Child & Adolescent Counselling | Elmira Strange | Skillshare

Child & Adolescent Counselling

Elmira Strange, Psychologist, Coach

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24 Lessons (2h 37m)
    • 1. 0. Promo Video

      1:28
    • 2. 1. About the Course

      2:41
    • 3. 2. Definition of Counselling

      4:24
    • 4. 3. The Counselling Relationship

      6:24
    • 5. 4. The Development Cycle

      7:26
    • 6. 5. Parent, Child, Teacher Relationships

      8:06
    • 7. 6. The Complexities of Growth

      8:05
    • 8. 7. Introduction – Psychological Development

      9:20
    • 9. 8. Therapy: Conflict and Stress

      11:30
    • 10. 9. Therapy: Behavioural Therapies

      7:28
    • 11. 10. Therapy: Working With Children

      7:14
    • 12. 11. Therapy: The Use of Language

      7:18
    • 13. 12. Therapy: Memory

      7:55
    • 14. 13. Psychology Issues: Grief and Bereavement

      6:26
    • 15. 14. Psychology Issues: Exploring Grief and Letting Go

      6:39
    • 16. 15. Psychology Issues: Dysfunctional Families Explained

      7:53
    • 17. 16. Psychology Issues: What is Co-Dependency?

      7:11
    • 18. 17. Psychology Issues: Child Bullying and Child Abuse

      7:55
    • 19. 18. Therapy: Psychological Study of Education

      6:29
    • 20. 19. Therapy: Transformation

      6:41
    • 21. 20. Therapy: Using Newly Found Skills

      4:53
    • 22. 21. Therapy: Recovery – The Therapeutic Process

      5:10
    • 23. 22. Therapy: Moving on – Emotional Intimacy

      6:18
    • 24. 23. Setting Up a Counselling Practice

      9:36

About This Class

This course is for those who want to become a professional counsellor specialising in their work with children.

This course is for beginners, so you will learn from the start. 

Here is what you will learn here:

  • How to work with children and teenagers
  • What is 'child bullying' and 'child abuse'
  • Grief and bereavement 
  • What language to use in counselling children and teenagers
  • Conflicts and stress in children and adolescents 
  • How to open your own 'online' or 'offline' practice
  • And so much more!

What you need to know beforehand? Only that you have an interest in working with children and teenagers and that you are interested in counselling too! :)

