Chinese Characters - Cracking the System! | Richard Stibbard | Skillshare

Chinese Characters - Cracking the System!

Richard Stibbard, Learn Chinese characters efficiently!

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27 Lessons (1h 46m)
    • 1. 01 Introduction

      6:41
    • 2. 02 Traditional vs simplified characters

      3:50
    • 3. 01 Pictograms and Ideograms

      2:59
    • 4. 02 Meaning meaning compounds

      4:57
    • 5. 03 Sound meaning compounds

      4:00
    • 6. 04 Sound loans and reclarified compounds

      3:02
    • 7. 01 Phonetic Families Introduction

      1:13
    • 8. 02 The ba family

      6:12
    • 9. 03 The bao, pao family

      3:30
    • 10. 04 The qing, jing family

      4:26
    • 11. 05 The fen family

      5:03
    • 12. 06 The ding family

      2:54
    • 13. 07 The gu family

      4:22
    • 14. 08 The zheng family

      3:12
    • 15. 09 The zhu family

      3:02
    • 16. 10 The zhi family

      2:00
    • 17. 11 The hu family

      3:59
    • 18. 12 The gen, hen family

      6:23
    • 19. 13 The liang, lang family

      4:32
    • 20. 14 The ke, he, ge family

      4:21
    • 21. 15 The a family

      1:39
    • 22. 16 The qi, ji, yi family

      3:28
    • 23. 17 The pang, bang family

      4:28
    • 24. 18 The fang family

      7:43
    • 25. 19 The bian, pian family

      3:55
    • 26. 20 The tong,dong family

      2:52
    • 27. Conclusion

      1:13

About This Class

In this course I show you the system behind the vast majority of Chinese characters - their PHONETIC elements. 

Most Chinese characters are made up of two parts – the Radical, which gives some idea of the meaning, and the ‘other part’.

Examples of radicals include the ‘hand’ radical for actions performed with the hands, the ‘three drops of water’ radical for things to do with water and wet things, and the ‘mouth’ radical for things to do with speech.

The radicals are well-know and have a central role in all Chinese language teaching, but the ‘other part’ of the character is typically neglected in the classroom.

In the vast majority of cases this non-radical part of the character gives us a very good idea of the pronunciation of the character while the radical tells which one it is out of a short list of characters with that pronunciation, and an awareness of the phonetic element of characters is the most efficient way to learn the huge bulk of Chinese characters needed for literacy.

