Chords | Jonathan Peters | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

54 Lessons (3h 53m)
    • 1. Course Overview

      0:58
    • 2. SECTION 1: What is a Chord

      1:57
    • 3. Finding Major Chords

      3:51
    • 4. Playing Major Chords

      6:35
    • 5. Reading Major Chords

      3:51
    • 6. Exercises for Major Chords

      9:04
    • 7. Inversion of Major Chords

      4:32
    • 8. Fingerings for Inversions of Major Chords

      3:50
    • 9. Exercises for Major Chord Inversions

      12:54
    • 10. Progressions with Primary Chords (major)

      8:28
    • 11. Exercises for Major Chord Progressions

      10:29
    • 12. SECTION 2: Finding Minor Chords

      3:28
    • 13. Playing Minor Chords

      2:29
    • 14. Reading Minor Chords

      2:37
    • 15. Exercises for Minor Chords

      7:53
    • 16. Inversion of Minor Chords

      4:09
    • 17. Fingerings for Inversions of Minor Chords

      2:12
    • 18. Exercises for Minor Chord Inversions

      11:58
    • 19. Progressions with Primary Chords (minor)

      6:27
    • 20. Exercises for Minor Chord Progressions

      10:12
    • 21. SECTION 3: Finding Augmented Chords

      3:22
    • 22. Playing Augmented Chords

      1:21
    • 23. Reading Augmented Chords

      5:08
    • 24. Exercises for Augmented Chords

      4:23
    • 25. Inversion of Augmented Chords

      2:09
    • 26. Fingerings for Inversions of Augmented Chords

      1:14
    • 27. Exercises for RH Augmented Chord Inversions

      6:22
    • 28. Exercises for LH Augmented Chord Inversions

      6:22
    • 29. SECTION 4: Finding Diminished Chords

      3:34
    • 30. Playing Diminished Chords

      1:34
    • 31. Reading Diminished Chords

      4:48
    • 32. Exercises for Diminished Chords

      4:21
    • 33. Inversion of Diminished Chords

      4:02
    • 34. Fingerings for Inversions of Diminished Chords

      2:12
    • 35. Exercises for RH Diminished Chord Inversions

      6:14
    • 36. Exercises for LH Diminished Chord Inversions

      6:19
    • 37. SECTION 5: What are Seventh Chords?

      6:04
    • 38. Fingerings for Seventh Chords

      1:57
    • 39. Why is it Called a Dominant Seventh Chord

      1:18
    • 40. Inversion of Dominant Seventh Chords

      5:10
    • 41. Fingerings Dominant Seventh Chord Inversions

      2:06
    • 42. Exercises for RH Dominant 7th Chord Inversions

      5:34
    • 43. Exercises for RH Dominant 7th Chord Inversions

      5:34
    • 44. SECTION 6: Block & Broken

      3:04
    • 45. Alberti Bass

      1:26
    • 46. Waltz Bass

      2:02
    • 47. Arpeggios

      1:33
    • 48. Open Harmony

      2:16
    • 49. Exercises for Chord Accompaniments

      2:20
    • 50. SECTION 7: Roman Numerals

      3:09
    • 51. Figured Bass

      2:39
    • 52. Slash Chords

      1:25
    • 53. Suspended Chords

      1:37
    • 54. Added Tone Chords

      2:10
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About This Class

In this latest course by award-winning composer Jonathan Peters, you will…

  • Learn to recognize chords on the keyboard

  • Learn to recognize chords on the staff

  • Learn to recognize chords by ear

  • Learn to write chords

  • Learn fingerings for playing chords on the piano keyboard

  • Learn to play a variety of chord accompaniments

  • Learn to read chords symbols (including letters, Roman numerals, abbreviations, etc.)

The course includes over 200 exercises, assignments, and quizzes.

All material is presented in a straight forward manner, that doesn't waste time and gets right to the point. This course is part of a series of courses that focus on practical aspects of music (along with some necessary theoretical knowledge). It is Mr. Peters' 9th course overall.

The exercises can be done along with the videos or if you so desire, you will have the option to download PDFs.

Requirements:

  • You must have a basic ability to read notes, or have taken my course "Reading Music: Notes on the Staff & Keyboard".
  • You don’t need to know how to play the piano but it is helpful.

Intended Learners:

  • beginners
  • those who want a refresher
  • anyone wanting to learn about music

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jonathan Peters

Award-winning Composer, Author, Educator

Teacher

Jonathan Peters is an award-winning composer currently residing in the beautiful state of Colorado. Since 1990 he has worked as a composer, conductor, arranger, recording artist, educator and author. Peters holds a B.A. in liberal arts from Thomas Aquinas College and continued his graduate work towards a M.M. in music composition at California State University Northridge, which included areas of study in advanced composition, theory, orchestration, and film scoring.

 

