Chess Strategy - Complete Training Course | Manuel Ocantos | Skillshare

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Chess Strategy - Complete Training Course

teacher avatar Manuel Ocantos, Chess Player - Top Ten of my Country

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

54 Lessons (5h 28m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Getting Started – What You Need to Do this Class

    • 3. Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy - Material and Better Kinger King

    • 4. Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy – Pawn Structure

    • 5. Warm-up

    • 6. Solution

    • 7. Outro - Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy

    • 8. Intro – What is Chess Strategy?

    • 9. What is Chess Strategy?

    • 10. When does Strategy Prevail?

    • 11. Activity – What is Chess Strategy?

    • 12. Activity Solution

    • 13. Outro - What is Chess Strategy?

    • 14. Intro – Having a Better King

    • 15. The Key to King Safety

    • 16. Exploiting the Advantage

    • 17. King Walks

    • 18. When to Activate the King

    • 19. Activity - Having a Better King

    • 20. Activity Solution

    • 21. Outro – Having a Better King

    • 22. Intro – Material

    • 23. Standard Value of the Pieces

    • 24. What Makes a Piece Stronger

    • 25. Piece Value Through the Stages of the Game

    • 26. Material Imbalances

    • 27. Bishop Pair

    • 28. Activity - Material

    • 29. Activity Solution

    • 30. Outro – Material

    • 31. Intro – Pawn Structure

    • 32. Isolated Pawns

    • 33. Backward Pawns

    • 34. Hanging Pawns

    • 35. Doubled Pawns

    • 36. Passed Pawns

    • 37. Activity – Pawn Structure

    • 38. Activity Solution

    • 39. Outro – Pawn Structure

    • 40. Intro – Strategic Sacrifices

    • 41. Pawn Sacrifice

    • 42. Exchange Sacrifice

    • 43. Minor Piece Sacrifice

    • 44. Rook Sacrifice

    • 45. Queen Sacrifice

    • 46. Activity – Strategic Sacrifices

    • 47. Activity Solution

    • 48. Outro – Strategic Sacrifices

    • 49. Intro – Bring It All Together

    • 50. Activity - Bring It All Together

    • 51. Activity Solution

    • 52. Next Steps

    • 53. My Kingdom for Two Passed Pawns

    • 54. Pawns Can’t Move Backwards

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About This Class


I am Manuel and I am happy to welcome you to my Complete Course about Chess Strategy, where we'll become better chess players by learning the fundamental ideas to evaluate chess positions.

Chess Strategy is a very broad topic, but here we'll take you step-by-step through engaging video tutorials and teach you a method to optimize your thought process. By working on practical activities in every section, we'll make sure that you'll test your new knowledge on instructive positions from the 3 stages of the game (opening, middlegame and ending).

Throughout the course, we cover all the ideas that will make you a better chess strategic player, including:

  • King Safety

  • When to Active the King

  • Passed Pawns

  • Isolated Pawns

  • Pawn Islands

  • Pawn Majorities

  • Good Knight vs Bad Bishop

  • Backward Pawns

  • Weak (and Strong) Squares

  • Initiative

  • Outposts

  • Bishop Pair Advantage

  • Pawn Breaks

  • Control of Light (or Dark) Squares

  • Good Bishop vs Bad Knight

  • Holes

  • Doubled Pawns

  • Isolated Pawns

  • Material Imbalances

  • Strategic Sacrifices

  • Piece Valuation

  • Hanging Pawns

By the end of the course, you will improve your overall skills as a chess player and you´ll also master strategic sacrifices, including pawn, exchange, minor piece and queen sacrifices.

Sign up today, and look forward to:

  • Video Lectures

  • Practical Activities

  • Downloads

  • A summary of the strategic ideas learnt in this course

  • Games for you to study

Are there any course requirements or prerequisites?

  • Have a good understanding of the chess rules
  • Any device with access to the internet
  • No extra software or material required
  • Ideally know chess notation, but this will be explained to students who are not familiar with it

Who this course is for:

  • If you want to learn chess strategy in ONE COURSE
  • If you want to UNDERSTAND chess
  • If you want to learn a METHOD to evaluate positions, without being overloaded with useless information
  • If you don't know how to win positions in the long run or get an advantage in unfamiliar positions
  • If you only know a few tricks to play in your chess games

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Manuel Ocantos

Chess Player - Top Ten of my Country


Hello, I'm Manuel.

Interacting with people around the world is what I enjoy the most because in addition to learning a lot and sharing my experiences that's where I feel that we all belong to one single community.

I've spent several years in the online teaching world, refining how I work and trying to understand the changing needs of this place, which I see as the future of education.

I live together with my lovely girlfriend Gisele who is an inspiration for me to work harder each day.

Being a top ten player of the country that I represent (Luxembourg) and living in South America, has put me in contact with players from different backgrounds and playing styles.

I have been studying chess for 25+ years. From the moment that I got my first book I knew th... See full profile