Transcripts

1. 01 Introduction: all those Chinese characters you're trying to learn. You don't have to remember them all by roads by endless copying and flash cards. There is another much more efficient way to learn the bulk of them, and that's what I'm going to teach you. In this course. I'm going to show you the system behind the vast majority of Chinese characters. Our show how you can use this system to learn characters efficiently in their natural families, to distinguish visually similar characters on best of all, almost from the start to read characters you've never seen before in your life, I'm Richard still bowed and I'm your tutor for this course. I have a PhD in fanatics ended a star G. C S E in Chinese. For four years, I taught Chinese to learners of all ages, from primary school kids to learners in their seventies, in schools privately on online. Now I'm reaching out to a new and hopefully much larger audience by creating video courses based on my classroom materials. Most Chinese characters are made up of two parts that radical, which gives some idea of the meaning. On the other part, examples of radicals include the hand radical for actions performed with the hands. Three drops of water radical for things to do with water and wet things on the mouth. Radical for things to do with speech. The radicals are well known and have a central role in all Chinese language teaching. Students leave the classroom, or least they're supposed to leave the classroom with a good understanding of the semantic role of the radicals in character formation. The other part of the character is typically so neglected in teaching that although it has a name only specialists are aware of that, and students are hardly ever taught what its name is were made aware of it at all. Its importance is underestimated and lost over. Students are aware of pictograms and often rather questionable, even wacky, explanations of how compound characters air composed. But this other part of the character is ignored. This is a shame, because in the vast majority of cases, this non radical part of the character gives us a very good idea of the pronunciation. While the radical tells us which character it is out of a short list with that pronunciation. Here's an example early on, when you're doing basic characters. You'll learn young meaning sheep or goat on around the same time you'll learn young as in high young ocean. But will your teacher make explicit the obvious link between the two Youngs? Both pronounce the same and both having the same non radical component? Probably not. It will be emphasized that the sheep character is a pictograms. They're the horns, and students will come away knowing very well that they've learned to style those picture of a sheep or a goat in the sea young. The meaning of the water radical be emphasized, and students will come away aware of that. But the frenetic role of the young element the link between young, the sheep character and young. The sea character is not emphasized enough for it to register as off absolutely central importance in the minds of students. It's even less likely the your attention will be drawn to the related character young, as in Yankee oxygen, with the air or gas radical on the same phonetic element. Again, in one of your very first lessons, you'll learn the sounds. Ma, Ma, ma ma. As the first examples of the tones of port on what and soon you'll see the mark characters , stylized pictograms of a horse. My the question particle, as in the Hama on DMA, as in Mama Mami. But is the link between them made explicit is attention drawn strongly enough to the connection between them are characters that they all share the same frenetic element. These are sound meaning compounds or phonetic semantic compounds or picture frenetic compounds. On these are the focus of my course, anywhere from 80 to 95% of Chinese characters, according to how many characters you, including Your count on them or you include the higher the percentage they account for our sound meaning compounds of this sort, in which one part of the character represents with varying degrees of accuracy, the sound on the other, the rough meaning From this statistic. It's quite clear that in order to get anywhere with learning the sheer bulk of Chinese characters, you have to master the phonetic elements on their derivatives, and I think it's best to do this explicitly. The frenetic family rule is not infallible. Chinese writing is a human invention. It's extremely old on many changes have taken place over the centuries, both to the spoken language on the written script. This means that the phonetic system is certainly not 100% reliable. Often the tones change from one word to the next, as in the March family. That's often how the different words a distinguished. After all, sometimes the initial constants different Shen and Jen, for example, or bow and power on sometimes their characters, which it pronounce completely differently from the others in the group. Not all non radical parts of a character former phonetic component at all. However, the existence of these exceptions doesn't invalidate the fact that the frenetic families make up the most common type of character on that. Learning them in this way is the single most useful learning strategy for the foreign learner. If you follow my approach, you'll often be learning one and getting 45 or even more characters almost free. You'll find that as you become familiar with the fanatic elements, you'll constantly be saying to yourself, I know that one. It sounds something like this. It means something like this. It can only be this. Once you've got a largest number of phonetic elements under your belt, you'll reach that wonderful point where you could read characters you've never seen before , as long as you're familiar with sound of the spoken word. At that point, you're suddenly realized that you've cracked the system and you're learning Chinese characters rapidly in the most efficient way there is. 2. 02 Traditional vs simplified characters: before we start, we have to know what we're doing about the unfortunate existence of two character sets. Traditional characters as used in Taiwan and Hong Kong versus the simplified version used in the PRC in Singapore. The system of sound meaning compounds is in principle exactly the same for both character sets. For instance, in the March family simplified mark is equivalent to a traditional Maher throughout. And although many of the radicals have different written forms in the two versions, the way they're used to distinguish the derivatives is exactly the same. Sometimes a different phonetic element is used. For instance, simplified clock is junk using the simplified gold radical for metals and John, as in John Guare for the frenetic. Where is the traditional clock character is Joan, with the traditional gold radical on a different jong frenetic for the sound. In that case, although the detail is different to the two sets the system used is identical, it pays to recognize this and see how two characters which on the surface are entirely different. Only one stroke is actually the same can only be one and the same character. Overall, traditional characters work a bit better for the sound meaning system than simplified ones . There are quite a lot of cases where one simplified character is used in place of several more specific traditional ones. Sometimes this is because the radical has simply been removed and just the frenetic part remains. In other cases, the fanatic element has been deleted from the simplified version, leaving not much a tall to tell us what the character is. An example of a simplified character. Whether radical has been removed is simplified. Lee used to meet inside in traditional characters, this character means a Chinese mile in the traditional version. Inside is this Lee or this one, both of which have knee is a frenetic on the clothes radical. The use of this character to mean inside is intended simply to reduce the number of strokes in a frequently used character. Well, look at this type of character a bit later. Two examples of simplified characters where the frenetic part has been deleted are Guan Broad, as in Guangdong. On Chang, as in gone Chang factory, traditional Guan has an imperfecta phonetic one, but at least it rhymes and traditional chant has a perfect frenetic. Also pronounced chang even the tone is the same. Nothing much was gained in the creation of simplified Guang and chant their ugly hard to distinguish from each other on have lost definitive components entirely, meaning that although they're certainly simple to right, they have to be learned by rote. Nevertheless, although traditional characters generally not always but generally make better use of the system and teaching, I will present simplified characters as the primary version and used these when I'm identifying frenetic families. This is for no better reason than that. Most students are now learning simplified characters in every case where they're different . I will put the simplified version first, followed by the traditional version like this. I may have something to say about the traditional characters if they're of interest, as the two versions of the clock character are in the grand scheme of things low, often different in detail. The two character sets off for the most part equivalent in terms of how characters air created on the use of the sound meaning system 3. 