Peters’ music has been performed both internationally and by orchestras across the United States. He has won multiple awards and recognitions, such as 1st place in the 1996 Composers Today Contest. His nea... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Overview: In this course, you'll learn to recognize chords on the keyboard. To recognize chords on the South. To recognize chords by ear. To write chords. You'll learn fingerings for playing chords on the piano keyboard. You'll learn to play a variety of quarter accompaniments. And you'll learn to read chord symbols. Of course includes over 200 exercises and assignments and quizzes. Enroll now to become a better musician today. 2. SECTION 1: What is a Chord: When two different pitches are played together, we call it an interval. If you took the course on intervals, you know that this specific interval is called the third, because it spans three white keys on the keyboard. When three or more different pitches are played together, we call it a chord. A chord is therefore made up of multiple intervals. This specific cord consists of three intervals. From the lowest note to the middle note is the third. From the middle note to the highest node is also a third. And from the lowest note to the highest note is a fifth. Three notes are the minimum number of nodes needed in order for them to be considered a court. But a card can include more than three notes. For example, with five fingers per hand, a keyboard player can play a chord up to 10 notes in size. Using the many instruments in an orchestra, chords can have even more notes. It's important to understand that the notes and chords are not randomly selected. There's actually a lot of math and physics that determine which notes will sound best together. We won't be covering all the math and physics in this course. If that interests, you please check out my music theory course. Although this course includes a little bit of theory, it's mostly the practical application of the theory that we'll be covering. Now that you know the definition of what a chord is, you're ready to begin learning about the various types of courts. In the next few videos, we'll be covering the major chord. 3. Finding Major Chords: There are four basic chord qualities. The first chord quality we will learn about is called Major. The sound of a major chord is typically described as bright and happy. Here's an example of a major chord. A major chord is made up of two different types of thirds. The lower interval is a major third, and the upper interval is a minor third. If you haven't taken my course on intervals, Let's briefly go over the difference between major and minor thirds, as this will be very important for distinguishing the four types of chord qualities. A major third is equal to four half-steps. Half-steps r, the distance from one note to the very next note, higher or lower. Let's count four half-steps from the lowest note on the left. A minor third is equal to 3.5 steps. Let's count 3.5 steps from the lowest note on the left. As you can see, minor thirds are 1.5 step smaller than major thirds. If you understand the difference between the two types of thirds, then finding major chords on the piano keyboard is a simple process. First, choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the major chord. Next, count four half-steps higher. This will give you the middle node to the major court. And last count, 3.5 steps higher from the previous nudge. This will give you the top note of the major chord. You've now found a major chord. When cords are arranged like this in thirds, the chord is in what we call root position. More on this in a later video. When a chord is in root position, we named the cord from the lowest note, which is called the root of the chord. Since the lowest note in this chord is an F, we therefore call this chord and F major chord. Let's try finding another major chord. First, choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the major chord. Next, count four half-steps higher. This will give you the middle node to the major court. And last count, 3.5 steps higher from the previous nudge. This will give you the top note of the major chord. You've now found another major chord. To name the cord, simply named the lowest note. Since the lowest note in this chord is an a, we therefore call this chord an a major chord. Please complete the following. 4. Playing Major Chords: So far, you have learned the definition of a major chord and how to find major chords on the piano. We will now learn how to play major chords. The fingers of the hand are numbered from one to five, with the thumbs being one. When playing major chords in root position, we use fingers, 135. We use these particular fingers because the chord is made up of thirds. And thirds are typically played by skipping fingers of the hand. When playing chords, you need to make sure that your fingers are curved. Never play with flat fingers. Notice how the second fourth fingers are lifted slightly higher than the other fingers. Some people have trouble lifting their fourth finger and end up playing an extra note in the chord. You can overcome this issue with two simple exercises. Let's practice the first exercise on a C major chord. Play the top and bottom notes of the chord with fingers 15. While playing these notes, drop your third finger to play the middle note of the chord. When you do this, be sure that the fourth finger does not move down as well. If the fourth finger is moving down as well, you need to do a little muscle training. The second exercise is to place your curved hand on a flat surface so that each fingertip is touching the surface. While holding your fingers in that position, left your fourth finger as high as you are able to, and then bring it back down again. Do ten repetitions every day and you should see improvements in your muscle control in no time. You probably noticed from the previous lectures and quiz that the black and white keys occur in different locations, in different courts. Where you place your hand on the keyboard will depend upon where the black and white keys are located within the chord. So the next thing we need to do is learn the different possible arrangements of the black and white keys for major chords. There are six possible arrangements. The first arrangement is where all the notes of the quarter white. The second arrangement is the opposite. Where all the notes of the quarter black. The third arrangement is white, black, white. The fourth arrangement is the opposite. Black, white black. The fifth arrangement is white, black, black. The sixth arrangement is the opposite. Black, white, white. Within these six types of arrangements, there are a total of 12 major chords. Why are there only 12 major chords? Well, because there are only 12 different keys on a piano, by using each key as follows note of a major chord. We can therefore only create 12 different sounding major chords. You're now ready to go overhand placement for each of the 12 major courts. For arrangement one major chords, white, white, white. Place your hands that your thumb and pinky or on the first into the key. Your middle finger should be slightly higher up on my keys. If it's in the same place as your thumb to pinky, then you're curving it too much. For our arrangement to black, black, black. Your hand will need to be a lot higher up in order for you to reach the black keys. Other than that, it's basically the same feel as arrangement one, place her hands that your thumb and pinky are on the first interval black keys. Your middle finger should be slightly higher up. For arrangement three, white, black, white. Your middle finger will be slightly less curved, so they've reached the black key. Fingers 135 should all be within the first inch of the key. For arrangement for black, white, black. Move your hand higher until your thumb and pinky are on the first interval black keys. This will cause your middle finger to be very high up on the keyboard. Your middle finger is within the top inch of the key. It is too high and not curved enough. It should be somewhere within the second inch from the top. For arrangement five white, black, black. Place your thumb so that it's within the first into the white key. Curve your fingers so that the middle finger and pinky can reach the black keys, but are still within the first into the black keys. For arrangement six, black, white, white. Move your entire hand higher until your thumb is able to reach the black key. Do not twist your wrist in order to reach the black keys. Maintain a straight risks at all times. Your middle fingers should be within the second inch from the top of the white key. And your pinkie should be near the middle of the white key. When playing chords with the left-hand arrangements, one through four will be the same as the right-hand, but the fingers will be in reverse order. For arrangement five, white, black, black. Move your entire hand higher until your thumb is able to reach the black key. Remember, do not twist your wrist to reach the black keys. Maintain a straight risks at all times. Your middle finger should be within the second inch from the top of the black key. And your pinkie should be near the middle of the white key. For arrangement six, black, white, white. Move your entire hand higher until your pinky is able to reach the black key. Again, do not twist your wrist. Your middle fingers should be near the middle of the white key and your thumb near the bottom of the white key. 5. Reading Major Chords: In the last lesson, you learned that the six different arrangements of black and white keys for major chords on the keyboard. In this lesson, we will cover the same six arrangements on the staff. Arrangement, one, white, white, white includes major chords C, F, and G. If a chord starts on C, F, or G, and there are no sharps or flats, then you know, it's a major chord. Remember for cords stacked up in thirds, the bottom of the chord is the root of the chord. And also the chords name. Arrangement to black. Black black includes the G flat major chord and it's enharmonic equivalent. F sharp major. Enharmonic equivalents are notes that sound the same but are spelled differently and were covered in detail in the music theory course. If a chord starts on g or f, and every node is flat or sharp, then you know it's a major chord arrangement. Three, white, black, white includes major chords, a, D, and E. If a chord starts on a D or E and there was a sharp on the middle note. Then, you know, it's a major chord. Arrangement for black, white black includes major chords, a flat, D flat, and E flat. If a court starts on a flat, D flat or E-flat, and there are flats on the top and bottom nodes, then you know it's a major chord. The two exceptions to arrangement for the D flat major chord, which has an enharmonic equivalent of C-sharp major. And the A-flat major chord, which has an enharmonic equivalent of G-sharp major. The notes of the C-sharp major chord will all be sharp. C sharp, E sharp, and G sharp. But it will still be black, white, black on the keyboard. Because E sharp as a white key, the nodes of the G-sharp major chord will all be sharp as well. G-sharp, B, C-sharp, D-sharp. But it will still be black, white black on the keyboard because B-sharp is a white key arrangement, five, white black, black includes the B major chord and it's enharmonic equivalent. C flat major. If a chord starts on B and has sharps on the middle and top notes, then you know it's a major chord. If it starts on C flat and every node is flat. You'll also know it as a major chord arrangement. Six, black-white, white includes the B flat major chord. If a chord starts on B flat and has no sharps or flats on the middle and top notes, then you know it's a major chord. In the next lesson, we will begin playing various cord exercises. These will do two things. First, they will help you to memorize all 12 major chords using the six arrangements of white and black keys. And second, they will give you practice moving between chords on the keyboard. Please complete the following. 6. Exercises for Major Chords: You're now ready to begin practicing Court exercises for the right and left hands. On the screen you will see a cursor following along with the music on the staff. And below that, you'll see the keys that you need to play with color. You have three options. One, you can play along with the video on the screen. Too. You can simply watch the videos and then print the exercises attached to this lesson and play them on your own. Or three, you can do both options, 1 and 2. Before each exercise begins on screen, you'll have a few moments to look at the starting keys that are colored and find your hand position on the keyboard. If you took my note reading course, you know that C4 is middle C, which is the C closest to the middle of the keyboard. You will then here our countdown to begin. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready? 12. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. 12. 