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1. Introduction: Welcome to my chess strategy course, where you will be able to evaluate chess positions by knowing exactly what to focus on. My name is Manuel and Abilene you through this course, I might just spare, who has also been working on online learning for more than ten years. This course is made for just for years who have problem finding ideas in a given position of who don't know how to exploit an advantage in the long run. By the end of this course, you will improve your overall skills as a chess player. And you will also master strategic sacrifices. You will learn a three-step method to evaluate positions and will first go through each of the steps separately before combining everything that we'll learn in a final activity. All you need to do the course is to have a good understanding of the gestures. Thanks for your time and hope to see you inside. 3. Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy - Material and Better Kinger King: Hi there. In this section, I want to already give you some very useful information in order to evaluate a position. There are actually a lot of strategic ideas. But based on my experience and what I learned from other coaches and players, I would like to share the key ideas in order to evaluate a position. So whenever we don't have any immediate threat or our boron doesn't have an immediate threat, we need to evaluate a position in a more abstract way in order to try to understand how the position will change in the maximum ofs. And the first very natural way of doing that is by evaluating the material balance. But on the other hand, these evaluation is at least incomplete. So let's start with this position that we have in front. It would take a look at the material. We could see that we have a position on which we have roughly the same material. In fact, we have a slight imbalance. What has a bishop and the night, unlike has two bishops and even like has a material bandage, black has seven bonds, whereas white has six months. Both sides have a queen and drugs. So on a first evaluation, if we only dig into account material, we could even argue that like has an advantage. But as you probably know, checkmate ends the game. So we need to take into account whether white or black has a king that can be exposed to an attack. If we take a look at whites king, we see that the king, when D1 looks fairly safe, these visual might be looking at the king, but the key might even wrote to H1, avoiding this a DAG. And we also see that the queen on G3 and the rock on F1, they are close to the king, so they might even provide some reduction. And we'll take a look at blacks King. We see that there's no Bs near the king. All of black species on the queen side. And we can sit in the quinone G3 is indirectly looking at the king. Also this bishop or middle might be an irregular good at digging and these night might get close to the king, fairly easy. For example, after removal like night to F7 or night D7, which actually was played in the game. But before I analyze the moves, what I wanted to highlight here is that like skiing is in danger. So it has two or three bases that are indirectly looking at the king are no pieces defending the king. So here we need to dig into account the very important fact that black skin can become under attack and whites king is safe. And this is even more important than the material balance involved in this position. Wide has a much better position, if not when and why continue with the movie night of the seven, which plants to give a tag made after the movie when Daisy seven black continue with the move D6, F6 here is not possible because what can seem they take the bond, we see that despondent and seven is pinned. And after G6 night to F6, we see how this king is vulnerable. And again, white has a much better if not winning position in the game like Andrea with the move kinda fade, go into D7 or a jade would not be a good idea because this bishop will attack the king. And after kinda fade, white simply improved his position. White is really no hurry, even though white is upon noun. Will the morbidity of 25, our DAG and the rook, like play them more room to see aid. And here, while continuing with this plan of attack, nagging after the wind wage for insisting on this idea. In fact, here, why does, given another bond is polar and E3 black my deck the bond, but after kindred one, we see that this king is very safe. Windex HCX is already a big thread and the game Good. Continue as it continued in the actual game. Like didn't take the bone, but going to do with the move H5. And we'll continue with this idea of tagging, nicking nitrate to seven lag. Continue with the move kinda create. The other option was replacing the G8. But here we'll just deal with the move quintile F6 planning your Vet Tech made. And after again create bishop 36, planning to give a tag made with the MOOC Windows 7, room 207, white conceivably dig the Rubens is seven and get a material advantage. By the way, I didn't system this idea of a DAG and ageing and Brady more rock after the one just bringing the ROCC to an open file. Also trying to prevent some ideas of bringing the king to the queen site where it will be definitely safer than herniate. And actually in this position, like even resign. So this position is just so bad, just having a miserable king. So black decided not to continue the game. For example, if the row goes through the seven, we might even plane ATF6 after it came to the aid. While it may seem that degree rule and keep on attacking scheme. Let's take a look at another position. Here we have equal material. We have four points on each side. Aragonite wide is having more active basis trying to attack this bond and F6. But this one is so far being defended by the night and rook. There is also an important point to note, like it's blending to play them overnight N5, which would attack the king and the rook. That's why, Why has written something about it and why does it in the best possible way, which is where planum of kindred for. So here we have a completely different position because here we don't have many business. It is much harder to adapt the king. And here actually. It is even better to activate the king, because now that we have fewer business on the board, the king come participate making can attack bonds or my even attack the opponent. Skiing might collaborate to attack the urban sketching. And here in fact, this position might look pretty doll predictable, but white has a much better if not a winning position. And again, we see that the main difference here comes from the king. The king is quickly join in the fight, whereas this king on G8 is really passive. So for example, if black here, just wait here, why can simply bring the King and the guy came to D6 and D7 might attack the night. There's also the idea to Blake into E6 planning to attack the ROCC and denied and also attacking the barn F6. So this was region is becoming very hard to play for. Black and white is just pressing for free. So you can understand how a low material is definitely important because having a huge material bandage and all other things being equal, we can capture the urban NPCs. We can give Jack made with a lot of undue advantage. But if we have equal material than having the barricading can be great eagle, here we have the bargain because the king is active in the other position. We have the barricade because wise king was not vulnerable. I'm black skin was vulnerable. And here black tried to activate the king himself by playing the move kinda fade and after rope to C8, kindred seven. What continue with this idea of kinda D5 and a y still has the Burger King because the king might even come to C6. And sometimes to be seven to attack this bond are now that like tried to activate his king. There's an additional point that these pollinate six might become a target after white blazer move Lie group to age eight, H6 might fall. And this is another very important idea that we'll study in the next lecture, which is how the bonds are placed on the board. Recall the bond structure. So here wide, again, has a very large strategic advantage and won the game after a few moves. And finally, I wanted to show something which might sound trivial, but just to highlight this important idea of having the backing, it would take a look at the starting position here, white complained many possible moves. The most popular Mozart to play the movie E4 or D4, night draft 3 is very bubbler as well. C4 is also another popular move. And in this position, the movie G4 is considered a very bad move, if not the worst, removing the position. And why is that? On one hand, we could argue that we are going to develop the bishop to do on the bishop might actually be very active here. This bond is controlling two squares, F5, my band, and boron square. H5 might not be an important square. But the main point is that here we have equal material. We almost have a symmetrical position, but the king normally goes to D1 after it castles short, cutscene short is way more common than gasoline long because it is easier. White just has to move the bishop and the night, whereas gasoline long takes more time because we have to move the queen, the bishop, and the night. So the king would normally Castle in order to be safer than anyone because E1 is a central file. And after canceling, we can visualize that with the keyword G1, the sporangia four will actually weaken the king. The king will have less protection. Similarly, if we play the movie H4 here, these were also be a bad move. And the main point would be that if we ever bring licking reg1, the king will have less production. Normally moving the bonds that are in front of your king will weaken the king. And similarly, the move F4 is also not one of the top moves in the position because it also exposes aching. First of all, after a movie like E6, the king may be exposed like my dry some dance to play a check. Not directly here because white my palladium of D3. But sooner or later, this might be an idea, but in this case actually, after guzzling, why do I even think about the idea of bringing the king to age 1? So we've White bring seeking to H1, then at least wide will have these two bonds protecting nicking. If they can go straight to one. That's where the move F4 actually is not considered to be a bad move, but it's still not a very strong moving the position. So by using this principle of looking at which side has the barricading, we can already evaluate a position very accurately. 4. Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy – Pawn Structure: Hi again. Now, besides analyzing who has the Burger King and who has a medieval vantage, another very important idea that we need to look at in order to evaluate a position is the bond structure. Simply put, the bond structure is how the bonds are displayed on the board. And this affects definitely the bonds themselves, whether they become a target, whether they're strong or not. But it also affects the other business based on how the bonds are placed, we can decide where I would place the other business on the board. We're going to study bone structures a lot. But for now, let's analyze the lipid, the position that we had in the previous lecture. Let's take a look at the bonds and they start with the coincide. If we take a look at white spawns, we see that we have upon, on A3 and before, and these bonds, they can protect each other. So here we have what we call connected bonds. Now we'll take a look at blacks bonds on the queen side, we see the pond on C6 and the bond and a seven. We see that these two bonds cannot defend each other. And here we have what we call isolated bonds. Now these in this particular position is not very relevant because here, as we saw in the game, wide adapt, like skiing and giving Jack made is much more important than anything else. But these two bonds, they might become weak in other positions due to the fact that they are isolated bonds and that they cannot defend each other. So we can already see how these needles that might not seem relevant at first sight can be very important. So if we're to speak about the bond structure on the coincide, we can already say that white has a slight advantage there due to the fact that whites bonds can defend each other and black swans cannot. Now let's go back to the game. In the game was played them overnight of the seven, which is very strong. These night, cannot be captured because we're just give a check made. And here black doesn't have anything better than to play the more G6. And the MOOC D6 is already changing the bond structure on the king's side, moving the bond 2D6 might not be a big deal, but in fact it is because after blamed him of disease, we see that the square on F6 cannot be controlled by any bond, are now black has what we call a week square. And in fact, in the game itself, wide continue with the move night. We have six straight away or go by in the square with the night. And we see that this night cannot be kicked away by any black spawns, like we'll have to bring a piece, took it away, for example, the bishop to the aid. But as we see, is not very easy because we have the record C7 blogging. So here wider already has another strategic advantage in the form of occupying the F6 square. So here in this position, black has a material bandage like has an extra bone, but white has the Burkean and about upon structure. Let's analyze a position that can go really wrong for black in terms of constructor. Let's imagine that replay the movie forum, which is one of the most popular movies like has many options. But let's imagine that blackface remove E5 again, why it has many options. But we complain I do have three attacking the spawn. And after 1986, we can play the four bishop to be five is another move. But the four is another industry move. And after dignity for, and dignity for like a blemish of 35, a DAG and denied. Here we can play Bishop 283, which is the most popular moving the position taken and physics wasn't an option. And here in this position, black can actually Les Miserables to be 6 is an idea, also quintile F6. But here the D6 might look very natural, but these would actually be a very bad move. And why is that? Because here y can take on zCX. Black doesn't have time to degree three because the knight is attacking the queen. So black has to take the night. And now we can dig and C5. Now black has break the bishop in order to avoid being materially down. And here we get this position on which if we take a look and material, we have equal material, take a look at the King's. More size. Have a fairly safe kings or 40, but white has a much better upon structure. And here white has a very large advantage, even away in advantage. And why is that? Because why spawns are all connected and they can defend each other very well. Whereas here black has the spawner is seven, which is isolated. But this point is not that week because y cannot attack it easily. But we see these bonds on the C file, which are actually triple bonds. And these bonds whenever apiece adapt them. For example, night, they cannot be defended by another bond, so they become really hard to defend. So this was region. No matter what, why does wider already has a very large advantage. Why do I even continue developing, for example, being the move 1983 might be an idea. So why doesn't even need to hurry in order to adapt those bonds? Because this is a permanent weakness on blacks camp. But wind may also start being more concrete. And here I might exchange queens. And after taking on the eight, why do I even vertebrae the move nine to the do in order to bring the night to B3, a DAG and despondency five. And we see how black already has very serious problems. This point cannot advance because the bishop would capture it. I'm like may continue, for example, with Ruby aid. And here we have another interesting point. Given the fact that we have triple bonds. Black can bring the rope to be aid and blackmail actually activate this rook. And this is another important bond that I spoke about. The bond structure also defines where we're going to place our PCs. So although here black can activate the BCS, it doesn't compensate these permanent weaknesses of this is 76 and z5 bonds. Here, this bond can be defended very easily. Bond, My God, to be three. And the bonds will defend that bond, or what can even cut along. Now we defend this bond. We planned to bring the night to be three. Unwind is already having a very large advantage. 5. Warm-up: And now I will have to warm up. So I'm going to give you two positions to analyze. We're just getting started. So there's no right or wrong here. But I just want you to give some thought to the positions in order to apply these ideas that we learned. So remember to evaluate the positions based on who has the Burger King, who has a material bandage, and who has the better upon structure in this first position, it is wise to play. So let me know if you think whether one side has an advantage here or whether these position is equal. In the second position, it is. Why do play? So let me know how you would evaluate this position. 