01 Pictograms and Ideograms: this is Richard still barred with section two of the course, Read Chinese characters you've never seen before. You've done those quizzes, and if you did well, that's good, and you're ready to start. If there were many of those which you didn't know, then you need to brush up on radicals and basic characters from a book such as Chinese Made Easy. There's a link to this on Amazon in the comments below this video, for the sake of completeness and to make sure we're all on the same track now we'll have an introductory look at the various types of Chinese character of which sound, meaning compounds are by far the most numerous and the most important. There are several different classifications, but most commonly Chinese characters are divided into six types. One stylized pictures or pictograms to symbols or ideograms. Three meaning meaning compounds for sound meaning compounds. That's my focus in this course. Five sound loans and six re clarified compounds. In this lesson, we'll look at the 1st 2 types, pictograms and ideograms, which are similar. The uninformed observer, the non learner of Chinese, typically only thinks of pictograms and ideograms in relation to Chinese writing and Chinese lessons also typically place a lot of emphasis on the pictographic aspect of characters. All students are taught that Ren is a stylized picture of a man. Move is a picture of a tree, and as we've just seen, Young is a sheep. It's common for beginning students to be shown how ancient pictures gradually changed in shape until they became modern, stylized Chinese characters. The Chinese name for pictograms is Shiang shing indicate shape some characters of pictures not of a physical object but symbolizing a more abstract concept. Examples are the numbers 123 e r. San and the characters for Up and Down Xiang and Shower. But these are still pictorial. Inform. These are the ideograms. You're sure indicate thing or indicate matter in Chinese pictograms. Ideograms, air. True and useful explanation of the most basic characters. But these are only a few of the total. You can't go on using pictures for many abstract ideas and off the many thousands of characters only a few 100 of this sort. Once those ancient scribes had exhausted the possibilities of pictograms and ideograms, the next method of character creation was to combine to existing characters to represent a word for which there was previously no character, these meaning meaning compounds of the topic of the next lesson. 4. 02 Meaning meaning compounds: you can't go on writing with pictures for very long. So the next strategy in expanding the written vocabulary of Chinese was to combine to existing characters to make one new one whose meaning to rise from some logic in the combination. A good example of this is the combination of two simple characters. Boo, meaning not on junk meaning straight or true to make. Why meaning not straight? Not true, as in Why, too, To distort. To misrepresent mu tree is used to make two new characters lean would or group of trees on sun. Half of the word for forest sending similarly her son or day and you air, moon or month are combined to make this character. If you're at the level I expect, then you already know what this means and how to say it. But if not, have a guess. Some of my beginner students have entirely logically suggested it could mean day and night , but this type of character is not very logical. Actually, it's the syllable mean, and it means bright in the word Guangming, the brightness of the sun and the moon combined. It's also the first half of the word for tomorrow meeting 10. A particularly strange example to me anyway, that meaning meaning compound is the common character may beautiful, which is also the first half of Make war America. It's made up off young sheep and duh big. Another very common example is how good, which is made up of new woman and son. The character on safe as in Antoine, is composed of New Woman under a roof. Ancient Chinese people believed it was risky to leave the girl alone outside and that it was safer for her to stay at home fine so far. But what about this? A pig? Sure, as in Yes, sure wild boar with the same roof over its head. What does that mean? Pig sty, perhaps? No, it's the character for char family or home, as thes characters show there to serious problems. For us foreign learners with these meaning, meaning compounds first they're meeting tends to be apparent only to the person who thought them up. The inventor off the May character may have thought big sheet with the epitome of beauty, but possibly few would agree. Certainly we cannot predict the meaning of a compound from its individual parts, the second problem with these compound characters is that there is nothing to link their pronunciation with that of their component parts. Nothing to link, for instance, young and dark with may or rear, and you air with me. These meaning meaning compound characters are the most interesting type of character that often quite fun because they shed light on the thought processes of the ancient scribes who invented them. But their lack of logic in either meaning or pronunciation means that we have to learn them one by one, with not much to help the Chinese name. For these meaning, meaning compounds, is where ye joined, meaning these types of character pictograms, ideograms and meaning meaning compounds are dominant in the minds of students. Whereas the outsider only thinks of pictograms and ideograms, the active learner is typically aware off, actually often obsessed by these compound characters and their supposed origins. This obsession with the internal composition of these characters is fed by the abundance of Entomology is often conflicting, claiming to decipher the meanings of the various parts of these characters. For an example of this, take a look at this quarter page or for a more scholarly treatment at we goes Chinese characters, there's a link to that on Amazon. Below fun in many cases, Yes, true, That's dubious. Does it matter if they're not true? Maybe not. If explanations like these are memorable and help you learn, then go ahead and make use of them as we need all the help we can get. But by their nature, there's no way around. The fact that both the pronunciation on the structure of these characters have to be learned by heart on do not have the internal logic of the third type of character, which is my focus in this course, the sound meaning compounds. I look at these in the next lesson. 5. 03 Sound meaning compounds: with good sound, meaning compounds. The composition is very clear. One part that radical gives us an idea of the meaning. And the other part, whose Chinese name is in food or sound symbol, gives us a good idea of the pronunciation. Although with no reliable information about the tone, these families of characters are composed of ahead fanatic character with no particular tone young. In my first example, Marin my second example, with a number of derived characters. This system goes on and on throughout the entire writing system, and the bulk of this course will be drawing your attention to these to make sure that you scrutinize characters to see if there this type. Once noticing these compounds become second nature, learning becomes much more efficient. Now. Chinese is a living thing. A human invention passed down over 2000 years, so nothing is 100% reliable, and these phonetic families a no exception justice with real human families. Nearly every one of these frenetic families tends to have a black sheep, in this case, a character which breaks all the rules, does its own thing and embarrasses the rest of the family. We've seen them, our family, and that was going along swimmingly until one day we're bound to meet someone with this surname and they're staring us in the face is arm our frenetic and the ice radical. So by all logic in the Chinese universe, it should mean something cold, which sounds like Mark. Does it know it's a surname? And it's pronounced fun, and there it is, a glaring exception amongst all those Mars. So what do we do about that? Do we chuck away my whole idea about frenetic families and go back to learning everything by rote saying that it doesn't work? No, we don't. These black sheep don't invalidate the system. They are exceptions, just like we have in any language which have to be learned. The system still remains overwhelmingly valid. The very fact that they are exceptions makes the memorable because they stand out from the crowd. Exceptions may be annoying because they break the rules, but it's precisely because they break the rules that they're easy to learn. Notice they're oddness and regard them as your friends. The Chinese name for the sound meaning compounds, by the way, is Shing Shung or indicates sound characters. I can't possibly go through a lot. The fanatic elements there are far too many off them. I'm not sure whether anyone has ever even counted them accurately. But Suit Hill, a British missionary in China in the early 19 hundreds, estimated there were about 1000. You might say that if there's so many of these, anyway, why should I bother to learn them separately and not just learned all the characters by rote? The point is that although there are a lot of them, it's a finite number. Where is potentially? There's an infinite number of characters as we can on. They do go on, making them up. An example of a set of relatively recently invented characters are the characters for the chemical elements, which mostly date from the late 18 hundreds. These were made up according to the frenetic semantic principle by John Fryer, another British missionary on his colleague shoes show. The point is that when new characters are created, they are invariably created exactly according to the system I'm teaching here so we can never go through them all, and that's not the point. The point is to notice them all the time to look consciously at the internal structure of characters and to check if there is a useful, fanatic element. Often there will be, but not always. There were two other relatively minor types of character we haven't looked at yet. That's for the next lesson. 6. 04 Sound loans and reclarified compounds: sound loans of characters, which were borrowed to represent a word which sounded the same but had a different meaning . An example of this is the traditional character for 10,001 which way back in history apparently meant scorpion, hence the somewhat changed now insect radical. But it's now used in traditional Chinese for the number 10,000 as confusion is very unlikely, given that in context, it's obvious that it's a number and simplified characters. It's a completely different character. Another example is the simplified character for to come now pronounced light. This looks very much like it should have something to do with Rice Me on. The reason it looks so similar is that it was indeed, originally a pictograms of a wheat plant and meant wheat. At the time. This word was pronounced similarly to the word for to come, so this character was used to write both Come on Wheat. Eventually, the more common use come took over as the default reading of the character and a new character now pronounced, My had to be invented for wheat. When a character is used in this way, it's called a jot, yet a fake borrowed character in English. It's also known as a Rebus character. Re clarified compounds are the least common, on the least important of the six types, and are often omitted from the list. They are improvements on earlier characters. Some scribes good idea to make a characters meaning clearer or more precise, or to distinguish one character from another. For example, the character Ting meant a courtyard of any sort, from the emperor's palace to an ordinary citizens courtyard. At some stage in history, someone had the idea of distinguishing an ordinary not so good courtyard by adding the lean to radical still pronounced ting, while the original ting became used to mean a really grand courtyard such as that of the Emperor. So now we have two more specific characters. Ting, as in Ting Yuan Flower Garden Anting, as in gone ting Court of a King or emperor re clarified compounds, also known in English as derivative cog Neitz. In Chinese, they're called drown Jew Transferred meaning. Looking back at the Entomology of these two types of character may provide answers to puzzles, which is why is there an insect radical in 10,000? But ultimately we have to learn them by rote like any other character for which there's no help. That's a look at the six types of character of which we're going to concentrate on Shing Shung, the sound meaning compounds on. With that introduction, let's now get to the heart of the course and start learning useful phonetic families. 