7. Inversion of Major Chords: So far you've learned 12 major chords. In this lesson, we'll learn how to take these 12 chords and use them to create 24 new arrangements for a total of 36 major chord arrangements. In order to do this, we need to learn about chord inversions. A chord inversion is a rearrangement of the pitches and a court, let's use the C major chord to demonstrate the pitches of the C major chord, C, E, and G. If you recall from our previous lesson, when the pitches of a cord are stacked up in thirds, the court is said to be in root position. The bottom note C is the root of the chord, and also the name of the chord. If we rearrange the pitches so that the root C is on top, the order is now E, GC. They're the same three pitches, just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches first inversion. If we rearrange the pitches so that the root sees in the middle, the order is now GCE. Once again, they're the same three pitches, just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches second inversion. All three of these chords are C major chords because they're made up of the pitches of the C major chord. Listen to the C major chord in root position, first inversion, and second inversion. They will sound slightly similar because they are made up of the same pitches. But at the same time they will sound slightly different because the pitches are in different orders. Before we begin learning how to play chord inversions, let's go over how to identify whether our chord is in first inversion or second inversion, and also how to determine the letter name of a chord inversion. When a major chord is in root position, all of the pitches are stacked in thirds. But when we rearrange the pitches, some of the intervals become fourths. The fourths are very important and will help you to identify which inversion of the chord is in, and also to determine the letter name of the chord inversion. If we locate the fourths, the higher note in the fourth will be the root of the chord. And also the letter name of a chord. In this case, c is the root. Now that you know that fourths help you determine where the root of the court is. Here's a simple way to determine which inversion accord is in. If the root is the first note from the top, the court is in first inversion. If the root is the second note from the top, the court is in second inversion. Let's choose a random major chord and try to identify which inversion of the chord is in and what the letter name of a court is. First locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of the fourth in this example is a. Therefore, a is the root, and also the letter name of the chord. This a major chord is in first inversion because the root is the first note from the top. Let's try another example. First, locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of the fourth in this example is D. Therefore, D is the root, and also the letter name of the chord. This D major chord is in second inversion because the root is the second note from the top. Please complete the following. 8. Fingerings for Inversions of Major Chords: By now you've experienced playing root position chords with fingers 135. Chord inversions have slightly different fingerings depending upon the location of a fourths and which hand you're using. When playing a first inversion chord with the right hand. Do not use fingers 135, instead use fingers 125. The reason for this will be demonstrated shortly. When playing a second inversion chord with the right-hand, use fingers 135 as normal. So why do we use fingers 1, 2, and 5 when playing first inversion chords with the right-hand. Well, if we use fingers 135, we would be playing the interval of a fourth with fingers 35. And this causes an awkward stretch and is less stable. If you took my course on intervals, you know that a fourth should span a total of four fingers, not three. Now let's go over the fingerings for the left-hand, which are slightly different. When playing a first inversion chord with the left-hand, use fingers 53 and one is normal. When playing a second inversion chord with the left hand do not use fingers 53 and one. Instead use fingers 521 so that the stretches not awkward and unstable. And so that you're using for fingers to span a force. If you're ever unsure of which fingers to use for chord inversions. Here's a simple tip. Count, one letter per finger, starting from the fifth finger of the hand until you reach the next note of the chord. For the final node, stretched with your thumb. Always use your thumb to do the stretching, not your pinky. Here are some examples. The pitches of this chord, our EGI, see what the right-hand start on your pinky and count fingers until you reach the next note. Whichever finger falls on this note is the finger you should use. For the final note stretch with your thumb. The pitches of this chord are E, GC, with the left-hand, start on your pinky and count fingers until you reach the next note. Whichever finger falls on this note is the finger you should use. For the final note stretch with your thumb. You can use a similar technique to figure out the fingerings when reading chord inversions on the staff. For the right-hand, the pinky will always be the top note. If the top interval's a fourth, we'll use fingers 52 to span the fourth. If the top interval's a third, you will use fingers 53 to span the third. For the left-hand, the pinky will always be the bottom note. If the bottom intervals forth, you will use fingers 52 to spend the fourth. If the bottom intervals and third, you will use fingers 53 to span the third. Please complete the following. 9. Exercises for Major Chord Inversions: In this lesson, you will begin playing a major chord inversion exercises. When you played the previous exercises, all the cores were in root position, and so they were only made up of thirds. This meant that you were always playing with fingers 135. And so you can keep your fingers and hand in relatively the same shape from one chord to the next. But because chord inversions are made up of both thirds and fourths and have different fingerings. You will have to get used to readjusting the shape of your fingers and hand in mid air when moving from one chord to the next. There'll be six exercises for the right-hand and six for the left. Each exercise will focus on one of the six arrangements of black and white keys that you learned previously. Once you're able to play inversions in the six different arrangements of black and white keys. You'll be able to play any major chord inversion with that same arrangement of black and white keys. Before you start, make sure you understand and have memorized the fingerings for coordinate versions that were taught in the previous video. Since all of these exercises will use those fingerings. Remember, you can choose to play along with the video on the screen, where you can watch the video and print the exercises attached to this lesson and play them on your own later. Or you can do both. Before each exercise begins on screen, you will have a few moments to look at the starting keys that are colored and find your hand position on the keyboard. If you took my note reading course, you know that C4 is middle C, which is the closest to the middle of the keyboard. You will venture a countdown to begin. Ready? Ready. Ready. Hi. Hi. Hi. 10. Progressions with Primary Chords (major): In this lecture, you will learn about chord progressions that use primary chords in a major key. But before we do that, we first need to define chord progressions and primary chords. A chord progression, sometimes called a harmonic progression, is a logical sequence of courts. The sequence should have a definite starting point and ending point. The primary chords are the 145 courts. Notice that Roman numerals are used when naming chords. More on this in a moment. The 145 chords are called primary for two main reasons. They are the most frequently used chords and they're able to harmonize with most any melody. So why are the primary cords called 145? To understand this, you need to know a little bit about keys and scales. Although keys and skills will be taught in another course. There'll be mentioned briefly here in order to understand where the core names come from. Basically, if you're playing in the key of C major, that means sees the first pitch of the scale. And so the C chord will be called the one chord. F is the fourth pitch of the scale. And so the F chord will be called before chord. G is the fifth pitch of the scale. And so the G chord will be called the five chord. Let's look at a basic chord progression that uses all three primary courts. This progression is 14151. If all the chords are played in root position, the Handle have to move back and forth quite a bit. And this is not the best choice. A much better way to play this progression would be to include some chord inversions. Let's change the F chord to second inversion and the G chord in first inversion by rearranging the notes like we learned in a previous lesson. Including a mix of root position chords and chord inversions will improve the progression in two ways. We won't have to move our hand back and forth as much. And the transition from one chord to the next will sound much smoother, more natural and more musical. Why does this work so well? It works because there is always one common pitch from one chord to the next. This is indicated by the blue arrows. And because the other two pitches move by stepping, this is indicated by the red arrows. Having a common pitch creates a strong connection between the cords. And movement by steps is one of the most natural and musical types of movement. Let's take a closer look and analyze the specific types of steps that are occurring from chord to chord. This is of the utmost importance since having this knowledge will allow you to play this same chord progression in any key. Here we will look at movement from the 1 chord in root position to the four chord in second inversion. Focus only on the nodes that are stepping. And remember this of the two nodes that are stepping, the upper note always moves by a whole step, and the lower note always moves by half-step. In this example, we move by a whole step from G to a. We move by a half-step from E to F. Remember, a half-step is from one key to the very next key. And a whole step is equal to two half-steps. Now let's look at movement from the 1 chord in root position to the five chord in first inversion. Again, focus only on the notes that are stepping. And remember this of the two notes that are stepping. The upper note always moves by a whole step, and the lower note always moves by half-step. In this example, we move by a whole step from E to D. We move by a half-step from c to b. Now let's go over the same chord progression in a different key. The Roman numerals will stay the same for the primary courts. But the letter names of the primary courts will be different because we're using a different starting pitch. Here's the G major scale. If you're playing in the key of G-Major, that means g is the first pitch of the scale. And so the G chord will now be called the one chord. C is the fourth pitch of the scale. And so the C chord would be called the four chord. D is the fifth pitch of the scale. And so the D chord will be called the five chord. Here's the previous chord progression. Now played using the primary chords from the key of G major. Notice once again the common pitch indicated by the blue arrows and the stepping pitches indicated by the red arrows. Why does this progression starting on G sound so much like the previous chord progression starting on C. And Y is the F-sharp. There's a single answer to both these questions. It's because the half-steps and whole-steps always occur in the same locations. And this is the most important thing you need to understand in order to play chord progressions in any key. Let's take a closer look to see that the whole steps and half steps are in fact in the same locations as before. First, we'll look at movement from the one chord in root position to the four chord in second inversion, focus only on the notes that are stepping. And remember this of the two nodes that are stepping, the upper node always moves by whole step, and the lower note always most by half-step. In this example, we move by a whole step from D to E. We move by a half-step from B2C. Now let's look at movement from the 1 chord in root position to the five chord in first inversion. Again, focus only on the notes that are stepping. And remember this of the two notes that are stepping, the upper node always moves by a whole step, and the lower note always moves by a half-step. In this example, we move by a whole step from B to a. We move by half-step from G to F sharp. Now you can see why there's an F sharp. If there was an F-Natural, the movement would have been incorrect because it would have been a whole step instead of a half-step, and thus would have sounded very different. It's now time for your next assignment. In this assignment you'll be tested on your understanding of how one primary chord moves to another. You will only be tested on the types of movement and learned in this lecture. On the left, you will see a one chord in root position. On the right, humans mark the correct keys of the next chord. You will need to remember which notes move by whole-steps and which moved by half-steps. Please complete the following. 