know the size is off the objects precisely, you can move them in place using those sizes that, you know, I know in this case, the with off the table is 600. And I know for a fact that everything gets created in the center of the world by default. That means half the table is going to be to the left off the leg and the other half is on the right side of the leg. Which means if I move the leg towards right by half the with off the table, it's going to line up perfectly with the right edge. So let's do that. So, with the leg one selected, I'm going to go to the coordinates on I'm going to go toe X coordinates and I know the with off the table is 600. So I'm going to type in half of 600 here, which is 300. And if I press enter, you see now the leg will shift towards right by half off the with off the table, which is exactly why the edge off the table is. So if I zoom in here, if I hold on to and zoom in here, the only problem now is because the thickness of the leg itself isn't taking into account its sticking out. So if I want the leg to be pulled back in, I need to work out half the fitness off the leg and take that away from the X coordinates off the leg. So the leg was 10 on the X, so I can now go to the X go here and type in minus for life, which is half of 10. And for press enter, that moves the leg back towards left by half off its thickness, which is five now to do the same on the set access. I'll show you a couple of shortcuts now, so I'm going to zoom out first. I know the death off the table is 300. If I go to the set here, I can actually type in 300 slash two. And if I pressed Enter. That's going to do the calculation for us, and it will just give us the results off 1 50 Now I know it's easy enough to divide 300 by true, but sometimes you'll be working with numbers. Some big numbers and especially if those numbers have decimal points during the mats is going to be a little trickier. This is when using these fields to do some simple calculations is going to be quite useful . Now, let me show you something even better, so let me go, Command said. And I'm gonna type in 300 slash True, which is going to move the leg up here, but again the leg will be sticking out, so I'm gonna type in minus and I'll type in the thickness of the leg, which was 10 slash two. So that's going to give us the exact result which will put the like exactly where it's supposed to go to. So this is all right now from the X axis and those that axis. But let's have a look at the height as well. So I'm going to go in middle, click again and go this time to the right view or the front view doesn't matter, and I now need to move this down by half the height off the leg. So let's work out the height of the legs. If I select this object, the height is 300. So if I go to coordinates on Goto, why I can type in minus because I want this to go down, not up. 300 slash two and that's going to send the leg down. But again, if I zoom in here, you see that the leg and the tabletop are intersecting, so I need to move the leg down by half the thickness off the table top, which was 10.5 of its five. So if I go to the coordinates again and go here toe, why and type in minus five, they will go down by half of that, and it's now lined up perfectly. If I middle click again to zoom back out to four up views on, that's no lined up perfectly from all four views at the same time. And there's a really useful shortcut you should know is if you press bolt and the letter hate on the keyboard that's going to center all of those views at the same time, instead of then get one by one, you can press all teach, and it'll center all four views at the same time. Once you have one leg in place, the rest becomes really easy. Let me show you how you can create three more legs. So for that, I'm going to take this leg and actually drag this underneath the table top like this so that it's easier to do what I'm gonna do next. And that is by clicking on this with the command key and dragging this down. I'm gonna create a copy, although that once on that automatically cause it leg 1.1. And let's say from the front view, I want this new leg Togo towards left, and all I have to do now is because everything again gets created in the central world. I can go to the new legs coordinates and I can change its X from positive to 95 to negative 295 on bingo. It just goes from here to here and now you have your second leg as well. I can now do the same for two legs at the same time. So if I select these two legs by clicking somewhere just outside on dragging a marquee selection like this and if I click and drag one of these down, hold down the command key and neck. Oh, I know I had two more legs called 1.2 and Monday three. And I now need to move these down. If I look at the top view, I need to move it down from the top view towards here. That's the zero. That's a blue arrow. I'm gonna go in the negative direction off the blue out. So if I go typing and minus at the beginning of the said value here and enter, I know I have four legs in place. If I now go and maximize the perspective, you by middle clicking on it, I now have a table with four legs perfectly in place in order for us to be able to move these objects together at the same time, the easiest option would be to create in Mull and put these objects inside the mill so that the now becomes the parent and the objects will become the Children inside the mouth. And then you can move the money around in order to more all of these objects around. And the quicker way to do that is by selecting everything which is done by pressing command A on the keyboard so that select everything in the scene and then on the keyboard again. If you press bolt and G that created no and it puts all of these objects inside the now I can now grand rename this now to be table on its a tighter seen on with just one mole inside, which, if I click on this plus sign, we have five different objects there. One tabletop and four legs 13. Parametric Objects - Grouping Objects: In the previous exercise, you looked at how to create a table and your placed old objects that made the table inside enough by pressing Olt and G on the keyboard. Now what that does is if I just go in the selectees first. That's exactly the same thing as clicking here, creating a null and then placing all these objects inside the mouth. But the downside to that is if I press