6. Solution: All right, So it is great that we can apply this method to evaluate a position straight away. Let's start with this position. First, we need to look at the king. White skin. Looks very safe there. I don't see any black space around that King. Black, my dry opening lines, for example, Blaine before or even dignity for undrawn to bring obese to the file. But this might take black some time. So I would say that the white skin looks fairly safe. Now we take a look at blacks King, I will say that there's a difference because we already see that this two rooks on the GIF file are already attacking. This point is seven and a low wide cannot take this bond straight away. There is some pressure on this one. There is an indirect attack on black skin, what we call an X-ray attacker. These bishop is also Boolean brush on the snide and this bond. So we see that white is piling up business against black skin. Black has to business defending, which are the rook and the night. But we see that white is having three pieces a DAG in so all in all this pressure on blacks king. So based on the King here, why it has a very large advantage, material here is fairly equal. So there's not a lot to say about that. And if we take a look at the bond structure, I would refer wise position here, we can analyze many things about the bone structure. But the main problem with that I see here for blood this weekend, square on E5, which actually allowed wide to both the speech or 15, which will put pressure on black skin. Remember that the bone structure affects where we place our business. And here white is taking advantage of this idea of a weekend square. So if five is a weak square, that white is exploited, white spawns look fairly healthy. There's these Pantone h3 that is an isolated upon. So you might argue that this bond can be a target, but actually here this point is very well defended. These visual might defend this bond. Why has many business on the king's side? Black doesn't have any peace attacking that bond. So this is another important idea that we'll talk about later. Our weakness, if it cannot be exploited. A real weakness, Todd is boundary edge three is not really a problem for white. And considering that in this position, what is focusing on attacking the king wide may not even care about losing that bond because we've been checkmate or attacking the gain is much more important in the game wide continue with the move Quinto F2, which is a very interesting idea. In order to bring more pieces on a dark black skin. The screen might come to the GIF file or to age four. As it happened in the game, and wide won the game for liquidly. So white here has Deborah King and a mighty whereupon structure. So why it has a large advantage? The second position is much more complicated, so don't worry, if you find it hard to analyze. Here we take a look at the King. We see that the wise king is much more active. So here, since we don't have many pieces, whites king is not in danger of being checkmated. That's why it is great to activate the king. So why it has a better ageing material here is equal. And if we take a look at the bond structure here, we see that these Pantone six might actually be very strong. Here, white has what we call a postpone because this bond cannot be stopped by other ponds. So white idea with the two promoted and bus bonds, they can become more dangerous and endings blacks bones don't look particularly weak on those. This point on B3, which cannot advance, like my thing about a diagonal bond. Here we have what we call a backward one. So in this position, Marty residual, why it hasn't been working on about a bone structure. What has advantages and disadvantages. But all in all whites position is a bit better if we take into account all these three things. So why it has a slightly better position? And in fact, white continued pressing disposition and managed to win the game. 7. Outro - Your Quick Guide to Chess Strategy: Chess strategy is a very broad, an exciting topic and we'll learned a lot of ideas in this course. But you already know the most important ideas to evaluate a position from a strategic point of view. First, remember to look at who has the better keen. If we have a position on which we can attack the king. And then it's going to be, decide who has the safer king. If we have a position on which does not attack on the King, then is going to be the side that has the more active king. This normally happens in the ending. It's not an absolute rule. For sure. You will take a look at who has a material advantage because all other things being equal, the sad who has a material bandage has an advantage. And last but not least, we need to take a look at the pons and how they are placed on the board, which is what we call the pond structure. The bond structure really defines where the game goes. For instance, it tells us what we have to attack and where we have to place our pieces. So I'll see you in the next section to Gibbon learning new ideas. 8. Intro – What is Chess Strategy?: Welcome again. In this section, we're going to learn what chess strategies in order to have a clear understanding of what this course will cover. Will also learn the main differences between chess strategy and tactics. And when we should prioritize as strategic evaluation over a tactical evaluation, or when tactical ideas are more important than strategy. So I see you in the chessboard to get started. 9. What is Chess Strategy?: All right, So chess prodigy is simply everything that will affect the position. In the long run. Whenever we have a position, it is very natural to evaluate everything that we have, which is immediate. For example, in a position that we have in front, if it was y to play, white would just captured this bond. Another example would be, given a checkmate force, an object made. And all these ideas are related to what we call the tactical way to test that ticks, which are basically the more concrete moves. Whenever we don't have any particularly concrete move that is stronger than the others, we need to drive to understand the position from a more general point of view. So let's analyze this position unless forget that this point is a duct, unless use the criteria that we learned. So let's start by looking at the King's here. Blacks king is so far not in danger. White skin looks extremely safe there. Unblock may even become under attack. For example, after mobile ape, Windex and rook 283, these King is a bit more exposed than white skin. So here white has an edge. If we take a look at the material, we have equal material. And if we evaluate the pawn structure, what has a clear advantage? Because like spawns are very bad, life has these two isolated bonds. But even wars like has this triple bonds. Triple bonds are very rarely an advantage and whites bonds look very healthy. So here, while it has an advantage in the form of a slightly Burger King and a much better upon structure. And here comes on important node. When a site has a strategic advantage, the other side would normally dry to change that position. So the side having a strategic advantage will normally be happy maintaining the status quo, or might change the position, but will not be forced to drastically change the position. The side being strategically down will normally dry to play more tactically gradient threads or even changing the bond structure more often. So that side will be looking forward to changing the nature of the position. Or as we say, play more dynamically. Now in this position, like doesn't have a lot of options. One idea might be to play them over a form because we adapt a rook. But here why it has many options. One of them is just obey them overlooked we have three. And now why does a DAG in this bond and this bond would normally fall easily. White may even bring the queen to attack. The bond. In this position wouldn't work. In the game like tried to play the movie when 36, which is an interesting dry black, is inviting white to change the nature of the position. If Y takes on E6, this would actually be very bad for white because after dig in on E6, now we see that blood doesn't have double bonds. Why it still has an advantage? Because why still has a bar upon structure. But at least black swans improved a little bit. And white Marissa have an idea to play the move A5 and A6 sooner or later to greater pass band on the coincide. So why does still hasn't demanded, but why has given some of the advantage in this case. So that's why here in this position, black dress to play more dynamically. But why it doesn't want to change the nature of the position in this case because it benefits black. That's why here white continuous with the move winter before. So the structure is still the same and wide keeps disadvantage, which is permanent. So white is not hiring by sooner or later, will plan to either attack blacks bonds, or to create a pass born with the move A5 and A6. So here white has a significant advantage and won the game. And now here one to analyze an opening position that occurs after the move, E4, E5, before and after diagonally before. I'm not focusing on the opening itself, just trying to understand these specific line here. After the more C3 white sacrifices upon and after dignity, three, white can even sacrifice another point when they move before organism with the night. In both cases, what is sacrificing material? This is not the most common line, but I want to analyze it from a strategic point of view and understand the ideas behind these line, which is called the Danish gambit. So here neither widest Nanoblock have any immediate threat. And if we use these criteria to evaluate the position, both kings look very safe to me. Black has an extra bone. And if we take a look, bond structure, I don't see any weakness on either side. So then when you've done a son, how the game would evolve or why would wide sacrifice upon in this case. And the main idea here is that white will develop the business more quickly. We can see how, what business already are more active. And in this position, since wide strategically is having a disadvantage, why do we have to play more dynamically so wide will be willing to change the bond structure or to attack. Whereas black ideally would like to keep their position quiet and tried to consolidate the position and keep these extra bond. With that in mind here by animal-like nature of six would actually be bad because here wide, hey, the more E5 attacking the night and the night doesn't have any words squares, does y here before developing the night to F6, which is a good score for the night like and dry play in 1986, or even the segues to stop this move unless they after the move 1986, why can dry ring the bishop to D4, which is a very active square undisputable BI in F7 and began my continual visual to before other moves are possible. And here, why do we normally develop the night? And sooner or later we will try to launch an attack or to play aggressively because white is upon down and wide has to justify this decision of even upon. So here's his black has a very solid pawn structure. The main plan for wide will be to try to attack the king. So does Y here I move like window B3 sooner or later will be very interesting to put pressure of seven. These visual may also come to G5. Play any five, as we saw, is an interesting idea. So this nine is not the most prevalent deposition. I just want to understand it from a strategic point of view and their main ideas at here, what is going to play aggressively is going to play dynamically in order to justify the bond that was sacrificed. 10. When does Strategy Prevail?: Hi again. So now we know that this strategic play and that develop lay. So the question is, when should we prioritize strategic over tactical play or when we should prioritize tactical play over strategic decisions. And this is definitely a big question, but nevertheless, I will provide you with some ideas to know when you should focus more on tactical play or when you should focus more on strategic way. Whenever we have a position, we need to ask ourselves two questions. First, if we have any big threat, any forcing moves, and second, if our opponent also has any thread or any forcing Wolf, and by forcing movies, I mean, it checks any captures or any attack and moves. If the answer to those questions is yes, then we should paradise dealing with those ideas. So we should prioritize tactical play. If the answer to those questions is no, then we should prioritize strategic play. In any case, as we'll see, even after making a strategic evaluation and having a plan in mind, executing this plan will not always be straightforward because tactics, they can appear in many positions and they can also change the position. And we might need to readapt this man. So tactics and strategy, in a way they are correlated, they're influencing each other. So let's start with this position. Here it is black to play under snow, direct way for black to gain an advantage. And also, I don't see any big threat by wide. So if it was y to play, I don't see any big threat. And here black played a very interesting move, B5. And this is a strategic move. The main idea is not to adopt this policy for. But the main point is that after despondency for easier exchange, or this point moves in the game white token B5. And after they going to be five, we see that now black will have these square for the night. In return, white gets a pass bone on the floor. This point is very well controlled because black has denied and rook controlling the device square. Another idea is that now we have these two ponds on the coincide against one bond. So blood will normally be able to advance those bonds and create a backbone in the game world. Continue with the more Bishop 25. And now again, we might have these strategic idea of gradient a backbone. But playing they move A5 straight away would not be very strong. Because again, we need to ask if white has any strong reply. And here white actually has more than one way of dealing with dad. First of all, why can't even take these night? And after day? Can we see how this bond structure is damaged? So there we have a force to move a capture, and we have another attack in move, which is the more bishop to C7, which is quite interesting because we attack the boron and the rook. And if light tries to defend this one, then this deform can advance. So we see that we might have an idea in mind, but we need to consider tactics in every position to see if the execution of that plan will work or not. Here Blackberry, they move 1985 and dissipating these ideas are now lag is planning to start advancing the bonds on the inside here will continue with the mover of the C1, which is an interesting move. And the bone is that again, after a five wide will dry login for Canada play after the Moraga C5. And for example, after, before. We may even capture this bond on a five. With that in mind, black has to play carefully. Black first played him over F6, our DAG in this bishop. And after, Egyptologists replay the mood before and the game continue. Rope does E5 and here, black braided move nitrogen three attacking this bond. And this bond is also under DAG. And here wide blade and other tactical move, play them over A3. So we'll see how we try to implement this plan. And wide is trying to complicate the position. Black cannot take this bond because, why don't we just take the night? Let me continue the game a few moves to get to a critical position. Here, black radium overnight we do given a check. And after akin to have two night takes, Qin takes here black took on the form like one upon four the damping. And after 25. Like finally got this backbone. And here why'd they, they move rook takes A7 using these general, the strategic understanding that after exchanging these bonds, if we're managed to change these bonds, will just get a very drainage position. For example, after b2, we can just play rock to be seven, trying to stop this bond. And if we exchange those bonds, then this position is going to be quite an easy row. But the rope days A7 is a big mistake because it means atactic a reply by black. Because why didn't ask himself if black has any thread in this position? And here it came the amazing move rook to be for the IDS to push the bone and to bring the A3 pointed to before. There's no way to stop the bond. Thus, why, why it has to take the rock and after dig in rook, we do. We see how this bond is blocking the rock on the file. And white doesn't have the more rope to a one to stop the bond, the game continue rope 25, blade promoted the bond rock when, and won the game if I go back to this position. So here are the big threat is Ruby for and with that in mind, the rope to be five was much stronger. We adapt this bond. And if lagged defense is bond, then here we can play rock to be seven. Would you even plan to get this bond now? And white could have saved their game in this position. Now let me show what this position that is really extreme because here we have our formula Zambian, make it a big mistake because he was just focusing only on the strategic evaluation of this position. Here, white actually has a very large advantage. Why has much more RBCs? These nylon D5 is very strong. Although these not only for is grade, what is put in pressure m7, like I will say that only has one would be switches this 90, 95. But why does just dominate in this position? And here we see that there's a weak square on G5, that white Conoco by and white bloody move nitrogen five. So the 97 better there in D5, it may come to E6, are dragging the queen and the rogue. And these move makes perfect sense if we just want to improve this position. But here wide completely missed lags. Very simple thread which is to capture the queen. And in fact, after capturing the queen, wide resigned. Instead of late 1985, wider could have moved the Queen, for example, to C7 and keep these large advantage. So strategy and tactics, they influence each other and you will prioritize as strategic evaluation on a particular decision whenever you don't have any strong force in moving a position. And by forcing movies, I mean checks, captures and a DAG and moves. And whenever your opponent doesn't have any strong threat. And this is a very important point because many times we just focus on our plans and we completely ignore our opponents ideas. 11. Activity – What is Chess Strategy?: Hey again. And now I would like to show you a few positions and to ask you how you would evaluate these positions here in this first position, it is Y2 playing. And let me know if you would prioritize our strategic or tactical evaluation. And in the second position, it is also why to play. Would you focus here more on tactical ideas or on strategic ideas? 