11. Exercises for Major Chord Progressions: Before you begin playing your chord progression exercises, we must first learn the correct fingerings for each hand. Let's start by looking at movement between a one chord in root position and a four chord in second inversion. When moving between these chords with the left-hand, simply move your thumb back and forth to stretch the whole step. When moving between these chords with the right-hand, Move your third fifth fingers back and forth to stretch the whole step and half-step. Now let's look at movement between a one chord in root position and a five chord in first inversion. When moving between these chords with the left-hand, move your third fifth fingers back and forth to stretch the whole step and half-step. When moving between these chords with the right-hand, simply move your thumb back and forth to stretch the half-step. Remember, you can choose to play along with the video on the screen, where you can watch the video and print the exercises attached to this lesson and play them on your own later. Or you can do both. Before each exercise begins on screen, you will have a few moments to look at the starting keys that are colored and find your hand position on the keyboard. If you took my note reading course, you know that C4 is middle C, which is the C closest to the middle of the keyboard. You will venture a countdown to begin. We're ready to go. One, two, ready, go. Ready. Ready. One, two, ready? One, two, ready, go. Ready. One. Ready. Right. Please complete the following. 12. SECTION 2: Finding Minor Chords: There are four basic chord qualities. The entire first section of this course was devoted to learning about the major chord quality. In this section of the course, you'll be learning about minor chords. The sound of a minor chord is typically described as dark and sad. Here's an example of a minor chord. Both major chords and minor chords in root position are made up of thirds. Let's briefly review the different types of thirds so that we can compare the difference between major and minor chords. A major third is equal to four half-steps. A minor third is equal to 3.5 steps. You've already learned that major chords are made up of these two different types of thirds. The lower interval is a major third, and the upper interval is a minor third. Minor chords are just the opposite. The lower interval is a minor third, and the upper interval is a major third. If you understand the difference between the two types of thirds, then finding minor chords on the piano keyboard is a simple process. First, choose any note. This would be the lowest note of the minor chord. Count 3.5 steps higher. This will give you the middle note of the minor chord. Count four half-steps higher from the previous node. And this will give you the top note of the minor chord. You've now found a minor chord. Remember when cords are arranged in thirds, the court is in root position. When a court is in root position, we named the cord from the lowest note, which is called the root of the chord. Since the lowest note in this court has a, we therefore call this chord an, a minor chord. Let's try finding another minor chord. Choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the minor chord. Count 3.5 steps higher. And this will give me the middle note of the minor chord. Count four half-steps higher than the previous node. And this will be the top note of the minor chord. You've now found another minor chord to name this chord simply named the root. Since the root of this chord is C, we therefore call this chord a C minor chord. Please complete the following. 13. Playing Minor Chords: When playing minor chords are in root position, we use fingers 135, just as we did when playing major chords in root position. We also need to remember to keep our fingers curved. When you learned about major chords, you've learned that there are a total of 12 major chords, and that they can be grouped into six different arrangements of black and white keys. There are also 12 minor chords that can be grouped into six different arrangements of black and white keys. Three of the minor chords have all white keys. One minor chord has all black keys. Three minor chords are white, black, white. Three minor chords are the opposite. Black, white black. One minor chord is white, white black. And one minor chord is the opposite. Black, black, white. When determining hand placement for minor chords, you should consider the same things that you did when placing your hand for major chords. Fingers 15 should be positioned on the first inch of the keys whenever possible. Finger 300 always be slightly higher than fingers 1 and 5. Don't twist your wrist in order for your shorter fingers to reach the black keys. Instead, move your hand higher when necessary. Since major chords and minor chords have the major and minor thirds in the opposite locations. Any major chord will become a minor chord by lowering the middle note by half-step. This means that a major chord that had the arrangement white, white, white will become a minor chord that has the arrangement white, black, white. Any major chord that had the arrangement white, black, white will become a minor chord that has the arrangement of white, white, white, and so on and so forth. 14. Reading Minor Chords: In the last lesson, you learned the six different arrangements of black and white keys for minor chords on the keyboard. In this lesson, we'll cover the same six arrangements on the staff arrangement, one, white, white, white includes minor chords, a, D, and E. If a court starts on a D or E and there are no sharps or flats, then you know, it's a minor chord. Remember for cords stacked up in thirds, the bottom of the chord is the root of the chord. And also the chords name. Arrangement to black. Black black includes the E-flat minor chord and it's enharmonic equivalent. D-sharp minor. Enharmonic equivalents are notes that sound the same but are spelled differently and were covered in detail in the music theory course. If a chord starts on E or D and every note is flat or sharp, then you know it's a minor chord. Arrangement. Three, white, black, white includes minor chords C, F, and G. If a chord starts on C, F, or G, and there is a flat on the middle note. Then you know it's a minor chord. Arrangement for black, white black includes minor chords, C sharp, F sharp, and G sharp. If Records starts on c-sharp, F-sharp, G-sharp, and their sharps on the top and bottom notes. Then you know it's a minor chord. Arrangement. Five white, white, black includes the b minor chord. If a chord starts on B and has a sharp on the top note, the note is a minor chord. Arrangement six, black, black, white includes the B-flat minor chord. If a court starts on B, it has a flat in the bottom and middle notes, but none on the top. And you know, it's a minor chord. In the next lesson we'll begin playing various minor chord exercises. These will do two things. First, they will help you to memorize all 12 minor chords using the six arrangements of white and black keys. And second, they'll give you practice moving between minor chords on the keyboard. Please complete the following. 15. Exercises for Minor Chords: You're now ready to begin practicing minor chord exercises for the Brighton left hands. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the PDFs to plan your own, where you can do both. You'll have a moment to find your position on the keyboard before the countdown begins. One, two, ready go. One, One, One, One. 16. Inversion of Minor Chords: In a previous lesson, you learned that chord inversions are simply a rearrangement of the pitches of a chord. Minor chord inversions are just like major chord inversions, as you will see, what's demonstrate using the a minor chord. The pitches of a minor chord, or a, C and E. If you recall from our previous lesson, when the pitches of a quarter stacked up in thirds, accord is said to be in root position. The bottom note a is the root of the chord, and also the name of the court. This is therefore an, a minor chord in root position. If we rearrange the pitches so that the root a is on top, the order is now, see, they're the same three pitches, just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches first inversion. If we rearrange the pitches so that the root a is in the middle. The order is now E, a, C. Once again, they're the same three pitches, just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches second inversion. All three of these chords are a minor chords because they're made up of the pitches of a minor chord. Listen to the a minor chord in root position, first inversion and second inversion. They will sound slightly similar because they're all made up of the same pitches. But at the same time they all sound slightly different because the pitches are in different orders. Before we begin learning how to play chord inversions, let's review how to identify whether a chord is in first inversion or second inversion, and also how to determine the letter name of the chord inversion. When a minor chord is in root position, all the pitches are stacked in thirds. But when we rearrange the pitches, some of the intervals become fourths. The fourths are very important and will help you to identify which inversion accord isn't, and also to determine the letter name of a court. If we locate the fourths, the higher note in the fourth would be the root of the chord. And also the letter name of the court. In this case, a is the root. Now that you know that fourths help you determine where the root of the chord is. Here's a simple way to determine which inversion accord isn't. If the root is the first note from the top, the court is in first inversion. If the root is the second note from the top, the court is in second inversion. Let's choose a random minor chord and tried to identify which inversion the core doesn't, and what the letter name of the court is. First locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of the fourth in this example is e. Therefore E is the root, and also the letter name of the court. This E minor chord is in first inversion because the root is the first note from the top. Let's try another example. First, locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of a fourth in this example is g. Therefore, G is the root and also the letter name of the chord. This G minor chord is in second inversion because the root is the second note from the top. Please complete the following. 17. Fingerings for Inversions of Minor Chords: The fingering rules that you learned from major chord inversions also apply to minor chord inversions. Let's briefly go over them. If you're playing it in inversion with your right hand, place your fifth finger on the highest note and your thumb and the lowest net. If the distance from the top note to the middle known as a fourth, you will use four fingers to span the fourth. So fingers 52 for first inversion chords with the right hand. If the distance from the top notes, the middle note is that stirred. You will use three fingers to span the third. So fingers 53 for second inversion chords with the right hand. If you're playing a minor chord inversion with your left hand, place your fifth finger on the lowest note, and here's some of the highest note. If the distance from the bottom notes, the middle note is that third. You will use three fingers to span the third. So fingers 53 for first inversion chords with the left-hand. If the distance from the bottom notes, the middle note is a fourth. You will use four fingers to span the fourth. So fingers 52 for second inversion chords with the left-hand. You can use a similar technique to figure out the fingerings when reading chord inversions on the staff. For the right-hand, the pinky will always be the top note. If the top interval is a fourth, you will use fingers five, and to disband the fourth. If the top interval as a third, you will use fingers 53 to span the third. For the left-hand, the pinky will always be the bottom note. If the bottom interval is a fourth, you will use fingers 52 to span the fourth. If the bottom interval is a third, he will use fingers 53 to span the third. Please complete the following. 