commands that again if I go to the front of you, let's say if I middle click on, go to my front bigger Maximize that again by middle clicking The now that we have here is sitting right in the dead center off the selected objects here. But what if you want to put them out right on the base so you can use it to line up other objects? Now, in order to do that, the easier way is this. I'm going to go and ungroomed these objects for someone ago, right? Click on this and then choose expand object group So it takes all those objects out. So what I can do now is to go and delete this now and then I'm gonna create a new one by clicking on holding down, and I'll just create a new one. I know that gets created in the central the world again. And I know the thickness that you zoom in here so you can see what's happening a little better if I go press tour ends. Women I know the thickness of the tabletop is 10 so far more this now down by half off that . So if I go signal and come down to coordinates and if I goto why and if I type in minus 5/2 of 10 that's sitting exactly underneath the table top now. And if I zoom out now, I also need to move this down by the length off the leg, which was 300. So I'm going to go to the wire again. Ongoing type in minus five minus 300 that's now sitting exactly on the base plane. So if I now go to my perspective, you again a middle click and then middle click here. You see, the Mel would be sitting exactly in the centre at the base. I cannot select all of these manually and dragged them inside the mouth and again, I can rename them all to be table something like Table Master, maybe. And if I select amount now and if I go to its coordinates, if I zero this out, it's going to send them all to the world. Centrepoint again, which is going to shift everything else up because everything else was a child off the mouth. So if I know press age so that I can see everything, you should be able to see the mull right on the base in the center of the world and the table is sitting flat on the ground plane. In fact, there's an option for them all. If I go in selecting Mel and then go to the object tap here, I can change the display of the mount from adults to, let's say, a rectangle. I can increase the radius off this. If I go click and drag us up, I can change the aspect ratio. And if I wanted to sit flat on the floor as well, I can change orientation from camera to the plane that I wanted to go into, so that would be the X and set plane. So that's sitting on the floor now and I can increase the radius again like so, And I can change the aspect ratio to make it look more like a rectangle. I can click outside now, and every time I want to select the entire table now, all I would need to do would be to go and select this null, and that selects the mill and child objects so I can move this around and everything will move together with it. And whenever I want to reset the position of this back to zero, I got to denounce position, go to coordinates position and zero these out ago. Right? Click on this and then right click and then right click on the set as well. 14. Parametric Objects - Creating a Chair: Now that we have a table, let's go and create a chair so I can show you how to combine the two files in Maan Project . So to do that, I'm going to start with the Cube again. And I'll rename this group this time to be the seat and I'll change it. Size 2 200 by 10 by 200 and I'll create one more coupe. This is going to be the leg. So I'm gonna go rename this to be leg, and I'll change its size from 200 to, Let's say, 10 by 200 by 10. And again I have to align these. So I'm going to go in middle click and let's say I want this one to go to the bottom left corner and I know the width and the depth off the seat, which are both 200. So if I move the leg towards left and down by 100 that should line up. So if I go to the leg and go to coordinates and if I start with the X and if I type in minus 100 which is half the with off the seat and again we had the same problem here. The leg is sticking out, so I'm gonna go and type in half the thickness off the leg as a plus because I want this to go towards right this time. So I'm gonna go in typing plus five, and I'll do the same for the Zetas, Val. So from the top view, I can see this going down here, and I'm gonna need to just type in minus 95 for dessert as well. So if I go tapping minus 95 that lines up from the top for you, perfectly. I also need to send us down on the Y by half the length off the leg. So the leg was 200. So if I go to the coordinates goto why? And if I type in minus 100 because I wanted to go down, that's where I'm putting a minus. And again, the two are intersecting, as you can see here. So I'm gonna go and type in a further minus five, which is half the thickness of the seat on that lines up perfectly. Now that I have one leg, I can go and move this down like we did for the table, and I can click and drag with the control or the command key. So I have a copy off that. And let's say I would like this leg to go towards right. So all I need to do is to go here, select and delete that minus. So now I have a copy on the right inside as well. And I can now select both of these legs and commander control dragged them down again. And this time I would like them to go up on the said I'm gonna go to the set and take out the minus from here. So they go up and the only thing left to do now is the back rest. So I'm gonna go in creating your cube for that, and I call this back and let's say I would like this one to be 200 on the way. And I'm gonna make this 200 on the excess. Well, I'll just change it, Zed depth toe. That's a 10. And again, I want this one. Let's say from the top view to go down here so it lines up with the legs, so I'm gonna go to the set. So I'm gonna go selected back off the coordinates or to set, and I'm gonna happen minus 100. While I'm doing this, I'm looking at top view. And if I zoom in here so you can see what's happening again, I need to not push this back in by half the thickness off the back. So I'm gonna go selected, said again and type in plus five that lines up and from the front view, I had to lift it up or from the right of you as well. They're both work. I'm gonna go and lift it up by half the length off the back. So I know the back is 200 so I can go toe why and type in plus 100 and again there intersecting. So