Transcripts

1. 0. Promo Video: Do you want to become a counselor or use counselling skills in your practice? Are you interested in working with Children and teenagers so that they become healthy, happy adults that can achieve anything they want in the future? Then I would like to welcome you to this course. Hey, my name is Samir, a strange and I'm research psychologist with Enfield in counseling and psychology on. In this course, I will teach you maintain ground in theories off how to work with Children, affairs, ages and how to become a professional counselor off adolescents and Children. You will take 23 informative ledgers, which you can listen to at home or on the way to work. You will be guided with step by step approach in becoming a professional counselor who specializes in working with Children and teenagers. You will learn about behavioral therapist counseling, approaches and psychological theories behind the therapy. Today you will also known how to help a teenager who's going through the process of grief, how to deal with a child, bowling and physical abuse, behavioral problems and so much more. Are you interested in learning how to become a professional counselor and how to help young individuals to reach the transformation that they need in a life. Then what are you waiting for? Enroll now and then we'll see in my glass. 2. 1. About the Course: Hello and welcome to the scores child and adolescent counseling certificates. My name is Centimeter Strange and I'm research psychologist on I've been working as a researcher for several years at university. I've been working on my EM field study and on my PhD and at the same time I was working online, writing articles related to psychology and counseling, making courses on psychology and counseling related topics on my particular interest, for example, on how to manage stress and have to develop your motivation for working either online or offline, basically working on your business. So I wrote this course for those who want to either become a professional counselor on. Maybe it's the fill stepping stone on the way to becoming a professional counselor after after this course, you perhaps you're thinking about going into university on completing a whole big course on that. Or perhaps you want to complete this course and start working online using this council techniques with your work with Children and other lessons. In any case, these course will give you a lot of theoretical information that is directly related to counseling practice of Children and adolescents, and we'll give you a good solid grounding for starting your path off a counselor Here, for example, you will learn the psychological issues and problems that you might have to deal with during your work. You will learn about what language and behavior you should use when currency and Children. You will find out how you can help your clients when experience grieving and cannot let it go. And, of course, the therapeutic methods that you can use during your sessions to help your clients to deal with a psychological problems easier and more effectively. Some off the course objectives would be you would develop the key skills for counseling young people. In the little essence, you would study the history and key thinkers that have contributed to counseling and actually psychology as well. You will gain an understanding off Children and their cognitive and psychological developments, So let me welcome you to this course once again. Please look at the additional PdF guides that that I create for this course that come to the course because then you will derive the best value from this course. You will gain even more knowledge, participate in the quizzes, especially in the final. Cui's on in the homework that I'm giving you from time to time to reflect on something. I hope you're ready for the course. Let's proceed to all in next election. 3. 2. Definition of Counselling: hello and welcome to our first actual. Let's listen where we'll talk about what is canceling the definition of counseling. What it is used for. Counseling is a type of talking therapy that allows a person to talk about their problems and feelings in a confidential and dependable environment. So when the person decided to have a counselling or they've been referred to by the doctor by the teacher in case of school related counseling, they would typically have several sessions through which they would work through the current problems and issues until they reach a state of acceptance or positive outcome in my other on like horses are also teach about coaching, which includes therapeutic coaching. Therapeutic culture can provide the client with a state of readiness for taking the situation forward with some sort of action plan. Counselling, on the other hand, is used for making person to feel okay with he's a her current situation. They might not be ready to take some action just yet when they go for counseling session, but they want to reach the point where they will accept the situation as it ease on, become okay with it. Of course, after some successful counseling sessions. The person can feel very inspired and motivated to change the life situation for the better and to start making some action plan. But the main purpose off the counseling therapy is to make the person feeding a K with where he or she is right now. The person who decided to seek counseling is at the point where he or she is the most vulnerable. When the world is crushing down and when the current situation seems to be unresolvable and went through talking with you, they get a K with where they are. They would find that they can move forward from then on. That acceptance is what they need at the time when they come to see you when you work as a Children or the listen counselor, you might work with the whole family. Or you might work with Children in school settings where the child was referred to you by the teacher on the times it will feel like these Children were sent to you. Despite the wishes. They don't want to see anyone where eighties and after school teacher, a psychologist or a counselor so it can be challenging task for you to get them engaged and open up to you. But of course, we will talk about it later in more detail. Counseling Children under the license is often different from counseling adults, though the objective is the same methods using in counseling Children and adolescents often depends on the client's age, development stage and individual challenges. Your role as the counselor is to help the client, no matter the age, to make the own decisions rather than making decisions for them. If you work as a counselor, you might have to deal with such issues as depression and anxiety, developmental delay, phobias, aggression, gender dysphoria, consequences of child abuse, self harming learning difficulties, Ng's abilities and even eating disorders. You might see a child individually or with their parents, with other family members or with the carers. At times, you might be seen parents without the child being present. Children can have the same emotional and mental issues as adults. No matter the cases, Your work as a counselor is still the same. To help the child or adolescent to become more mentally and emotionally stable, which can help them to become happier and healthier adults. Well, thank you for listening. I will see in our next lecture where we will discuss Woody's, the counselling relationship, what it involves and what you need to know about it. See you in our next lecture. 4. 3. The Counselling Relationship: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll talk about the counselling relationship. Water teas. During your counseling practice, you will have to develop these counselling relationship, which is building a report. Building a trust with your clients on that trust is mutual. The same US agreement between you and your clients on that will make a difference between a bad counseling session and a good counseling session. It all depends on the relationship between the counselor and the clients. What you need to remember is this. The council would never impose the they own views and beliefs onto the clients and will remain impartial and non judgmental. The counselling process is about exploring the client's own violence and beliefs and their own realizations to how much they can challenge themselves so they could make a positive change in their life. All councils are bound by a code of ethics and practice as well as they professional body they belong to. Generally speaking, this is what the Council's have to adhere to. If no consents given by the client, the information cannot be exchanged with anyone else. The content of the meeting remains private and confidential in extreme circumstances, where the council it becomes concerned for the personal safety of the blind. The client is informed that confidentiality may be broken. If client imposes some threats towards themselves or towards others, then the council. I can inform about it two police, for example, the clients, medical practitioner or any other relevant authority. But typically it's the police and the medical practitioner we should know about. In order to develop a healthy therapeutic relationship, the council has to provide a safe environment that would provide confidentiality. Where is the counselor themselves? Would offer empathy, understanding and respect towards the client. The council is tone of voice, and the counseling techniques can help to build their trust and their relationship quicker . This is why a council needs to know what kind of constantly approaches can be used. For example, when the council reframes the question or making a pause while giving the client time to recollect the thoughts, These are organs considerate to be counselling skills. So let's get back to the relationship between the therapist and declines because you will be dealing with Children and adolescents, it is really important to let them know that they're in a safe environment, with you and whatever would be saved in that room will stay there, too. Children under the licence Especially when I had a previous experience off being traumatized by abuse or the rely, too by adults, for example. They will have a deep feeling of mistrust towards the adults, and this is why it is essential to reassure them that they are in a very safe environments with you, where they can share all the problems and concerns. As one relate council seat young people hate being talked down to. As a young person's counselor, you have to be open and honest and give your clients time to open up when my clients believe they thank me. But I tell them that they have done the hard word as it isn't easy talking about the big things that are warring them. When counseling young people and particularly Children, you need to be aware off these guidelines as it states by the online Counseling college on their website. The type and quality of relationship are key to the effective counseling that's the counselor should be experienced as being warm, caring, accepting MPAA thick and trustworthy. It is crucial that the child feels unconditional, accepted, valued and respected by the council on only then can trust be established. Not here, that often Children leave in highly reactive and unpredictable environments where love and acceptance are conditional and where rejection and criticisms are the norm. In contrast of these, the counselor shoot mortal, healthy afirman relationships. Children are highly sensitive and extremely intuitive. They can read subtle, non verbal messages and sense what other people are thinking and feeling. That's the agreed to recognize a lack of sincerity, boredom, this interest in patients irritation, judgmental and is like be alert to the danger off Children and adolescence trying to please the counselor. This can hamper the therapeutic process by preventing client from being the rial and from exploring negative thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is usually unhelpful to offer the reassurances. For example, everything will be all right. Your mom really does love you. This can send the message that the council does not want to hear about the young person's pain. All the negative emotions are unacceptable. It is important to not come across us patronizing and to help the young person find the old solutions. Rather than suggesting ideas yourself, the therapeutic process is often slow and gradual, so be willing to accept the young clients. Pace. Okay, so this is it for this lecture on the therapeutic or counselling relationship between you and your clients. As I said earlier, do check the additional pdf guides, which I include with this course, they will help you to drive the best value from this course and to learn in a very effective way. Thank you for listening, and I will see in our next media. 5. 4. The Development Cycle: hello and welcome to our next lecture the development cycle. As you will be working with Children under licence, it is important for you to know about the developmental really cycle. What the stages of growth they're going through what sort of ages you need to be aware off what sort of traits and characteristics exhibit for different age groups. This is what we're gonna talk about not only in this lecture, but probably in the next about three lectures. It's a very interesting and important information that can help you to find your own way off dealing with your young clients. Most people go through four distinctive age stages on the way to the adult hood. The 1st 1 is the Infancy stage, which is birth to two years of age, which is not going to be a client group anyway. But the second group is the early childhood group from 3 to 8 years of age, which can be counseled. The next group is the later child who group, which is 9 to 12 years of age, and there would be in adolescence Group, which is 13 to 18 years of age, individuals over 18 years of age are consider to be adults, though if you listen to teenagers, they feel that they have reached a stage of adult hood Already. The infancy stage is characterized by total dependence on the baby's parents, particularly the mother who provide sustenance and opportunity to be taken care off. As you are not going to council these group of Children, let's proceed to the next one. The Ailey childhood group can be characterized by the dependence from their parents and other family members learning from mostly the immediate environment. But eventually, with every year of the age, exploring fill their fields and learning from all the teachers as well. This is the time when the child is quite calm and certain about the environment, unless they experience psychological issues, possible psychological traumas, attachment issues and so on. This period, off life teaches the child autonomy, self doubts and shame. The child is learning to be independence by learning from and coping the adults surrounding them. If these are the license feel to be overly controlled by the parents K take its or other family members, the child can develop low self esteem and self doubt because they will feel that they cannot survive themselves as the child grows up, he or she and the the later Childhood group and also the age stage, which is called Initiative versus Guilt and later, competence versus Inferiority. As described by Erick Erickson, a German American developmental psychologist. The child interacts with other Children and develop they first leadership skills. They're curious about the world, and they want to ask so many questions. If, however, they don't get the salt after answers, or they will feel inferior to others, they can develop the guilt complex, which will impart the interaction with others. The child can have difficulties in expressing themselves and my feel ashamed for being curious about the world. Instead of feeling competence, they can develop a sense of being inferior to others. You might be familiar with people who say to the Children, What now? Can't you see I'm busy? I don't know. The child might feel even braver, asking more questions or exploring the world by themselves. Or they might engage in some activities with others where they developed a leadership, communication and teamwork in skills, or they can feel left out as if they knew since two Are this both to the family and to the world outside of the family, and as a result, they can develop a sense of guilt and shame. These types of examples characterized that developmental stage, which is called initiated versus guilt and competence versus inferiority. What could be a council a dealing with when counselling thes stage group? Well, that might involve uncertainty about being laughed or proof by others. Emotional issues, learning and behavioral problems. So what happens when they get to the adolescent stage, which is the age from 13 to 18? Please explain the end of the stage of identity versus role confusion. This is the stage where the person is trying to find their own self, the place under the sun, so to speak. This is the stage where they will try many roles and many psychological mosques to see what suits them and what feels comfortable at this time. The teenager will be seeking approval from others seen way they feet in the society, and it will be learning to understand the value off the accomplishments. Teenagers can struggle with many issues, for example, the identity roles and the P pressure. They often feel misunderstood by others at that time they need a family to be close but not too intruding into the life counseling. Teenagers can be challenging and rewarding at the same time the world a guidance. But they also want to be independent at that stage of the lessons can make decisions without thinking off consequences and potential negative outcomes and therapies need to be aware off this duality in teenagers at all times. What councils could be dealing with when counselling teenagers. It's the mood swings, depression and exciting on a lot off negative self talk. They might see many things in their life as hopeless, and it might feel like they fail in many other achievements. One of the main techniques that the council I can use here is to teach the other lesson to choose more positive thoughts off a negative ones through, for example, daily journaling and discussing it with you. Okay, so this is all you need to be aware off in relation to the developmental stages off Children and teenagers in order to counsel them effectively. But if you're interested in exploring this topic in more detail, and I always encourage you to do so, then a research the Erikson's stages off psychosocial development, which is available either through articles on the Internet, for instance, or on the website, which is called Simply Psychology the or Or by reading Erick Erickson's own book, which is called Identity and the Life Cycle. Thank you for watching and I will see you know next lecture. 6. 