7. 01 Phonetic Families Introduction: in this, the main section of the course. I'm going to present a number of useful phonetic families. I'll start off by telling you what the various head characters and their derivatives mean on the pronunciation. But after a few examples, I'll make this a more active process by asking you to identify characters on the screen or to write characters, which you may not have ever seen before. Based on the system I'm teaching after presenting and then quizzing you on a number of important phonetic elements as a PdF file to end the course containing a lot more as a reference. Again, though, this is not an exhaustive list for a truly exhaustive reference work, I refer you to Rick Hubble's marvelous website john one dot com. This list tens of thousands of characters according to their composition. Overwhelmingly, this leads went to the frenetic families, and this was my principal resource for creating this course. There's a link to the paperback version of this on Amazon below this video, and with no further ado, we will now move on to the first of our frenetic families. The bar family 8. 02 The ba family: My first example of fanatic family is the bar family. Whenever I introduce a fanatic family, I will say its name without any Chinese tone. This is deliberate because no reliable total information is conveyed by this system. Only the vowels and constants, the initial and final. This is the stroke order for this head character. Now, when I get to dealing with the character itself and its uses, I will say it is. It should be pronounced with its tone as we're now looking at this particular character in use. This character is pronounced bar with tone one, and it's typical in that the head character itself is used much more for its sound than for any real meaning. Eyes used very frequently to represent sounds in foreign place names. Often these begin with a P in English rather than a B, as in barley, Paris Bargy said Tom Pakistan and by Nama, Panama, with be in English or a bar, She Brazil and Guba, Cuba. It's also used for the English word bus by ship. From this head character, we get the derivative bar with the mouth radical. This is extremely common as a sentence final particle used most commonly as a way of making suggestions or softening instructions, as in sober, Let's go salmon sober, Let's go and her Schweber drink water drinks a mortar. There's a link below this video to a useful site with information on the various uses of Bar the Sentence Final Particle. It's also used for the English word bar, as in a bar where drinks are served to you, Bob Wine bar, bar or pub. Zetra Power Bar means to go clubbing to spend time in bars and that sort of thing bar means father or dad, as in Baba, the top parts the rather rarely used father radical food, which gives the meaning while the bottom part gives the bar sound. This character with hand radical has two pronunciations. Bar handle, as in Bad Sir and show bar, both meaning handle on also bar meaning to grasp or to grip examples of this up our war to grasp in both the physical sense and in the sense to understand and bar with the leather radical means a target, as in Bard's up, a target orb archon shooting range with the illness radical, which is an excellent radical because all the illnesses have it, and it only means ill nestle, something once regarded as an illness. We have bath on a scar, but the very commonly used bamboo radical. We have bar meaning on article made of bamboo, bamboo strips or offense. As in Libya, she's offense. The grass top radical, often used for feminine related things such as girls names gives us the power sound us in Barbara, Barbara and Bobby Bobby and also bar, as in Barlow, a ballet with power instead of bar. We have the musical instrument P part the Chinese lute. Notice this because as the very useful double jade component for musical instruments. As far as I know, all musical instruments have this, which makes them very easy to learn. Also with part instead of bar is part with the CLO radical to climb or to crawl, as in power Shan to climb a mountain to to mountaineer go hiking mountaineering. That sort of thing now for some black sheep first is fate fat with unrelated pronunciation . As I said, notice it and noticed that it is unusual in the fact that it stands out makes it memorable . Fay has the flesh radical Kangxi radical 130 from row meat. Not to be confused with the moon radical, which is number 74. It looks almost exactly the same. Flesh is used for body parts, which makes perfect sense. And it be very confusing if you thought this was the moon radical. An example of this is Fei Peng fat. Another black sheep is certain color, as in yen, sir color and all the color names Hastert black by certain white Hong certain red and tie, sir. Multicolored. It also means many things to do with sex and lust. Huang sir, Yellow itself means pornographic, as does searching erotic, pornographic Forming. Another fanatic of its own is E meaning and administered area. A county in China or a state is the name of a lot of counters in China, such as Di e, a county in Sichuan. Here is a summary of the bar family of characters 9. 03 The bao, pao family: the bow or power family, the head character and it's stroke order. We start this family with head character bow an idiot Graham, meaning to wrap a rapper rapping as in shoe, bow, school bag or satchel on other sorts of bag. As the first half of a word we have bow way to surround to encircle to him in. But perhaps most commonly, this is also the bow in men bow bread. This is then the frenetic component of a rather nice set of characters. First is bow to hug to embrace with the hand radical. I call this a perfect character because the bow wraps the huggy. An example of a word with this is young bow tow hug. Next, we have bow full, as in eating the food or the eating. Radical examples of this are War Babalola and full and not Roman. Full or plump again, it's a great character for learners, as we can think of. The bow is more than a fanatic. The food is enclosed or wrapped up inside us. Another derivative is bow as in bow you abalone with the fish. Radical abalone is a probably talked about Maurin Chinese than in English. And as you can see, it's another very excellent character for learning the shell of the abalone. You wraps the edible contents. Then we have some derivatives with changed initial continent the but becoming perp Power means cannon or big gun, as in Dar Pau Cannon with the fire article and power. The feet of the walking radical to run to flee has in power boot. It's very common for the initial constant to change in these families like this. Sometimes the initial constant can be very different from the head character, but in this case it's not bad. The place and manner of articulation is the same both of by labial PLO's ifs. Only the aspiration differs. Put being aspirated with a puff of air and but having no puff of air, this counts is very close correspondence. We also have power with the clothes radical as in cheap. How again, a really good character for the body hugging Chinese style dress or chance some. There's also Pau with the water radical, meaning to boil to steep in boiling water or bubble. Examples of this in the first sense up power chop to make tea power men to make noodles on power tongue to make soup in the sense of bubbles, we have power more. A soap bubble, also a bubble in the figurative sense, like an economic bubble. Here's a summary of all these characters. The Bow Power Family is an especially good fanatic family because in so many cases there's something of the rap or hug meaning of the head character in the derivatives. 10. 04 The qing, jing family: the changing family. The head of this family is Ching. It's basic meaning is green, as in jeans, I green vegetables or Chinese cabbage, and by extension it means young or youthful, as in Nanjing, youthful and the other way around, Ching, the N youth says in young nous or young person or the young. To me, there's not much point trying to split a character like Ching into its component parts. That's apparently fresh growth on top of a moon. I prefer to see this is a basic unit, not something for further subdivision on Learn this as it is on as the head of its fanatic family. From this we get Ching feelings emotions that's with the heart radical, as in I ching love. What do you think is the character Jing meaning clear? As in Jean Shwe Clearwater, it's ching with the three drops of water radical. And how about this character again? It means clear, but this time it's not to do with water. This has the sun radical and means clear when describing the sky or weather. An example is King 10 Sunny. How about Ching? Meaning please as inching When may I ask this has something to do with speech so logically it might have the mouth radical. But in fact it has the speech radical as in Ching Win. If I tell you that Dragonflies Jingping, can you write the Ching in that It's cheating with the insect radical and the full word is jingping, The meeting also being a sound meaning compound. We've just seen the other half of that. Now we come on to the slightly changed initial constant characters in which pinion Q as inching changes to J. As in Jing. This counts, says a close correspondence. As I said earlier, because both have the same place and manner of articulation. Both are Salvio pal. It'll Africans. Only the aspiration changes. What was this radical? That's the I radical. Do you know word with this as a component? That's ging, as in Yen Jing I'll eyes. That's easy. Is this Jing? He says. The rice radical, which we saw earlier, is found in types of rice and things made of rice or so grades and powders. But here it means things like essence, spirit, vitality, exquisite or fine. Examples are tingly energy and jeans. I wonderful, marvelous, brilliant. Also waging mono sodium glutamate msg Another Jing is DJing Come quiet as in on Jing Quiet , Peaceful Onda We have a black sheep. This is Tai as in taishang to guess side G to be suspicious off. So no relationship in the sound in that wanted. But to me the very fact that it breaks all the rules makes it memorable. Here's a summary of those changing characters. 