I wanted to go up by another half off the seat, So I'm gonna go today. Why? And type in plus five on day. All line up perfectly now. So I find out, go and maximize the perspective. You my middle clicking. And if I press hate so I can see the whole thing, I can now show you the entire model and we have a perfect model. Now the only thing that's left for us to do is to create. And now so we can group everything inside that mouth. Now, I'm not going to select everything and press alter g to put them in the mail because that puts if you remember the male in the center. I'm going to do that manually. I'm gonna go create a null. I'll call this now chair, Master. And if I go to the front of you, just do it all takes so I can see everything. I now know that this needs to go down half the thickness off the seat, which is gonna be five. So if I select the coordinates off the mill also why? And if I type in minus five and also it is to go down by the entire length off the leg, Let's just be sure that the legs length is if I got object is 200. So the chair master, you need to go down by a further 200 units. So if I go typing here minus 200 No, it's sitting exactly on the ground plane now, and I cannot select all of these objects. Put them inside the chair master. And then if I go to the perspective, you and middle click to maximize that view, I cannot go to the no and then go to object and then change this playoff This from a dot also to rectangle and I can change orientation from the camera to go toe extends it and I can increase the radius off this so that covers the entire chair. I'll say this project as my chair. So if I go to file save as I can go and rename this to be chair and if I were saved, I know saved this. And in the next video, we'll show you how to combine this with the table. 15. Parametric Objects - Merging Objects: when you have a scene and you would like to place some of the objects you created earlier in this scene, you need to go to the file menu at the top and then select Merge or you can go to the Objects Manager and then select the file menu there and then choose merge objects. These two will do the same things. And if I select that, I can then bring my table in my selecting it and then going to open and it brings the table in. I can press, hate to see the entire thing. And if I go to the file menu here and then choose merge, I can bring my chair in as well. I can press open, and that brings the chair as well. All I need to do now is to select the chair and then go the coordinates on. Then I can zero the coordinates out because I created that with a null manually, so that will sit exactly on the ground plane as well. And if I go to the top view by middle clicking, I can more the chair master, which is the now back this way on, then maybe tours left a little bit and I can hold down command and create a copy off this year. And then if I said it, the two chairs let me just go collapsed e So it's easier if I select this chair and their shift. Select this chair so both of them are selected. I can then hold on control on Drag this up with the control key. So I create a copy off them. Here, I condemn press are to get my rotate tool and I can rotate them on the Y axis. Here on the wideband, I should say so that's going to change the heading. And if I go a press the shift key as well that will look that to be 10 degrees and there we have it. I can now go click outside. So everything is the selected and I can middle click to maximize that view again. On here we have a full scene with a table and four chairs 16. Editable Objects - Editable Objects: you will remember that the objects we have been using so far were all called parametric objects, and that was because they all had parameters that you could tweak in order to change the appearance of them. Now there will be times when changing the parameters will just not be enough in order to create the model that you're after. In those cases, you're going to need to convert object from being a parametric, object into what's called inevitable or a polygonal object if you're administrator user. This is similar to creating outlines from the text. In both cases, you lose some editing capability, but in return you gain a lot more. And in the case of cinema 40 when you convert a parametric object into an edit herbal object, you're gonna gain access to the individual points edges and the polygons that make that object. Let me show you what I mean. If I go and create a cube and you'll see as soon as I create, the Cuban appears here. Luckily, no. On down at the bottom. We had the object tap and from here we can change all these parameters as soon as you make this object creditable, which is what I'm gonna show you. In a second, you'll notice that the object up here will disappear. So have a look. To make the object irritable, you simply go to the top left corner off your toolbar and you click on this bottom or you press the letter C on the keyboard, See for convert. And if I click on this, you'll see that the object is no longer Parametric. So I can see that the object tap here has disappeared. But in return I now have access to these tools here Now these tools were there before as well. I just couldn't use them. Let me show you if I go press commands that to go back Now you see that the tools are still here. If I select this tool, for example called the polygon mold, it doesn't really do anything. However, if I go and make the object irritable and if I now select the polygon more here, I can now go and select the individual polygons. Similarly, if I go and select the edge mode, I can go and select the edges here. And if I go and select the points mode, I now have access to the individual points here. You may be asking yourself, Well, why would you want to do this? Well, there are quite a few different reasons. Let me show you if I go to the polling or more here and let's say, for example, I select this top polygon. I now have access to the position or the rotation or this scale off the entire polygon. Not the whole model, but the entire polygon that makes the top surface off this cube. What does that mean? Now? I can just move this. Let's say I move it towards us or away from us. I can scale it if I get my scale till now, I can scale it sideways and you see on the debt Polygon and everything else that's connected to it is going to be scaling. And I