18. Exercises for Minor Chord Inversions: In this lesson, you will begin playing minor chord inversion exercises. As you learned in a previous lesson. Minor chord inversions are made up of both thirds and fourths and have different fingerings. In these exercises, you will therefore have to get used to readjusting the shape of your fingers and hand in mid air. When moving from one chord to the next. There will be six exercises for the right-hand and the left-hand. Each exercise will focus on one of the six arrangements of black and white keys that you learned previously. Once you're able to play inversions in the six different arrangements of black and white keys. You'll be able to play any minor coordinate version with the same arrangement of black and white keys. Before you start, make sure you understand and have memorized the fingerings for chord inversions that were taught in the previous video. Since all of these exercises will use those fingerings. Remember, you can choose to play along with the video on the screen, where you can watch the video and print the exercises attached to this lesson and play them on your own later. Or you can do both. Ready? Right? Ready, right. Ready. Hi. 19. Progressions with Primary Chords (minor): In this lecture, you will learn about chord progressions that use the primary chords in a minor key. In a previous lesson, you learned that a chord progression, sometimes called the harmonic progression, is a logical sequence of chords. The sequence should have a definite starting and ending point. You also learned that the primary chords are the 145 courts in a minor key. They're named with lowercase Roman numerals to indicate that the cords are minor. The 145 chords are called primary for two main reasons. One, there, the most frequently used chords, and two, they're able to harmonize with most any melody. So why are the primary cords called 145? To understand this, you need to know a little bit about keys and scales. Although keys and scales will be taught in another course. There'll be mentioned briefly here in order to understand where the coordinators come from. Basically, if you're playing in the key of a minor, that means as the first pitch of the scale. And so the a chord will be called the one chord. D is the fourth pitch of the scale. And so the D chord will be called the four chord. E is the fifth pitch of the scale, and so the E chord will be called the five chord. There's one exception to the five chord. Most of the time, the five chord used in music will be the major version, even when in a minor key. The reason for this is because there are three different types of minor scales that we can derive chords from. And the most commonly used minor scale is the harmonic minor scale, which has a raised seventh. Because the seventh is raised, it creates a major five chord instead of a minor five chord. Let's use the a minor scale to explain. The seventh note of the natural minor scale is G. But in the harmonic minor scale, we raised the G, so it becomes G-sharp. This G-sharp is now used in all chords that have a gene them. So the five chord that was minor, E, G, B becomes major E, G-sharp B. All of the chord progressions you'll be learning and playing in this course will be taken from the harmonic minor scale. So the basic progression will be 14151, with the five always being major. If all the chords are played in root position, the hand will have to move back and forth quite a bit. And this is not the best choice. A much better way to play this progression would be to include some chord inversions. Let's change the D minor chord to second inversion and the E chord to a first inversion by rearranging the notes like we learned in a previous lesson. Including a mix of root position chords and chord inversions will improve the progression into ways. We won't have to move our hand back and forth as much. And the transition from one chord to the next will sound much smoother. More national and more musical. Why does this work so well? It works because there is always one common pitch from one chord to the next. This is indicated by the blue arrows. And because the other two pitches by stepping, this is indicated by the red arrows. Having a common pitch creates a strong connection between the cords. And moving by steps is one of the most natural and musical types of movement. Let's take a closer look and analyze the specific types of steps that are occurring from chord to chord. This is of the utmost importance since having this knowledge will allow you to play this same chord progression in any key. Here we'll look at movement from the 1 chord in root position to the four chord in second inversion, focus only on the notes that are stepping. And remember this of the two nodes that are stepping, the upper note always moves by half-step, and the lower note always moves by a whole step. And this example, we move by a whole step from C to D. We move by a half-step from E to F. Remember, half-step is from one key to the very next key. And a whole step is equal to two half-steps. Now let's look at movement from the one-quarter in root position to the five chord in first inversion. Again, focus only on the notes that are stepping. And remember this, both notes move by half-steps. And this example, we move by a half step from c to b, and we move by a half-step from a to G sharp. It's now time for your next assignment. In this assignment, you'll be tested on your understanding of how one primary chord moves to another. In a minor key. You'll only be tested on the types of movement learned in this lecture. On the left, you'll see a one chord in root position. On the right. You must mark the correct keys of the next chord. You'll need to remember which notes moved by whole-steps, in which moved by half-steps. Please complete the following. 20. Exercises for Minor Chord Progressions: Before you begin planning your minor chord progression exercises, we must first learn the correct fingerings for each hand. Let's start by looking at movement between a minor one coordinate in root position and a minor four chord in second inversion. When moving between these cores with the left-hand, simply move your thumb back and forth to stretch the half-step. When moving between these chords with the right-hand root, third, fifth fingers, back and forth to stretch the whole step, half step. Now let's look at movement between a minor one chord in root position and a major five chord in first inversion. When moving between these cores with the left-hand move root third, fifth fingers back and forth to stretch the half-steps. When moving between these chords with the right-hand, simply move your thumb back and forth to stretch the half-step. You're now ready for your exercises. As always, you can play along with the video on the screen. Or you can watch the video and print the exercises and play them on your own later. Or you can do both. Before each exercise begins on screen, you will have a few moments to look at the starting keys that are colored and find your hand position on the keyboard. If you took my note reading course, you know that C4 is middle C, which is the C closest to the middle of the keyboard. You will venture a countdown to begin. One, two, ready? One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready. Go. Ready? Ready, ready, ready, right. Ready. Please complete the following. 21. SECTION 3: Finding Augmented Chords: There are four basic chord qualities. You've already learned about major and minor chords. In this section of the course, you'll be learning about augmented chords. The sound of an augmented chord is typically described as anxious. Here's an example of an augmented chord. Remember, chords in root position are made up of thirds. The major third, it is equal to four half-steps, and the minor third is equal to three half-steps. Let's compare the thirds found in major and minor chords with the third is found in augmented chords. As you already know from previous lessons, a major chord in root position will have a major third as the bottom interval, and a minor third is the top interval. A minor chord in root position will have a minor third is the bottom interval, and a major third is the top interval. An augmented chord in root position will have a major third as both the bottom and the top intervals. If you understand the difference between major and minor thirds, then finding augmented chords on the piano keyboard is a simple process. First choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the augmented chord. Next, count four half-steps higher. This will give you the middle note of the augmented chord. Count four half-steps higher from the previous note. And this will give you the top note of the augmented chord. You've now found an augmented chord. Remember, when cords are arranged in thirds, the court is in root position. Chord is in root position, and we named the cord from the lowest note, which is called the root of the chord. Since the lowest note in this chord is C, we therefore call this chord a C augmented chord. Let's try finding another augmented chord. First, choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the augmented chord. Count four half-steps higher. This will be the middle node of the augmented chord. Count four half-steps higher from the previous note. This will be the top note of the augmented chord. You've now found another augmented chord to name the cord, simply named the root. Since the root of this chord is D, we therefore call this chord a D augmented chord. Please complete the following. 22. Playing Augmented Chords: Augmented chords in root position are played using fingers 1, 3, and 5. Just like major and minor chords. Remember to keep your fingers curved. How many different augmented chords are there? Just as there are 12 major chords and 12 minor chords. There are also 12 augmented chords. One chord for each block and y ki. Any major chord will become an augmented chord by raising the top note one half-step. Since you've already learned the major chords, playing augmented chords should be fairly easy. You will practice moving from major chords, augmented chords and the exercises for this section. But before that, the next thing we need to do is learn to recognize augmented chords on the staff. 23. Reading Augmented Chords: Before we start learning how to read augmented chords on the staff, there are two items that we need to cover. The first item is the abbreviation for augmented. We abbreviate augmented as either arg or a superscript plus sign. So a C augmented chord can be written as either of the following. The second item is the double sharp. It double sharp looks like this. It means to play two half-steps higher than the written note. Here, our C, C sharp and C double sharp on the keyboard. As you can see, C double sharp is the same key as D. Even though they're the exact same key, it is sometimes necessary to use double sharps so that we spell chords correctly. Spelling chords correctly means skipping letters of the alphabet and maintaining thirds. For example, the court on the left is spelled B, D-sharp, F double sharp. This is correct because we're shipping letters of the alphabet, and the court is in thirds. The court on the right is spelled B, D sharp, G. This is an incorrect spelling because we skipped two letters of the alphabet between D and G. And because we used a fourth rather than a third, you've already learned that any major chord can be turned into an augmented chord by raising the top note one half-step. And that there are six arrangements of black and white keys for major chords. We will use those arrangements to compare the major chords with augmented chords. And this will help you to more easily recognize augmented chords on the staff. Here are three rules for turning a major chords into augmented chords on the SF. One, if a major court has no sharp or flat on the top node, then a sharp will be added to raise the top node and turn it into an augmented chord. Two, if a major chord has a flat on the top note, the natural sign will be added to raise the top node and turn it into an augmented chord. Three. If a major chord has a sharp on the top note than a double star Bowlby added to raise the top note and turn it into an augmented chord. We will now look at how each of these rules applies to the six arrangements of black and white keys for major chords. The first arrangement was white, white, white, which is C Major, F major, and G major. Since there are no sharps or flats on the top notes. Adding a sharp to the notes of any of these three chords will raise the notes and make them augmented chords. The second arrangement was black, black, black, which is G-flat major. Since there is a flat on the top note, adding a natural to the top note will raise the note and make it an augmented chord. The third arrangement was white, black, white, which is a major, D major, E major. Since there are no sharps or flats on the top notes. Adding a sharp to the top notes of any of these three chords will raise the notes and make them augmented chords. The fourth arrangement was black, white, black, which is a flat major, D-flat major in E-flat major. Since there are flats on the top nodes, adding a natural to the top note of any of these three chords will raise the notes and make them augmented chords. The fifth arrangement was white, black, black, which is B major. Since the top notice a sharp, adding a double sharp to the top note will raise the note and make it an augmented chord. The enharmonic equivalent of B major is C flat major, which is also white, black, black. Since the top note is a flat, adding a natural to the top note will raise the note and make it an augmented chord. The sixth arrangement was black, white, white, which is B flat major. Since there is no sharp or flat on the top note, adding a sharp to the top note will raise the note and make it an augmented chord. There are few more enharmonic equivalents to some of these chords. They are C-sharp major, F-sharp major, and G-sharp major. Since there are sharps on the top nodes, adding a double sharp to the top note of any of these three chords will raise the notes and make them augmented chords. Please complete the following. 