11. 05 The fen family: the fund family. The fun character is the head of this family. This fund means to divide or division or apart, as in fun. John A minute, literally a division of the clock. Also fun biere to part or leave each other to distinguish difference and things like that sheriff and literally 10 parts or 10 out of 10 means very completely, as in chef and how 10 out of 10. Good, really good, Excellent with the steam, breath or gas. Radical fan literally means vapor or atmosphere in the physical sense, but it's used figuratively in chief fun, atmosphere or mood. Here's a little quiz for you in this family. We have fun tone for with the heart radical fun tone, one with the grass top radical and fun. Also tone one with the mouth radical fun tone to with water radical and fun Tone three. With the rice radical one of the means to order. Instruct oneness. Name of a river one means powder. One means anger, and one means fragrant, which is which the easiest first fun with the three drops of water. Radical is the river. Name her the Fan River and this is it fun with the grass. Top Radical use for plants is perfume or fragrant as in fun, fun, fragrant. It's also a popular Chinese girl's name. It's found in place names including Fun, Aunt Finland and in Western names such as Sir Defund Stephen Fun with the mouth radical. Indicating things to do with speaking means leave instructions. Order. The full word is fun food to tell, to instruct or to command fun with the heart radical, indicating emotion means anger, indignation or hatred as in fun, fun on fun. New anger Roth Powder is fan, which has the rice radical, which, as we saw before with Jing, is also used for powders and grains. This gives this men fun. Flower knife, fun, powdered milk and me fan rice flour or rice flour noodles. Not in my quiz. We also have fun with the standing man radical. I didn't include this in the quiz because this radical is often a poor indicator of meaning . This character is also to do with divisions as it means a part of something a share in something or a portion. Examples include Guru fun, a share in a company, stocks and shares, and fund a share or a portion. Also the place Name Geo fun in the north of Taiwan. Rather lovely place to visit by the look of it. Apparently during the early part of the Ching dynasty, which began in 16 44 and came to an abrupt end in 1912 the village was home to just nine families, so the Villagers would request nine portions every time shipments arrived from town With the thread radical, there's fun, meaning tangled as in fun one numerous and disorderly. Some of the family members are not pronounced fun. I won't call them black sheep because they're not totally different from the rest of the family that they are certainly exceptions. They begin with pinion B and P instead of F and may have a instead of E for the vow. Ban with hand radical is the useful word to disguise oneself to dress up to play a role. This is used in job on to impersonate pan with the eye radical means to hope for too long. Four to expect, as in Pan Wow to Hope. Thought I look forward to Putin is a common character, meaning a bowl, a basin or report, as in Penza Basin and Harp Patton Flower part. Here's a summary of the fun family of characters 12. 06 The ding family: the ding family. The ding family is headed by Ding. This is the fourth of the 10 heavenly stems. This is the equivalent of D, as in a list A, B, C D. Delta, as in alphabet, a gamma delta or four has in 1234 It does have the meaning deist as in diced chicken cheating. But generally it's another of a meaningless character, its own right. It's mainly used as a fanatic, again, commonly in foreign names and words such as Martin Marketing on Latin larding. Here's another quiz for you Match these characters and their meanings ding tone for with the speech radical ding tone, one with the gold radical ding tone, one with the mouth radical and ding tone, one with the eye radical one means of nail. One is the sound as it ding dong one means to stare at on. One means to book or reserve, as in a hotel room, which is which. Hopefully, those weren't too difficult. With the speech radical, it's to book or reserve. The one with the gold radical is the nail. The automat appears, the one with the mouth radical, as in Ding ding and Dingle and to stare or to focus on is the one with the eye radical has in danger to focus on. We also have Ding Summit, both physically, as in Shan Ding hilltop mountaintop and figuratively as in dingy, top notch first rate, the ding character forms an imperfectly fanatic for simplified Deng light. As in Den Deng Electric Light, the traditional character has a more accurate phonetic element. But many more strokes on the black sheep of the family. The very common unuseful Dar to hit with hand radical, as in Daddy Anwar to phone. Also worth learning at the same time. Other two characters with the Ting Element, which has a little ding. The bottom ting means a pavilion or a booth, as in tings on Ting type, but its meaning pavilion. From this, we get ting with the standing man radical. This means to stop or park a car. The Communist place you'll see this is tincture channel, car park or parking lot. Now the summary of thes ding characters 13. 07 The gu family: the Gu family. Heading this family is school meaning ancient or classic, as in good I ancient times. Goudy in classic vintage on Goran, People from ancient times. The Ancients. The word for Aunt is good. Ma. Get a piece of paper and write down both these characters before going on. I hope you wrote this with the woman radical for both characters. Busan on a matter Pia guru for the sound of a bird for muttering and whispering other noises. Right? This character with the radical You think it should have that school with the mouth Radical examples are good on. We saw that dong in dinked, um earlier. This means a heavy splash and Gucci to whisper or to mutter this characters also in the name of the ever popular dish. Sweet and sour pork, Ghoula wrote With the Standing man radical, we have go to guess as in goo. More to record or guests and Googie toe estimate or record. There's also goo, former previous, as in Boucha Story and Google former Imperial Palace I e. The Forbidden City in Beijing. Black sheep alert from this cool, we get this extremely common character with the standing man radical again, but this is thought to do so. This really is a black sheep. The pronunciation isn't related to Gu at all. We find swore in many, many words and phrases, including small gone to do manual work and tour found to cook rice, I prepare a meal on the subject of meals. Are you familiar with the delights of China's multifarious varieties of mushroom? If so, you may be able to write the mushroom character guru, which has the grass top radical try to write it now. Did you get cool using the aren't characters the fanatic element? Well, perhaps you had this character, if so, that it's wrong. Why does mushroom come from the Aren't character and not straight from the head character with the grass top radical? Add it because this character has already been used for something else. That's cool, bitter hardship, suffering as in sheen. Cool, harder, exhausting or cool gone hard labor. So what we've got here is to levels of fanatic element. We've got the first head, frenetic goo. Then this plus the woman radical makes aren't Kumar and then this is used is the fanatic for another character, the mushroom ghoul mushrooms come in, many types of which the only ones we want to eat a mogul edible mushrooms. These include delicacies such as donghu dried mushrooms and Pinkel oyster mushrooms. There's also do hard, strong, solid, as in goo ting to fix or fasten. Also, Goran Admittedly. Then there's another exception from this school. We get traditional girl, the Communist count word, as in Eager Ren one personal one man. The simplified version is completely different, So the ghoul family is a mixed bunch, not the most reliable lot. But there's a very common ones making it a useful fanatic. And here's your summary of those characters. 14. 08 The zheng family: the junk family. The head of this family is junk, which means things to do with proper correct right straight, true things like that, as in John junk, Genuine, really true and junk where correct or proper also the very important junked. I rather the equivalent of the present continuous tense in English. Just as in, I'm just in the process of doing something. What young side, Daddy Anwar. I'm talking on the phone right now. This is a really good family. Is there are no exceptions. And no black sheep on the meaning of the head character carries over into some of the derivatives from junk. By adding the step radical, we get junk meeting a journey or an expedition. The most famous of these is Mao's Long March Chang Jeong, in which the Red Army retreated from the Kuomintang from 1934 to 1935. Here's a map of their route. This junk also has connotations of battle and conquest as inch Ujung to go into battle and lead young by force or to conquer by force of arms. In the simplified version, only this phonetic element with the speech radical is junk, as in certificate or proof. This is a rather nice character is it conveys both. The sound on has the connotation of correct and true from the head character examples, Air Jum ing certificate, identification, testimonial and things like that. And Junren someone who says the truth. A witness. The traditional version isn't so good. It all The fanatic is not junk anymore. It's dunk, and the nice, linked to the meaning of correct isn't there either. So it's not the case that traditional characters are always better. This simplified ones and improvement and gets my vote of approval. John, with the junk phonetic on the bottom, is another nice character again has something of the meaning of the head character, as it means good things to do with neatness and tidying up. John Lee is a good example. This means to arrange tidy up sort things out on gun junk means fine work something carefully and neatly done. We also find young meaning things to do with politics such as junk, full government on DYoung Deng Political party. I'm not 100% sure if the meaning of the head characters good and proper, carries over into this character or not. Here's your summary of these junk characters 15. 