5. Parent, Child, Teacher Relationships: hello and welcome to our next lecture parent child and teacher relationships. How do they play with each other? What do you need to know about this Triads Parents is obviously, they're very important to the child from the age of birth, really. But the teachers come into play us A list three or four years of age, and they become very important to so in. This lecture will discuss the relationships between the parent and the child and between the teacher and the child. What's the difference between them, who they're gonna listen first and what you need to consider when you counseling them, either just the child on their own or with the parents and the teachers present. One of the main underpinning theories in the parent child interaction is the theory off attachment that was proposed by John Bowlby in 1969 who was a psychoanalytic and who believed that mental health problems and behavioral problems could be attributed to a early childhood. Bobby's evolutionary theory off attachment suggest the Children come into the world biologically pre programs to form attachments with others because this will help them to survive. So as the baby grows, he or she will have different degrees of attachments to the parents. This will change depending on different circumstances, the child's age, the parents, responsiveness and attitudes, the parents, mental health, state, the babys, developmental issues, if any. And as more and more later research shows, even the family, social stages and financial situation can influence these interaction. What you need to know is this. First, the research shows that Children we developmental delays are more likely to have behavioral issues. The Charles Developmental Delay Arts directly to the parents stress levels, which in turn affects the overall relationships with Children. Secondly, parents all Worf and the level of control that they exhibit towards the child in a positive way after two most important parents are attributes that help to create positive effects in the interaction with the child. Thirdly, lower intelligence and parents is linked to the childbearing skills. In particularly, these parents tend to have more negative controlling parenting over the Children, which later on results in the Children's difficult behaviour. And fourthly, emotions in all the aspects play an important role in the development of parent child relationships. It goes both ways. Children's emotions affect parents will be he vous, and parental emotions affect Children's developments on behaviors. This is why parents need to learn to regulate the emotions, so to ensure healthy development off the Children. So when does the teacher child in direction comes into play off course? It happens as soon as the teacher is introduced to the child, whether it is in school, preschool or outside of school. What do you need to know about the teacher, child or teacher? Student interaction? First of all, the first to research The fact probably won't even surprise you. It has been known in the psychology related fields that a teacher who expresses warmth, understanding and aims to maintain a positive interaction with students positively affect the students. Developments on give them many benefits that continue even outside of school, too. For example, the level of stress hormones would be lowest at those Children's chemistry who had positive interactions with a teachers throughout the week. Secondly, those Children who had positive relationships with the teachers tend to have few behavioral problems. Later on, they show more engagement in class, they perform better, and they communication skills developed better, too. Those Children who struggle academically and behavioral e can improve even half good and directions with the teachers. The research shows that when teachers maintain supportive relationships with students with behavioral problems, these kids improve over time. So this is why, if you ever worked as a school counselor in the future on, have you say it is important to remind teachers that harsh criticism can sup the child's energy and motivation to study? After all, we've learned a little bit about parents and Children and teachers and Children would you need to consider as a counselor. First of all, when counselling Children with behavioral problems, it is important to given undivided attention to the child before calling a teacher or the parent to a session. It is essential to come to a mutual agreement and to a full acceptance off a child that here she's absolutely or key. If the teacher or a parent would be present, it is easy to undermine trust off the child or other lessons. If you miss even a small element, such as letting them know at reach session, you would like to invite the teacher or the parent for how long and for what purpose. Secondly, many council see parents and teachers separately from seeing the child for the counseling sessions. But the ties it is more beneficial to attempt to bring them all together for one short session where you would lead the station and keep keep it all under control. So you're full. Psychological and practical planning would be essential here. Fully explore a variety of possible issues with a child. Sometimes what it seems like a problem with he's a her parents may be a result of the child's poor. Academic achievement may be a result of the child's poor academic achievements, relationships with peers, possible drug abuse. What even underlying mental health issue, fourthly, the parent child teacher in direction triumph can all influence one another from the mentally. It is important to investigate each of this relationships before examining other relationships, such as with the siblings, France classmates and so on. Well, this is it for this lecture. Now you realize that the child or the listen relationship with the teachers and parents can influence one another. If you are still interested in learning about this topic in a more detail, then I'd recommend you to read about the attachment theory by John Bowlby, where you will find out the degree of attachment between the child and the parent, particularly the mother, that can affect the fill that psychological development of the child later on in life. Also, you might be interested in learning about the transactional analysis theory. But Eric Berne, who explains that we all as individuals play game with one another, which can be seen as a try it off the parent child and adult interaction. Very interesting. Read that would add to your library off knowledge. Well, thank you for watching, and I will see, you know, next lecture. 7. 6. The Complexities of Growth: hello and welcome to our next lecture, the complexities off growth and in this lecture will continue talking about the child's developments over the lesson developments, what they're going through, what complexities they have to deal with alongside with their families here again will will go through a very stages off growth and development of Children and adolescents there, somewhat different from what we're mentioned before they go into a bit more detail, and they will give you a knowledge that you need to consider when you're working with this type of group of clients. So when will go through several stages off Children adolescence that you might counsel and through the developmental characteristics. So pay attention to those characteristics. If you see them in those Children and adolescence that your counseling in your office, if they fail to show those characteristics, then they might be a developmental delay, which highlights the issues that you might be dealing with throughout decisions with a child. Well, first of all, normal, healthy development off a child off the age of 7 to 8 means that the child is more wear off . Other perceptions that might complain about other Keats reactions they want to behave well , but they cannot keep the attention at the highest. They might try to express their feelings with words, but might resort to aggression when upset. So if a child of this age cannot focus on what you're saying for most of the time, or you notice that he or she is not aware that the way they speak hurt some people, then this would be healthy developmental norms. But of course, if a child cannot focus on most of what you're saying, this might be also a sign off 80 HD problem, which is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Off course. All Children develop a different stages on the what we're going through. It's like an overall national health guidelines, so to speak. So between nine and 10 years of age, the child will narrow down the circle of friends they're having. That might be affectionate or really rude and argumentative. They might withdraw from the family activities and start forming the new identity. At that age, Children feel they need to be competence in the classroom to meet the expectations off the parents and the teachers. So if the child exhibit some dislike to studying, that would flag up some underlying issues. Problems with teachers with family or with their peers. Between the ages of 11 and 15 a child start thinking more logically. They become introspective and moody, and they need privacy at that age. Really value opinions or friends? More and more, they might start trying different outfit styles, and they might start behaving differently because they want to see a way they fit in their level of society and they p a group. They may also either want to make more friends and peers or prefer to be alone. Children at age regard the parents as primary source of guidance and support, and teachers of the secondary wants between the ages of 16 and 18. They strive to be independence on to become emotionally detached from the parents and other members of the family. Researchers explain that adolescence is a time in the Youngs person's life, where they move from dependency on the parents to independence, autonomy and maturity. At that age, they also discovered their own strengths and weaknesses, and this can make themselves century a moody or impulsive. They also proud of the achievements and success, and finally at that age, they start dating and spent a lot of time with friends. Each of the licence will experience this period differently. Some will go through the adolescence quicker and more smoothly than others. Some of the lessons have supportive families where artists would have to face this challenging time pretty much on the own alone. Some of the lessons would be leaving at home with their families at the periods, but the families might be emotionally distant so that the lesson can feel as if they're alone in the crowd. Off course. It is understandable that for any one person, the facing change is in the lives in the biological, cognitive, psychological, social, moral and spiritual sense could find this time both exciting and daunting. The more independent they feel, the more freedom they perceive. But with that freedom comes responsibility. They're the license. Attitudes and perspectives change, sometimes pretty dramatically and even close. Family members might suddenly feel that they're leaving with a stranger. So what cognitive complexities can be seen in adolescence? Jean Piaget, a Swiss cognitive psychologists, believe that adolescence is the time when young people develop cognitively from concrete operations to formal operations so they're able to deal with ideas, concepts and abstract theories. However, they can make mistakes, which undermines the confidence. Learning through success and failures is part of the challenge off the learning process in the adolescent are the license are egocentric in a way that they think that they observed by our this all the time. They might even perform for the public through the behavior and communication, even think that all this underestimates what they do and how they think these can lead to the feelings of frustration and even outbursts of anger at the lessons leave in the private world, where they may think that they're invincible and cannot be hurt. This happens because of the age they hadn't had to deal with many deaths yet, and this is why they can demonstrate a very risky behavior at times. All these believes, such as invincibility on being observed by others alongside with physical and cognitive changes in the development can lead them to believe that no one s capable off understanding them or know how they're feeling. And, of course, this aspect show all the complexities off the development, which can have important implications for councillors. Well, this is really for this lecture on in the Next Lecture will continue talking about the psychology of child and adolescent development and in particular will have a look at ground in psychological theories that underpin the work of today's therapies. If you would like to read filled, honest or big on, as always, I encourage you to do so. Then I would recommend you a book, which is called Child and Adolescent Development by Anita Wolf Folk and Nancy Perry, in which you would learn about the developmental milestones off four major stages off developments, infancy and toddlerhood. A early childhood, middle childhood and other listens. You would learn about significant changes that happened during that developmental period on how they influence body grove, brain and motor development, language, intelligence, parent and P of relationships and self identity. Thank you for watching, and I will see you know a next lecture. 8. 7. Introduction – Psychological Development: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will talk about the psychological development off Children and adolescence. It's the theories that you need to be aware off. Or you need to know because they underpin a work off any therapist off today's therapist or a counselor. They give you a ground knowledge off. When you're working with Children and other lessons, you know where they behavior comes from. You can see the patterns. It is very important to be aware off those theories that, for example, work off Sigmund Freud. A lot of people assume they know what he's talking about, but actually he's work continued for years, and there are books and books about his work. It's not only about anything related to sexual development, as a lot of people assume it's so much more into his work, for example, the theories off conscious and subconscious that I'm fascinated about. So anyway, let's get down to our today's lecture. During the previous lectures. We've already touched up on the work off some developmental psychologist, and they influence on how the motor therapist see human development. So let's have a look at the ground in theories that underpin Children and adolescents. Psychological development The psychological theories that we need to be aware off are the developmental theories that provide concepts and principles about human developments. Some theories focus on Lee development off a human when they go through very stages in life . US. In the Erikson's theory off psycho social developments. Where is all this are looking into how we reach students stages where we form specific qualities such as moral development, as in the theory off Colbert's theory of moral development? Then The Rod Graham theories, which are the major theoretical frameworks proposed by the big figures within psychology and psych analysis such as Sigmund Freud again, Erick Erickson and Jean Piaget. These are theories that cover cognitive development, psychosocial and learning stages and so on. And there are many theories that focus on Lee on a single concept such as formacion off self esteem, for example. Learning about theories is very important because theories provide us with some useful framework that we can use in our work, whether you would stick mainly to second political framework and focus on the problems that arise from the person's childhood or whether you would stick to the second social development. This will give you a method for analysing and understanding the current situation off your client from at various points within counseling and psychology. So let's have a look at the second political theory off Sigmund Freud. The main concept is that every child has to go through several psychosexual stages. Each of these stages a cure at a particular age off the child, and the child gets fixated on that stage, and it's not transitioning through that stage in a healthy, easy way. Then the person will have a very high chance off developing a certain psychological disorder later in the adult hood. For example, during the 1st 2 years off, he's a whole life. The child goes through aural stage. The stage is characterized by the child's curiosity to life. Through testing everything in their mouth. The child used a lot of aural related activities, such as psyching biting and breast feeding. So if the child gets fixated on that stage, for example, through overfeeding or under feeding, then late in life Hugh she can develop certain issues that they're related to aural behaviors. For example, smoking, nail biting, becoming verbally abusive towards office, excessively drinking alcohol and so on. Freud proposes several stages. For example, anal phallic genital. If you are interested in learning about the stages and in detail, then please read up on the Freud's psychosexual developmental stages. For example, go to simply psychology, Don't Orc and read up about signals. Freud's work, which is much vaster than he's proposed stages. Next, let's have a look at the attachment theory, which is the work of John Bowlby and Mary Ang's worth. John Bowlby Waas, a British child psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Whereas Mary Ainsworth was an American second analyst, the attachment theory presumes that there is a deep along license. Psychological bond happened between the newborn baby, and he's a her primary care giver, usually a mother. The baby totally depends on the caregiver, whereas the kg vague use the child pleasure and nurturing, particularly at times of stress, which is very important. The attachment theory proposes that the quality of that attachment can impact the individual's well being later wrong in life. Bowlby did a substantial research with Children in very situations like hospitalized or abandoned Children. As a result, he came to conclusion that if the child experienced negative relationship with the primary k give it in the 1st 2 years of his or her life, then it can lead to a very negative consequence on the child's development. For example, the child when he, he or she becomes a teenager and then later and adult can experience a decline in the intelligence, depression, aggression and more severe psychological disorders. So based on the attachment theory, the researchers came up with four distinct attachment types that would lead to either healthy or psychologically unhealthy individual late in life. And these are secure attachment where Children were happy and secure to learn and to explore surroundings. They could get distressed when the mother is absent, but they assured that you will return. Then there is a type which is called anxious, avoidant insecure attachment, where Children do not have full trust that the primary care giver can't fulfill the nurturing and K given needs. Whether they mothers present or absent, they can act in different how are they feel anxious inside. They can also be described us emotionally distant. The next type is anxious, resistant, insecure attachment, which happened when the primary care give his behavior is inconsistent. The Children can act quite possibly but they can also show a mixture of anger and helplessness towards the mother. And the last form off attachment is called disorganized, disoriented attachments. This is when the Children do not feed into any other category that we mentioned here. These Children can demonstrate that they're passive, hypothetical, depressed or angry. The mothers can also act differently. They might show behavior such as passive or angry, being uncertain or being frustrated. If you're interested in learning more about the theater off attachments, then I would advise you to read up on Joan Bowlsby owned book that came out in 2008. And it's called Attachment or one of his previous books from 1998 which is called Attachment and Loss. Well, we came to the end of this lecture, and now you know that there are many theories off Charles developments that are available to us today from the Freudian psycho sexual development stages Bowlby attachment theory to Eriks and second political theory. The other theorists you might want to explore is the behaviorist theories, for example, given through the work off John Watson and Skinner, who suggest that a baby's mind is a tabula rasa, a clean state which has changed by adults in the process of learning and developing and where learning accuse through positive free enforcements. And another theory you might want to explore is the coordinative developmental theory. The Cognitive Development Theory by Jean Piaget, which we touched up in the previous lecture. Jean Piaget Cognitive development theory views Children us BZ motivated explorers whose thinking develops as they are directly on the environment. While this is the first lecture well done for staying with me, I hope you find it this information interesting, enjoyable and viable. And I will see you know the next lecture. 9. 