24. Exercises for Augmented Chords: You're now ready to begin practicing augmented chord exercises for the right and left hands. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the PDF, so plan your own or you can do both. You'll have a moment to find your hand position on the keyboard before the countdown begins. One, two, ready, go. One. Ready? One, two, ready? Go. One, two, ready? Go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. 25. Inversion of Augmented Chords: In this lesson, you will learn about augmented chord inversions. Remember, according version is simply rearranging the pitches of a court. When you learned about major and minor coordinate versions, you learn that in order to find the root of the chord, you need to locate the upper note. In the fourth. Finding the root gives you the court's name. But since augmented chords are made up of two major thirds, There's no way to find the root one looking at the notes on the keyboard. There isn't even a clear route when listening to augmented chords and their inversions. The only way to determine a route is to observe how the notes are written on the staff. When spelled correctly. Augmented chord inversions on the staff will contain both a major third and an augmented fourth. Let's practice finding the roots to some augmented chord inversions. First, we locate the fourth. Next we named the upper note of the fourth to find the root. The upper note of the fourth is F. This is therefore an F augmented chord. Since the root is the first note from the top, it is in first inversion. Let's try a different chord. First, we locate the fourth. Next we named the upper note of the fourth to find the root. The upper note of the fourth is G. This is therefore a G augmented chord. Since the root is the second note from the top, it is in second inversion. Please complete the following. 26. Fingerings for Inversions of Augmented Chords: Because augmented chord inversions are slightly larger than major chord inversions, you'll always use fingers 135. You will never have to switch to finger to, as you did with major minor chord inversions. Which makes remembering the fingerings for augmented chord inversions a lot easier. When a reading augmented chord inversions on the staff. The fourth makes it seem like we need to stretch further. But this is only an illusion, since an augmented fourth and a major third are the same size, they're both four half-steps. This is why we can use fingers 135 for any I went to coordinate version. The right hand, fingers from bottom to top will therefore be 1, 3, 5. The left hand and fingers from bottom to top will be the opposite. 53 one. Please complete the following. 27. Exercises for RH Augmented Chord Inversions: You're now ready to begin practicing augmented chord inversion exercises. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the PDFs to plan your own, or you do both. You'll have a moment find your hand position on the keyboard before the countdown begins. One, two, ready, go. Ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready? Ready? Ready. Ready. Ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready. Ready. 28. Exercises for LH Augmented Chord Inversions: In this video, we'll practice augmented chord inversions for the left-hand. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the exercise is to plan around. The box. On the keyboard for the countdown begins. Hello. Hi, hello. Following. 29. SECTION 4: Finding Diminished Chords: There are four basic chord qualities. You've already learned about major, minor and augmented cores. And this section of the course, you'll be learning about diminished chords. The sound of a diminished chord is typically described as angry or frustrated. Here's an example of a diminished chord. Remember, chords in her position are made up of thirds. The major third is equal to four half-steps, and the minor third is equal to 3.5 steps. Let's compare the thirds found in major, minor and augmented chords with the thirds found in diminished chords. As you already know from previous lessons, a major chord in root position will have a major third is the bottom interval, and a minor third is the top interval. A minor chord in root position will have a minor third as the bottom interval, and a major third as the top interval. Augmented chord in root position will have a major third as both the bottom and the top interval's. A diminished chord in root position will have a minor third as both the bottom and top intervals. If you understand the difference between major thirds and minor thirds, then finding diminished chords on the piano keyboard is a simple process. First choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the diminished chord. Next, count 3.5 steps higher. This will give you the middle note of the diminished chord. Then count 3.5 steps higher from the previous node. And this will give you the top note of the diminished chord. You've now found a diminished chord. Remember, when cords are arranged in thirds, the court is in root position. When a court is in root position, we named the cord from the lowest note, which is called the root of the chord. Since the lowest note in this court is C, we therefore call this chord a C diminished chord. Let's try finding another diminished chord. First, choose any note. This will be the lowest note of the diminished chord. Next, count 3.5 steps higher. This will give you the middle note of the diminished chord. And last count 3.5 steps higher from the previous node. This will be the top note of the diminished chord. You've now found another diminished chord. To name the cord, simply named the root. Since the root of this chord is D, we therefore call this chord D diminished chord. Please complete the following. 30. Playing Diminished Chords: Diminished chords in root position are usually played with fingers 1, 3, and 5. Just like major, minor and augmented chords. Some people prefer to use alternate fingerings. But for the purposes of this course, we will be using fingers 135. As always. Fingerings will ultimately depend on the context of the music, such as which chords come directly before and directly after? Remember to keep your fingers curved. How many different diminished chords are there? Just as there are 12 major chords, 12 minor chords, and 12 augmented chords, there are also 12 diminished chords. One chord for each black and white key. Any minor chord will become a diminished chord by lowering the top note one half-step. So since you have already learned the minor chords, playing diminished chord should be fairly easy. You will practice moving from minor chords to diminished chords in the exercises for this section. But before that, the next thing we need to do is learn to recognize diminished chords on the staff. 31. Reading Diminished Chords: Before we start learning how to read diminished chords on the staff, there are two items that we need to cover. The first item is the abbreviation for diminished. We abbreviate diminished as either dim or a superscript degree sign. So a C diminished chord can be written as either the following. The second item is the double flat. A double flat looks like this. It means to play two half-steps lower than the written note. Here, our B, B flat and B double flat on the keyboard. As you can see, B double flat is the same key, is a. Even though they're the exact same key, it is sometimes necessary to use double flats so that we spell chords correctly. Spelling chords correctly means skipping letters of the alphabet and maintaining thirds. For example, the court on the left is spelled E-flat, G-flat, B double flat. This is correct because we're skipping letters of the alphabet and the court isn't thirds. The court on the right is spelled E-flat, G-flat, a. This is an incorrect spelling because we're not skipping letters of the alphabet between G and a. And because we've used a second instead of a third, you've already learned that any minor chord can be turned into a diminished chord by lowering the top note one half-step. And that there are six arrangements of black and white keys for minor cores. We will use those arrangements to compare the minor chords with diminished chords. This will help you to more easily recognized diminished chords on the staff. Here are three rules for turning minor chords into diminished chords on the staff. One, if a minor chord has no sharp or flat on the top node, then a flat will be added to lower the top node and turn it into a diminished chord. Two, if a minor chord has a sharp on the top note, than a natural sign will be added to lower the top note and turn it into a diminished chord. Three. If a minor chord has a flat on the top note, then a double flat will be added to lower the top note and turn it into a diminished chord. We will now look at how each of these rules applies to the six arrangements of black and white keys from minor chords. The first arrangement was white, white, white, which is a minor, D minor, and E minor. Since there are no sharps or flats and the top nodes, adding a flat to the top note of any of these chords will lower the notes and make them diminished chords. The second arrangement was black, black, black, which is E-flat minor. Since there's a flat on the top note, adding a double flat to the top node will lower the note and make it a diminished chord. The enharmonic equivalent to V flat minor is D-sharp minor, which is also black, black, black. Since the top note is a sharp, adding a natural to the top note will lower the note and make it a diminished chord. The third arrangement was white, black, white, which is C minor, F minor in G minor, since there are no sharps or flats and the top notes, adding a flat to the top note of any of these three chords will lower the notes and make them diminished chords. The fourth arrangement was black, white, black, which is C-sharp minor, F-sharp minor, and G-sharp minor. Since there are sharps and the top notes of these chords, adding a natural to the top note of any of these three chords will lower the nodes and make them diminished chords. The fifth arrangement was white, white, black, which is B minor. Since the top notice a sharp adding a natural to the top note will lower the note and make it a diminished chord. The sixth arrangement was black, black, white, which is B-flat minor. Since there's no sharp or flat on the top node. Adding a flat to the top. Now, we'll lower the note and make it a diminished chord. Please complete the following. 32. Exercises for Diminished Chords: You're now ready to begin practicing diminished chord exercises for the right and left hands. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the exercises to plan your own where you could do both. You'll have a moment to find your hand position on the keyboard before the countdown begins. One, two, ready, go. Ready. One, two, ready? One, two, ready? Go. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. Ready, go. 33. Inversion of Diminished Chords: In a previous lesson, you learned that chord inversions are simply a rearrangement of the pitches of a court. Diminished chord inversions are just like major, minor and augmented chord inversions. As you will see. Let's demonstrate using the B diminished chord. The pitches of the B diminished chord are B, D, and F. If you recall from our previous lesson, when the pitches of a quarter stacked up in thirds, the court is said to be in root position. The bottom node b is the root of the chord and also the name of the chord. This is therefore a B diminished chord in root position. If we rearrange the pitches so that the route B is on top, the order is now DSB. They are the same three pitches, just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches first inversion. If we rearrange the pitches so that the route B is in the middle, the order is now FBD. Once again, they are the same three pitches just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches second inversion. All three of these chords are B diminished chords because they're made up of the pitches of the B diminished chord. Listen to the B diminished chord in root position, first inversion, and second inversion. They will sound slightly similar because they're all made up of the same pitches. But at the same time they will sound slightly different because the pitches are in different orders. Before we begin learning how to play coordinate versions, Let's review how to identify whether a court is in first inversion, second inversion, and also how to determine the letter name of a coordinate version. A diminished chord is in root position. All the pitches are stacked in thirds. But when we rearrange the pitches, some of the intervals become fourths. The forests have very important and will help you to identify which inversion accord is in, and also to determine the letter name of the chord inversion. If we locate the fourths, the higher note and the fourth will be the root of the chord. And also the letter name of the chord. In this case, b is the root. Now that you know that fourths help you determine where the root of the chord is. Here's a simple way to determine which inversion accord is in. If the root is the first note from the top, the court is in first inversion. If the root is the second note from the top, the court is in second inversion. Let's choose a random diminished chord and try to identify which inversion the court has in and what the letter name of the court is. First locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of the fourth in this example is e. Therefore, E is the root, and also the letter name of the court. This E diminished chord is in first inversion because the root is the first node from the top. Let's try another example. First, locate the interval of a fourth. The upper note of the fourth in this example is g. Therefore, G is the root and also the letter name of the chord. This G diminished chord is in second inversion because the root is the second note from the top. Please complete the following. 