did that there. I don't if you noticed. One thing you don't want to do is to cross polygons like that, because that's going to create some confusion for Cinema 40 and it just doesn't know how to render this. So if I go zoom in, you'll see that the polygons I just crossed each other so That's something Cinema 40 doesn't like. So when you're working with Cinema 40 it's important to remember that the polygons shouldn't cross each other. So I'm gonna press command said to take that back, I'm gonna zoom out a little bit. I also have access to the rotation off that polygon. So if I said it my rotate tool, I can click and will take that. Similarly, I can go and select the edge moved here, which would allow me to select an edge and then move these up and down these bands so it rotates. And if I pressed T on the keyboard to get my scale tool, I can click outside and then drag it towards left to scale this age down or drag it towards right to scale it up like this on, let's say, instead of an edge on a scale, move or rotate an entire polygon. Well, I can go to my polygon model on the left here on their selective polygon. And again, if I click outside and then dragged towards writes, it's going to be a proportional scale going upwards or left to go down. And if I hold the shift key down as I do this, you see that the proportion of scale is happening in 10% increments, So that's the shift key held down. Now let's say I don't scale this proportionally, but only on manage or one side, I should say I can click on one of these cubes and just push this down, and in this case you see that it's only scaling on the Y axis. Now let's say if you wanted to scale the entire model or rotate or move the entire model, you used the model mode on the left. So if I select the model more on, then click outside again and then drag left and right. You see that this scale is happening on the entire model on not just on polygon or age or a point, and because we made the cube irritable. As you can see this triangle, I come here. I can now scale this on these cubes, and it will scale, um, proportionally. Now you couldn't notice before, so that was a Q before, so Cinema 40 wanted to keep. That is a perfect cube. But now that it's inevitable cube or inevitable object, I should say I can scale this un proportionally Let me go and select the Cuban deleted. And then if I go and critics fear and then I'll duplicate this by holding down command, then just dragging this left on this arrow on our last, like this new one and then increases segments from 24 to, let's say 1 50 And then I'll go to the original 11 on the right and on decrease its segments from 24 to, let's say, 15 so that the original one has fewer segments now. Then the new army created on the Senate, both of them, and then press see one by one to make them both creditable. And you can see now the segments are revealed and this has much fewer segments than the new army created. Now I'm gonna go to my model model on the left on our press t to get my scale tool and our scale this one up on the Y axis. Now you can see how edgy this looks as opposed to this new one. If I scale this one up on the why, you can see how smooth this one looks now, the reason why the one on the right looks too edgy is because it doesn't have enough segments. If I render this, you see how edge of that one looks now. And if I come out now, has you marked a little bit like this on Render again? You see, it's a little less obvious. I mean, it's still a bit edgy, but it's a bit less obvious. But if I go all the way out like this, and if I now rendered nous, you see that the difference isn't as obvious anymore. So the amount of segments you want to create will really depend on how far you are or how close you are to the objects. 17. Editable Objects - Selection Tools: Once you make the objects irritable, inevitably you're going to want to select the points or the polygons or the edges that make the object. That's when the selection tools come to play. Let me go and create a sphere first. So if I go move my so if I go click and hold it down on the Cube and then create a sphere if I don go impressed to see Key or click on this button here to make this fear edit herbal , I can then go and select my polygon mode so I can reveal all these individual polygons on if I get to my selection tool, and the 1st 1 here is called a live selection tool. This is very similar to the quick selection tool. If you have been using photo shop, you'll be familiar with that. So if I select my life selection tool, this lets me click and drag on. Whatever's underneath my cursor is I drag will be selected. If I click outside everything it's de selected, and if I click and paint things will be selected. You may have noticed that there on my courser is around area a circle that circle is the radius off the selection tool that we're using. And you can change that by going to the right inside into the options stab here off the life selection tool. And then you decrease the radius here on the smaller the radius smaller. That circle will be. So it's tiny now, so only select one point that's directly underneath my closer, Or I can make this bigger again. So if I go higher than one so let me just maybe go to, like, 15 or 20. You see, the Cosa has not got a much larger circle around it, which means you will be able to select a much larger area. Let me zoom in first. So I'm gonna hold on to ends. Women. I'm gonna make my brush into smaller. Another way to make this brush a little smaller is by middle clicking on dragging your cursor left or right or one last way is if used the left or the right scribe brackets. You can also change the size of the circle. I'm gonna make it quite small like that, and I'm going to select some polygons randomly. So I'm gonna select all these problems and if I want to add more to this selection. All I need to do is to hold the shift key down, and then I can add more of thes. And if I want to subtract some of these particles from the selection, I hold down command and then click on these. And that subtracts the problems that I'm clicking on. Now. If you want to select all of them at the same time, you compress command a. And again, it's any point. If you want to de select them, you can just click outside and they'll all be de selected. The same works with the edge or the point months. So if I go to the edge mode here, I