8. Therapy: Conflict and Stress: hello and welcome to our next lecture, conflict and stress. And in today's lecture, we will discuss about the situations that cause conflicts or internal conflict to your clients. What sort of stress that can experience. And what's the reasons for that within the family, outside the family, with their peers or without And, of course, what you need to consider as a counselor when you're working with Children or the license, assess your clients. So first of all, let's have a look at the war. This conflict conflict is a serious disagreement or argument that results from some incompatible or in Congress views. Conflict can be external or internal, for example, and that the lesson can have a conflict with his or her parents, which is external. Or they can experience an internal conflict, for example, in the role that have to blame society with a peers, teachers and parents with Children. The conflict they experience can be based on the external factors such as conflict situations with other Children, with a teachers and other authority figures and with the parents. So let's have a look at what parents can typically do when they conflict with one another, even in the presence of the Children. They can act with a physical aggression that can heat a push each other. They can give each other silent treatments, simply avoiding each other. Or even they might pretend that the made peace worries. In reality, they didn't. How will this affect the child? As a result of watching those types of conflicts, the child can become distraught and worried the child can develop a feeling off. Anxiety and hopelessness are the Children can also reactive out with anger and aggression. They might start developing behavioral problems and fail at academic achievements. These Children can have sleep problems, health related problems such as irregular headaches. And they just have issues. The mine develop a weak immune system and gets sick frequently. What we described here is called destructive conflict, and it causes a significant stress through the child. It impairs the ability to focus on learning and achieving good results in school, and they're more likely to have problems with forming relationships with their peers. Some research shows the Children can experience stress from the external conflict at as a list six months old. In fact, all Children and adolescence can experience stress from these type of conflict that any h even at the age of 19 years old in 2002. Researchers Arena Rip, 80 Shelley Taylor and Theresa Semen at UC late at U. C. L. A. Looked at 47 studies that linked Children's experiences in the risky family environments toe later issues in adult hood. And they found that those who grew up in homes with high levels of conflict had more physical problems, had more physical health problems, emotional problems and social problems later in life can pay to control groups as idols, living more likely to report vascular and immune problems. Depression and emotional reactivity, substance dependency, loneliness and problems with intimacy. So it is always that external conflict can create a long lasting, if not lifelong, psychological trauma to Children. But all they all destined to suffer then a child's developmental psychologists, Cummings say's conflict is a normal part of everyday experience. So it's not the weather parents fight that is important. It's how the conflict is expressed and resolved, and especially how it makes Children feel that has important consequences for Children. So watching conflicts doesn't have to be negative thing for Children, particularly when they observe how those conflicts are resolved. Cummings goes even further to say that one kids witness a fight. I see the parent resolving it. They're actually happier than they were before they saw it. Even if parents don't completely resolved the problem but find a partial solution, Children do not experience stress are such if, for example, the parents reach some compromise, it can be seen as a partial solution, and Children benefit from any progress towards the conflict resolution. Okay, so let's have a look at internal conflicts that a typical experience by adolescence and to a lesser degree by smaller Children. Why do they happen mawr in teenagers rather than smaller Children? Because when the child reaches puberty, he or she experiences many changes at the psychological and physiological levels, often at the same time. For example, they have changes in the physiological, neurological and hormonal system. They might have difficulty in adjusting to how the body shape is changing. At the time of adolescence, as we were discussing before this, teens are trying to find their own place in the society. They try many. It rolls their relationships with Air France or the opposite sex who suddenly become more attractive confuses them because now they need to find a different behavioral and communicative ways with them. The teenagers attitudes to school and related activities can change drastically. They're seeking independence, but they still need parent ill guidance to are the lesson suffer from the pier Pressure in how to be heave, speak dress. They also suffer from the Tim patient off alcoholic drugs. They might worry about the future and selecting suitable career. And finally, they might experience many confusing feelings towards themselves. The feelings off Self Petey can be mixed with feelings off self hate. They had the lesson self identity, which is how they define themselves and the social identity, which is how they perceived by others, are forming on that in itself creates many conflicting views about self. Now, if you think about are the external factors that they can experience at the same time, such as moving or changing schools, leaving in a rough neighborhood, chronic illness or severe problems in the family separation of the parents, or death off a last one or family financial problems, then it is clear that teenagers need as much assistance as possible with learning how to take care of themselves, how to find support and resources that can help them to go through that transition. They would benefit from learning about what they're going through and how they can learn to cope with it better. So how this internal conflicts affect adolescence. The main effect happens on the cognitive and emotional levels where the teenager has many negative thoughts and feelings about themselves and about the world they're on them. These can include, for example, poor wheel power, low ability to focus inferiority, complex feelings, off frustration or uncontrolled anger, absent mindedness, mental instability and escapism obvious a day earlier. The academic achievements can suffer, and their relationships with others can become confusion and complex. Now you remember Eric Erickson, whom we mentioned Alia in our lectures. Erickson, the psychologist who proposed the theory off psychosocial developmental stages of Children , also suggested that all other license face a major identity crisis at some point. Ericsson Considerate lease to be as one of the psychosocial stages, and it's called it identity versus identity confusion. If they adolescent resolves this conflict and comes to affirm cells, firm sense of self identity, these will lead to a secure sense of identity and the overall fulfillment. If the teenager doesn't reach a healthier resolution of the conflict, this can lead her poor sense of self role confusion, low self esteem and so on. James Barcia, also a developmental psychologist, described similar conflicts in adolescence and proposed four main ST Joseph identity developments that the cure in responses to crisis in various areas of life. Such a school relationship, family owned via Luz and so on. So the four stages are currently rise by the following. The 1st 1 is Identity diffusion, which is the status off adolescence who have not made a commitment to particular identity. Yet they're uncertain about the career path. They're unaware what skills they have. They still trying various identity mosques in their relationships with others. So the next one is the identity foreclosure, which involves committing to it and the identity prematurely without exploration or choice . This can happen, for example, when the parents decide a a certain career path for the for the other lessons well before the adolescent understood whether it is who they really are, they accept this identity prematurely, which can lays it results in the identity crisis, the next one is identity moratorium, which is a stage of active exploration that goes together with a low commitment to any particular identity. During this time, the adolescent elites leads an interesting, exciting and potentially dangerous activities which often a result in conflict with parents or are the authority figures are the lessons need to be free to explore the identities, but they also need guidance and support to transition safely through these status. On the last one is identity achievements, which, accused when they're the lesson, had an adequate opportunity to explore an identity or even if you and he or she chooses the identity that most suitable for them with a high degree of commitment. Identity achievement East the healthiest stages with the least chance to experience stress from internal conflicts for any other lessons. Thank you for watching on I will See you in our next lecture, where we will discuss some behavioral therapist that they used. You're in counseling work with Children and adolescents 10. 9. Therapy: Behavioural Therapies: hello and welcome to our next lecture. Behavioral therapies. Maybe heard already what sort of therapies are used with the in counseling and therapeutic settings, for example, cognitive behavioral therapies. But you know what they're based on? What's the principles behind it? What are they? Behavioral theories that underpin those approaches that we use today? Well, we will talk about the principles behind it and how they used today in the today's counseling. The basis off all purely behavioral approaches is the behavior therapy that is based on behavioral principles, classical conditioning and operate conditioning. Classical conditioning involves forming associations between two attributes or stimuli. One of these attributes in is neutral. Another one tends to evoke some natural response. For example, walking is a neutral stimuli, and smelling the flower would be stimuli that evokes some natural response in this case is a sense of pleasure. In classical conditioning. A neutral stimuli would be repeated in pair with the stimuli that produces response. That would be done several times until the association is deeply set between the two stimuli and the person starts benefiting from that association. How could apply in your work with Children and adolescents, for example, your client is a school kid who's struggling to focus on his homework. Every time he sees down to do his homework, his mind becomes distracted with so many things in front of him, such as his computer, his toys, the view from his bedroom window and so on. How could you help him? You could suggest to find a new spot in his home where he hasn't done any homework. It that would be a neutral stimuli. Then you could find out about tasks would be the most enjoyable to start with when he needs to do his homework. The next step he would need to do is to associate the new spot to the enjoyable activity. He can start doing his homework in the new sport, and he would start his homework with some enjoyable task. First off the repeating this behavior for several days. So even a couple of weeks, the new association becomes a new habit, and that can be enough for the child to start focusing on the homework much better than ever before. That is called classical conditioning in psychology, where a neutral stimuli is combined with a stimuli that evokes some response. So What is the operating conditioning or parent conditioning? Psychology means that the student degree off reinforcements and punishments can result in certain desirable behaviour. So basically behaviors that are followed by desirable consequences, for example and achievement of success or someone's praise or approval are more likely to a cure a gain in the future, whilst those followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated and you work . For example, you can help your client to understand what sort of behavior are enjoyable to them, which give them the most desirable consequences and how this knowledge can be used in various situations to improve your clients well being. Petitioners of behavioral therapy believe that behavior is learned and can be unlearned via therapy. Behavioral therapists would look at the client's behavior that needs to change the thoughts and feelings associated with his behavior, and they will focus among the standing his behavior at a deeper level. Behavioral therapy is an action based therapy that is aimed at promoting positive and beneficial to the client behavior and reducing or eliminating the unhelpful off negative behavior. So, as we were saying a lier, if you use behavioral therapy, you would either help declined to associate the two different behaviors that result in the positive behavior. Or you would encourage finding a new behavior by focusing on the tasks and actions that are enjoyable and positive, or raising on which can produce even more positive outcomes for your client. One of the behavioral approaches that goes under the Opteron conditioning is called more dealing. More dealing involves learning through observation and imitation of someone else's behavior . This approach can be very useful in working with Children and adolescents. With this approach, your client would be encouraged to find a positive role model, which can be someone they know over 80 off or they don't know that well just yet. The main goal here is to use the positive role model for changing your client's behavior that they would match to the behavior off the model. For example, your client can be an adolescent with a challenging behaviour, but with some interest in sports, you might help this a lesson to find a new positive role model that they can copy. For example, this could be in a flip who warned at certain competitions morning the athletes behavior can the result in your client's new behavior, such as focusing on sports related activities, healthy eating, better time management and so one. Another behavioral approach, which also comes under the umbrella of operate conditioning, is called talking economies. The approach is focused on posted for enforcement or for in some form of talkin that can be exchanged for privileges or certain desired items when they desired behavior is exhibited. This approach is often used by parents when, for example, they give pocket money when the child demonstrated good behavior throughout the week or by teachers. When a reward, the students with some tokens off achievement such a stars or a positive note for the parent in your counseling work, perhaps you cannot give such talking to yourself, but instead you can encourage the child. Why the lesson? To create and use this reward system for themselves, Or if you involve the parents or teachers into the therapy, then you can teach them to use this technique and to help them to come up with variations off this method. If you're interested in learning more about behavioral approaches and therapy, then read up. Then I read about the following behavioral approaches that are primarily used in psychotherapy. These are called systematic desensitization and aversion therapy. And we will proceed to our next lecture, which is called Working With Children, where we will discuss the intricacies off working with Children, such as when to invite parents to the session. How to know when the child is lying went to involve teachers group work and so one. Thank you for listening and I will see, you know, next lecture. 11. 10. Therapy: Working With Children: hello and welcome to our next election. Working with Children in this lecture will discuss what's the difference between working with adult client and with a client who is only a child off course. You would use different approaches on different, perhaps different body language. Different language, verbal language. Now you understand the Children view the world differently, especially when we went through various age stages on how they characterized by psychologist. Now you can see that at some stage they might be more certain about who they are on another stages that might go through identity crisis, where they fall into beats and they don't know what to do next, what to do with a career with a future and so on. So all Children are different. There's no doubt about that. But there are some common techniques and common approaches that you would need to be aware off us a council when you working with Children and when the therapist council Children, they can use a variety of techniques that would be specifically designed for those sessions . For example, a counselor can use plea therapy with younger Children or story telling therapy in order to create a different atmosphere for the child and to help him old, her toe open up about their feelings and emotions. A therapist might use a toy which signifies the child and ask the child to speak for the toy. We're in the storytelling. For example, The therapist can start the story on Let the child to continue with it, using certain questions whatever the therapist uses in his approach with Children. The ultimate goal, however, would be the same. US for an adult to help the client to cope better with their emotions and feelings. Counseling Children is not about preaching or imposing your views on that. Instead of a counselor would help the child to develop a positive you toe life, to recognize this trends, to express themselves in an appropriate and understandable to artist ways. What could it be dealing with working with Children? Well, maybe you will be dealing with the child's relationships with the family, the behavioral and emotional problems, the grief and bereavement that possibly they're going through the poor learning achievements, they pour relationships with peers or the aftermath of bowling. Many parents assume that counseling Children involves them at each session, and many therapists also choose that option to council both parents and Children at the same time, which can be off course, very beneficial for the whole family. But the presence off the parents might not let the child to express themselves safely to have their voice to be acknowledged. Fully through your practice, you will find your own way of counseling Children and their parents, and how much, often individual therapy you want to give to the child. The main thing to remember is that there is no right or wrong answer here. Whether you want to counsel the child with the parents, present or individually will also depend on the child's needs and problems in counseling. Children with the parents here, a few key points you need to consider. Children might not feel confident enough to share they honest views on problems with the councillor Wayne. The parents are present. Family therapy would be the best option when the child impacts the whole family with the emotional or behavioral problems through family therapy, both parents and the child would learn to effectively deal with the circular processes where one family member affects another one and then another one, and it continues in the circle type of movement. Having both individual sessions with the child and family sessions with the whole family with siblings so without can help all the participants to deal with the individual behavior , which has an impact on the whole family. Sometimes Children need a counselor to act as a mediator between the child and the family in order to reach a successful outcome. So what else you need to know about counseling Children? Another thing. You need to remember that Children therapy can also be run in groups and not just individually. Children can benefit greatly from taking part in a group counseling rather than individually peace support group discussion. All the emotional problems psycho educational information group play sessions. This all can be very helpful for achieving counseling aims. Researchers found that group sessions can benefit, particularly those Children who suffer from mental health issues and CVS stress related issues, behavioral problems and depressive disorders. But therapy groups can also benefit Children who don't suffer from mental health disorders or severe stress related issues. But experiencing some difficulty in coping with dresses produces by life challenges in these groups, the primary focus would be on the exploration and resolution off troubling issues. This group works can help the Children to release the disturbing emotions and then modify the beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These groups would especially beneficial in preventing the development off any other serious problems. As the participants are encouraged to share the personal experiences, thoughts and feelings before major issues develop from you and other participants in the group, they would receive support, encouragement and feedback related to a issues, behaviors, beliefs and attitudes. And through this process, they will discover more about themselves. And they would realize that I have more choice in regards to changing the attitudes and behaviors. So however, you decide to work in the future with the parents of without by doing and group work or on just individual basis, the main thing you need to remember that was a counselor. You have certain aims, goals and even obligations. If you suspect the child is getting hurt or even abused, you might need to report this to the authorities such a social services or the school, whereas other obligations would include providing a comfortable and safe environment for the consul in session with a child where the child can share discover, realize and grow. And the main thing is to become better emotionally through the counseling with you. So this is the first lecture. I hope you enjoyed it and found it informative and valuable. Thank you for watching. And I will see, you know, next lecture where we will talk about the use off language in counseling practice. 