34. Fingerings for Inversions of Diminished Chords: The fingering rules that you learned for major and minor coordinate versions also applied to diminish coordinate versions. Let's briefly go over them. You're playing it in inversion with your right hand. Place your fifth finger on the highest note and your thumb and the lowest net. If the distance from the top node to the middle node is a fourth, you will use four fingers to span the fourth. So fingers 52 for first inversion chords with the right hand. If the distance from the top notes, the middle note is a third. You will use three fingers to span the third. So fingers 53 for second inversion chords with the right hand. If you're playing a chord inversion with your left hand, place your fifth finger on the lowest. Oh, here's some of the highest note. If the distance from the bottom notes, the middle note is a third. You will use three fingers to span the third. So fingers 53 for first inversion chords with the left-hand. If the distance from the bottom note to the middle node is a fourth, you will use four fingers to span the forest. So fingers 52 for second inversion chords with the left hand. You can use a similar technique to figure out the fingerings when reading chord inversions on the staff. For the right-hand, the pinky will always be the top note. If the top interval is a fourth, you will use fingers five, and to disband the fourth. If the top interval is a third, you will use fingers 53 to span the third. For the left-hand, the pinky will always be the bottom note. If the bottom interval is a fourth, you will use fingers 52 to span the fourth. If the bottom interval is a third, you will use fingers 53 to span the third. Please complete the following. 35. Exercises for RH Diminished Chord Inversions: In this video, you will practice playing diminished chord inversions for the right hand. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the exercises to plan our own, or you can do both. You'll have a moment to find your hand position on a keyboard before the countdown begins. One, two, ready, go. Ready. One, two, ready? One, two, ready? Ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready. One, two, ready, go. One, two, ready, go. Ready. 36. Exercises for LH Diminished Chord Inversions: In this video, you will practice playing diminished coordinate versions for the left hand. As always, you have three options. You can play along with the video on the screen. You can print the exercises to play on your own. Or if you do both, you'll have a moment to find your hand position on the keyboard buffer. The countdown begins. One, two, ready, go. Hi. Hello. Hello. Hello. 37. SECTION 5: What are Seventh Chords?: In this video, you'll be learning about various types of seventh chords. Before we can define what a seventh chord is, we need to briefly cover seventh intervals and triads. If he took my course on intervals, you already know about sevenths. Let's do a quick review. An interval of a seventh, spend seven letters of the musical alphabet on the keyboard, and seven lines and spaces on the staff. Sevenths come in various sizes. A major seventh is equal to 11 half-steps. It is 1.5 step smaller than the octave. A minor seventh is equal to 10 half-steps. It is 1.5 step smaller than a major sevens, and two half-steps smaller than the octave. A diminished seventh is equal to nine half-steps, is 1.5 step smaller than a minor seventh. Two half-steps smaller than a major seventh, three half-steps smaller than the octave. Up to this point in the course, you've learned about major, minor, augmented and diminished chords. All of these chords had one thing in common. They're all made up of three distinct pitches. A chord that is made up of three distinct pitches is called a triad. We're now ready to define what a seventh chord is. A seventh chord is simply a triad plus an extra note to seventh above the root. Seventh chords will therefore have four distinct pitches. The most common seventh chord is the dominant seventh. The dominant seventh chord is made up of a major triad plus a minor seventh from the root. Because it is made up of a major triad plus a minor seventh. It is sometimes called the major-minor seventh. Most until an example. The next seventh chord will look at is the major seventh chord. The major seventh chord is made up of a major triad plus a major seventh from the root. Listen to an example. The next seventh chord will look at is the minor seventh chord. The minor seventh chord is made up of a minor triad plus a minor seventh from the root. Here's an example. The next seventh chord is the augmented major seventh chord. The augmented major seventh chord is made up of an augmented triad plus a major seventh from the root. The next seventh chord will look at is the diminished seventh chord. The diminished seventh chord is made up of a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh from the root. The half-diminished seventh chord is slightly different than the diminished seventh. Half-diminished seventh chord is made up of a diminished triad plus a minor seventh from the root, rather than a diminished seventh. The next seventh chord will look at is the minor major seventh chord. The minor major seventh chord is made up of a minor triad plus a major seventh from the root. Now let's go over some common chord symbols for seventh chords. Each chord symbol will have a letter, and then typically the chord quality followed by a superscript seven. The letter represents the root of the chord. Since we use the C coordinate, all the previous examples, we will use C as the root and the following chord symbols. We say seven for the superscript seven, not seventh. So this chord symbol would be read as C minor 7. Using C as the root, the following seventh chord symbols would be written as follows. Note that the half-diminished seventh chord has a slash through the degree sign and no number 7. Pause the video and study the symbols before moving on to the quiz. Please complete the following. 38. Fingerings for Seventh Chords: When playing seventh chords in root position with the right hand, we typically use fingers 1, 2, 3, and 5. Because everyone's hands and fingers are different shapes and sizes. Some people prefer one to 45 for some or all of the seventh chords do what's most comfortable for you. Even if you prefer 1235. You might want to switch to 1, 2, 4, and 5 in certain circumstances. For example, when you're playing the F sharp augmented major seventh, the black key C-sharp gets in the way of the third finger and makes it slightly uncomfortable. Using four instead of three in this instance can be helpful. Just remember that the advantage to choosing the same fingering for every seventh chord is that you never have to remember when to use the fourth finger and when g is the third finger. For left-hand seventh chords in root position, we typically use fingers 5321. Once again, you can use the alternate fourth finger if it's more comfortable. Just be aware that using the same fingerings for all your seventh chords will be much easier to remember. Please complete the following. 39. Why is it Called a Dominant Seventh Chord: As you may have noticed by now, the names of each seventh chord come from the type of triads and seventh chord, such as major, minor and diminished. But where does the name dominant comes from? The word dominant refers to the fifth pitch of the scale. We call the chord built on the fifth pitch of the scale, the five chord, or the dominant chord. We're using the C major scale in this example. And the fifth note in the C major scale is G. So the chord built on G will be called the five chord, or dominant chord, and is represented with the roman numeral VI. The word seventh refers to the seventh note from the root that is added. So the name dominant seventh means the fifth quarter of the scale. Within added seventh. The generic name is 57, but the specific name is the letter name, which in this particular case is G7. 40. Inversion of Dominant Seventh Chords: As you know by now, chord inversions are simply rearranging the pitches of a chord. Seventh chords can also be inverted. But because there are four distinct pitches, there will be four different arrangements of the pitches, as you will see momentarily. Since the dominant seventh chord is the most common seventh chord, we will be focusing on the dominant seventh chord in this lesson and in the subsequent lessons and exercises, we will use the dominant seventh starting on G as our example. The pitches of the G7 chord in root position, R, G, B, D, and F. If you recall from our previous lesson, when the pitches of a quarter stacked up in thirds, the court is said to be in root position. The bottom note, G is the root of the chord and also the name of a chord. If we move the bottom note to the top, the order is now B, D, F, G there. The same for pitches, just sin a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches first inversion. If we move the bottom note to the top, again, the order is now d, e, f, g, b. They are the same for pitches just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches second inversion. If we move the bottom note to the top, again, the order is now F, G, B, D. Once again, they're the same for pitches just in a different order. We call this arrangement of pitches third inversion. Third inversion as possible. Because seventh chords have one extra pitch compared to try ads. All four of these chords are G7 courts because they're made up of the pitches of the G7 chord. Listen to the G7 chord in root position, first inversion, second inversion, and third inversion. It will sound slightly similar because they're all made up of the same pitches. But at the same time they will sound slightly different because the pitches are in different orders. Before you learn how to play dominant seventh chord inversions, you need to learn how to identify whether a dominant seventh chord is in first inversion, second inversion, or third inversion. And also how to determine the letter name of a dominant seventh chord inversion. When a dominant seventh chord is in root position, all the pitches are stacked in thirds. But when we rearrange the pitches, some of the intervals become seconds. The seconds are very important and will help you to identify which inversion accord is in, and also to determine the letter name of the chord inversion. If we locate the seconds, the higher node in the second will be the root of the chord. And also the letter name of the chord. In this case, G is the root. Now that you know seconds help you to determine where the root of the court is. Here's a simple way to determine which inversion seventh chord is in. If the root is the first note from the top, accord is in first inversion. If the root is the second of for the top, who coordinates in second inversion. If the root is the third note from the top chord is in third inversion. Let's choose a random seventh chord and tried to identify which inversion the core doesn't, and what the letter name of the court is. First, locate the interval of a second. The upper note of the second in this example is e. Therefore, ease the root and also the letter name of the chord. This E seven chord is in first inversion because the root is the first note from the top. Let's try another example. First, locate the interval of a second. The upper note, the second in this example is f. Therefore f is the root and also the letter name of the chord. This F7 chord is in second inversion because the root is the second note from the top. Let's try one more example. First, locate the interval of a second. The upper note of the second in this example is C, therefore sees the root and also the letter name of the court. This C7 chord is in third inversion because the root is the third note from the top. Please complete the following. 