12. Activity Solution: All right, so this activity is a big abstract, but I just wanted to see how you would approach these positions in the first position. If we remember this idea of looking at tactic ideas, of looking at forcing moves, we basically don't have any check, wouldn't have any captures. We don't have any attack and moves. So this is a position that we should really focus on strategic understanding, login at our pond structure, at our king and our business in general. And in fact here, what has many possible moves in the game. We played the movie B5, which is an interesting idea to try to fix this bond structure. And the idea is that after lag place, they move C6, which happened in the game after rook 28 and bishop do we do. Then after dignity seeks. And quintics, this bond is potentially vulnerable. So white has a slight edge in this position. But since there are no strong tactical moves in the position, y has many alternatives to the MOOC B5. Another idea might be playing the move bishop to be true in order to bring the rock to the a file. That dimension. Another idea that might be interesting from a general point of view, but wouldn't work tactically, which is the movement I do one with the idea to play F3 and attack this night, which is quite a dominant night. But remember that we should always take a look at our threads on our board and threats here in this particular position, like has a very strong night of the tool, which is a doublet that we call a fork, are dragging the queen and the rock. So that idea would fail tactically. Another idea might be to improve the basal body. It'll be played him or mesh of 23. And there's also another idea which is really move H3, which might not make a lot of sense at first sight. But the idea is that after moving the rock, if want to bring grew up to be one or two A1 to prevent the idea nitrogen for my black. And this is what a goal or prophylactic morph. So we just anticipate this idea of black paint remove nitrogen form, which might not be a big threat in this position. But after moving rook, nitrogen four might be annoying because these two nights are putting pressure on F2. So this position is very strategic in nature. But the second position, which is actually taken from the same game, but just 17 months later, is actually quite the opposite. Although we may consider some strategic elements in the position here we see that there's a lot of potential to attack the abundant species. Like also has pressure on this bishop or low it is defended for the time being. White has an idea of more in the night, a DAG in the night, and C7 and even the bishop. So here, if we're playing this position on either side, we will need to start analyzing these very concrete moves. And in fact, in the game there's also another very concrete idea. We just to give a tag made on the eighth rank and just to show the game would finish pretty quickly. It was very tactical busted, very nice. So I just want to show it after the move nitrogen for black took the bishop because now that the knight move, the night is not different individual anymore. And after taken a C7, we see how like is having this problem with Jack made on the eighth rank because like cannot take the bishop, because after uptakes, we will get a checkmate. That's why here black tried moving the bishop and wide played a very brilliant and very tactical move, which is the more 1985 black is a former champion and resigned in this position. And the idea is that after taking the Bishop, Why would capture this night, which seems to be lost by black, is not in time to capture the night because what is blind to give a Jack made, for example, after night takes, would just insist with this idea, with this tactic idea of giving a checkmate. So black is not in time. And if like wants to give some space for the king after AutoCAD, then here y can simply kept in the Najd, be obese up winning the game. So as we can see in these two positions from the same game, at a certain point, the position was very strategic, but later on, in order to convert his advantage, wide started playing very tactically. 13. Outro - What is Chess Strategy?: So we now have a much clearer understanding of what chess strategy is. We also learned that in those positions on which one side has a strategic advantage, the other side will try to change the nature of the position and we'll try to play more dynamically. And I also tried to address these big question of when we should play strategic Jess or when we should prioritize tactical play. And for us the main guide will be to double-check in every position if we have any strong force in movies or if our opponent has any strong force it moves. In that case, we'll focus more on tactical play. Otherwise, we will prioritize our strategic evaluation. So I'm waiting for you on the next section. 14. Intro – Having a Better King: Hi everyone. We have already spoken about the importance of having a Burger King. So now December to study these more deeply. First, we're going to learn what the key ideas to have a safe king are and how to exploit disadvantage of being able to attack the O'Bannon scheme. Now, in some cases, it is actually better to activate the king. So we'll try to figure out when we can use the king as an attacking base. Without further ado. Let's get started. 15. The Key to King Safety: Hi there. Having a safe king or a safer Qin than your opponent is very often indecisive. That's why I would like to talk about what makes a king safe. And there can be many factors influencing in safety. But by far the most important one is to have defending business. And whenever you're king is attacked by your opponent, species is you'd have the same number or more pieces. Defending, your opponent has attacking. I wanted to go back to this position that we analyzed at the beginning of the course. And here I said that white has quite a safe king, whereas black has problems with his game. Let's start with whites king, what can even go to 81? And after the king goes to 81, I don't even see a single BCE, a dagger and white. It has even the Queen around the king that is array defending these two squares. So wise king is very Xa, whereas in the game after the movie night to the seven, we have two pieces a DAG in the square. And we see that black already has only one piece defending the king, but black doesn't have any other piece to defend that square. That's why these attack on the square is successful. So we can already see how black is having problems with the king. Ultimately, we're an attack works or not will depend on very specific moves that we need to analyze. But having the symbol idea of counting the defenders and attackers, we can already evaluated very accurately if the king is well defended or not. Here, black would actually love to change queens. In this case. Why we only have one BCE, a dagger 97. And this is another way to defend some dance, to exchange pieces in order to decrease the number of attacking business that the opponent may have. But this is not possible in this case. So here with our Quinn's, y will have less attackers. I'm like, warn me having any problems. And in the game-like didn't have any better option than planum of D6. But these worsened the bond structure. And this is another key idea that influenzas King's safety, which is the bone structure around the king. So again, if we take a look at whites king bond structure around the king is quite healthy. This bone is a bit weak body. If we bring the King great one, then these two bonds on G21, H2 will protect again. Whereas like bone structure is actually quite bad because we have these weak square and white May when some time thinking about this idea of attacking this bone structure with the H bond, for example, allowing this case is not even necessary because y has enough pieces to attack. So here black has a very bad king based on not having the funders and having a very bad pun structure around the king. Now let's analyze this position. Let's start with white skin. Was king only do might not look ideally placed because it's an assembled file and we still have many bees on the board is looking at this porn F2. But so far this point is defended. So at first sight, these king doesn't look at lease that bad, like my dry during Reza pressure with the bishop. And then we would have to defend this bond. For example, blame them for group G1 to G2. So the kings so far is relatively safe, but like my dried to attack that king, the king would actually be much better on each one because they are licking would be very well defended by the rocks and the bond. There will be no easy way for black to attack the king with accumulate one. So the kidney do is not in immediate danger, but might be better placed on an elsewhere the king on a jade. So far we have these pressure on G7. What has to be these are dug in on the seven, the two rooks. But black has two pieces defending the king and the rook. So black seems to be holding there. But if we imagine that we are dark, other squares like 87 or the aid, it might become hard for black to defend. That's why here black already I can tell you at first sight has a king that might be in danger very quickly. For example, one idea might be to play bishop to have five, a2, a3. But if you're black, can actually start login for counter play. So Mitch up to V6 is a good idea. And if we defend My even attack, this bond would be shoved or a five. So the position is still a bit complicated. For example, after root Dre D3 become blade D5 trying to defend. So we have two pieces defending. And to produce a DAG in an obligor is planning to take on S3. So the position is not clear at all. But here wide use this idea of breaking the bond structure around the king and played a very nice Queen to H6. And here black resigned. And the idea is that we have pressure on G7. And this very nice idea of giving the Queen, for example, after Black dx, we can just take on H7 and give a checkmate. And after Black takes, the queen would just force a checkmate. So we have three attackers on D8. I'm like only has two defenders. So we just give a check made after uptakes and rope takes. So here why do use this idea of breaking the bone structure in order to attack? Now let's analyze this position from lakhs point of view. Here we will need to decide whether we castle or not. Canceling is normally great because we coordinate our business. We improve the rope and the king is normally very well-protected by its own bonds. But the gasoline or low, it works well very often, is not something that should be done lightly. Again, when you do use this principle of asking ourselves if we have PCs defending our king and here in this position, if we castle short, we can already see how white has many pieces, whereas black has many business on the coincide. So this is what happened in the game. And here wide, ladies, very nice. More Bishop takes H7, which is quite a typical sacrifice. And in return for a piece after the moment I do G5 here blinking do H6 would be just bad. White has many moles. One of them is just to take on E6 and give a Discover check, our DAG and the queen. And after kinda G6, what has many ways to attack the King? One of them is going to D3, H4 is another move. That's why I would like try going back to G8. But after Queen Ridge 5, we see this very simple idea actually that H7 is being controlled by two pieces. I'm like has no way to cover that square. And the game ended shortly after appropriate window 87 and after came to a fade. Measure of J3 is a very strong movie cause. Now these nice pinned and white is planning to provide checkmate on a jade. In any case, the main one is that you don't need to start analyzing all these lines that sometimes might be very complicated. But if you use these general understanding, it will help you a lot to find a safe square for the king. So here black might even continue developing because the king on aid is actually not doing math. There is protected by many pieces. One idea is to continue developing, for example, visual 37, underappreciate. This rope is going to be parallel and the C file, my port pressure on this bond, black meiosis. Consider some downstroke to gas along because the king on the coincide might be much safer in this case because black has most of his business on the coincide. So that's another idea. Another idea is also to play the move HCX and dissipate in this idea of degenerate seven. And the point is that after gasoline and guzzling, now black doesn't have the sacrifice, which has this goal of breaking the bond structure, which is another typical idea to a duck, does y here black has a much safer position and can continue playing the game. The more H6 also prevents any night jump. White, my seal dried, brought dark blacks king, but at least for the dimming, the king is not in danger. So the key to evaluate if your king is safe or not is to make sure that it can have enough defenders whenever it's attacked. And for that you need to have the same number of pieces or more than your opponent has attacking. And another important idea is to have a good constructor around your king and whiteout for sacrifices, intend to destroy the bone structure. 16. Exploiting the Advantage: Hi again. And now we're going to study how to explore the disadvantage of being able to attack the opponent scheme. And I wanted to start by going back to this position that we've already analyzed, because this game is actually very instructive and it can teach us a lot about test strategy. Now in this position as we saw, black skin is really badly place because the bond struggle around the king is bad. And wide has lots of pieces, are dragnet king and know what defenders. So here white can easily create threads as we saw in the game. If you don't remember widely, Bishop 35. Why can also play sooner or later Quinn wage for author nitrate seven. So white has a lot of TMD in moms in order to attack the king. And this ability to create threads, generally speaking, is called the initiative. And here why it has such a great initiative that y can even play acquired move. For example, Qin, great one, because this king is going to be weak even after wide plays a great move. So here white has what we call a long-term initiative. One idea for black to improve the king might be to bring the king all the way to be Aid or the liquid inside. And this is what we call a king walk. Or I can merge, which we'll study in the next video. In this position, we can see that this idea will not work because white is just a DAG and forest in any case in this position, why didn't lay them off kindred one, but follow this principle that we see of gradient threat. Unpaid a more visual to a 5 antagonists rook. And after took the C8. Quinto it for we are attacking or H6. And after age 5, nitrate seven, we attack the king. And after being measured, 36 creates another thread. Here, black tried to sacrifice material with Democritus's haven't done 1-dimensional. The demo measure to the aid wouldn't work because you get another attack in Move, give a check. And then after dig in and ethics, which is forest, then we just take and we continue attacking again. And after group to C7 here, what could have taken the rock on me converting the advantage in drama dual advantage uneven here while it is still able to attack the king. But why even didn't rush here? And be the Move group 31? I in any case, the dye will continue anemia here as we discussed, Black resigned. So this is a very clear example. But sometimes exploiting an advantage will require more precise play. Let's analyze this position. That is really instructive. Here. It is right to play. And after the more bishop to be forgiven, a check kinda create. We get these position on which black cannot castle. By the way, here we don't have Quinn's bar, we have a lot of pieces. So this is still a position on which we can definitely attack the king. And if we evaluate this position from a strategic point of view, we can see that this king can fall into our duck pretty quickly. Let's imagine that we bring ROP one, whereas white skin looks very safe. There might even come to be one. So white has a mighty working material is fairly equal. We have five bonds on its side. Black has measured by night and white has to be shoves. And then we have two rooks on each side. But on the other hand, we see that y spawn structure on the king's side is pretty damaged, particularly these ponds on the file. So like has a bear upon structure. So here we have this imbalance on which white has an advantage in the form of a hurricane. But black has the bear upon structure. And although black skin cannot castle because it just move from His 78, if y continuous plane slowly, Let's say Route 33, defending this, pawn them like Bombay, a mobile app group to the aid. And let's say that wide displays and you run them off going to be one after night. V6. Luggage is trying to exchange pieces. Let's say that we take here, we can take with the king and the king might even gum to C8. We can bring the rook. So the king now looks fairly safe. Unblock has about a bone structure, so this was region is quite playable for black. That's why here, disadvantage of having the Burger King is not a long-term advantage as we saw in the previous game. So here white has to act very quickly. Playing rock to you. One might be an idea, but White played a better move because white wants to bring the two rooks to attack the king. And here white play the very brilliant move visual to be five. And the idea is that Black cannot take, because after re-engage do E1, we will give a very nice Dag made and we see how we are really exploding. Disadvantage. So the king doesn't have any squares. Does y here? Like play them off C6? But now y still follow with this idea of a DAG and digging. And here Blackberry them overnight, V6 plane here kinda the seven wouldn't be very good because y can still attack the king. Or after giving to the aid, we can easily see how wide is dominating and the strokes are really out of play. So this is also modular opposite in Hawaii. That's why black dry them off 96. Now, maybe planning to exchange some business after row to the aid. But here after the mortgage of the z4, there's no way to defend this night, which has been la continue with the rope to the aid. And after-dinner amnesics. Take it on the one. The one, on the one and only six. Rook takes what is willing, not only upon, by the is still having this initiative. And after kinda the age group 3, 7, what is still attacking like species? So although here, like managed to save the king and to avoid Jack made while is getting a material landed and still have in the better position. Let's now analyze another position. Here we have black skin on the inside and white skiing on the king's side. We have what we call opposite, say Gosling. And in this case, the initiative is actually very important because here, black can actually push nicking, say bonds, because those bonds are not protecting the king. So Indonesian drug dug in with the other business. Black can also use the bonds. Same wide here. White already posted the coincide ponds to attack black skin. And in this case, being able to adapt is very important. Here, black might think about taking this bond and B7 white, My bring the night 33. Stopping. The very important idea that was played in the game is the G4. So here we can see that the white doesn't have any immediate threat. This bond A7 so far is well-defended. But even if that was urgent, after digging and B7, we see that black will have a lot of pieces defending a 7. So y sub dad doesn't look that scary. Whereas on the king side, although so far there's no pressure on Jiddu or h3. We see how black piled up the rocks on the file. And here given their very strong move, G4. So I want to explain these more based on these criteria that we discussed about that to have a safe king, we need to have what defenders and also a good constructor. And in this case, spawner H3 is actually quite a liability because after the Muji for now, black is able to open lines and activate his species against the king. This born a3 is what we call a hook in just jargon because it allows you upon and purple lines. So we can see how these small little impact deposition, if white spawn wasn't H2 here, like wouldn't be able to open lines easily against the king. And after default, the game actually finished very quickly because you're black has everything. Black doesn't even have any material disadvantage, uneasy one or Dunkin. So black has a clear edge. And after dignity for bishop days before they do. Quinto D6. Look DRE, do maybe preparing to defend bad white is not in time because you're black, played a very pretty move bishop to do and hear what resigned because we have this idea of negative 85, but even more important of Daikin or needle. So for example, after digging only do, we would just leave attack made into moves. And if it tries to defend with D3 black and simply take on B5 and be happy sub might even insist on this idea of a DAG in after taking 93. And Y cannot take here because we would just take on d3 and give a very quick check make teenage one is you only move and after quantity do we get attacked made. So having the Burkean might not be a permanent advantage. Or we may have a Burger King in exchange for other advantages, such as having less material or having our response structure. So in this case, we need to act quickly in order to convert our advantage by creating threads, aiming to deliver a checkmate or to get another strategic advantage, like wind material. 