12. 11. Therapy: The Use of Language: hello and welcome to our next lecture, the use of language in your counseling practice. We were talking a little bit all raising about how you would speak with Children under the lessons in your practice. What sort of approach you would use because that would be different from counseling adults and counseling Children or adolescents on In this lecture will talk about the use of language, which means your behavioral language, your body language and verbal language as well. And, of course, don't forget about listening skills that we use another counselling skills that we used during our sessions. These are all goes on the umbrella off the use of language in practice. One way of encouraging a child or a teenager to talk is to show them that you are listening . Many Children and young adults got used to not being listened to, especially by the parents, teachers and so on, and they would use to not to communicate with them. Well, you are. The council have to show them that they're very welcome to share the stories, opinions, views, war ease and problems openly, and where nobody will judge or criticize them, making a good eye contact making sure that your body language is open and friendly to them , nor ding or quietly saying yes or huh, and sometimes even sitting side by side with them. This would help the child all the young adult toe, open up and share. The council uses Mahaney skills during the constant conversation and summarizing and reflecting just a couple of them when you report back to the child. A short summary off. What I've just said is one way to show them that they've been listened to and understood. Make sure you use a calm and caring tone of voice. Asking the right questions can either make or break a good session with a child or a young adult. Try to ask more open questions than closed ones so that the client felt encouraged to open up and talk. For example, you can ask How you feeling about these? What would be the benefit from doing these? What options do you have now? What would be the pros and cons of the situation? Avoid close questions that require on the yes or no answer. Use them very occasionally and expand it with another open ended question straight after so that the client didn't feel stuck in the conversation, but also remember to make occasional pause to during a pause or that moment of silence. When you don't say anything, you let declined to reflect on what just being saved. You also give them opportunity to add something else to what you've just said. So doing. Rush to ask another question just yet. Let them to think a little come to some conclusions, even if it's on the mind and give the chance to voice the questions or concerns, too. Some Children might feel like no talking to you and your conversation with them Can't your into more like interrogation If they don't want to talk to you, the situation might improve at the next session. If not, then perhaps you can ask one of your colleagues toe attend to talk to the child instead. This doesn't mean that you did anything wrong or your failed in any way. With Children, this process is normal. They do what they feel to do. If they don't want to talk, there might not. If they want to talk to someone off the agenda or the office agenda, then that might work. And if they would rather communicate through a play or a storytelling. Then this is your chance to take an initiative and arrange that. By the way, the use of storytelling in counseling psychotherapy is called narrated. Therapy narrows. Your therapy is focused on using language to help the child. Stories are created by both the council and the child and involved the child's actual problem and how it influenced he's her life. During the process, the story is recreated into its alternative version, in which the problem doesn't dominate the child's life. Narrative therapies aimed at separating the child's identity from the problem so that the problem can be seen as a problem and not as a child who is causing the problem. The storytelling is focusing on Externalizing the child from the situation with the problem . Typically, the child sees the problem or something, that it's part of their life and even a part of themselves. And this makes the child to see things in a very limited way through the narrative. Therapy with child is learning to separate the problem for the from themselves. They re create a new story, a new situation and as a consequence, the new art issues to the same problem. So what else do you need to remember when you're counselor on the lessons and you your communication with them? Young people at any age can feel uncomfortable, afraid or even ashamed when telling to an addled whom they don't know about the emotions, feelings and experiences. There might also feel anxious, defensive, unsure or shy. So active listening and a genuine interest in what I saying is a vital linked to the therapeutic relationship with them. Explain to them that your role is a council is to provide help and support on Most importantly, explained the confidentiality agreement, which usually means that whatever they say, it stays within that room unless they would show that they can be a threat to someone or to themselves or to other people. Many young people don't trust others, especially adults they don't know, so knowing about confidentiality rules is very important to them. Also explained to them that the parents and teachers don't have to be involved in the counselling process unless a teenager, himself or herself is thinking that it can be a good idea. As we were saying earlier, use open ended questions when talking to them from the start and explain that they're free to leave at any time if they're not comfortable. Or don't wish to continue with the therapy, be genuinely open toe adolescence questions or they need for information. Use words and language that the license can understand on that is suitable to the age development. If you need to explain more complicated information, use flip charts, drawings or pictures. And finally, just try to be genuine And remember what it's like being a teenager. Reassure them that the feelings and emotions are normal for the age on. Be honest and admit, if you don't know how to answer to any of the questions, Thank you for watching, and I will see you know next lecture. 13. 12. Therapy: Memory: hello and welcome to our next lecture, which is called Memory. Today. We'll have a look at various issues that that they're related to memory and your counseling sessions with Children and adolescence. For example, how do you know when the child is a lying or hiding something from you? Or maybe simply, they just don't remember it? How do you know the difference? Well, to answer this question and a lot of questions related to memory, we need to have a look at how the memory works. Actually, what has short term memory and long term memory, what sort of issues the Children and the lessons might have with the memory related processes. So let's have a look at all this when you communicates or work with a child or teenager. First of all, you need to know that they have three mechanisms that related to memory and immediate access to memory, which goes under the recall system allows the individual to find and retrieve an important piece off information. This works. One in an individual, for example, is trying to remember a certain date or someone's name. The other mechanism is actual encoding or processing off information. It's when a person is trying to remember some piece of information and this process off encoding or processing places the information in the short term storage and later in a long term storage, if that's considered to be important by the brain, The third mechanism is the long term storage mechanism. Where there are two types of memory exists. It's episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory is point, for example, You remember you lost holiday, the scenery this smells associated with it. The noise. It's a truck where a semantic memory is more about remembering facts such as dates, names, addresses and so on. When you counsel Children or other lessons, you need to be aware off that they can have problems with any off these memory mechanisms. There might have difficulty with processing or off a new information that they received, for example, in school during their license. Children with a D. H D can have this type of problems, or they might have difficulties with storing the information in the short or long term storage boxes. Generally speaking, younger Children have better shelter memory than long term on. As they're growing up, they long term memory improves rapidly. This is why younger Children often don't remember what you told him yesterday, and they cannot grasp a concept off seeing a big picture. If a child experienced some trauma in the past. For example, physical of sexual abuse, witnessing a traumatic event where all this involved etcetera, this episode goes into the long term memory box, but there is no certainty that they will recall this episode whenever they need it. Our brain is a very complex mechanism which can disrupt the recall process if it thinks it will be safer for you, not remember the traumatic event so the trauma would affect the child. But to understand the relation between the individuals, current issues and the childhood trauma may be a difficult task for any therapist. How the trauma can affect the child immediately all late in life depends on these factors. The 1st 1 is the length off the traumatic event. A single exposure would probably affect the child to the lesser degree than a period of time where he or she were exposed to it. The 2nd 1 severity off the traumatic event or the degree of psychological impact from the event and thoroughly availability off support of the child after the events. For example, a child who had a chance to talk about the event with someone after it happens might be affected much less than the child who had never had this opportunity. And even though this factors may predict how badly the child might be affected by the trauma afterwards, they still don't account for other factors, such as personality differences. No matter what happened to the child. Some may never be affected by the traumatic events to the point of experiencing some psychological issues late in life, whereas others can develop psychological, even physiological issues for example, drug or alcohol addiction, personality related psychological disorders, suffering from depression and even considering suicide. But considering the Children or the lessons can recall what happened to them in terms of trauma in the past, you still need to remember what fact the memory off the past might not be entirely accurate . Even if it sounds are such our memories hands to expanse and feeling with beats, we're not sure off with information that feeds their or the information that we forgot. If, for example, an individual is trying to remember and absorbed from the past where some car was present. The child's brain can make up the brand of the car if it is not know for gotten the details off. Other people can also be forgotten or changed by our brain. This is why all police officers know that crime witnesses need to be questioned as soon as possible after the events before, the certain details would become changed, forgotten or enhanced by the brain. Unbeknown to the person himself, a psychiatrist also know that there is a small part of the population which can be called fantasy prone personalities. These individuals have the mental imagery very vivid and invasive, which makes the formacion of memories filled with inaccurate and made up details with which can be seen to them and to all this as a very realistic and accurate. Because this individuals often cope well with a day to day life and do not cause any serious problems to themselves and to the families, they often go unnoticed by the therapist and psychiatrist. Basically, it would be very difficult for you to distinguish a child or another lesson with a fantasy prone personality from an individual who does not possess such a trait. Finally, when counseling, you need to be aware of the fact that some Children and adolescents will enhance the story with inaccurate details and even will make up these stories because you might be the only adult in their life who is genuinely interested in what they have to say. All individuals need a lot of attention and care. But whereas most received from the parents family, close friends are this such as those who are growing up with malfunctioning, abusive or 43 perhaps parents will be looking for those signs of affection and care in the therapists. Instead, we're discussing this all here not to scare you in any way, but to make you aware that this potential factors off inaccurate information, fantasy prone personalities and so on exist. Retirement practice you might be able to distinguish. Some of this case is pretty well, But even if you don't, your roll off a counselor is still the same for each and every client of any age to provide an emotional support and guidance to make them feel or key with the current situation so that they can move on afterwards. Thank you for washing, and I will see you know, next lecture 14. 13. Psychology Issues: Grief and Bereavement: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will talk about grief and bereavement. Every child will experience grieving in different way, as you can imagine, because there are so many factors will influence how they go through these experiences, from the support of the own family from the structure of the family who they have in the family. A mother, father or K give us. We've been fostering parents. This all will influence how they will go through this experience. And also, of course, they previous experiences did experience that before. Is anybody died in their life previously to this event, how the view it and how they've been taught to view death. This is all we're gonna talk about in this lecture. So Children of different ages experience grief and bereavement differently. What is death to the child? What do they know about it? Some might a link it to the Disney World characters. Such a sleeping beauty was a martyr. Fictional cartoon characters which gets blown up but then get up and going, and in most cases we can assume that the matter off the earth is simply beyond the child's comprehension. Are there lessons for example, might have a better idea off death. But as we were saying in one of our earlier lectures are the lessons leave in a stage of life where they believe to be invincible. On that death is kind on riel, while too many of them anyway, this is why they can partake in dangerous activities. So in your counseling practice, you might be more likely to work with Children who have active imagination on who associate death with dark or some type of monster. These are Children of ages around 5 to 10 from the age of self 9 10 to about 12 Children have a better concept of death. They understand that it's the end of life, and it's irreversible that they each of the grass, that there is permanence. And it happens to everybody on if he's a biological process in a natural way. So how do Children react to the death of someone close? First of all, all Tral Children might associate death with going to sleep on with darkness. This is why Children can experience nightmares, sleep problems, bed waiting. They might be skate of being separated with their loved ones. If a child in counseling is grieving over the death of the sibling. There might also develop fear that they will soon die, too. Children can also experience anger after the death of someone close. They might be angry that person who died because he or she left them. But they might also be angry at anyone in their lives. The parents are the siblings, teachers in schools, friends and even themselves. The sand get can be expressed through violent outburst. Southern unfair accusations. Temper tantrums were even physical destruction of property. Some Children, mart experience guilt. They might believe that some of the actions or behaviour caused the death, and now they're being punished. Children can go through many mixed emotions and confusions, and we'll talk about it in a more detail in the next lesson. So what would differentiate adolescence? Experience of bereavement from Children or even adults? When you think about adolescence, experience off death, you might realize that adolescence can feel even more isolated in grief than anyone else are. The license is a period off life when the child is not the child anymore. But it's not an adult, either. By the license, make a young person to feel more independent and less reliant on others, but at the same time exists the time when they need support. More than ever, if a child feels upset here, she can climb in the knees to the idled and ask for a hug. A teenager, on the other hand, is more likely to go to the room and cope with a shock from the experience of death on their own. And the delay, since more than any other individual off a different age can turn to the source of technology name really Internet for some support, even though some sources might be very helpful to them. At the same time, the information may not be entirely accurate. When adolescence experience someone's death, the chances are the death was sudden, dramatic and unexpected. If it was a death of a friend than the probabilities, it happened due to some traumatic event. If it was a death of a sibling or even off a parent, it's still unexpected. And sudden experience of death can make both of the lessons and the child to feel a variety of emotions. As we mentioned a letter from anger to depression, feelings of self doubts and guilt the main thing to realize that the A client, whether it is a child or an adolescent, can feel very confused about what happens and it will be your job to help them to put some pieces together and to reach some understanding, even though they might not get all the answers they ask. Children might want that the adults were in control over what happens, but in reality they see that their parents are also suffering because of these death and cannot give them full emotional support are the lessons. On the other hand, I want to be in control over their own emotions, but the lack of the experience can leave them confused even more. This is the time when many adolescents questions spirituality, and they believe the final thing he is to remember that going through grief takes a lot off energy, and it is a hard work for anyone, let alone the child or the lessons. This is when they would benefit from you, giving them support, additional information, understanding and lots of reassuring while leases it for this leg share. We will continue this topic in our next lesson, where we will discuss how you can help your client to explore grief and to let it go. See, you know, next like 15. 