can now click on edge and I can hold our shift and click on these other riches as well. So they all get selected or if I go to the point mold, if I select the point and I can hold on a shift and I can select these other points as well , let me switch to my polygon mode here and then the other selection tools that I want to show you are all inside the life selection tool so if I click and hold it down on life selection tool, I now have the rectangle selection tool and then the last so on the polygon tool. So let's continue with the rectangle selection. So if I go select this, all this does is if I click and draw a rectangle like a highlight area as soon as I let go the polygons that they're fully inside this rectangle, and that's important. Only the ones that are fully inside this rectangle will be selected. So if I let go, those that are fully inside the rectangle are now selected. For example, if I go and draw a rectangle like this, nothing will be selected because none of these four polygons are actually fully inside the rectangle. So if I let go here, you see nothing is selected. That's actually an option. You can change in the rectangle selection tool if you go to the right hand side. There's an option that says tolerant selection. If I turn this on right now, if I bring, click and draw a rectangle wherever the rectangle touches a polygon, now that polygon will be selected regardless of whether or not the entire polygon is inside the rectangle. So if I let go now you see, all four polygons are selected. There's also another option. You may have noticed this. It's called on Lee Select visible elements. What this means is, if I go and select an area like this, it looks like these are the polar goes I had selected. Why? Because disruption was turned off. Actually, everything that's directly behind this is also selected so far. Go here. You see, all of these points are selected as well because I turned off the only select visible elements option. Let me go back to my life selection tool. And if I select this and then paint because on this tool on the select, visible elements has turned on. If I now go to the other side of this, let me just come up and then zoom out and then use the three key to spin around. You see, none of these are selected because this option only select visible elements is turned on. I can turn it off. And if I do a diagonal selection like this, everything on the other side as well we should not be selected this with my goal. Turn around. You see, all of these points are selected as well. This is a function that can be quite useful. So do remember Regis's the other selection tools here. So if I go select on, hold it down and then I can select my last little here again, we had a tolerance election option that's turned on on the lasso tool does this. If I go click and then paint like that, it actually creates an area, and as soon as I let go, it selects everything that the area was touching. So if I go, try that again, if I do this, all of those air selected. If I turn off the tolerance selection just like the rectangle tool now only the one that are fully inside the area will be selected on the last selection. Tool is if I go click and hold it Down again is called the Polygon Selection Tool. If I select this, this lets you go click, then let go and click on Go click, click, click, and then when you want to finalize this, you go and right click and again by default. Because the tolerant selection was turned off, only the polygons that are fully inside that selection area will be selected. There are some additional selection tools on nature on in the future. Videos will be talking about them as well, but at this point, I just want to point out where they are. So they just go and Zuma by pressing hate so I can see the entire model. And I'm gonna go to the select menu. It's up here and here. You had the rest of the selection tools, and these are gonna be quite useful. For example, if I go and select the loop selection tool, this is what it lets you do. So I can go and select a loop like that, like a hold on shift to select multiple lines like this. And I can hold down shift against inequalities as well. So that critical oops, election like that. It's quite a useful thing to know on. There are a couple of others here as well that we will be talking about later on in the future Movies 18. Editable Objects - Knife Tools: when you have an object and you haven't made the object irritable yet. For example, if I go create a cube and I haven't made inevitable yet, if I go and increase the segments on the Cube, so let's say set that to five by five by five. It doesn't seem any difference, however, if I go and change my display mode here, and I can do that by going to display on the default display mode is called The Gold Shading. This is the one. If I come down here and change it to lines, this will now show me just the lines that make the shape. So if I go to the Cube again, and if I lower down the segments, let's say this time to two by two by two. And I know have that minute segments only. And in order to be able to see both the lines and the shading at the same time, you can go to this play option again and then come down to girl changing with the lines, and it's now showing me the shading underlines. At the same time, there are some really useful shortcuts on the keyboard that you should know on the keyboard . If you go and press the letter end for November, that's going to bring up the shortcuts for the display moles. And if I don't go impress A, which is the 1st 1 here, go rolled shading. That's going to take us back to how it was initially. If I go press end and then G, that's showing us just the lines. And if I pressed N and B that showing us the lines and the shading at the same time, there are a couple of other options there as well, but these three are the ones that you'll be the most frequently. Those are an A for the shading, the girl trading and be for the shading and the lines and N g for the lines. Only if I go back to end be so the Goa road shading with the lines. If I lower the segments down to, let's say one and one and one and then if you make this object irritable. Then he decided that you actually wanted to have a couple of more segments here now, because the cubes object tap disappeared. You can just now click on a number on, increase it or decrease it to