17. King Walks: Hey there. And now I would like to talk about King walks. Again, work is moving your king several times, sometimes even transferring the king to another area of the board. For example, going The king side to the coincide in the opening or the middle stage of the game. This is actually rare because in the opening or in the middle game, we don't want to expose our king or waste time with our king and move down to our bond to attackers. But on some occasions, king works can be useful. And he'll discuss about three situations on which we can have Akin walk. The first is to escape an attack. First of all, if we can neutralize the DAG or if we can prevent it in the first place, then we won't do any king walk. But if we have no other choice, then we'll go for akin walk. So let's take a look at the position that we have in front. And here it is like to play, why just play the movie bishop do D3. So now the bishop and the queen aligned planning to invade the age Simon square. So what is planning to attack on the light squares? With that in mind here, Kasparov played a very interesting movie, came to F8 with the idea to bring the king to E7. And they came. There is going to be much better than on G8 or a date. And after that, black might think about launching an attack with the B3 are A3. Even in a very bad scenario, does King might think about coming to be six uneven? There is going to be much better than on Jade. Moroni 7 Digging is normally going to be fine. I'm like already has to be careful because here Blaine, like Rookie to be AID would actually lose a game straight away. Because here, what has this very strong idea of playing G5? Not given attack on H7 straight away. And after taking the bone. Here again, the main idea was not to give a check with the Queen, but to play the group to a jade like hazard data rook. And after that, white has a DAG made on age seven. They move kinda fade is a very good and bad deal move. And here were played very well. And continue with this idea of playing G5. Because here if white plays a move like Rob D2, D1, playing the blade G5. Here, black and dry them, move a3 and black is also trying to attack, planning to take a middle and a white plays a more misery, then Quincy three is very strong, planning to graduate. And y can dry the similar idea of escaping with a king. But he a black has many options. One of them is to simply pay them off G5, trying to stop this idea. And again, the king is going to be safe. They are only seven bad wise king on C1 is not that safe. Leg is going to double rooks. And also some dance like my when Viva check and captured these pollinator. So here black skin is going to be manageable, replaced and widescreen. That's why here, why it has to hurry and bleeding of D5 and after Daguerre and G5 and Dagan and revive what continued with Windows E5. Under here black played him a measure of weight six, and the position is actually still quite a complicated why it has opened some lines against the king, but the king is still going to be very well-placed. Tony seven, unblock managed to hold this position. Uneven, won the game afterwards. Another difference equation on which we can have, again work is to improve the king before launching an attack. Here in this position, what is just dominating? There's only one open file and it's controlled by white. White also has some pressure on this bond or load is being defended for the damning. But the main bone is that here black doesn't have any productive move. So y can take his diamond in order to improve the position. And with that in mind here, what bleeding move into F1? With this very nice idea of bringing the king to the queen side to be one, or do I do the king there is going to be even safer because it's going to be protected by its own business. And after that, why displaying the launch an attack against black scheme. So the game continued, can do a fade. H4, h5. What bade group one to do, allowing the King to come to be one. And after kindred G7 can do one, can radiate into the one leg is just waiting like radium of kindred seven. But black doesn't have many alternatives. For example, after rope to be AID, what can bake? When do we do? If blacks tries to open the file with the movie E5, then first of all, this point is going to be weakened. Why do I even take that bone? But what may simply continue what he's been after kinda C1. And if black, dx and dy for what can even deal with the Najd. And again, white has much more RBCs and black. Black also cannot bring the king to the coincide, for example, after kinda fade. Kinda C1 can do seven. Came to be one, The simply no way during the Qing to the coincide because what has pieces there? For example, after kinda the seven, we would just get a check made with these double-check. So in the game like chess waded with the kindred seven and after kinda C1, kinda G8, kinda be one kindred seven. When do we do? We're going to do with the idea of pushing the ponds, played F4 and D for opening lines against black skin and won the game afterwards. And another situation on which we can have a king work is to bring the king in order to attack the opponent species or even the opponents king. This position leg isn't exchanged down by black, has an extra bond. And this night on D5 is very strong. And here black found a very brilliant idea. And Brady move kinda DC's, first of all, the king is escaping some possible tags on G8, an age aid. But this is definitely not the only idea that black had in mind in this position. Like also plans to bring the king to a DAG. And after the king comes to default, the king might attack this policy 3, or may even come to ID3 and will help black screen and bishop to a DAG came on G1. So these may seem like a crazy idea and we definitely have to be careful when you go for these ideas because black skin might fall on the attack. But the main point is that the king is going on light squares and white doesn't have any good piece to control those squares. Y doesn't have a night or B shop or lights were visible to control the light squares. The position is too complicated, but wide misplayed. It will be the mobility of the C1. Unlike continue with this plan of bringing the king while you continue with the mook, wait, wait in here was not a very good strategy because black will just continue with this plan. And after image of the C8, just bring the king. After update. Windows E5, what is just dragging the queen? Bad luck capturing a and on. What tried to complicate the game with the more G4. Take energy for here with the king was possible. But after dignity for these Kino D3 here looks a bit shaky. But here, simply capture the bond with the bishop and we see how the skin is very safe there. So now black readopted his plan a little bit now, like is planning to take here or the plague window one. And just to illustrate how these ideas might go wrong here, taking the bottleneck for was actually very bad because you're white. We'll just give a check on H2 and then capture the wind. So we definitely need to be careful when we go for our kin walk. But after digging with the bishop, the game ended shortly after. Rope dxi for window A1. And in this position, wide resigned because there's no easy way to defend the bishop. After ROTC do we may simply play going to be one other Moser can win. Muddied is just very direct. We just dug the rook and the bishop, and there's no good way to defend the diabetes. So in the opening and in the middle game, moving making very often is rare, but these can be done whenever there's no other good way to escape an attack. So in this case, where do we need for defensive purposes? But we can also do it to bring the king to safety before lunch in a DAG or low, this normally happens when we have full control of the position so that we have enough time to do the king walk. And last, we can bring the king as an attacker, either to attack the opponent skiing or to attack other basis. But these can be a very risky idea. And we need to triple check that our king doesn't fall under attack. 18. When to Activate the King: Hi there. Nicking, as we know, is the most important piece. That's why it is very natural to protect it in order to avoid any attack or Jack made. And for that, we avoid exposing the king in the first move of the game, what we call the opening stage. I cannot think of any situation on which we are going to ring the king to an active square, even in middle game positions, it is normally grade financial true for the Qing. Although as we saw when we studied Kim walks, there might be some exceptional cases on which it is good drug Davidic king. On the other hand, whenever the king cannot be attacked easily, we actually want the opposite. We want to have an active king that can be ready to participate in the game. The game can attack the opponent. Species, may even collaborate to attack the opponent skiing and meiosis support any path spawn that we may have. So with that in mind, it is very natural to ask ourselves, when should we activate our king? Because when our king cannot be attacked, we want to have the more active king. And the answer to that question is not that symbol. The general answer, be that it's normally going to be in the ending stage of the game, but line between the middle game and the ending can sometimes be very blurry. So ultimately, it is going to be as intuition on which our king cannot be attacked easily. And these, as we'll see, we'll not necessarily depend on the firepower that our opponent will have. It will depend on the specific position. Now let's start with this position, which is pretty clear here. Why do played the very nice move F5, which is a temporary bond sacrifice because after taking upon what laid him of King to have for activating the game. And here black can deal with the mook 26, giving back the bond. In any case, these bond is going to be lost. For example, after kinda D6, we designate high-tech. And then we capture on a five. Or if lagged defense upon, we roped off seven. We can play room to G3 here as well. And then we'll be rubbed the G5 and we'll get no material back. So black dried. An interesting idea to activate his rope by playing them over 36. And after-dinner F5, we see how wide activated his king. I in this position, I think it's pretty clear that there's no easy way to attack digging. Like does anyone have a check? So here activating the king is pretty logical. And here white actually has an advantage, in this case, a decisive advantage. Because after row D6, which is blacks idea to play rhabditiform E6 and rhabditiform. Let's evaluate the position now. White has a much working, the gain is much more active. Bar black, on the other hand, has a more active rook. Some damps. The advantage of having a more active king is not as decisive as we saw in the illustrations on which we could attack the urban sketching. But here white has another very important advantage, which is this Pantone six, which is a backbone. So here why it has a much better position even how would you position not only because of the king, but also because of this Barney six. So black has a better rook. But this is not enough to compensate whites advantages. And the game ended actually quite shortly after kindred five. So we see that now the skin is going to support the bus one rupee for kinda D6 and white is losing upon. But after rhabdo E3, this point will not be able to be stopped. Actually black resigned. For example, if kinda fade, we can just play kinda D7 and bought the bond. Let's analyze these very interesting position. Here. White played the very strong move, kin to C4, activated in the game. So here black has a lot of material, a lot of firepower. Block has two rocks and the bishop are normally two rocks and image apart more than enough to give a check made. But in this particular position, it is good to activate the king because the king will come to be five and the king is going to be a nice squares. I'm like I cannot even give a jack wagon and B5. And this game is going to be ready to adapt this 10 MSIX. That's why in this case, activating the king was a great decision. Even know black has a lot of material. And white actually grabbed this opportunity because here, playing any other move, for example, the rocky31, just doing nothing here black and places for himself and stop wide from entering on the forum. And here black would be doing much better than in the game. And in the game After Kinsey for white also has control of these defiled. So wider also has been trapezius. In addition to having a Burkean. And after each of the seven group to D7, like played rock C6, C7. And after exchanging a pair of Brooks, why then play into B5 and white has multiple opposition. The king is active, ready to take this bone or to invade. If the row goes through B7 and white god. A much better position and won the game in just a few hours. Another misconception or general rule that is not very accurate is that when we have queens on the board which would inactivate, are again, in many cases, this is correct, but sometimes it might be a great idea to activate the king, for example, in this position. First of all, a wide has an extra bond. But would queens on the board. There might be some ideas for black to the rubber federal check, but here, white blade, the very nice move, kinda CD40. And the king is now ready to attack this bond. So an important idea is that after digging this point, we may even get a backbone on the HFile. Unblock doesn't have any immediate tax. That's why here black dry them off. Window B8. And white played a very practical move, queen to the three. And we can imagine the kingdom to age five. Unblock isn't going to have many jacks. They're like peak when the G8 given a check and after kindred five, quick draft seven, white took the bond. And here black is trying to get tags and annoy whites king. Here I could have dried kindred five, but why even blade assembler move kinda D7. Now blending to play Grindr D6. If black keeps on giving tags on a low white gave this bond. Now wide changes planned little bit first, gave a few checks with the queen after going to be five. And Quinta S5 are now brought the king not only to attack this bond, because as we'll see, the king is now also going to participate in the attack, like dried a given a few checks. But we see that white skin is getting active. Unblock is not getting a perpetual check. The game continued a few moves. When radiate, can do the seven. When F7, Quinn 37, queen takes. And after window, before kin to a seven. Here I played this very nice active more with the king, king to C6. And we see that lag doesn't have any checks. So this king is very safe there and also holding the queen to evacuate when the B7 is a big threat. And in this position like resign black curve tried to stop this tegmentum B7, but here white can simply play Windows E5. And after kinda V8. What can even take this one. But even simpler is just to play when do the aid. And after injury 7 Windows is seven fourths the exchange of queens and these postpone is going to promote. So whenever we can activating the king can be read by, we need to triple check. If our bond doesn't have any attacking chances are working and having a more active king is not always a decisive or a huge advantage, even if we have a similar bond structured our opponent and say material BARDA, more active king. Irobot may have other more active pieces to compensate a less active king. 19. Activity - Having a Better King: All right, So let's practice what we learned in this section. The main goal of this activity will be to improve our understanding of connectivity and safety. That's why I will ask you that when you evaluate these positions to mainly focus on the kings, it is okay if you evaluate specific moves, aligned. But first focus on the ideas that we learned in this section, the main goal of having a solid understanding is that you can evaluate a position quickly without having to analyze several moves. Sometimes you might not even have time to calculate many moves. That's why having a good understanding is really important. So in the first position, it is wide to play. So I would like to ask you, how would you continue here if you would exchange queens are not in the second position. It is wise to play, but less sunlight this position from a more general point of view, let me know if any side has an advantage. And for that, you should evaluate the potential to attack the king that each side has. In this position, it is right to play. And let me know how you would evaluate this position. And in this last position, it is also why to play. But again, I would like to analyze this position from a more general point of view. Let me know which side would you choose here? Would you rather play as wide or would you rather play as black? 