09 The zhu family: the Jewell family, the head character fanatic families is often relatively meaningless in itself, as we've seen before. In the case of Bar Jewess. Similar, the head character does have the meaning of the brilliant red color of a 1,000,000. We have this meaning in the word Juhan Scarlett, but the character is far more likely to be encountered as the Chinese surname Jew well, purely as a frenetic in foreign names. Examples of the latter include Julianne Julian and Julia Julia. From this comes do with the jade radical used for precious stones. This is half of the word for Pearl in Jeonju that's Pearl also Ju Hai jiu high in Guangdong and Jiujiang, the Pearl River in the Guangdong Hong Kong region. With the speech radical, we find ju meaning to execute to put to death a criminal as in for JAL to be executed and tiene Jewell heavenly punishment or by useful extension of divine authority, the king's punishment with the death or decay radical. We have shoe with a different but phonetically similar initial continent. In ancient times, this meant to behead someone, hence the use of that death radical, but now it's changed its meaning. to different unique or special examples are Tsusho special, particular, unusual or extraordinary and shui entirely different or quite separate with the tree Radical is ju, meaning roots of a tree literally and things to do with horticulture. But it also has lots of figurative meanings, including Jules Show, to stick to something stubbornly to never let something go. Also shady dodgy things, one of which is juju to involve others in a law case and also julienne to involve others in crime or guilt by association. So if your name's Julian, make sure you pronounce it carefully. Have you come across spiders in your travels around China? Do you know what the word for Spider is? Say it. If you do, it's Ju jewel. And what's the Jewell character going to be? I hope you got that. It's do with the insect radical. In the next lesson, we'll look at the other half of the Spider, the Jew. And here's the summary of thes Jew characters 16. 10 The zhi family: the junior family. The head of the small jeer family is you to know. What's the whole word for two? No, in Chinese sail out. I know, and I don't know if you know it's Ward. You doubt war buja dough from June to know we also have Jew shit, knowledge or intellectual on. Would you ignorant or ignorance? Are you without knowledge derived from that? We just saw Juju Spider, which has juror, is its first syllable with the insect radical. It's often said in Chinese glasses, at least that the reason we use that no component in the Spider Character is that spiders are the cleverest of all the insects. Maybe, well, maybe it's just a fanatic and nothing else. I tend to think the latter, but if it helps you learn the character, then go ahead and believe it from the same parent character. Adding the sun radical, we get jur knowledge. Clever, as in Julie intellect and butcher. Unwise. Lastly, with the illness radical, we find sure, which is the opposite of cover. A wise, stupid, foolish. With this character, we get by to idiocy idiot cheer, sheen, infatuation, stupid heart on to die dementia. Here's the summary of those few characters 17. 11 The hu family: the WHO family. As I said with the Jewell character, the head of a fanatic family is often countered most in a surname. Another example of this is Who? The Chinese surname who? This is a strange family. On the one hand, it's phonetically excellent. All the derivatives have pronounced who with tone to. But on the other hand, the simplified characters have undergone particularly vicious dismemberment, as we shall see. Also this character are a number of stringed musical instruments. They are who, and it's Beijing variety. The Jing who on the fourth string, Mongolian Sir, who? I said earlier that all musical instruments have the double jade component at the top. Like P pop. I was wrong. These don't in either, character said, but most do. Also, the various barbarian tribes around China were called who in ancient times from that Who we get this one? What could that be? It's got three drops of water and it sounds like who it must be. Lake. Do you know the names of any lakes in China? If so, name one. Now, perhaps the most famous is she who in Honjo, And we also have Hunan. That's Hunan Province, who By who, By province and who. Joe Who? Joe City injured Jiang province. In the traditional characters, only we have a good character for beard or moustache or whiskers. Who with the long hair radical, the full word for Beard, Who shoe also has this radical, making it very clear what it's about. We also have who would also meaning facial hair, various styles. In the simplified version, the who without the hair radical is used. So it's a sound Logan or Reba's character, which just sounds like something else. There's nothing to tell us what it means. Horrible. Also in the traditional version only is the Who in Who tongue Ali, both characters having the walk component. Also found in G Air Street. The simplified version uses the characters without the walk components, so getting they have nothing to show what they mean. Only the pronunciation. So again, a really rather awful Rebus character with the grass top radical we have Who in Who bottle Good. And here's a picture of a nicely decorated one. Now look online. I suggest the Yellow Bridge Dictionary. The link is in the comments and find two other derivatives of the WHO fanatic both of which sound like who? Both of them beautiful in very different ways. Did you find them? One is who, as in who do yet butterfly. Both characters have the insect radical. The other is Shan, who Coral, both characters with the Jade Radical. Fortunately, both of these seem to have survived the simplification massacre inflicted on beards and alleyways. Here's the summary of the WHO family. 18. 12 The gen, hen family: the gun hand family. The head character of the gun hand family is similar to others we've seen before and that it doesn't have much meaning of its own. This is Gun, and the meaning of the Head Character is one of the Tri Grams on the bar Gua from the Book of Changes for Fortune telling derived from it, we get a Siris of more useful characters pronounced either gun Orhan on several black sheep . Here, the characters in no particular order scrutinized them, look at their radicals and try to work out their semantic field from the radicals. Here we have the tree radical, so that's a clue. Here's the dog radical. Perhaps this one's an animal. What's this radical? We've seen this one before. This 1 may not help with the meaning, much the heart radical often to do with emotions or feelings. And we keep seeing this one, and finally, the foot radical on their various meanings. Again, in no particular order, are half of the word for a better cap gun. Vicious, cruel Hatton roots gun Very han a company go with or just with gun ich hon, hate or loath, hon Now match up the characters and their meanings. Hutton, with the illness radical, is H or scar. Scar is Farhan, which we saw earlier with the bar family Done with the tree Radical is literally the roots of a tree. Shoot a gun, but it's used figuratively to mean things like the root of a problem or cause of something going you on. Also fundamental or basic gun ban with the foot radical indicating movement. Gun is the very common word, meaning to company or go with sometimes follow as in gun wash wool, say off to May. Often it's translated simply is with gun. Walk with me gun with the grass. Top radical has to be a plant. This is half of Mao Gun Buttercup much commoner than that, but hard to identify from its step radical is Han very quiet, so much as in hand? How very good hadn't door very many, very much with the narrow version of the heart. Radical on the left is Han hate, hatred, dislike, resentment and negative emotions like that. With that character, we have hundreds provoking, exasperated, annoying on tongue hon to detest, to loathe. Lastly, with the dog radical is Han vicious, cruel so it's not an animal, but a characteristic of an animal. Seen a savage Han Xin means callus heartless Han Han means ferociously, ruthlessly those of the fanatically, fairly reliable ones. But then we have this small flock of black sheep, yet he mean shin and een again, meaning variously silver or cash gums. I and two different sorts of boundary one geographical topographical, the other more figurative match them up yen with the eye radical is I, as in yen ging, the full word for I and Yanjing spectacles. Glasses notice the tone difference. I mean, with the gold radical for metals in silver, cash, money or wealth. An absolute key word you won't survive for long without is een hung bank. There's also you, sir Silver. The color. The part on the left of the next scene is the teeth radical. This in means gum or gums, as in EI in gums and union inflammation of the gums. Gingivitis notice the two fire characters making up the N character for inflammation, a nice meaning, meaning compound, hard to guess or the two characters for boundary. CNN and Een Shen is the more figurative of the two and is enormously common in the ocean as in limited finite. You'll see this everywhere in Yoshi and going Sir Limited Company. It's opposite his wash in unlimited unbounded, with a related but slightly different meaning is een with the earth radical, meaning a boundary in a more geographical or topographical sense. Literally, it's the bank of a stream or a river. From this, we also get wean, meaning boundless or vast animal physical sense. And here's the summary of this family. 19. 