have more segments or fewer segments. In cases like these, you're going to use a tool called knife tool in order to cut or create new segments. And you use the knife tool in one of these three months here, the point edge or the poly Gaumont. Let me go to the polling on more first, and if I go and right click anywhere in the scene, this menu will appear on. This menu will only be there if you're in one of these three months here. If I go back to my model mode and if I then right click. If I select the model more there and right click, I see different options. So the life is not there. When you have one of these moments selected, you start seeing the modelling tools when you right click. And in this list there are three tools. The line cuts playing cuts on the loop path carts. These used to be all called the mic tool in the older versions. Now they've separated them. So if I go and selected the line cut, for example, what this lets me do is if I go left, click and then drag. And then if I let go and then I can come down here and click and then more here and then click on, then here and click. I can keep doing this. And when I'm done, I press escape on the keyboard and you see, now I have those segments on. I can go back to my selection tool and then I can go and select any of these polygons and do whatever I like with them. You may have noticed that that pull a gun at the back is also selected. That's because my only select, visible elements is turned off. I can turn this on. And then if I go and select this again only that polygon that I clicked on who will be selected, let me undo these to get rid of those cuts. So I'm gonna press commands that a couple of times, and instead of using the line cuts, I'm actually going to use another tool here called the plane Cuts. So if I go see like this, what this lets me dio is if I go click on a plane like so and then click here, you see Now it cuts an entire plane, regardless of how far your kosher was extending. So if I click here and then go click here and if I press escape to come out of this, you see, it cuts an entire plane. It doesn't seem very useful from this view. But if I come out, if I go commands at a couple of times, if I come out to my four up view, which is the middle click if you remember. And if I go to the front view, for example, and if I go and right click again and select my playing cards, I can not go click and then come down here. And if I hold on a shift to keep this line a straight line, I can click again and then press escape to come out of this. And then what you'll see now is if I go rotate around, that cuts an entire plane along that side. You may notice it's already now, so that's a perfect cut. I can keep doing this a couple more times. If I go to my front view, click shift and click on, I can press escape on a click again on hold on a shift and click again, then press escape. I now have these perfect cuts and then just create a couple, maybe from the top as well. So if I click no more here, shift and click on that. If I click here now more here shifting, click and then escape, I now have these perfect chunks that I just created by using the plane cut tool. Another one that's really useful is a Fargo and maximize my perspective. You first. And if I delete my cube on, let's say, this time I create a cylinder. So if I go click and hold it down on the Cube and then we create a cylinder on if I go make this it in their irritable because, remember, you can't create more cuts before you make the object irritable. So I'm gonna press, see to make inevitable. And if I go in right click this time through the loop path cuts, I can normal my cursor and you can see now it's going to get the perfect loop around the edge that my cursor is moving on for Fargo. Click here, and as well as cutting it, it also gives us this little gizmo. I can click and drag this around, and that changes the position off those cuts. If I click again on if I let's say, for example, want to create one more point, there were more cut. They're All I have to do is to hold on control and then click on them with the control key again. I can click here and then these points that I create here. These triangles are the mapped onto the cylinder on the first access that I clicked on. If I want to distribute these points, I can just go and simply click on this button, and that's going to distribute them all evenly. And for one, add more points Here. I can click on the plus, and every time I click on plus, it's going to keep adding more and more segments. If I click minus, it's going to reduce the seconds I just created. And again, if I want to add this manually, I can hold on command and click anywhere on this bar, and that's going to create a point manually wherever you like. Being able to control where the segments are is going to be extremely useful when it comes to modeling precise objects like we will see in the future movies 19. Editable Objects - Extrude Tool: when you're working with irritable objects. In cinema 40 there are two tools that are really important to. No one is called extrude, and the other one is called Extrude in. Let me explain how they work its first again. Go and create a cube first, and I'm gonna go and add more segments to Cuba. Let's I have five segments on X five for my and 5%. Once I do that, I condemn Prissy to make the coup creditable, which will then provide access to these individual polygons. Let's say I select this polygon and I move my kosher out so you can see what's happening now. If I select and move the polar gone out like this, it's going to start stretching all the points or the edges that are connected to it instead of moving it. Let me just press commands that to go back a step instead of moving it. If I right, click and then choose my extra tool, which is D on the keyboard, useful shortcut to remember, with the tool selected instead of clicking on the arrow because regardless of what tool we have selected, if you click on the arrow, you're going to be moving the polygon. If I press commands that again to go back instead of clicking on narrow. If I actually click outside and dragged towards rights, that's going to create an extrusion, which means it's going to create new polygons that are perpendicular to the origin of polygon that you have selected. And the photo right you go, the longer that extrusion. And if you go towards