14. Psychology Issues: Exploring Grief and Letting Go: hello and welcome to our next lecture exploring Grieve and late in it go in. This lecture will continue discussing through the three topic off bereavement and grieving the processes, the stages, what the Children and of the lessons going through and how you can help them to let it go on to move on. First thing you need to know here is that Children can grieve over weeks, months and, in some cases, years after someone dies. The degree of being affected by death would depend on various factors, such as the child's family support system or how unexpected the death WAAS. Whereas adults can grieve continuously over a period of time, Children, on the other hand, tend to move in and out of the grieving state. One day they might seem to be experiencing it, and the next they're playing games. As if that happened the difference between various ages that the young child might not grasp the concept of death as a permanent event. They might ask the family when the person who died will return when they will see him or her again. The older Children and adolescents, on the other hand, might experience difficulties with being focused on activities and lessons, and therefore they can have problems in school. As we were mentioning in the previous lesson, Children of the lessons can have problems with a sleeping partners have nightmares on this all with effect there learning in general performance in school, when Children are the lessons to receive news about someone's death, they experience a state of shock mawr than adults do. In this case, is this short can last hours and even days when the world may seem somewhat on the real. Additionally, as we said earlier, both Children and adolescents can experience a mixture of various emotions, such as anger, guilt and longing for the person who died to be near them. Once again, if the person who died was a K, give it to the child, then the feelings, often excited, can also be present. The child of the adolescent who lost the parent can feel frightened about the future. They might feel separation anxiety of stress. Some Children and teenagers can also complain about certain physical symptoms to, for example, more regular headaches, digestion, problems on even aches and pains. In the boarding, all the symptoms eventually go away as the time, and the degree of grieving subsides. When you counsel a person who is in the state of grief because someone died in the family, you have to realize that it's not just the person is suffering from grief, it's the whole off he's or her family who's affected, too. And that means that this child of the all the adolescence in front of you does not have a solid support from his family right now. Us they would normally have. They might feel anxious and stressed because they cannot turn to anyone for an adequate emotional support at this time. So how you can help the child all. They had the lesson to leave through grief and to finally let it go, first of all, reassuring them and helping them to accept fully what happened East. The key to recovery acceptance means not on Lee believing that the deceased person is gone , but also that the feelings of sadness, anger and guilt are a normal part of the grieving process. The emotions, such as wanted to be with the person who's gone to touch him or her again to hear his voice and so on. This is all absolutely normal, and we lost us alone as it needed to last. Secondly, helping to find more sources off support, for example, this can be some off. The friends they didn't consider are the people who also lost their family members and who can share the experiences of grief, additional sources of information suitable for the age of a client, support groups if they're available in your location and anything else that can help to give more understanding on an opportunity to discuss and share the feelings. Thirdly, realized that some Children and adolescents can be severely impacted by the Los Ondas, the results that experiencing mental health problems, post traumatic stress disorder and depression In some cases, you might want to refer you Klein's to more specialized services who can help them afterwards or at the same time as they seen you. Fourthly, some Children and adolescence can feel very uncomfortable discussing death and what happens . They might experience anxiety, discomfort on even attempt to avoid this topic as much as possible. In this case, you might want to reassure them that this is normal, not want to talk about it, but talking about it will help them to accept the loss and to move on with their life much quicker than if they won't talk about it at all. Next, you might think of some creative arts to help the child or the lessons to cope with grief and to move on. Using colors, wards and artistic mediums can help your client to express what they feel, which then you can discuss together in order to achieve some closure. For example, to get up with a child, you can use poems, drawings, singing creative images right in the story and using daily journaling. Or these are all suitable means for very win counseling. Finally, just remember that everyone experiences a loss and grief differently. Same goes for every child and adolescent. Let them explore that this topic. Encourage them to ask questions and to seek answers and helping to realize that they're not alone and that support is always available from many sources around them. While this is it for this lecture, our hope you found this information valuable and interesting, and now you know a bit more about grieving process and bereavement and how you can help your clients to elected going to move on, and we'll proceed to our next lecture, where we will change the topic and will be discussing dysfunctional families, which is another interesting topic in itself. Thank you for Washington will see you now the next election. 16. 15. Psychology Issues: Dysfunctional Families Explained: Hello and welcome to our next. A lecture where we'll talk about the dysfunctional families. And what do you think dysfunctional families ease? Is the family that is broken, the family that where one member or two members are absent? Or it's a family which cannot function in a normal, healthy way, and that is the closest term really for it, Basically, dysfunctional family is a condition in which a family cannot function in the normal, healthy way. This condition can be temporary, for example, when the family goes through bereavement and grief. As we've discussed in our previous lectures, the temporary state can also be caused by someone's illness in the family. All this state can be more permanence or chronic. If, for example, one of the parents is suffering with mental health problem, Draco, alcohol dependency and so on. What is healthy, functioning family? In a typical healthy family? All family members may not be perfect. Either. They can be can argue they can experience misunderstandings, anger and hurt because of each other and towards each other, but often the difference between the unhealthy and a healthy functioning family. In the healthy functioning family, all the family members feel free to share their opinions and freely express the emotions towards each other. The rules and such family are pretty consistent and explicit, but they can be also flexible to suit individual needs. But also each in the video is encouraged to pursue he's or her own interests. Nevertheless, in a healthy function and family, all Children feel safe and secure. They know that they can rely on the parents who will take care of their needs and who can help him to solve any problems. Children in such families are not afraid of any emotional, physical or verbal abuse. They are respected, encouraged to be independent, and they're not afraid of making any mistakes. Where does dysfunctionality in the families come from? Dysfunctionality appears in the families. Were parenting runs on an unhealthy level, off control an appropriate behavior? Parents can either under function or over function when it comes to their role as a parent when they under function. This happens because, for example, one of the parents of both parents have mental health problems or low intelligence quotients and place many of the parent of responsibilities onto the child. Children do not experience normal childhood instead they learn to ignore the true wishes and feelings. Because Children cannot take care off the parents per se, they can often feel guilty even when they become adults. The next example of under functioning parents is when one or both parents are Draco. Alcohol addicts, Alcoholic families and that relate to drug abuse as well tend to run on a very disorganized way where promises are not kept and the rules can be broken off bend as it suits parents. Parents might be really street towards the Children one day on, even in caring or indifferent. All the days in the families with parents, alcoholics Children are not allowed to express the emotions or share their feelings, particularly if they're related to the alcohol problems in the family. Later, in the adult hood, these Children can have mistress issues problems with expressing their emotions. They might feel frustrated or angry with their parents. They're also more likely to become alcohol dependent themselves. Now let's have a look at over functioning parents ing over functioning parenting are typically known, US controlling parents in comparison to the example where we were looking at the case of under function in parenting, he we would see a completely different picture. Controlling parents do not allow the Children to be independent as appropriate for the Children's age. The parents have them nearing and make more stuff, if not all the decisions for their Children. Research shows that controlling parents behave this way because of the fear to be left alone and to become not needed by the Children late in life. This is why they would rather exhibit control over their Children's lives than being abundance later as they seize. What they don't realize is that they controlling behavior creates many psychological problems for the Children. For example, these Children I afraid to make independent decisions even when they become adults, they might feel powerless, resentful towards the parents. They might feel guilty when they need to make decisions independently even when they're adults. This happens because of the internal conflict and feeling off disloyalty towards their parents. The final example of all function in parenting is a family with abusive parents. Abuse can be verbal, physical, emotional or sexual. This can be criticizing the child for his or her looks, intelligence, actions, behavior and so on. This can be seen in the form of jokes or, through their rate, verbal criticism. Physical abuse can be done frequently. The federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines physical abuse as the infliction of physical injuries such as bruises, burns, welts, cuts, bone Oscar fractures, these air caused by kicking, punching, biting, beating, knifing, strapping, paddling. Eight CETRA abusive parents may also call it as discipline, but the strikes are frequent random, sudden and unpredictable. As a result of such a bringing, the Children often have serious problems of trust and safety later in the adult hood, Sexual abuse is any kind of physical contact, which must be kept as a secret, whereas open demonstration of hugging, kissing, stroking and saw is acceptable and can be done in front of others. Sexual abuse is done in secrecy, and it's never appropriate. Sexual abuse happens to any gender, any age, any economic status, a new nationality and so on. It's a serious global problem off all generations. So how do dysfunctional families affect Children? In all such families? Children tend to learn, ignore the emotions and feelings, the intuition and emotional reactions get minimized. These Children can suffer for many emotional and psychological problems later on, in life, for example, a difficulty off trusting others. A problem with intimacy, a difficulty expressing emotions. Alcohol and drug addictions, depression and other mental health problems. Individuals who grew up in dysfunctional families need to learn to accept and release the past, allow the anger to be vented in an appropriate way. Release the feelings off self blame and leave the responsibility off. What happened with the adults from the past? Well, this is it, Phyllis. Lecture. Thank you for watching. And I will see you know, next video. 17. 16. Psychology Issues: What is Co-Dependency?: hello and welcome to our next lecture on core dependency. In the previous lectures, we were talking about dysfunctional families. What is over functioning parenting when they're controlling or even abusive was under functioning. Parenting. If the parents don't take enough off care off the Children, it's the negligence. And often it's the Children that take responsibility off running the family on themselves at any age in this lecture will talk about core dependency, which can be seen as one form off dysfunctional families. Well, some therapy say call dependency is one of the form off dysfunctional family leaving, which starts in childhood and can continue throughout the person's life, affecting the personal relationships with our this late in life. Look the burger from the psychologist anywhere, any time. That comb, say's co dependence can be seen as a set of mull adoptive compulsive behaviors learned by a person in order to survive in the family, which is experiencing great emotional pain and stress caused, for example, by a family members, alcoholism or other addiction, sexual or other abuse with a family or a family member's chronic illness. The National Mental Health Association states that core dependency is a learned behavior that can be passed down from one generation to another. This behavior, characterized by certain emotional states and specific behe vis which affect the person's ability to form, are healthy and satisfying the relationships with others, as described in the psychologist anywhere, anytime. Core dependency can also be described US relationship addiction. Because people with core dependency often form or maintain relationships that are one sided , emotionally destructive and or abusive. Core dependent person is more likely to seek relationships where another person can be described as emotionally needy or emotionally distant. Once has been found, the core dependent tries to control the relationship without addressing he's or her needs or desires. So they call Dependent sacrifice themselves to the needs off the person. It is not done maliciously. Quite the contrary. The court dependent have the best interests in the heart to help the other person, but as a result, they behavior becomes compulsive and self defeating. You might see core dependency in, for example, mothers who overly protect the Children and who continuously making excuses for the destructive behavior or the wife's off abusive husbands who are covering up the aggressive behavior towards them in childhood core dependency can start with a parent who is an alcoholic or abusive and who demands in the child to look after these siblings. The child learns to be a servant off other people's needs and to ignore the own needs and wants by serving artists. They also learned to gain satisfaction and fulfillment from the used to others. When the child when this child grows up here, she's more likely to seek relationships where they will continue to be servants or victims . But willingly, these Children, when they become adults, tend to be attracted to similar potters in friendships and love relationships. They will not seek for healthy, balanced people for their relationships because they will not gain the so called status off Marta in them. So this is how they are healthy. Parton of co dependency, which starts in their childhood, continues all the way throughout the adulthood. So what sort of examples off the clients call dependency? You might sport in your counseling practice a young child with an exaggerated sense of responsibility in the family, a teenager whose mother seems to be in control off all the decisions. A child who has an unreasonable distrust in office a child or a teenager who has an extreme need in being approved by others. A child or a teenager who can be described as a perfectionist, a child or a teenager who have serious difficulty in expressing the emotions. A child with a very low self esteem or who is feeling ashamed. A child who is very sensitive to criticism. A teenager who's in the relationship with someone who's abusing drugs or alcohol, a child or a teenager who feels that they do not deserve to be happy Off course. These are some of the examples that you might see, but don't forget that they can be explained by some other unhealthy patterns as well. Not necessary by co dependency traits. Onley, a professional who can diagnose typically psychiatrist, can actually make an accurate diagnosis if it is required. As you can imagine, it is very unlikely the Children under the lessons will be seeking that diagnosis anyway. But in reality there will be more likely to seek it when they're older and encounter serious psychological problems from being in a damaging relationship For a while. In your case is a council of Children and adolescents. You might be able to help the client to understand and realize the own self value in self worth, To understand how much off the responsibility and independence is acceptable to take home as a child of the family and to realize where core dependency starts, especially if you're dealing with a child from a dysfunctional family. Okay, so let's just wrap up this lecture by mentioning that co dependency is a learned behavior. But it is also addictive behavior on. As with any other addiction, it can be difficult to break the bother. Core dependency start in childhood, particularly in the family's off dysfunctional parents, where the child has been made to take on responsibilities for the on the functioning parents and are the Children. If you recognize any of the signs off the dysfunctional parenting than the child who come to you for counseling would greatly benefit from learning about family, potters and responsibilities, whether in the form of discussion or some additional printed oil electronic information that you give them well, thank you for watching, and I will see in our next election we will talk about the topic off child bullying and child abuse. Thank you for watching. Ana will see you there 18. 