13 The liang, lang family: Liang Lang family visually, extremely similar to the Gun Hun family we saw in the previous lesson is the Lang Lang family. The only difference between how they're written is the one stroke extra on top of Lang. Here it is compared to gun from earlier, and here's its stroke order. Young means good or fine, as in Liang. How good, Favorable and the old Leon first rate The opposite is bully and bad or harmful derived from it. We have characters which are mainly pronounced lang, but we also have a nan as well. Here it's derivatives again, in no particular order, scrutinised them again to identify their semantic fields from the radicals. Before we go on here, we've got something to do with water. This one must be to do with women or female. This one has the dog radical. So again, we'll assume to start with that. It's an animal. This one has the moon radical on the right, and the phonetic element on the left on this one has the insect radical. This one. Maybe we're not so sure. Let's leave that one to last, and their various meanings again, in no particular order, are now a woman aren't a young girl, according to what other character it's used with. Lung a wave, a wave in the sea lung Wolf lang again young man, husband or bride Groom another land dung beetle. Clear, distinct. Now match them up. Easiest of all is lam with water radical. This is wave before long is the full word. Strangely, with the same character, we have the common word land fe toe waste. Also easy is as the woman radical is now an young girl, woman or bride, as in union paternal, aunt or anti in the sense of a family friend rather than a real. Aren't also she Nan bride? The initial constant, slightly different. But the change from initial L to end, or vice versa, is a very minor change. Over several 100 years. Lan, with the moon radical on the right, is clear, bright, distinct, as in Chinlund. Sunny, cloudless and men England. Bright, clear, obvious. It's also phonetic in foreign names, including Ilan, Iran and Bulan. The sun in brown with the dog radical is long wolf. So this time we were correct in assuming it was an animal with the insect. Radical is the the dung beetle. Here's one enjoying a pile of dung. Strangely, the so called simplified character actually has many more strokes than the traditional one . More difficult to guess is the one we've left to last land, young man or husband, as in Xinyuan, Brian, Groom or Groom. Here's the summary of these characters, so the Gun Han and Yang Lang families have two very similar looking head characters. But they're two very different families, lots of useful characters in each and a really good example of why it's so important to learn characters in their phonetic families. If you just learned all these characters from both sets by road, you might never even notice the existence of the two families. 20. 14 The ke, he, ge family: the cur, her girl family. This is a small but useful family whose head characters pronounced up but whose derivatives air pronounced variously her and girl. This might seem like rather a lot of variation to call it one family. But again, in the grand scheme of things is a small changes. All the finals are the same, and the initial constant isn't very dissimilar. Fanatically in each curtain. Good, both Villa stops differing only in aspiration. That initial her is often Avila, Fricka tive brother. The glow total one, as in English. Here's the stroke order of the head character. Kerr is the character forwards, meaning to be able as incur ye to be able to be possible and related meanings. Colonel is similar, indicating possibility and probability. Tar Colonel Mbola I Maybe she will not come. Colonel. Yeah, show ULA it might rain. It's also the translation for the double the able ending on adjectives such as Kirk Out, Reliable and Kerr. I adorable, cute or lovely. From Kirk comes her river stream, which we saw earlier in fun Her the Fen River best known, of course, is hung her the Yellow River, two characters on top of each other maker Elder brother often duplicated to good Good From that we get another girl meaning to sing or a song as in chunk er to sing a song and get shoot a song with the standing man radical her is a surname and also question word through her is translated variously is what or how As in Kauder, rule her How did you do in your exam way? Her is why an example is the way heard so fun Jungle war Why are you visiting China? Heard site is a quick way of our skin Where in what place? And her beat is a way of questioning the need for something. Why did you do that? What did you do that for? With the negative. Her boot can also be used as a suggestion. The English being Why not? Why don't way as in woman Habu Tuna, Why don't we go? Another uses her junk any kind of and earned her any whatever whichever whatsoever were in the negative. None whatsoever as it will may run her lynch and I don't have any change or any coins. There are two derived characters with the grass top radical in this family. The first is curb derived from the head character. This means severe, exacting or rigorous could is to criticize someone harshly to excoriate someone. Andi Kirch you means demanding. The second is her derived from the question word character with the standing man in it. This is lotus or water. Lily. Hawar is the flower of the water lily. Another important use of this one is in the name her Alan Holland, the Netherlands. There are quite a lot of rather rare characters, but I'll leave these out at some point. In your studies, you may come across things like the personal name of the Confucian philosopher Mensch Iss and say to yourself that looks familiar. I can remember that easily, but now is in the moment for that. Here's the summary of the Kerger, her family, and in the next couple of lessons we look at two other families which share part of the same written form 21. 15 The a family: the our family. Sharing many of the same strokes as curb is the character are. There's no phonetic similarity between this and curb. And as it has a derivative, I will treat it as a family of its own. Will be it a small one? This is the stroke order eyes an extremely common character because it forms the prefix in familiar kinship terms such as a bar father. Dad, I'm a mother. Oh, Mommy. Ah yes, Aren't anti and many other kinship terms. It also forms a frenetic for foreign names, and words with sound are in them, such as Abu Zar be Abou Dubbie and Afghanistan are full hon and names such as RB Abby from this are we get one derivative only are with the mouth radical. This is the Automat appear for o r r, indicating surprise, and that's it. A small and less important family than the others, but so commonly seen that it needs a mention. In the next lesson is another similar case, also based on the Kerr character, but with more meaning and more derivatives 22. 16 The qi, ji, yi family: the G g e family formed with the cur character. It's bottom half. This head character has two pronunciations G and G and heads up a family pronounced Chee and G and sometimes E. Here's it's stroke order Pronounced G. It means odd, as in odd number. T shoot is the full word for odd number. By the way, even number is Oh, shoot the two together G o means odd and even, but also parity in the financial sense. Pronounced Chee, it means odd in another sense, strange or odd. The communist world with this in it is cheek y meaning strange. Odd. How cheap means inquisitive, curious saw as a noun, inquisitiveness or curiosity Key Me out is fantastic. Wonderful. There's also GG something strange to be wondered at a miracle or a wonder. The derived characters aren't generally very easy to guess, but there's one good one. Cheat with the horse. Radical means to ride on horseback, to mount or to sit astride team. Are is to ride a horse and cheat, or is to sit astride or to ride. Other than that, I think you have to learn them as the Radicals don't really help a lot. A common character, G is to send or transmit. Yogi is the full word for two male to send by post. Cheechoo means much the same to mail out, and Wajih is to remit with 10 field on the left, there's G meaning odd, unbalanced or abnormal. This gives the words Gee shing deformity abnormality andan other g shing pronounced the same mouthful nation. The thread or silk radical CI means fine thin silk, but from that by extension, elegant, beautiful as in Chile. Beautiful, enchanting ***. Beautiful, elegant and cini in young or youthful, with the tree radical indicating something made out of wood. He is chair or seat, as in EADS a chair. There are two different ways of writing. Another word for chair, I told you and also Shwe yee couch. Lastly, e same pronunciation means to lean on physically or to rely or depend on examples. Are E. John to rely heavily on someone or something and e cow to lean on to rest against or to rely on. Here's the summary of this family 23. 17 The pang, bang family: the Pang Bang family. This is a useful family headed up by the character Peng with derivatives pronounced Peng and Bang. Is it stroke? Aldam, the head punk means beside one side. E pan means aside or to one side off, and the young punk means both sides either side. It also means the right hand part of the Chinese character, which is very often the frenetic component this course is all about, as opposed to the radical with standing man Radical Bang has the related meaning by the side off beside, but more with the meaning of near or close. Examples are Bang Jean to be close to you and bang been Nero beside it also refers to closeness in time, as in Bang Woo towards noon around mid day and Bang Juan in the evening at nightfall. There are also several nice, rather guess, herbal characters in this family. So let's have a go again at matching characters and their meanings on the left this time of the pronunciations and meanings we've got bunk pound. The currency being bung is the pound sterling banged again, pound the weight Peng a Crab Peng torrential bang shoulder oh, upper arm and pan an honor Matt appear for the sound bang here. The characters muddled up, match them with their meanings. Pound the currency is bang with the goal radical, while pound the weight is bang with the stone radical to Rahman I's characters, which are easy to remember once you know the frenetic element. The crab has the insect radical, which is really used for much more than insects, eggs, lizards and some small animals. There certainly included pong. Share is the full word pong. Torrential is easily decibel as it has the water radical. This comes up in the idiom. Punk talk Dru marketing with rain. Torrential rain. The character for the shoulder or upper arm has the flesh radical, which, you will remember, is not to be confused with the much rarer moon radical, which it looks like this is bond. It comes up rather commonly in the expression bang. Yep, a shirtless guy, probably muscular. A Google Images search will come up with pictures of President Putin in his favorite state of semi undress. Also, Gen. Bang is shoulder and Chew Bon is the wing of a bird. Virtue is really the way this has feathers in its character on the ban is where it's fixed to the bird. Lastly, is an honor. Matt appear as always with the mouth radical. This is pan and on a mat appear for the sound bang. Those are the most decibel characters of the family. Also useful but less easy to guess our ban with the wood radical. This means a placard, but really it means a list of successful exam candidates from which comes Xiang Ban to pass an exam with the speech Radical is bunk, meaning to slander libel in the word fe bang and here these characters summarised as usual . 