20. Activity Solution: Great, So let's evaluate the positions. In the first game, white avoided the exchange of queens with the idea of attack by, in any case, let's take the position after exchanging queens, we see that black would just take, and black is already putting pressure on this bond. What has active roots, but the position is not clear at all to me. Whereas in the game, white avoid the exchange of wins while it has more than one way to avoid the exchange of wins. White lady move quinone form, which is very direct. And in fact here black already resigned probably a bit too quickly, but in any case, lacks precision, is surprisingly already desperate. Now remember this idea of having defenders and having a good constructor. Here. We don't see that because black has only one piece defending the king, and white has three pieces ready to attack the king. And also we'll take a look at Blackstone structure. These two bonds can be easily attacked. Now I can show you concrete lines, but with this general understanding, we can see that luck is in trouble. So for example, if black here takes on C2, then here white plays him of wind receives and gives a checkmate. And if luck please, D5, why it has many ways to win. One might be to Blake wind 25. To bring the G6, we see that the square is weakened. But even take an MD5 would also lead to a win attack. After taken and taken, what we'll start giving tags and deliver a Jack made. In any case, the main bone is that here are the tactical ideas work very easily for white, because white has a much better position. So whenever you have a great strategical landed, it is normally very natural to find practical ideas. And last, I want to mention one tactical idea in case that you analyze this model Is being the most appropriate. And this is a tactic which is called the deflection. So the idea is that we want to bring the rope to E8 in other, today the queen. So you have to take in the rook. We just rub their queen and whenever the advantage because we give a check. And if like doesn't exchange routes, for example, Blaine came to 87, then we can simply exchange wins. And then we would win material by negates the quantity 4 was also very strong. I'm like resigned in that position. In the second position, White has a much better position if we only analyze the kings, has a potential to attack the king much more easily. There's also these very weak square root of 25 that Kamioka abide by the night. But the main bone is that why they can open lines against black skin. White lady move G4 in the game. But before we check that, I want to analyze if black has any ideas too dark. And I don't see any easy way for black to attack. These bonds are very well placed. Their blood might dry ideas like being B5 that say for example, I play any random move like D3, then black might try playing B5, even sacrificing a bond, but round-robin lines against the king and hear what has more than one way to deal with this. But an easy way is to play them of C5 in order to give the position and closed on the coincide. And here I don't see any way for black protect the king. Whereas based on the pond structure on the king's side, what can pay the move G4. And we see that again, this bone acts as a hook. White can attack this bond are noble lines and after taking on a 5, y will open the file against the king. Unblock cannot avoid these easily because after playing a move F4, then white would Desdemona wintry for UNODC, these two pieces are dragging the king and there's no way for black to avoid that invasion. What might even try playing nitrified WFIRST in order to control the F7 square so that the king minor escape. But in any case, without going into a lot of variations, we see that white is the one attacking here and black doesn't have any counter play in the game. Black plate, window the aid trying to bring the queen to defend. But wide ended up doubling rooks on the GIF file and won the game quite easily. In this game. Why it has a better position? What has a more active king these night? Only four actually has more potential than this bishop. Lux rook is a bit more active than whites rook. So the position is not entirely clear, but there are some other details in a position like these bonds that can be attacked easily. And a low blog is a DAG in this one and F2, this point is very well defended. So wise position is better. What actually played ambitiously here, I'm Brady move kindred 5 in other drug, Davidic king. And after a breach five while played a very nice kinda F6. And we see that this King is coming to G7. An attack in like spawns. An important point here is that after root two or five. What actually has one move which is good, which is going to D7. So whenever we go for these invasions with the king, we need to remember to triple check that our king doesn't get checkmated by in any case in this position after kinda G7 like would already be in trouble because this point is being attacked in the game instead of root five black plate, which up to V7. But we've got this very similar position after kinda G7 and after E5 group to C6. We see how wide is already having an active rook this night is very well centralized while skiing is more active. So it has a better position and won the game. And the last position is really nice because it's a lot about understanding the position rather than looking at specific moves, which we'll do as well. And here the main point is that black is just defending. The only one that can try something here, as far as I can see is white. So why will sooner or later tried to play the movie h5, which is what we call upon break because we'll try to open lines against the king and luggage just waiting so wide it has a better position. Now it's a matter of how to progress. Now, playing them over age 50 and round-robin, the H file quickly might be a bit risky if we have the king NH2. With that in mind here, what dried move kinda D3. Trying to bring the king graph for amazing the king is going to be, well, they are, because there are no black pieces attacking or being able to attack the king there. And after that, white might be bird. The idea of H5. Just want to mention here that black has one idea to activate his visits, which is playing rubato eight and bring the rule 23 or 82. But this is just one piece, one active base. And even after doing that, the pressure in D6 will increase. So that would normally not be enough as a counter play for black, black pride to defend passively. But after visually create Kendra for to the seven h5, we see that white is a one. A DAG in arm, leg is already having problems. For example, here, digging on H5 wouldn't be good, or it has more than one way to win. Just wanted to mention this very nice Queen sacrifice to generate seven. And the point is that after robe takes 87, we get a checkmate on G8. And after again days, we get a Jack made with rotates 85. So that would be at tactical solution to that position. But even here, why can play room Daisy seven, exchange in the rocks and the queen. And after that take on F5 and wide is also having a much better position here. This is not as direct as in the other line, because while it has a more active king and also a bear upon structure because we see that law has these two double bonds on the 85. So while also be better here, although the other line was definitely more direct. And after 85, like played beach of 38 and we got some exchanges. And thereafter basically to lag is again just trying to hold the position. And after Beach up to age five, which uptakes queen takes, group takes, root, devs, group takes and Windex black candidate stained queens because this bond will fall afterwards. And after quinoa fade, E6, black resigned because white has the more active King, our backbone. And even the king on D5 is very active by in any case, the main idea of bringing the king 24 is thereafter exchange in all the species what will end up with a more active King than black? 21. Outro – Having a Better King: So we have greatly improved our strategic understanding and we now know the great importance of having a working. First of all, remember to evaluate King safety. You should mainly take into account the defendant pieces that you have and that they should our number, or at least be equal number of attack in business, that your opponent has. The bone structure around the king is also very important because having a weekend pawn structure gives easy targets to the attacker. We also learned that having a Burger King might be a long-term advantage, but sometimes may only be a temporary advantage. And in that case, if we want to exploit that advantage, we need to act quickly creating regular threats in order to convert that advantage either into a decisive attack or into another strategic advantage. We learn these more advanced idea that applies to opening or middle impositions that sometimes we can escape an attack with a king, but this is normally done whenever we don't have any other good options. Ordered movement, bringing the king to safety before launching an attack, or either bring the king as an attacker would several pieces on the board, although this is exceptional and risky, having the hurricane when we can attack, can easily be a decisive advantage. But even when we cannot detect the opponents King on our opponent cannot attack or a king. Having Deborah King in the form of a more active king can also be an important advantage because we can use a king to participate in the game, either to adapt pieces or to support the advance of passbands. So I'm waiting for you on the next section to be well-known in strategic ideas. 22. Intro – Material: Hi there. In this section we're gonna talk about material. We'll start by learning how to value chess pieces from a general point of view. But we also learn the most important factors that affect the real value of a base in any given position. Sometimes we may have different pieces than our opponent that combined have a similar value to the pieces that our opponent has. In this case, we have what we call a material imbalance, which is a very exciting topic that we'll study. So as your bag on the chessboard. 23. Standard Value of the Pieces: All right, So whenever we evaluate a position from the material point of view, we simply count the number of pieces that we have on each side and we check what kind of pieces we have it. We have the same kind of PDEs than our opponent. Then it's a matter of whether we have more or less species in order to see if we have ideal advantage or disadvantage, or if we have Egon non-dual. But when we have different kinds of pieces, for example, they have the same number of business, but we don't have the same disease. For example, we have a rock and Orban has a night. Then we need to estimate the value of HBase. And for that, it is useful, at least for a quick evaluation, to have standards for the value of the business. And while there is no universal rule about the value of the PCs, the most common way to value them is to give 1.4 upon and based on that value, the other business. And we normally give three points for night or a bishop. So an either a bishop would be worth three bonds. We give five points for the rook. Somewhere rock is normally worth about 50 points and nine points for the queen. Regarding the king, the king has infinite value because if we lose, our king would lose a game. But we can estimate the value of the king whenever it is used. An active BCE, as we saw in the previous section, the king can be used to adapt bonds to support boss bonds, or even to try to stop the opponents bonds. So here the king takes an active role and the value of the Qin here is estimated to be between a neither a bishop and a rock. So the rough estimation would be that the king is worth four points there. Strictly speaking, the gain has infinite value, but as an active piece, we can roughly estimated to be worth four points. This is not the only way to estimate the value of the p-series test to mention another one, former world champion rubber James Fisher. He estimated the value of the bishop as three spot 25 points. We still use 1.4 upon and three points for the night. So here we see that the bishop, according to Fischer, has a slight preference compared to the night. And this in fact, tells us a lot about the evolution of the game of chess. Because fisher himself proved in many of his games that are bishop cannot play in the night. But before him, it was more accepted than the night and ambitious, where fairly even in value, but after him and even nowadays, top players still tend to give a slight preference for the bishop, one convert to the night. We're also going to study these in this section. That be shoves can very often, I'll play nights, particularly when they combine. One, we have to be shops and our borane has a video by a night or two nights. Now the standard value of the pieces are useful to count material quickly. But in the end, the real value of each piece will depend on a specific position. Just to give a clear example of how the standard values don't work. Sometimes here, if we take a look at the material, White has a bishop and coupons, and black has a rock. Normally, this should be a material equality. But here even this bishop on B8 and disciplinary seven, they dominate the broken aid. So even that Beethoven pond, I will say that they are already better than this rock that cannot actually move. Since wide also has this bond on F2, if wide was replayed, while we'll just lay them over 4. And this bond would easily promote, for example, after kinda S5, What can simply take into E5. And blacks king cannot stop the promotion of the bond. So in this case, Bishop and coupons are much better than Iraq, although in some situations, I might definitely play a bishop and two bonds. So while having standard values is useful for a very quick evaluation and considering that we need to evaluate each specific position, it is important to have more criteria to evaluate the real value of obese. And that is what we're going to learn in the next video. 24. What Makes a Piece Stronger: Hey, again. So we now know that pieces have a nominal or a standard value, but we also know that the real strength of a piece is shown in every position. And a low many factors can affect the value of a piece on a given position. I'm going to tell you the most important things to take into account when evaluating the spring of obese. First and foremost, is going to be the activity that would tell us a lot about the BSW. And the activity is simply the number of squares controlled by the piece. Let's evaluate this position. And I want to focus on the bishop and the night. So nominally their value is very close. But if we take a look at the activity onRestart with the bishop, we see how the bishop is influencing the whole board. We might even count the number of squares controlled by the bishop, but this doesn't have to be that exact already. On our first side, we can see how the bishop is very active there. And these case is that the bishop has diagonals to control because we see that these diagonals are open. So we can see that the bishop is a very active base here, so it's a very strong piece. Now if we take a look at the night, we can see that the knight is only controlling Foursquare's. So this is not very active there. And first of all, nights on the edge of the board are normally not very well-placed, not very active, and they're even worse if you place them in a corner. So let's imagine that we place these night on a jade than the night were only control two squares, G6 and F7. So that night would normally not be very strong unless it's doing something very meaningful. Normally nights are better placed whenever we place them towards the center of the board, because in that case, Knight's cannot really control many squares there and can also access other areas of the board. More recently, nights are what we call short range pieces, whereas bishops, rooks, and the queen are long-range pieces. So they don't necessarily need to be close to the center to be active because they can control squares from a long distance. For example, this bishop only for, even if you place it on A8, for example, it will at least control all the squares, so it wouldn't necessarily be badly placed, whereas nights in the corner are normally not well-placed. So based on the activity of these two BCS, we can already say that wise bishop is clearly better than Blacks night, like has these past bone. We're going to talk about pons a lot later. But for now I can tell you that these porn can normally be stopped either by the bishop or the king. Income quickly. So all in all, white has a preferable position here. There's analyses position here wide played the more 1985, these 1907. And after 1985 is 90. We're going to raise, see, that is quite active. They're black exchange nights. And after taking with a queen, we see how the screen is more active than blacks queen. So black 2k. And after taking 95, Let's now evaluate disposition closely. We can already see that this bee job so far, each blog whites on ponds. And this is normally not good for bishops. And with that in mind, blackberry demoed before, which is an interesting try. And after white play, rock after C1. Like Brady more bishop to I6, which seems to activate this visual. If there was a B5, then this bishop would be really trapped and be bad. But here these bishops seems to be active. But here comes another important point to evaluate pieces, which is their ability to attack or defend, or their ability to do something meaningful. Because these visuals here is just controlling squares, but it's not a DAG in anything. And in fact, since white spawns are mainly on dark squares, is going to be very hard for the bishop to attack paths. So blacksmith shop on A6 is not very good. And this is a problem that bishops sometimes have, is that they control squares of one color and my place in our bonds on a different color, the bishop might have a hard time doing something useful. And in the Game Boy condition here with the move 1985. And as we spoke about, knights, knights, whenever they are centralized, they are very powerful. And here, wise night is just really dominating blacksmith shop so widespread. Here's mighty borrow than blacks Bishop, these night might come to C6 to attack this problem before, might even collaborate to attack back skiing. And what makes this really powerful is that it cannot be traded. So this is an R important point. Whenever we have an active piece that can attack or can defend, we also need to consider where this piece can be traded or not. So here, like doesn't have any night or any bishop to dry this night does why this night is very powerful. Now let's focus a little bit on the rocks in this position. Here we see that white has much more active Brooks. Brooks. They dominate ranks and files. That's why whenever we can place them on open files or semi-open files, they are normally very active and very well-placed there. And alone this case, these rocks can be challenged or at least black contrived. To trade these rooks, what can simply pray rocks, what is not forced to dry the rooks straight away. But even this position where I can simply trade routes and end up in this position on which we have, as we already discussed, a better minor obese. So this night is much better than this visual. And even in this particular position, we have them overnight. So C6, which is very strong because we adapt this one. And we also plan to play 1987, forking the king and the bishop does y here. We would even gay material. But even if we don't get material needs particular position while he's doing much better. That's why here in this position, while it has Deborah pieces, like didn't exchange rocks, dry them, move rookie to be aid. But again, we see how wide is dominating and wide won the game quite convincingly, Although it is great to use RBCs to attack, sometimes are defending piece can be very powerful. There's take a look at this position. We see how, what has the queen and the bishop on this diagonal planning to capture on H7. So black has two different here. One idea might be to play them on D6. We might be weekend in a little bit, the bond structure in front of thinking, although black has these bishop to control the week squares, these might be possible, but another idea is to defend the age seven square with the night. And one way to do that is a move night to F6, which means a night more active square. But since this is mainly having a defensive role, the snide can be attacked or gamete traded more easily than on F8. So