17. Psychology Issues: Child Bullying and Child Abuse: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will talk about child bowling and child abuse. In the last couple of lectures, we were talking about dysfunctional families. How they operate under function, parenting and over functioning parents and child abuse is quite related topic, even if you didn't think so, because child bowling and child abuse can happen within the family. Or it can influence the life of a child outside of the family where they can get bullied or abused by others. And first of all, let's remind ourselves what is child abuse on what forms it can take? So the abuse can take many different forms. For example, emotional abuse, which can be used through fear, humiliation, evoking a sense of guilt and manipulation. Verbal abuse, which can be co existent with emotional abuse and can be used through verbal criticism, for example, verbal insults or threats frequent voiced, his approval and so on. Physical abuse can take form in aggressive behavior, punching, kicking on malicious form, off touching and sexual abuse, which is in inappropriate touching and behavior that is supposed to be kept as a secret behavior. How thus abuse affect the victim as we were saying early in the previous lectures. Abusive behavior, whether it is verbal or physical, can severely affect the individual's perception off the world. The self esteem can be dramatically lowered, whereas many negative feelings, such as self blame or guilt, anger or depression, boot api and rule in the victim's sense of self. The effect can be immediate. Or it can appear many years later when the person finds Hema host herself unhappy, unable to achieve some goals in life or to form healthy relationships and turn to the counselor or psychotherapist for help. In some cases, the effect would be so severe that the victim would suffer from psychological disorders to the point off suicide ideations, which means thinking and planning suicide. Okay, let's talk about child bowling. What is child bowling again? Child bullying doesn't have to be on Lee coming from other kids outside of school. It can happen within the family, for example, between the siblings, but also between a parent and the child. Child bullying can actually happen in any age, and it is usually a recurrent and repeated form of behaviour. It is typically done with the aim to arm the mind someone based on their perceived weaknesses. One of the most typical examples of bullying is when schoolchildren physically bully other Children, which involves damaging personal possessions physically and verbally assaulting the victim , treating them with more possible damage. Today, these form of booting also happens over the Internet in charts, social forums and so on. If you will be working with teenagers, you might encounter some who started working either part time or as a volunteer at that age . Bullen also happens in the workplace. This form of bullying may not be so obvious. People usually do not punch in the heat each other with work, but instead it can take a form of gossiping, showing hostility and frequent criticism off once work and some form off harassment, including sexual harassment. So we can say that bullying can take several forms. Verbal, which is name calling, insulting, making negative comments and frank with criticism or criticizing social bullying, which is gossiping and spreading. Rumors excluding the victims from the social group gang up against someone. Physical bullying, which is aggressive physical behavior, for example, kicking, punching, spitting, beating or slapping the person and cyber bullying, which is texting or e mailing through social media and other Internet based communications . How does bullying affect the victim? First of all, bowling severely affect a self esteem and self image of the victim, which in turns effect he's a her ability to study well in school and to form healthy relationship with others. Secondly, bowling can result in the development off psychological problems, such a sleep problems, anxiety, depression or even suicide ideation. Why bullying takes place? What other reasons for someone malicious behavior towards another person. Firstly, this can happen because one person that feels the need for power and control, whether he or she feels bigger, mentally or physically, as it often happens with Children or in a position of power as it can happen at work. So we can say that bowling really ease and abuse of power. Secondly, bullying can happen because the bully has a certain aim to psychologically damage a particular person through the words and actions. Basically, this is bullying on purpose. They bully can be someone who has past experience of being bullied. He or she may be suffering from learning difficulties, low self esteem, loneliness or lack of confidence. By engaging in this form, of bullying the bullies, trying to reach a psychologically better place for themselves, where they can feel more confidence on more popular with others, for example, and thirdly, bullying can happen because the bullet got drawn into the situation on the behavior becomes systematic. For example, a sibling can get another sibling to join him or her for bullying the third, younger sibling. What happens when individuals get drawn into the street gangs in the dysfunctional families ? Bullying can happen between, for instance, and alcoholic father and his son or controlling mother and her teenage daughter? So what's the difference between bullying and abuse if both forms have so many similarities as we can see from our discussion on both topics? First, both forms stem from misuse of power. Secondly, bowling is a more open for verbal aggression. Where is abuse? Iran's on emotional level and can be well heating from others, for example, and neglecting the child's needs is a form of abuse. Some researchers say that bullying can be considered as a form of abuse, as both bullying and abuse are aimed at inflicting pain and suffering to the victim through the verbal or physical behavior. Law enforcement and support groups exist to help the victims of bullying and abuse and, of course, counseling and therapy can also help victim to understand and realize the situation from a different perspective. Understand the boundaries off relationships on in case of a child to understand what is acceptable and what seasons. And finally counseling can help the victim to reduce the sense of guilt and to increase the sense of self worth through talking therapy, play therapy or even through creative art forms off therapy. Well, this is the end of this lecture. I hope you liked it. Made some sort of conclusions to learn something new. Thank you for watching, and I will see you know, one next lecture. 19. 18. Therapy: Psychological Study of Education: Hello and welcome to our next section on therapeutic outcomes, where you will learn how to conduct the therapy. What is therapeutic process and recovery, how your client can move, born and so on. In this lecture, we will talk about education, whether it is in the mainstream schooling or more specialized from a psychological perspective. If you decide to become an educational psychologist in the future, then you will become much more familiar with this topic through your studies. Psychological studies and theories of education typically include studying developmental psychology, cognition and learning, and how you would conduct a scientific research in developmental psychology. In your case, you might consider to become a counseling psychologist in the future, which would involve studying for psychology degree and continue combining both psychology and counseling in your research in practice. In any case, let's have a look at education on how it can be seen. From a psychological point of view, learning is considered to be as one of the most important activities that a human can undertake, even though most of what individuals learn happened outside of school, Researchers nevertheless study how the process of learning happened within the schooling environment for so many years, the activity off learning has been studied by so many great minds within philosophy, psychology, sociology, child who, developmental studies on even medical research environments. And it's not only about understanding how individual can absorb the information and then applied afterwards. It is also about the best ways to influence and to enhance the learning and teaching processes the best accurate methods off assessing whether they learned, occurred or not, and understanding the factors that influence the learning process. For example, doesn't personal learn better in a social environment versus individual one? Or can a person increase the A Q two particular level? If Hugh she's provided a student environments in a certain form of teaching, it is known that individuals learn in a variety of ways and are able to use the auditory, visual and perceptual or cognitive abilities. For that, however, some would be better at auditory summat, visual and others at using the perceptual or cognitive abilities the most. When psychologists are looking at how people learn and study, they can base the theories on the principles off behaviorism Cognitive ism on Constructivism behaviorism implies that the person alerts about the world around themselves through observation. Filson for most. So the psychologists, behaviorists believe that individuals are born with a blank state of mind. And then, through observation, they learn the very skills. For example, a son off a footballer is more likely to become really good at football because he will have exposure to learn and observing the sport played by his father and his team from his early age. Behaviorism is a solid approach, followed by many researchers and psychologist. And it does underline this year is that I used by therapists today. But it doesn't answer some questions, such as why some Children are more talented than others when they haven't been exposed to the observation of those skills more than other Children. Why there are Children who can play piano on a very high level from the age 45 whilst other Children will spend years to achieve the same level off mustering the new, observing the skill pretty much in the same and the same label in the same amounts. So what is the difference? How would behaviors answer that the next solid foundation of psychological research is cognitive ism? Cognitive is a means that the person alerts from mental function i e. Cognition in order to develop certain abilities or skills. So basically anyone can become good at something if they learn the skill repeatedly over a lengthy period of time. Cognitive ism studies, individual thinking, memory knowing and the problem solving. So basically in cognitive is, um, a human condition and intelligence are the main driving forces behind. Learning and a theory of Constructivism imply that the personal loans through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences afterwards. Many schools use these theoretical approach to learning and promote learning through what they call active learning or learning. By doing Constructivism means that learning is an active process where the individual construct the knowledge him or herself through the personal experiences and the only hypothesis off the world. They don't acquire the knowledge instead the constructive Constructivist, so don't believe that the child is born with a blank state as behaviors do. They allow that the person has a genetic predisposition and cultural differences that play an important role in learning. If you ever do researching your work as a counselor and have to evaluate the theory an approach for the best learning, there are a few things you would just need to consider what is being studied. Different studies would require different approaches to learning some scientific studies that involve, for example, mathematics and medical research can involve cognitive ism at it's core. Other studies, such as Creative Arts, would probably use Constructivism as the foundation. Also, many learning activities usually involve a variety of learning approaches, where the student would not only use the cognitive abilities but also learning repetition, observation, practicing and so on. And finally remember about individual and cultural differences. One student, maybe better using the auditory abilities at certain subject, whereas the other one would be best if using the visual abilities for the same subject. Thank you for watching, and I will see you know next a lecture on transformation. 20. 19. Therapy: Transformation: hello and welcome to our next lecture on transformation. Transformation is a change in the process of change in someone's life. Where they live with the life situation can become transformed. Usually thanks for two therapy that counseling. There is no such thing as transformational counseling for, say, it's more like an approach or a philosophy off some counts was, it's about targeting those people who they want to target with when they offer the counseling services. So let's have a look off what East changed to make a change in someone's life and on the to achieve transformation. So if you think about it pretty much, any counselling can be called that transformational counseling, because when a person on the go six or more sessions of therapy, they usually reach a state off certain transformation away ladies about the new thinking ways that they acquired, you're in counseling new coping mechanisms that they've developed to get out with a counselor or the realization is that come to as a result of therapy. What is transformation, really? According to the Cambridge Dictionary, transformation is a complete change in appearance off something or someone, especially so that the thing or a person is improved, so it's about the complete change that has taken place within the person. The change. They can be overused to office, and that can affect the individual's personal circumstances and the relationships they involved in. How does transformation starts in counseling? First of all, transformation starts with identifying the client's personal strengths and capabilities. When that happens, the client can feel they're able to take control of their lives. Next, the client feels empowered, and it's ready to make changes in order to improve the current situation. Finally, the client is taking action and making certain changes in life and subsequently achieve that state of transformation for some people, for example, those who grew up in disadvantage or dysfunctional families to reach that state of self empowerment and self believe that they can be in control off their lives seem to be impossible or really far from reach. This client also want to feel and look better to become happier and to have a great respectful relationship with with the family and with others. But they feel powerless to make the needed changes. Sometimes they don't even know where and how to start on them. Other times they just don't believe that they can achieve or change anything that can bring some significant results. These powerlessness, as you will see occasionally in your practice, comes from the client's negative self evaluation, low self confidence and self esteem, which starts from the negative experiences in life when you will counsel Children or the lessons in your practice. You might notice that some of them will be reluctance in making changes, and some will be uncertain that they can make any significant changes. The self doubts might be influenced by the self doubts that the parents experienced. For example, if a parent has a low self esteem, the child will be more likely to have a low self esteem as well, simply because the child won't have a role model with high level of self esteem for coping or the self doubts might be a product off negative are bringing dysfunctional parenting and so on. In any case, the counselling process itself empowers the clients in the beginning, off the counselling process. Together with a counselor, the client is exploring the situation and they feelings. During the counselling process, a council uses active listening skills and let declined to vent and to come to some a realizations. In order to reach transformation through counseling, a client needs to have or to develop, high levels of motivation to make the necessary changes on. This includes, for example, the clients Real Inglis, to fully engage in the counselling process on the client's ability to have sufficient self esteem to endure the process of change. What can you do? If your client has no desire or intention to change? Well, you can listen to them in an empathic and nonjudgmental way. You can provide information on feedback, and you can encourage the client to seek information and feedback from others. How can you work with a client who are thinking of making a change? You can offer a discussion on pros and cons off making the change, and you can encourage the client to visualize the successful outcome when the change will be made. When the client is ready to make the change, then you can assist them in developing concrete strategies for taking the needed action. Finally, you can offer declined to discuss the perceived obstacles and strategies for overcoming the potential challenges. What else can we add to the topic off reaching the transformation. When the client is reaching for the higher level off self belief and it's ready to make a change or get in there, there will be undergoing a very challenging for them process. Remember that when a client comes to see you, no matter what age they're in, they are in a vulnerable state. To make any changes requires courage and a lot of support from others. If nobody else is openly supporting them, then they're looking at you as a source of support. Therefore, the final aspects that we can adhere. Others always express empathy, give undivided attention and actively engage in listening. If you see your client is resisting, go with the flow before steering them in the way of more rational. And why their way of thinking help the client to believe in the ability to change and transform like their life. Thank you for listening, and I will see in our next video, which is called using newly found skills that your client can find through counseling sessions with you 21. 20. Therapy: Using Newly Found Skills: hello and welcome to our next lecture using newly found skills. It's all about the skills that your client will find through counseling with you. In the last lecture, we were talking about transformation, reaching, transformation and going through changes during the challenge of process that can spread out onto so many sessions. Your client will learn so many strategists that will help them to cope with a situation to challenge the situation and the circumstances to move forward, to reach for something that will bring transformation into their lives. So in this lecture, we will talk about the skills that they find through that process on how they can use this newly found skills after counseling. So what are those skills that you can think off in your case, when you will be counseling Children or teenagers? You might notice that your client has acquired the following skills, for example, an ability to share the emotions with others. This is an important skill that many people are struggling with. Some people find it difficult to talk about their feelings for the fear of being judged or misunderstood. Others never learned to voice what they really want and feel on these concerns not only adult clients, but most Children and teenagers to communication skills. This killed and might learn through interaction and talking on certain topics with you. Communication skills is a general term because it includes so many aspects, such as communicating with people of different ages and status, expression own, likes and dislikes, using body language, appropriately communicating with a group of peers or the whole family. Rather than just with a single member time management skills, your client might realize how they could improve the time management skills throughout the consultations with you. Perhaps you're counseling a person who's chronically late for every lesson on any other activity. Through counseling, they might realise how this trade effects the personal life and their relationships with others. After this realization, you can offer them to discuss the better strategies for the time management. They can think off decision making ability. Perhaps your client had poor decision making, which made them hesitant and time wasteful. When it comes to making decisions and choosing the best for them option again through counseling, they might be able to understand how they can improve the decision making ability, how they can reach the conclusions so much faster then they've been doing until now, coping with stress. Many off your clients might be going through a difficult for them, period, which can seem to be challenging and stressful. During counselling session you might explore, we declined. What coping strategies they've been using, what sources of support they've been relying on until now. What else potentially can help them to cope with the stressful situation whilst it lost and finally, enhancing confidence and self esteem. Usually a good set of therapeutic sessions tend to enhance the person self esteem and confidence. When the person reaches the state of being ready to make a change in their life, they need to feel more confident about the process and the consequences off the change through discussing with them the potential obstacles and challenges. You help your client to force to those abilities and skills in them after a positive counseling therapy ends. It might be difficult for, um, for clients to reach that state of closure, but your client needs to move on and start using the newly found skills and to continue making the necessary changes on their own. This is why, in your last session with a client. You might want to talk about water. Klein has learned and has gained through the therapy and perhaps to explain that they have gained enough confidence to move forward on their own. You know, our next lectures, we will continue discussing the topic off, ending off the therapeutic process. But next rule also discussed the topic off recovery as the therapeutic process before movie , known to discussing how to wrap up the counselling on like declined to move on in the best possible way. Thank you for watching, and I will see you know a next lecture on a recovery, which is a therapeutic process. 