24. 18 The fang family: the found family. The fun family is a really big one. Biggest we've seen, I think, with a lot of useful everyday characters. You're bound to come across the head. Character is fun. And here's the stroke order. This is a very good family because all the derivatives a pronounced fan, the core meaning of the head character Fung is square square, shaped as in functioning Shing, meaning shape here, or to emphasize the squareness of the square junk. Fang shing with the truly young we did earlier. Another meaning is direction. All the points of the compass use it, such as Tung Fung East, the East Non Fung South, the south, she Fung west, the west and bay found north the North Fang Xiang is the full word for direction. Another meaning is manner or style or way of doing something, as in fang far method means or way in this sense and fung shirt, way or manner, style or mode. Here, the derivatives among these a Sam you should be able to guess even if you've never seen them before. Once I've given you some of the meanings one we've seen before, so that should be easy. That was thief Funk in fun fang fragrant. Find that one fun with the grass top radicalise fragrant now on a piece of paper, right the fund. But that's if I tell you that one of these means fat and one means to spin. Can we find those and get them off? The list of unknowns found with the thread radical is to spin, as in fung sharp to spin yon textiles, etcetera. Notice the shar as well. That also has thread radical also funds to spin silk. The character for fat fun is to do with the body, so it has the moon like flesh radical, which we keep seeing. It's a fairly good bet that most of the times you see a moonlight radical. It will actually be the flesh radical because there are about 670 characters with the flesh radical and only around 70 with the moon radical. So it's nearly 10 times more likely to be flesh. The full word for fat is ju fung fat. The substance, fat or obese is Fei Peng. Remember that fate from earlier? That was a real black sheep from the bar family, and the more we can cross off. An easy one is the one with the fish radical. There's a fish called Fan. This is bream. Now that there's more obvious ones are out of the way. We're still left with quite a lot with the speech radical we've got found, which means to call on someone or to visit. There are lots of expressions with this, including life found to pay a visit So fun. We saw this earlier to visit to travel to see someone will see it placed so fun. John Quart to visit China. Andi found when to investigate or to interview someone. You can use it with visiting places such as fun. What to visit China. Short expression for that they missed so found junk war with the Earth Radical is Fung Neighborhood as in gear fun. The full word for neighborhood with the door or house Radical Fun is extremely common and seen everywhere, and it means house or room. There are many, many words with this funk, including fans, a house building on apartment or flat or even a single room. The various rooms of a house have fun In them. Chul found Kitchen Ku Fong Guest Room Shwe fun bedroom and so on with standing man radical indicating something human we find far to resemble. To imitate. Words with this character include Fang Shout to copy, to imitate, more fun, to imitate, to emulate or to mimic. And she found Parad Ile imitation not the most obvious or well known radical in this foul. But if you knew it, you might be able to guess the meaning. This is the mound or damn radical in this funk means to protect or defend as in dwarf on national defense. Fun you defense or to defend and shall fun firefighting or the Fire Brigade. I feel trouble brewing with the next one. I'm not quite sure how to explain this, but fan with the woman radical means to harm or to hinder. Um, as I used to tell my lady students, Don't blame me. I didn't make them up with the question word her that we learned earlier. Meaning, Why not do something? We get her fun. What harm is there in doing something? Bull Fong is similar, meaning there is no harm in might as well do something Now what's left? Hard to guess now with the rap radical not a clear indicator of meaning. Fun means release free or liberate. Examples are GF Fun Liberate in the political sense Kai Fund to open up to the public or to bloom. And there's also Frank Jar Toe have a holiday by being released from work. Then there's a little rag bag of characters you may come across in your travels and literary adventures. One is funk with ship or boat radical. This is only found in one place sheriff on the marble boat in the Summer Palace Year Yuan in Beijing. At the risk of becoming obscure, fun with the sun radical occurs in the name Lee Fung, a scholar. Live from 9 25 to 9 96 A d between the tank and the song Dynasty's in, the author of fictional History found with the tree Radical comes up in a lot of place names in China. It's also word for a type of square wooden pillar used in building. This is what they look like, and we've already got all the characters up for the summary of this family 25. 19 The bian, pian family: the BNP in family. The head of the BNP n family is beyond meaning flat. Here's it's stroke order. This head character means flat, as in bn ping flat or level, and it forms the frenetic element for a number of characters. Pronounced P n and P n. See if you can guess which of these is which, and the various meanings are all over the place, widespread or universal. Half of the word for bad, as in flying mouse to net fabricate and by extension to edit. And two ways of displaying. Writing a bamboo scroll on a decorative board for inscriptions. The easiest is the one with the insect radical, which, as we know, is for much more than insects. That's PN half of the word being foot bat. Also look at the full character in that there's the insect radical again. And as you would expect, this is part of another family, the full family. Take a look at this family on your own. I can't go through all of them for you. All I can do is just point new in the direction of efficient learning. So go off and investigate the full family now and keep doing that every time you spot a new frenetic element with the thread or silk radical ISBN, meaning literally to knit but more often to edit, to compile, to write, compose or even fabricators in PNG to edit, to compile or editor or compiler, and you'll be in lead editor, editor in chief of a newspaper. Bien, with the travel radical is all over the place, as in BN boot, to cover the whole area ubiquitous and pull bien Universal general. Widespread or common PN with the bamboo radical on top means that bamboo scroll. It's also a chapter or section of a book. Penn Jiang is a section or chapter. PN move is the table of contents seen everywhere across China are bien, the traditional Chinese style horizontal inscribed tablets. Hungover doors are on walls. The full word is pie bien. Harder to guess from its radical ISBN. Cramped, narrow, crowded or mean as in BN show up narrow or small minded with the standing man radical is pin slanting on an incline, as in pinch are bias deviation on Lupien impartiality straight, not slanted with the feathers. Radical is another PN, meaning to fly or to flutter from which comes PNP en elegant, graceful dancing, lightly pension lively describing dancing and movements. And here's the summary off the BNP in family. 26. 20 The tong,dong family: the Tung Dong family. The small Tung Dong family is headed up by the character tongue, meaning the same similar or together with here's It's Stroke order. This is a very common and important character which crops up in many words and phrases. We've got Tong Schwab, fellow student or classmate Tong shirt at the same time simultaneously and different tone tone. Sure, colleague coworker with Tony At the end, we find E Tong along well together and who tongue different or distinct, not the same. Not alike. Derived from Tom are a very small number of common characters and rather more less common ones. It's not the best of families, but those few characters which are common are certainly worth knowing. So let's do the spotting game again. Just on the common ones on the left are derivatives and on the right, this time muddled up other pronunciations and meanings. It should be extremely easy to match those up tall with the bamboo radical on top literally means a thick piece of bamboo, but by extension it means any kind of pipe less. Obviously, from this we get several tube shaped things with particular functions such as Den Tong meaning a hand torture flashlight and wire tong microphone or the receiver on the phone. Also very useful is Tom with the gold or metal radical meaning copper with the water. Radical is dong a cave or grotto. A ravine. Caves often have rivers in them. This crops up quite a lot if you go to such places in China last night. Out of these is the one with the tree radical Tong again, which is used for a variety of trees with broad leaves and also quite a lot of place names . You may also come across some rather less common ones in your travels. I'm not going to do those. If you see them, you will immediately recognize the pronunciation, and learning them will hopefully be easy and a pleasure. Now you know how they're formed. Here's the summary of these characters 27. Conclusion: We've come to the end of the course, and I hope that I've demonstrated conclusively the power of this method of learning characters. This is by far the best method there is and enables you to build written vocabulary much more quickly than any other method. It's especially good for technical and semi technical characters such as illnesses, insects, fish chemistry and things like that, but also for many, much more common characters. And the fact that some of the characters are uncommon ones is no bad thing, either. As I said before, the very common characters have to be learned, usually by road. But they're not that useful in reading. All the doors in the world do not help me get the meaning out of a passage. For that, you need to read the characters, which are unique to that particular passage, which may well be the more technical ones. Following now is a Pdf file, giving a lot more examples of useful fanatic families on their black sheep for you to use as a reference, and now it only remains for me to wish you the very best success in learning Chinese