here y can try some ideas sooner or later, like Bain measure to age four, or which of the five? In this case blood would only be forced to play G6 because the idea would be to dry the bishop for the night and then capture 87. That's why instead of moving to F6, moving to a fade here, we're actually make a lot of sense. So a load, this Ignite is quite passive because it's mainly defending age seven. It is playing against the queen and the bishop, which are mainly placed there to adult age seven. So this night on FAD is neutralizing to very strong pieces. That's why in this case, the night and FAD is a great pace. And additionally, if voiced stops attacking H7 these night might join the game pretty quickly. For example, in my country six, it will already be on a central file and white active there. So now that we know how to evaluate the strength of obese pretty quickly, Let's analyze another position here, this black to play. But I want to focus on the position from a more general point of view. Let's start with this one. This one is doing something very useful because it Fordham pressure on upon, whereas blacksmith shop on B7, we can receive that he's not very active. It's blocked. Some 0.5. It would take a look at white stroke on C1. This rook is occupying an open file, so it's pretty well-placed. Their black so far cannot easily trade rooks group to C7 is not possible here, black stroke on F7 is just defendant, so is fairly passive white screen on the tool and black screen on the aid. Without counting all the number of squares control. We can say that none of them is neither very active nor very passive. These night on these four is actually very powerful. It's poor impression of five buddies already controlling many squares. Remember the nights, whenever they are close to the center, they are normally very powerful. These 90, 96 is actually not very well. Place is on the edge of the board. So here black my dry, bring in the night back to the game, for example, nitrogen for a night to F6. And last these visual image for, although it might seem active, is not doing a lot. And in the game actually, what brought the bishop DDR3 to control the square? Light-speed jump on D7 is actually probably the only good piece that black has in this position. So remember that we need to evaluate whether a piece can be traded or not on the slide, although it's very powerful needs bishop has the power to capture the night, although it wouldn't be very strong in this position because it would weaken nicking. Blackboard have less species defending the king in this case, but the bishop has quite a lot of pressure on this diagonal. So like switcher Monday 7 is the only good piece that like has. So mainly based on the activity and the ability to attack that each piece has, we cannot really say that most of whitespaces are much stronger than most of black species. And in fact, here, although we have equal material, both kings are fairly safe. Here white has an overwhelming advantage just based on having much more RBCs are not surprisingly wide won this game in just a few moves, the game continues to be shipped to C8, which up to D3, nitrogen for light to be five la, continue with group to a fade. Taken on B5 for me. Very good because what we'll just take this bishop and tried to adapt black skin and improved to a fade, right? Can simply trade routes. And then this bond will be hanging. Otherwise still has the better business. And after group to a fade. Night to quint 36, we see how powerful this 90s. But here y is simply converted his advantage and play reuptake, reuptake C8, which objective 5, white is when material. So in addition to dig, drag down the standard value of obese the keys to evaluate if a PC strong or not are the activity. If these bees can do something useful like attacking the opponent species or defendant in order to neutralize our RBCs. And whenever we have a strong piece, we need to evaluate if the strength of this piece is temporary or permanent. So we need to consider if our opponent can force the exchange of that piece. 25. Piece Value Through the Stages of the Game: Hey there. Another thing that might influence the strength of obese is the stage on the game on which we are. That is whether we are on the opening stage, the middle game stage, or the ending. And a low evaluation, obese based only on the stage of the game is not correct in the same way as evaluating a piece only based on its standard value. Here we'll study how each stage of the game affects obese, but run the standard. We're going to mainly focus on what we learned in a previous video, which is that obese is affected by its activity, its ability to attack or defend, and whether that peace can be exchanged or adapt. So let's start with the night. Nights. Have this ability of jumping over bonds. That's why a knight can get active pretty greatly. For example, here after the move night to have three Ds night is getting closer to a center and he's already controlling some central squares. So knights are vulnerable pretty quickly in the opening. But as we'll see, as we get closer to the ending stage of the game, nights tend to lose value, which apps can also get active pretty easily in the starting position, bishops are blocked by its own bonds, but they can develop pretty quickly. For example, after playing a movie for unless say that blackface anymore like E5, then we can activate division pretty easily. Let's say after the mortgage of 24, we get an active bishop. So our bishops, or night or minor pieces, they are already useful from the very beginning. Now let's imagine that I want to develop a queen quickly to make it active, let's say brain and the moving window of three, then black can attack these Quinn breathe easily, for example, after the move 1986, and it will play now they move like nitrate S3. Then 1984 would already attacked the queen. Here we are certainly spawn. That's why the queen is not a piece that can get active easily in the opening given its high value. So if we valued the queen at nine points, we could argue that the queen is slightly worse than that in the opening, but will gain value as the game progresses and will be particularly strong In the middle game. Because as we saw in the previous section, the queen can attack the king and be very powerful if it can be adapt in return. Using the same principle, iraq, which is normally more powerful than a minor piece, cannot develop easily in the opening that imagine that we want to develop this rook, which is pretty inactive there. By playing the mortgage for them like here, can prevent that easily by playing them off D6 or D5. And here the mook 383 would not be good because languages captured the rock. So rooks, they also tend to gain value as we get out of the opening. And they are particularly strong in endings when we have fewer pieces and they have more open files to get active. Now speaking about bonds, we're going to tell them more closely when we study constructors. But for now I can tell you that in the opening stage, the central bonds, which are they END bonds, are normally slightly more powerful than the other ponds because they can help develop pieces more easily. For example, after the movie, before we can develop a bishop. And we also control an important central square. If we still use this principle of activity, we see that the a and H bonds, they only control one square, whereas other ponds control two squares. With that in mind, the a and H bonds are normally the weaker bonds in the opening regarding the middle game, as we'll see when we study upon structures, we see that the value of the pons is also affected by the ability to attack them. So bonds are less mobile. That's why they can be attacked more easily than other business. So their value doesn't only depend on their activity, but it also depends on how easily they can be adapt. Now I want to go back to this position that we analyzed where we discuss that here, a bishop is more powerful and night, normally, when we get closer to an ending, which is what we have in front, we have less PCs, less bonds, we get more open lines. That's why bishops and robes, they get much stronger and bonds. If they get closer to the promotion square, they become even much stronger. That's why in this position, like spawn on C5 is very strong because it's blind to promote. Although in this position where it has the king and the bishop that are ready to stop this bone. But the bottom line is that bonds, they tend to get value as we get closer to the ending. For example, when I have three bonds or even two ponds, that can easily play a minor piece. Whereas in the opening, a minor piece is very often more powerful than three bonds for the simple reason that micro pieces can get active in the opening very quickly. And if we analyze some of the moves played in this game, what they remove age four. And the game night for kindred to 95. Kindred three, going F6, kinda afford their F7. T3, like radium or G5. And after H5 and H6 here, white god, past age bond, which is currently being stopped by the neither H6. But as I said previously, nights tend to lose value as we get closer to the ending. And one of the reasons is that sometimes they are not good at stopping the Upon response. In this position while still has a better position here, and even won the game. But here why it only has one bus barn. Police imagine that. What gets another bond? And we remove these Pantone seven. We'll remove this point and you do. Here, we will get to pass bonds are inside. So why it has the age and a pass bonds. And black has the D5 and C5 bonds. And first of all, remember that I spoke that the a and H bonds are normally not very strong in the urban, but here in the ending are actually quite powerful because they are far away from each other. That's why becomes harder for blood to stop them. So additionally, if we dig into account the activity of the bishop, which as we'll discuss it more active. This bishop can easily stop ponds on the king side and the coincide. So black spots are not that powerful, whereas the night is really bad as stopping two bonds on different sides of the board. That's why in this case, this position would be easily win for white after more a form. Because we see that these two bonds are very hard to control. So keep in mind that the value of the business may also be affected by the stage of the game on which we are. Bonds tend to gain value. As we get closer to the ending. Knights can easily get active in the opening, but they tend to decrease value as the game progresses. Bishops can be activated easily in the opening and keep their value throughout the game. And Queensland rooks are hard to activating the opening and dental gain value as the game progresses. 26. Material Imbalances: Hello again. We're now going to focus on these two agents on would you have different pieces than our opponent? But if you use the standard value of the pieces, we are materially inequal terms, and this is what we call a material imbalance. And in fact, we have already seen the most common material imbalance, which is to have a bishop for a night or a night for a bishop. Similarly, we might have to be shoppers against a night animation or against tonight's, which is something that we'll study in the next video. The material imbalance of having a bishop against tonight is a VNet we studied in a few situations, and as we discussed in some cases, the bishop maya Blender night, another case is denied, ablate the bishop. So now I would like to focus on other material imbalances that might occur in your games and just engage. Let me clarify that we'll focus on situations on which you have nominally a material equality. We're going to focus on situations on which one side has a material bandage. Later on when we study strategic sacrifices, another common imbalances to have a minor piece plus two bonds against a rock. That minor base might be an either a beach off. So nominally a night class two bonds equal error. And to evaluate such positions and all the other material imbalances or we'll have, we'll use everything that we've learned so far to try to figure out which side has an advantage. Now let me clarify that there's no absolute rule about these material imbalances. So we're going to focus on different positions to try to understand them. In this first position here, like has a night and two bonds against rook. And in this case, I would prefer black chances. And the main point that I see here is that white doesn't have any attractive plan or low, this rook on B1 is putting brakes on this bone. Black is actually trying to push these bonds sooner or later. So black has this idea to create a bus barn. These Rouhani three, it doesn't look very well days there doesn't look very active. And if I analyze light's position, this big job is not very active, but also this visual is just targeting upon that is very well-defended. Here I've lived, played a very strong move night to S3 with the idea to bring the night club or a square. Remember that night on the edge of the board are not very well-placed. And after antagonists rook route to a one makes sense to combine open file, but after night to be five, like it's a DAG and upon on D4. And the only good way to defend it is to play them more room to the 1 are now black. Activated the ROCC himself. What blade him of H5. And after D5 kindred, you do root 22. We can already see how lag is the one trying to progress and white is just hold. And so this is normally very useful in addition to evaluate in the activity, try to see if you have any productive plan, if you can attack something. And this is where black is doing here. Lag is now pouring brush on this pattern. If it is point falls, then like we'll have very strong bonds. What resigned very shortly. The point is that what doesn't have any good way to defend the bonds. For example, Luke, do E2 wouldn't work after 1983. We have this night fork and avoid tries to define everything would look to the tool. Again, we see that white is just the funding so black can find our way to improve his physician. Even b3 is a very strong move here because this bond cannot be taken, because library just take the rook. So blacker already has, I wouldn't position. So in this case the minor piece into ponds are better than the rook. But again, this will depend on the position. But here we see that white strokes are very passive. And other imbalance that we might have is to have two minor pieces against a Rogan upon. So normally that should be an equality, but this hugely depends on the position. And if you remember in the open, in minor pieces normally are quite strong. That's why, unless the side given the minor pieces has something very concrete, it is not a very good idea to go for that trait in the opening, but later in the game are broken a bond My definitely apply to minor bases. So here in this position that was reached in several games while chondroblast remove nitrogen five, our DAG in the bone and F7 Here rock to a fade defense upon. And here sooner or later black will try to push back the night. So why am I even retreat the night straight away? But we can already see how the night and Meetup are quite active, particularly the speech up on B3, which is boring brush on this diagonal. So taken on of seven here would nominally be unequal trade. But we see that we are exchanging two minor pieces for a very passive role gonna fade. So that wouldn't make a lot of sense. So you have to take in an F7 and Dagan or F7 here, blacker already has a much better position because we see how black has a lot of pieces developed, whereas wide has all of the business on the first rung. So black is already having an advantage and disposition. Another imbalance is to have three bonds for a minute apiece. And these, as we discussed in a previous video, hugely depends on the stage of the game. In the opening, minor pieces, they develop quickly, so they are normally better than three bonds. But in the ending, it is normally quite the opposite because the bonds can promote. For example, in this position, we really see that white also has a very active king. So why did the one pacinian disposition wider helping them move F5? And we see that black is just trying to stop the pons. And after the move kinda D7, kinda G6 be Chapter 3. Here. Why played a very practical move, D5, again, bush the bonds. And if luck. The bond as it had been in the game. Then after King takes H5, even if white loses all of the bonds, than this position is going to be a draw because misha banking alone on Jack made. So we're going to raise in this position how the three bonds are stronger than the bishop. And in fact, black wasn't able to stop the bonds, so wide won the game. There are several emergencies involving a queen, and one of them is having a queen and upon against rooks, which is the case that we have in this position, are normally the two rooks can outlay the queen and the bond. And the main point is that like has two bases when I dug in, in this case, and black only one BCE, which is a queen. Here, black has a clear plan, which is to attack the bonds, whereas white has a hard time finding something to do here. First of all, lacks king is very safe if they King was exposed, this iteration could be completely different. The side having the queen may even have an advantage. And the other idea for wide maybe to push the bond in this position. But whenever the advances, like we'll have two rooks, blood cannot take this bond straight away because what would just take the rook? But in their game like maneuvered a little bit, first play the movie. Rocky dissociate, anaphoric window D7, Roxy do the aid. Here. We could have dried holding the position where the MOOC going to be 5, trying to defend the pons. But again, in a prodigal game, this is really hard for y to play. But in the game white lady move window C7 and after Route 35, lag is already gaining material and having a better position. In the game. White dried a five, but like just took the Barney 5 first. And then with these two rooks, light will have to be a bit careful, but live we'll be able to stop this bond. Have a material bandage and then like kind of obese and attacking the Salah bond. So this is already, I went in position for black and other industry imbalance is to have a queen playing against a rock and a minor piece. And upon, which is the case that we have here, here what has Iraq and night and upon against the Quinn and this was eagles are actually quite complicated. It is very hard to make rules about these positions. So let's analyze one example on which we can have that here, these blood to play black screen is just extremely active as we can see, um, like an easily check wise king. So this is quite important when the queen can move easily around the chessboard. Normally, this is red for the queen. White snide is not doing a lot. There is on the edge of the board. The rug and a four is also not very active. Mainly defending disadvantage for black skin is very safe. That's quite important, even a bit more active than whites king. The main blend here would be to push the past bonds. So black has a backbone on the file, and white has to pass bonds. And in the game, black played a form I'm like is already having a much better position. We can see that this point is going to be quite fast. And white is having problems pushing the bonds. First of all, before is not possible because life would simply capture the bone. And C3, C4 is also not possible because this point is pinned. So here we can see our position on which the queen is clearly outlaid, the rock masterpiece and upon in the game while you continue with the group to the fore. Like pay them off kinda F5, we see like skiing, get inactive. Given an idea to give a check on E7 attacking the king and the bond. So black is just having a much better position here and won the game. Another imbalance that might not occur very often is to have three minor pieces against a queen. So here, what has three units, three bases plane against one piece. So in the long-term, normally the three BCS will outlay the Quinn. For example, whenever the three business or DAG one quinolone is not going to be enough to defend. So similarly, here, the side having the queen has to play very actively. For example, nice position. Why displaying the blade them or be shoved Z5 attacking Iraq. So if black just plays him of Windows seven, Black place slowly, then why can just play them overnight to a four? And then I will come to D5. We see how wide is having jazz very active basis are normally three pieces. Are Borodin the queen, unless the side having the queen has very concrete threads here in this position, like blade very well. Why still has probably a better position, but black plate very actively library. They move quandary for which defense is born that was being attacked by the bishop. And he's also putting pressure on these pollinator. So here, why doesn't have any convincing way to defend that bond? The Queen Maya also invade here on C2. That's why here white gave up on after the move night before. And after Queen takes C6. And the position here is just very complicated, even if black has a queen and upon, against three minor pieces. So as you can see, we can have many different material imbalances and similar to other positions that we evaluated, standard values alone are not going to work here to correctly evaluate a position. So here we also need to focus on the factors that we learned to evaluate a position, particularly which side has the more active disease and which side has a clear plan to make progress or to attack. 