22. 21. Therapy: Recovery – The Therapeutic Process: hello and welcome to our next lecture recovery as a therapeutic process. What do you think when you hear recovery? Is that the recovery from from some sort of addiction, like alcohol or drug addiction or recover? It could be something to do with mental illness, for example, and recovery from schizophrenia. And how would you apply a recovery process to counseling Children and adolescents? This is what will be talking about in this lecture. Some of you young clients come to counseling because they went through a traumatic experience such as bowling or abuse, which could have happened with the peers in school or inside of the dysfunctional family. Even though the worst cases of such scenario would be probably seen by psychiatrist rather than the counselor, you still might be dealing with some of them helping them to recover from the past in order to move forward. If you take the word of recovery and look up in any dictionary, you will see such meaning US gradual healing process of change and so one. So a therapeutic process that you climb this undergoing in your office can also be called a process off recovery or a process off gradual healing. Judith Herman, a researcher and the author of Trauma and Recovery, describes three stages off the healing process that a victim of traumatic experience typically goes through during counselling. The first stage is planning out the therapeutic process. These includes planning and setting up the therapeutic strategy. This includes planning and setting up the therapeutic strategies or treatment approaches if , for example, it is done with a psychiatrist. The first stage also includes tapping into the inner reserves off a client and developing and strengthen skills from managing painful and unwanted experiences. And also, the first stage includes a very important aspect. Ensuring the client's safety and stability in their life, in their relationships with others within their own body and so on. During the first stage, you might be discussing with your client why it is so hard to manage the emotions and feelings. What disturbing images still come to their mind, how they can cope with the feelings that come up as a result of those images. So the aim of the discussion would be to reach stability and safety in your clients in the outside world. The second stage of recovery from a traumatic experience involves remembrance and morning off the past. During the second state, you might be reviewing and discussing memories in order to minimize your client's emotional reaction to them and so that your client could redefine the meaning oflife the purpose, the identity and so on. During the second stage, the client is also working on the realization how the traumatic past affect various areas off the current life. And finally, during that stage, the client realizes what experiences they did not have because of the past. The might mourn and grieve for those experiences that all people deserve to have, and they hadn't. During the final third stage, the client reconnects with themselves with a family with a community with meaningful activities on other aspects off life. During that stage, the client is making sense off the past, present and even future by exploring the meaning off them by asking questions such as What does it mean for me? What is my purpose? Why am I here? To reflect on these questions, the client might reach for the own beliefs related to spirit, spirituality, philosophy and so on. During each of these three stages, the client can feel a multitude if emotions such as shame, guilt, distrust, a feeling of powerlessness, which can make the clients of fuel many negative emotions and exhibit self destructive behavior counselling process will help the client to realize thes both negative emotions and self destructive behaviors, how they affect the card life, how to take a full responsibility it for them and how to manage or change them successfully . Before enduring the counselling process, the client needs to be aware that they might be experiencing many confusing emotions during counselling on that it used to be accepted. Also, they need to be reminded the recovery is not a linear process and the person might be moving in and out of those stages during the process. Until Hugh, she is raging to finally move forward. This is the first lecture. Thank you for washing, and I will see you in our next video 23. 22. Therapy: Moving on – Emotional Intimacy: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, emotional intimacy, where we will talk about how the child or a teenager that you see in your office for counseling session can reach that emotional intimacy within the family or with the close friends. For example, we'll talk what is emotional intimacy? Because it doesn't apply only to adults. It applies to anybody who have relationship. So basically everyone so intimate is not something concrete. It's a process which can take various forms. Intimacy can take place on a cognitive level where two people exchange ideas, share the enthusiasm for the joint projects, for example, and so on. But in this lecture rule, have a look at another form off intimacy, which is called emotional intimacy. According to counseling and Wellness Center. Emotional intimacy is where two persons can comfortably share their feelings with each other, or, when they emphasize with the feelings off the other person really try to understand and try to be aware off the other person's emotional side. When a child or a teenager comes to you for counseling, the emotional intimacy with their parents and siblings, maybe at its lowest point and restoring it through counselling can be one of the factors that would aid recovery off the client. What can you suggest to a young clients? How can you help them off course? The first thing you'll be doing together is discussing and reflecting on what works and what doesn't in the interpersonal relationships without this. What made them drift apart emotionally? How to fix the current life? How would it benefit the both parties if the client reached for the higher level off emotional intimacy, for example, with he's a her parents or a sibling? Secondly, spending more time together would be one of the most important strategies for improving their relationship through the counselling process. The client will hopefully understand it on realize what was the reason for spending less and less time together and how it can be enhanced and improved. For example, finding the mutual hobby activity again, or an interest such as shopping together or going to some family. These will increase the fun time spent together, which can be a very beneficial step for the clients. The most challenging part here is to find those activities that can be engaging and fund for both parties. Thirdly, helping client to schedule the time for being together with another person or with your family. Finding the mutual activities can be difficult task, but with a real Inglis off. Doing so for both parties can make it possible if need be, invite the family to the counseling meeting where you can discuss this. So now east. The time to plan it properly declined that the other party which is they apparent to the sibling, need to agree on time to do those activities to get out each week. And finally, the honest and open communication is the key to the healing off. Past relationships, a knowledge in all mistakes and admitting the most painful times can bring the two parties emotionally closer to each other because why family therapy works as well on This is why you're young client might agree to invite the parents or the sea brings to the counseling session as well. In any case, after undergoing several sessions of counseling therapy, your client hopefully will be in a much better place. They will feel psychologically stronger to handle the challenges in front of them, to undertake the changes for reaching transformation that they require to reach out to people around them and to restore the relationships. So let's talk a little about how to end counseling therapy when you feel this is the tie for clients to move on with your without your assistance, so one is the right time to end therapy. First of all, throughout the therapy, you need to ensure that your client start meeting the needs and outside of therapy, because if they don't, then they become reliant and dependent on you. Us. The source of support. When it is clear that the client is reaching toe, others for both getting a support and reestablishing healthy function and relationships, then it is the time to end therapy. Secondly, when you achieved the aims and certain goals that you defined together at the start of the counseling, if you're working on achieving better academic achievements, for example, reestablishing emotional intimacy with the clients parent or getting over a bereavement, then after 6 to 8 sessions, your client should be making a significant progress and be near the end off the goal off course. Some goals are hard to define. For example, how do you measure coping with stress or get it over someone's death, But you can measure them in terms of whether the client sleep improved, whether they're less tearful, whether they have zest for life and start making some plans for the future. 30. And finally, make sure that your client knows how many sessions you typically offer on what is the average number of sessions people tend to go for. If it is safe from the start, then the client will be psychologically prepared to move on by themselves after the last session is completed. But saying that do tell your client that it is possible to come to see you for an occasional station if they feel they need to talk but do encourage them to be more confidence to make their own choices and decisions to. That's one quote goes, Nothing does or should lost forever, even a therapy. 24. 23. Setting Up a Counselling Practice: hello and welcome to our final lecture. Congratulations for making so far for reaching the end of the course. I'm really proud of you that you've completed all the lessons because now I can see that you are very serious about becoming a council of professional counselor. Whether this is your stepping stone towards a professional counseling degree, for example, at university or whether you're taking this information and using it in your work in today's lecture will talk about how to set up your profits, your counseling practice if you want to work for yourself. But do remember that you can find me on social media, confined me or even on Facebook? If you have any questions where you can reach me through school, which is probably more favorable by schools on if you have any questions about how to run your counseling practice what sort of questions? Maybe you need to ask your client or anything like that. You can email me if you want, but I will try to supply as much information as I know as I can get hands on. Um, I will supply informs off. Pdf like additional PdF guides as well. With this course, so do check them out, because there are some practical stuff as well in there, like Like what? Questions? To ask your client during the accounting section or anything like that, there's much more additional information. Plus, it will help you to rehearse for a for a final quiz final test, after which you can get a certification from the school, which is great. So let's move on to our final lecture on how to stop your practice. Becoming a counselor practitioner is a long term and the reward in Korea you're there to help people, to improve the quality off the lice, to change and transform the personal situations and to help them to achieve the desired lifestyle relationships and so on as a child or other. Listen, counselor, you're there to help them, to plan out the brighter future and to have satisfying relationships with the families and friends to achieve what they truly want to achieve when they grow up and so much more. So what do you need to know about opening your own practice? First of all, remember that you can either open a physical practice or a purely online practice, which is done through Skype or you can run both. Both of these strategies will require different considerations and marketing approaches, but if you're interested in trying them both, then go ahead. So become clear on where you want to provide most of your sessions. Secondly, where your office will be located. If it's a physical one, consider that how easy is to get there. For most of your clients, consider the rental prices for various offices in center and on the outskirts of the town or city where you leave. If you're planning to run counseling from the home, then you need to ensure that you can provide the full and total confidential and safe environment for your clients. Do you want to be overheard? But anyone from your family walking suddenly into a room they would rather not to hear anyone who might be overhearing your conversation. But also remember about your own safety when you accept clients in your own house. Thirdly, when you register your business name with the tax office, you're all set to go with your business, so think carefully. If you want your business name to sound differently from your own name, it might be very difficult to change the business name after a couple of years when most of your clients know it. But when it doesn't serve a purpose anymore, for example, perhaps your special little change or even you won't like the name anymore, then it can become an issue. So basic fall to leave your own name as your business name and become known amongst declines. A. Such this is the most straightforward strategy and my advice, really, that works for many. Fourthly, start keeping your financial records from the one open up financial diary. So, for example, in your laptop, as I do oh, on Excel sheet record your expenses and your airings on. Don't forget to include such expenses. Are some off the electricity bills if you work from home or your phone bills? If you are using your personal phone for business? Also, any traveling expenses that done related to your business? For example, if you attend some workshops, or perhaps you're visiting your client in the home, for example, there unwell and it's a child. Do check the tax office information about what can be included as your business expenses and what cannot next arranged to yourself with counseling and coaching directories wherever it is possible online. Some will require a different form of certification, which you can get only after completing a university degree, but that you might find all this which will accept you, especially something like coaching directories there would accept your counseling online certificate from the school as well. Braided stream with directories can give you more exposure to your potential clients, but don't forget that most clients come to business by referral. So once you start finding your fears clients, then it will be a matter of time to be approached by others. Thanks to them, same goes with online counseling. Most of your clients will come to you as a matter of referral from the friends and family, even online online. You could conduct your session off a Skype, so you need to ensure you have a good, stable Internet connection and you're registered with online coaching like a state and counseling directors, too. As an online counselor, you can other days you services on the Web sites such as fiver and etc. But if you will be working with Children and young adults, this might not work for you as well as working from a physical office. Perhaps working from home or a physical office would be better for you. You would need to consider how young client would make a payment for the sessions. In the physical world, it's kind of obvious. It's much more controlled you. For example, the parents are making the payments. You will see that in the online world, you wouldn't even know if they're using the credit card off the parents without them knowing about that. If you're planning to work with adolescence over the Internet, then perhaps you want to consider setting up a support group for them to, for example, through Facebook. It's easy enough to set up new Facebook group for your clients. The main thing to consider here east How to name your group The name should be something that is easy and obvious in what is offering to the public what sort of services many people find enjoin new groups because they found them by some keywords that they were using for search, for example, some might look for an exciting support group are this will be searching for something like coping with depression. They will find you group if the name of the group will sound similar to those keywords what they searching for. So think carefully here. Finally, when you're self employed and running your own business, you need to ensure that you are taking care off yourself, too. It's easy enough to start working long hours working during the weekends, taking less holidays because their unpaid working when you seek becoming isolated and to get burned down because you have to be accountable for all your expenses, continues professional development and so on. So it is really important to be aware off all those downsides and ensure that you have a good social life outside of work. You are taking an appropriate needed rest on holidays. You arranged your own counseling and supervision from time to time, and you are able to manage your own time management and self motivation for work. While this is what you need to know about, say, to not be on practice online or offline, start with small steps and seek for more information from your tax office, website and also government pages for new business owners. There is so so much information online it's unbelievable on, particularly for people who just starting the business who becoming self employed. And this is why I'm advising to look into the tax office. They were pages and where pages from governments which advice to new business owners on what they can do in terms of funding, even self funding. Well, I am wishing you the best of luck. Thank you for completing this course, and please do check out my other courses, especially if you're thinking about working as an online coach, where I go into more detail into how to market and promote yourself as an online coach. Well, thanks again for taking my courses and good luck with your final Cui's, and hopefully I will see that my other courses