left and actually push this in and you'll create a hole there, look now, if you want this number to be a precise number, you can come up here to its offsets, provided that you didn't click outside. So this tool is still active on this selected polygon. If I go to offset, I can then type in an exact number. Let's say I type in 175. Press enter. That's going to create an extrusion that's exactly 175 units away from the main surface that you initially clicked on. I can do the same for these other particles as well. So if I go click on this and let's say I hold on a shift and click on this as well and I click outside, and although this looks like it's going towards left, I still need to drag this towards right so they all extend away from the surface that they're coming from. So if I left click and drag towards right, they'll come out. If I drag left. Although it looks like it's moving in, the opposite direction left is going to push them in, right, always is going to push them out. You can create some really interesting things with this. So if I go click here and if I don pressed the to get my extra tool again and if I don't go click and drag towards rights, I can then get my rotate tool by pressing are and I can rotate. It's a little bit. I'm just doing this randomly now. I'm just gonna rotate this a little bit of the table 10 degrees or so, and then I pressed D, which is the shortcut for extrude again. I click outside not one of these arrows again. I click outside and drag right and our again to get my rotate tool, and I'm gonna rotate a little more and then D again and then left, click and drag out again on our and I can keep doing this eventually. My press d now here Eventually it will look straight. So if I press are again, I'll have to do this one more time. I think so. I'm gonna go the drag one last time. If I do are, rotate here and then d click and drag towards Writes a go I can also know Let me just let me just move up I can also now scale this so if I pressed t I want this to be proportionally scaled So I'm gonna click outside and drag Empress D and then click and drag towards right. And let's say I want this to be smaller now, so I press t again click drag towards left on D click and drag towards right and then t to scale this down Andi again and saw in one of the earlier videos We created a table, my creating a separate object for the tabletop and four separate legs. Let's have a look at how we can know that using the extra tool and a simple que let me go and delete my cube now so selected and press delete on the keyboard and I'm gonna create a new cube from scratch. And I'll make this cube, Let's say again, 600 by 10 by 300. And I'm gonna press hate you so I can see the whole thing on because I can still see the lines here. I can actually go and increase the segments as I see those lines. So these segments are gonna determine how wide are thick the legs are gonna be, Let's say, that's how I think I want the leg to be on the X and I'm gonna increases segments on the set as well. Let's say that some think I want to like to be on the set. I now make this object that it's a ball. So if I go press, see so the object becomes eligible, I can go to the bottom of the object by rotating my camera around and I said like this and then I select this with shift gears. Well, I cycle the corner points when I moved here, hold on shift and select that corner and then again shift. Then select that corner as well. I'm going to zoom out. I want to bring this year. Looks like I forgot to click on shift while I was selecting these two. So I'm gonna go select them again quickly with the shift key. Now I have these. Let's I want the legs to be 300 units long. Exactly. So I'm gonna press d to get my extra tool left click drag towards right, And that will activate the offset here, look in the select offset and type in, Let's say 300 and presenter. And if I know Zouma cult, you see, that's how simple it is to create a simple table and using the exact same method. I can quit the chair as well. So let me get a cube and I'm gonna call this 1st 1 table on the new one. I'll call this chair and I'll select this and I'm gonna add more segments to this. But before I do that, I'm gonna decrease the y size. So I'm gonna make this 10 as well. Let me move this here so I can see what's happening. I'm gonna move it down as well. I may be in Let me go to the four views so I can see what's happening. So I'm gonna middle click Maybe this should go about there, and the seed should be slightly lower. And you can see, Although I have my extra tool selected because I'm clicking on the arrows, it's actually moving object that seems about the right height. Just anything more. Maybe they're on them from the perspective. You, if I go zoom in here, should be able to see this a little better. Now, I'm going to add more segments on the set that's going to determine the thickness off the back rest as well as the legs. And I'm gonna have more segments to dio excess well, there. And once I do this, I don't need any segments on the why. Because I'm not gonna extrude anything sideways like that. Once I do that, I'm gonna go and select the chair press, see, to make detectable, I can angle my selection tool and from the top view if I zoom in to the top for you here. So if I maximizes by middle clicking from the top you I'm going to make sure that only select visible elements is turned on. And I'm gonna go and select all of these using my life selection tool and you can see I actually selected more than I want. Oh, someone's hold on command on De Select these points That's going to be our back rest. So if I go in middle click again, I can go to decide I pressed D and I left click and drag towards right That's going to increase the height of those points My offsetting them with the extra tool. Then I can go to the bottom off this either by manually dragging this around with three G or you can go to cameras and change it to the bottom view on I can not let say maximize this. I cannot get my selection tool again, making sure that only select visible elements is turned on. I'm gonna select each corner in this case, instead of selecting one corner, I'm going to select four polygons by clicking here and they're holding their a shift and then clicking here and then with shift again, I click here and then this shift I click here. So 444 and four So 16 