41. Fingerings Dominant Seventh Chord Inversions: In this video, we'll be looking at the typical fingerings for dominant seventh chord inversions. Let's start with the right-hand. For first inversion, we use fingers 1245. For second inversion, we use fingers 1235. And for third inversion, we use fingers 1, 2, 3, and 5. Basically, if the top two notes of the chord form a second, we use fingers 45. If the top two notes of the chord form a third, we use fingers 35. Remember this is the typical fingering. As always, context matters as well as the size of her hands. In some instances, you may want to adjust the fingerings to make things easier to play. For example, the C7 chord and third version may be easier with fingers 1245, because stretching from C to E with fingers 23 can be difficult with the two black keys in between. Always do what's most comfortable for you and makes the most sense. Now let's look at the left-hand fingering. For first inversion. We use fingers 5, 3, 2, and 1. Per second inversion. We use fingers 5321. For third inversion, we use fingers 54, 2, and 1. Basically it's the bottom two notes of the chord form a second. We use fingers 54. If the bottom two notes of the chord form a third, we use fingers 53. Please complete the following. 42. Exercises for RH Dominant 7th Chord Inversions: One, two, ready? One, two, ready? Ready? Ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready. Ready. One, two, ready. One, two, ready. Ready. 43. Exercises for RH Dominant 7th Chord Inversions: One, two, ready, go. The following. 44. SECTION 6: Block & Broken: In the next few videos, we'll be looking at common chord accompaniments. What is an accompaniment? And accompaniment is the harmony that accompanies a malady. Accompaniments are typically played with the left-hand, while melodies are typically played with the right-hand. Block chord accompaniments are the simplest form of court accompaniment. A block chord is when all the pitches of the quarter played simultaneously is called a block chord because the pitches are stacked on top of each other vertically like blocks. Here are just a few examples of block chord accompaniments. The chords can use a long notes, short notes, or even have their own unique rhythm. Since well-written cord accompaniments typically give contrast to the melody, the accompaniment we'll primarily be determined by what the melody is doing. Let's listen to an example of a block court accompaniment. The next accompaniment we will look at is broken chord accompaniment. A broken chord is when the pitches of record or played sequentially. There are many types of broken chord accompaniments, and we will cover some of them in the following videos. Here are just a few examples of broken chord accompaniments. The pitches of the chord can be played in order from lowest pitch to highest pitch, where they can be played out-of-order. They can also have their own unique rhythms. Most accompaniments use some sort of broken chords in order to keep things more interesting by creating rhythmic movement. Broken chords use the same fingerings as block chords, since they're both made up of the same pitches. Let's listen to an example of a broken chord accompaniment. 45. Alberti Bass: In this video, you will learn about another type of broken chord called Alberti bass. In Alberta base the pitches of the quarter played in a specific order. The order is bottom pitch, top pitch, metal pitch, top pitch. Alberti bass is usually performed using a thoughts, but can also be played using quarter notes or 16th us. How Bertie base can also be used with chord inversions. Start with the bottom pitch of the chord inversion, followed by the top pitch than metal pitch, then top pitch again. Here's the same fingerings for Alberto base as you do for block chords in root position and for chord inversions. Let's listen to an example of an Alberti bass accompaniment. 46. Waltz Bass: Another type of broken chord is waltz base. In waltz base, the bottom picture, the core displayed separately, but the other two pitches of the quarter played simultaneously. Listen to put an example. Although walled space is only used in 34 meter, there are similar accompaniment patterns in other meters. Here are examples in to 44 for a variation on this style of accompaniment is to swap the bass note. So rather than always playing the root of the chord as the single base note, we sometimes play the fifth of the chord, which in this case is g. This gives some variety to the accompaniment. Another variation is to play an octave in the base, and then the full court above it. Typically in an inversion. This accompany MAN can be performed using various rhythms and inversions to make the music even more interesting. Listen to an example. 47. Arpeggios: Another type of broken chord is the arpeggio. The word arpeggio comes from the Italian arpeggio RA, to play upon the harp. Arpeggios are typically played ascending and span an octave so that the lowest note is repeated at the top. They are less frequently played descending. Oftentimes, arpeggios are played both ascending and descending. They can even span two or more octaves. Arpeggios that span an octave are played using fingers 5321 for the left-hand. Although some people prefer 541. For the right-hand use fingers 1, 2, 3, and 5. Here's an example with an arpeggio accompaniment. 48. Open Harmony: Chords can either be played using close harmony or open harmony, also known as close position and open position. All of the chords in this course so far have been played using close harmony. Close harmony is when the pitches of a cord are within an octave and r is close to one another as possible, leaving no gaps for additional pitches of the chord. Open harmony is when the pitches of a chord span more than an octave and are spaced out, leaving gaps. Open chord sound more full than close chords. Let's into an example of both. Open harmony is easy to achieve when the pitches are split between various instruments, such as in an orchestra. But playing open chords on the piano is a different story. To play this open chord, we would need a large enough hands to reach a tenth. From C to E. Fingers 521 are used. But some people cannot reach this far. And so the way around this is to play the open chord as a broken chord. Playing the notes one at a time enables us to extend and swivel. Here's an example of an open chord accompaniment. Please complete the following. 49. Exercises for Chord Accompaniments: Go Ready, go to go. 12345. Go One, two, ready, go. 50. SECTION 7: Roman Numerals: Have you ever seen a bunch of Roman numerals next to the music and wondered what it meant. In this lesson, you will learn where these symbols come from and how to read them. Here's the C major scale. We build a chord on each pitch of the scale, we get the following chords in the following order. C major, D minor, E minor, F major, G major, a minor, B diminished, and C Major. Using the letters to identify chords gives us only a little bit of information about the courts, such as their root and quality. If we assign a Roman numeral to each of the chords, C Major is the one chord, D minor is the two chord, E minor is the three chord. F major is the four chord. G-major is the five chord. A minor is the sixth chord, and B diminished is the seven chord. Notice that all of the major chords are written using capital roman numerals. Well, the minor and diminished chords are written using lowercase Roman numerals. Using Roman numerals gives us even more information about the courts, such as their position within the hall and their particular role or function within the music. Having this knowledge is very important for people who write music. It's very important for you to understand that these particular letter names only correspond to these particular Roman numerals in this key. In another key, they will be different. In order to demonstrate this fact, let's compare the keys of C major and G major. In the C major scale, the fifth chord is G. So a G chord will function as a five chord in the key of C. But in the G-major scale, the first chord is G. So a G chord will function as a one chord in the key of G. This isn't a composition course, so you don't have to know what all the functions are. You just need to understand that when you see the Roman numeral five, it's not always g. When you see the Roman numeral one. It's not always see, and so forth and so on. It's also important to note that a chord inversion will have the same roman numeral as the root position chord. So a C major chord in the key of C major will be called one, whether it's in root position, first inversion, second inversion. We'll talk more about Chord Symbols for inversions in the next video. In the next assignment, you will be given some chords in the key of C using what you learned in this video, he was correctly identified their place in the scale with Roman numerals. 51. Figured Bass: In the next two videos, we'll cover chord symbols that are connected to chord inversions. The first is called figured bass. We won't get into the history of figured bass, but it's contemporary US is basically a shorthand for writing coordinate versions. When you see a letter followed by superscript numbers, o other tells you the name of the chord, and the numbers tell you which inversion It's in. Let's explain. Here's a C major chord in first inversion. It is written as C 63. Why the number 63? Well, the numbers refer to the interval between the lowest note and the other nodes. From E to C is a sixth, and from E to G is a third. Oftentimes the three is left off and it's just written as C6. Here's a C major chord in second inversion. It's written as C64. Why the number 64? Again, the numbers refer to the interval between the lowest note and the other nets. From G to E is a sixth, and from G to C is a fourth. Seventh chords also have figured bass shorthand for inversions. Let's use the G7 chord to demonstrate a G7 chord in first inversion is made up of a sixth, fifth, third. And so it's written as g 65 3, a G7 chord. And second inversion is made up of a sixth, fourth, and the third. And so it's written as g 64 3. A G7 chord in third inversion is made up of a fourth second. And so it's written as g 64 2. These are often abbreviated as follows. A useful way to remember this is the first and last arrangements. Use only one number, while the middle arrangements use two numbers. To remember which numbers simply count down from 7, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. Please complete the following. 52. Slash Chords: Sometimes in music, especially in popular music, you will see Chord Symbols with a slash. These are called slash chords and are basically used as another type of shorthand for chord inversions. The first letter is the name of a chord. The second letter is the base of the chord. So C slash and g is a C major chord with a G on the bottom. This means the court is in second immersion. Cd slash ie, a C major chord with an E on the bottom. This means the court is in first inversion. Sometimes slash chords are used as a way to help beginners play more complicated chords. For example, the symbol D minor seven might be confusing if you didn't know what a minor seventh was. But if we write the court is f slash d, it is much easier to understand what is meant to be played. This means an F major chord with the D and the base. Please complete the following. 53. Suspended Chords: As you know from previous lessons, the third of the chord is what gives the cord either a major or minor sound. Without the third accord cannot be identified as major or minor. A suspended chord suspends or removes the third of the chord and includes a different note, usually the second or fourth note of the scale. This chord is called a C suspended for, because that's third of the chord has been suspended and replace with F, which is the fourth note of the C-scale. The chord symbol is c. Sus4. Chord is called a C suspended too, because the third of the Court has been suspended and replace with D, which is the second note of the C-scale. Chord symbol is C cis to. The fingerings for a suspended chords are very common sense fingerings use fingers 15 like you would for a major or minor triad in root position, and then use the closest available finger for the replacement note. Listen to a suspended four chord, followed by a suspended chord. 54. Added Tone Chords: In this video, you will learn about added tone cords. Added tone cords, add a pitch to major or minor chords. They will therefore include four distinct pitches. The added pitch is often the second note of the scale, or the fourth note of the scale. The added pitch may not be the seventh note of the scale because that would create a seventh chord. Here's a C major chord with him added fourth. We call this a C add four chord. Here's a C major chord with an added second. We call this a C add two chord. Listen to a C Major, add four chord followed by a C major addtwo cord. Here's a C minor chord with an added fourth. We call this as C minor add four chord. Here's a C minor chord with an added second. We call this a C minor. Add to court. Listen to a C minor add four chord, followed by a C minor addtwo cord. The fingerings for addtwo and add four chords are very common sense fingerings. Use fingers 135 like you would for a major or minor triad in root position, and then use the closest available finger for the additional note. Please complete the following.