polygons are selected. Now I'm gonna switch my view back to the perspective, you and in fact I'm gonna middle click. So I can see all views at the same time, I'm gonna press d so I can get the extra tool. And then I left Click that Say, this is the best view now to do this in the right view so I can see the height of this. I'm gonna left click and drag this towards right until the bottoms are lined up like that. There's a more precise way of being this using snapping function. Or we could have used offset as well. But I just wanted to show you how quickly you can do this. If you were in a rush on you quickly wanted to get some models out. This is the best way to do it. One more thing I wanted to show you with the extra tool. Is this option here on the right that says preserve groups. Let me show you what this means if I go and create a new scene by pressing command n for new. And if I go on, critics fear here in this scene, if I make this fear irritable, so if I select it and then press see to make it irritable if I then get to my polygon mode on the left, so that reveals all the polygons. And if I select everything, which is command a And if I don't get my ex truthful, which is the if this preserve groups option is turned on if I go and click and drag, all those problems are being extruded at the same time. So it just seems like the entire model is scaling up. However, if I go and turn off this preserve groups option and if I dangle, click and drag, they'll all be exploding outwards based on their center points away from their center points so that they all do different things. They all move in different directions, and they're no longer a part off the same group, So that can be quite useful tool to know on if you want to make this quite detailed in psychedelic, if I go press commands that a couple of times until I get that sphere back to being a parametric sphere by then selected sphere increase the segments here. Let's I said this tour 1 50 again. Then I make this edit herbal. Then I select everything. In fact, by the way, if you don't select anything on the object is selected. So if you don't select the polygons, but the object itself is selected. If you dan used extra tool or most of the other tools, it just assumes that you want to select everything. So if I don't select anything now, and if I just use the extra tool to drag this towards right, all those points are automatically selected and you can see what's happening. Now I let go. And if I render this look, it is quite an interesting model. Maybe if I under this and do this little less so if I just go and drag this a little bit. And if I render this, that could perhaps be the head off a microphone or maybe a disco ball. 20. Editable Objects - Extrude Inner Tool: the next Tullow explain now is called the extrude Inner Tube. This is another tool that you use with only edit herbal objects. So it's going crazy Cube on, Let's make the coup creditable, and I'm gonna select my polygon mode on Let's say I select this public on here. Imagine you want to shrink the polygon in, But instead of shrinking natural polygon, you actually want to create a new set of polygons on the inside. So it's going to be an inset from this currents polygon, and that's going to look different than scaling the polygon. So if I press t and scale this, this is what's gonna happen. So that's gonna shrink and everything that's connected Twit will also shrink. But if I do an extra inner, which on the keyboard is the letter I or you can get treated by right clicking somewhere on its here just under the extra tool you see extra dinner. If I select this polygon again, I click outside and drag this towards left so that creating inset like that, I then get to my extra tool by pressing the or right clicking and going to extrude. And then I click and I can push this towards right to extrude this. Or I can push this Tours left to push this in like that. Let me go in on move around a little bit. I can press I again and then create another insects and then D And then I can stick this one out, using the inner extrude and combining that with the extra tool you can create some really interesting shapes. Let's say, for example, if I delete this cube, selecting it and deleting it on the keyboard and I'm gonna create a cylinder and if I press age to re center that I can make the radius of the cylinder, that's a 10 and I'm gonna make the height, Let's say 2 50 if I zoom makeup from the cities of it now, I can make this in their irritable, so oppressed see to make inevitable, and I consume towards the top of the sit in there. So if I hold down two on pushin on get my selection tool, by the way, the shortcut to get to the selection tool, regardless of the current tool you have selected is space bar. So if I tap space bar that's going to go to my selection tool. And if I tap space bar again, it's going to switch back to the previous tool that you had selected. I can select all these top polygons like that. And then I was remarked again, my compress I to get my extra dinner tool and I can extract this this time outwards. Although it's called extra inner, I'm going outwards to create an outset on. I can specify the width of this or in this case, the radius by going to the offset here, and I can go to it because I'm going outwards. I can go to minus under 50 on a presenter. So that's going to be the radius off this top disk that we just created. And I want this to have some thickness as well. So I'm gonna press D to get my extra tool. I'm gonna click and drag this towards right and again from the offset I can get this a specific thickness. So let's say you make this 10 on for the base, I'm gonna go in and I'll spin around a little bit, get my selection tool by pressing space on Select all these points on the base and I'm gonna press I and then I'll click outside and dragged towards right on this one is exactly , let's say 1/3 off the top. So I'm gonna make this minus 50 and I'm gonna press D to get my extra tool click and drag towards right. I'm gonna make this one. Let's say 10 as well if I spin around again and then press stage so I can see the entire coffee table we just created in a matter of minutes. 21. Splines - Intro to Splines: as you work in cinema 40 there will come a point when using objects like the Primitives or the para metrics or the edible objects will just not be enough. T