27. Bishop Pair: Hey, again, we have already analyzed these very common imbalance on which we have a night playing against a bishop and reasonable decision on which a bishop dominated the night. And another position, which is the 100 front on which dominates a bishop. And the main problem that the mission has is that the bishop only controls squares of one color. So just to remind you, these materials in black here even managed to pay them more before. So now these visual piece, at least active power, on the other hand, this bishop only controls light squares and what has most of the bonds on the R-squares. That's why these bishop doesn't have any bright future. Whereas nights here we have this very strong 90, 95, which additionally cannot be traded. In this case, the night controls light squares, but if the knight moves to a light squared, then it will control Doris Krause. So the knight can switch from one squadron other uncontrol squares of both colors. So this is a disadvantage that the bishop has. Thus why whenever we have to be jobs, what we call the visual pair, bishops complement each other really well. And whenever we have to be shops that are active against a measurable a night or two nights, they can be particularly strong. Let's analyze a few positions to illustrate this idea. Here. In this position, it is y stern wide can take this night only seven. But on the other hand, like we just kept her on B5. And here we have a bishop again, cyanide. These bishop is not a week, but this nightmare. So try to come to the form, is going to be centralized. Might even put some pressure on F3. So this position is not that clear. So in the game, white decided to keep the Doobie jobs by playing them obese of 37. And we can already see, first of all, the distributions are quite active. And secondly, that night here are lacking. What squares? These nylon is seven. If it has removed, it only has one square going logistics, which is what happened in the game. So in his case denied cannot come to C6 and then D4. And then I don't, G6 doesn't have any future. We see that it's being controlled by this bond. So we can already see how, why does having an advantage, why continue with the more mesh of 36 attacking the other night and putting pressure on E5. And after night 36. Again, why it doesn't want to exchange a mutual Fahrenheit pad to keep distributions and the game Gandhian your bishop to be aid. And we can already see how wide is the one at takin having the more active pieces. And it is already becoming hard for black defend. Blood played some creative movies, but still was not able to hold a game. First play them over 95. A DAG in the bishop. After a bishop to a3, a5, the pond was being adapt and after Beach up to a seven, it is already difficult to defend this bond. The night cannot come to the seven because the bishop is controlling the square. And after night wave for B3 attack in the night 1985. Before, like Google before white dog and before and after night to A6, B5, the C7. So black is really trying hard to adapt white spawn. But after the mortgage of the D7, why defended this bond? And now this point is going to fall. The game continued to kinda fade. An afterimage of the B6 white one upon and is still having a large advantage since white is having the more active basis. Now Bishops, since they can be very active, they can control the board. They are also great attack in business in this position here, black has a bishop pair and white has a measurable night. And after the visual B7 with your distributions are looking at white skin and here in this position where it should have dried something like 1935, trying to neutralize these visual This night on the five looks very attractive. Bad, black my think sooner or later to kick it away with them with C6. For example, blame the more bishop to C5 and C6. And even avoid starts having serious threats, which is not the case here. Black might even consider taking 95. So these night is symbolized bad. It is not that stable there. And I will say that it is not stronger than this video because this bishop has the power to trade the night whenever the bigger ones. So remember that a piece is drawn not only when it's active, Marisol, when it cannot be traded or adapt. So in this position, I would still probably prefer black, but this was much better than what was played in the game. In the game instead of 1935, white lady move Luke do E2 and black played a very strong Bishop, takes H2. So here we'll see the power of two bishops or Duggan like payday move, measure uptakes H2 and after taking or H2, otherwise, black wins upon for nothing window edge for kinda D1. And here black gave another bishop to Gandhi do also planning to give a Jack made. And after Kindig, When did you for kindred do Route 35? Luggage task planning to give attack made, and the only way to avoid that is to lay them off. Good to D5, just given the Queen. But lag is already having vantage after taking on the file. So black won the game pretty quickly. And last but not least, to be shrubs, they are not necessarily stronger than impeachable night or two nights. So do not exchange pieces automatically to get the visual pair. Here is a great example of how tonight's can even be stronger than to be Jobs. First of all, the Tonight's are centralized and they're stable. They're blacksmith shop on a fade is actually quite passive and just sit in, they are defending his body six. So here we see how the center is pretty blogged are normally when we have a position on which the center is blocked, the bishops might not get active easily. Blacksmiths or 15 is a bit stronger than the metabolic fate, but white has a safe king. So here, wise position is bad. And so the Tonight's are clearly our plane. The two bishops in the game wide continue with the movement of the S4. Other moves were possible, rope to E3 for example. And the main bodies that if lag ever takes on a four, then white can simply take on a four. And then we get these position on which we have a dominant night on D5, which cannot be challenged. And black has these very passive bishop on a fade. So here, white has a clear strategic advantage. And in the game, like didn't take only 40. Lag is a very strong pair of who knows a lot about strategy. Law can deal with the window edge five, but actually, it is hard for black to find a plan here because black species are not very good. And white is just slowly increasing the pressure on the six. So it has a clear advantage year and won the game shortly afterwards. So keep in mind this idea of using the bishop bear against an either measure or tonight. This is a very common material imbalance, but don't make it an absolute rule that Doobie jobs are better. 28. Activity - Material: We're now going to practice what we learned in this section. And for that, we're going to analyze a few positions on which both sides have roughly equal antiviral. And I'm going to ask you in this activity to mainly focus on the general evaluation of the position, trying to evaluate who has the better bases on. Remember that as we learned, we need to evaluate who has more active disease, who has pieces that are useful, that is, pieces that can attack or can be found if needed. And if those would be seas can be traded or not. Let's start with this first position. It is what to play. But in any case, I don't want you to focus on very specific moves, but again, on the general evaluation of the position. Here, let me know how you would evaluate disposition. In the second position. It is also white to play and you should evaluate if any side has an advantage. In the next game. It is why do play? We have an ending with minor pieces. So while it has a night and black has a bishop, and let me know who has the better minor piece in this position. Here, in this position like has two rooks. White has a queen and upon for that. So nominally we have the same material. Bad black has an advantage in this position, or at least a preferable position. So try to find out why lag has a preferable position here. And in the last game, we have a very unusual in balance. What has two extra bonds under queen for a rook, a bishop, and a night. So normally that would be roughly equal. So here we're like glass q, how you would evaluate this position if you think that this position is equal, or if you would prefer to play as black or as white. 29. Activity Solution: Great. Let's start with the first position. In the first position, what has been trapezius, as we'll see, first of all, these Bishop on a three is really powerful. It's putting pressure on B7. I'm black screen actually is passive. They are defending, whereas blacks, which are one of seven, is kind of hidden against a wall because the sponsor very well-defended. Blacks major 14 is fairly active, may sometimes come to agencies, and a low D6 is defended. Black cannot play a movie like C6 because this would weaken this bond. So I would say that this visual on a four is fairly active. Likes Me. Job on G7 is not bad, is very active. But on the other hand, it doesn't have any clear targets because white moved the business away from this diagonal. All in all, white has better be shops. Widespread jobs are boring pressure on the queen side. Whereas the blacksmith shops or not, this rule gonna fade is fairly passive, but mighty get active reason why it's broken. The one is known as semi-urban file, so it's well-placed there. And the roof on C1, although it might look a bit passive, it is ready to get active after the movie C5. So here why it has the idea of Oberyn lines on the coincide because y has pieces are tagging bonds on the coincide. So the MVC five sooner or later might be an interesting idea. The Rogan is seven is broadly blacks most active base is putting pressure on these Pantone do. But on the other hand, this point is very well defended by the bishop and the when. These advantages might look shiny. But here we have two formal Japanese plane. And in fact, in this position, White has a serious advantage because while it has where a business and white also has a clear idea, opening the position sooner or later. Whereas blacks plan is difficult to find. Plaque my driving the ROCC to eat. But this one is very well defended. So white has a much better position in the game, will continue with the move wind wave 5, increasing the pressure on the coincide bonds. And shortly afterwards play them off C5 and got away in Atlanta very quickly. The second position might be deceiving at first sight because black has a very good-looking night on C3, which is actually even a DAG and upon. But after why defended that bond, first of all, white has the visual pair here. The position is quite open, so these two bishops can get active very quickly. And remember that this night, although it is a strong night, while can exchange it evening. Why do we normally not do that very quickly? Because white probably wants to give the two Bishop advantage unless it can convert that advantage into something more concrete. So the Doobie shops here outlay Nabisco been denied. So white has a much better position here. And again, we have two very strong players, and white managed to convert the advantage here. The game continued night or D5. And after bishop tells you for being in the night, came to five. Here, white gave the visual pair by digging and D5. But after digging on the five, white converted his advantage after the move tool. And now this point is going to fall. And then white is going to get a very strong passed pawn on the A5 into game-like, tried to defend this position, but wide one. Anyways. The next position is a very clear example of having a bear a minor piece like speech. Abby's really, really bad. Even if it got to a more active square, let's say d3, it really doesn't have any future because all a black spawns our least squares. An olive white bonds are on dark squares. So black cannot attack any of white bonds. Whereas white can maneuver with denied and dug pretty much any bond. First of all, the night is already putting pressure on D6, but the night may even come to D5 and put pressure on E6. So this is a position that is really pure suffering for the site blame when the bishop, additionally here, what has the hurricane? So this is another advantage. So why do we want this game very convincingly. I'm like doesn't even have any contemplate with the king because the king cannot come to the kings had to adapt response because F6 is controlled. That's why this position is just absolute domination for white in the game wide Desdemona into before activating the king and won the game. In this position, we have a material imbalance involving a queen. And here, blacks rooks are very well-coordinated. And additionally wide, it doesn't have anything concrete here, doesn't have any attack on black skin, doesn't have any strong postpone. Because after the move, root Dre five, like simply double-click on the file and ended up capturing this bond. So in the end, now is going to be a position on which we have three bonds on the king's side, on each side, after Black captures the bone. And the supposition on which black can play forever. Just trying to capture any avoid spawns. And we see one of the main problems of having a queen against two pieces. Black has to be this drought dark, and white only has one piece. So these data position on which while it has trained to hold the game and black is just trying to make progress in the game. Actually, black managed to win the game. And in the last game we have these very weird imbalance. And again, like has a raga Bishop cyanide to attack, and wine mainly has a queen. It's important to note in this specific position that white extra bonds are on C2 and F2. They are not pass bonds. They are not very strong bonds in these particular position. So in this position, I would prefer to play as black. And in the game that I played, night to D5 and after Queen do the two, night to F6. First of all, why doesn't have anything against black skin? Lag is putting pressure on Jiddu. White bade him over three. I'm black spaces are all defendant each other. Which is something very important when you play against upwind because I queen is very good at tagging pieces that are loose, that are undefended. But here, all black pieces are defending each other. That's why, again, why doesn't have any clear plan to make progress. Whereas black sooner or later will try to attack either white skiing with the rock beach overnight, or even bonds. And whenever, like attacks upon like we'll have three Baeza dug in. And why do we only have one VC funding? Thus y here, y, it has a preferable position. Now in that, in the game white rat to play actively pushing the bonds. But these even exposed nicking like God available season and won the game. 30. Outro – Material: Great. So you have upgraded your strategic understanding. One we started with the course. I told you that to evaluate a position strategically, you need to take into account who has a Burger King, the material balance, and who has a better bond structure. Now we analyze these more deeply and we know that having the same material does not necessarily mean equality. Because even though we might have the same business than our opponent, we may have much where a business than our bond, even though it might be useful to know how much RBCs worth. My general point of view that valuation is not enough to know the real value of obese. We now know how to very quickly assess their value, mainly by looking at how active the BCS, whether the species is doing something useful and whether that piece, if it's wrong, can be drained or not. These criteria that we learned to evaluate the real value of a piece also helped us understand how business might generally change the value throughout the stages of the game. We now also know that when we have different business than our opponent and those species adapt to a similar value, we get what we call a material imbalance. And these positions are very region possibilities. There are very interesting to play. And here also by using what we learned to evaluate the real value of obese, we can know what the one side has an advantage or whether their position is even. And last, we analyzed more closely, are very common in balance, which is having a bishop against a night or to be shops against Abidjan a night or two nights, which is what we call having the bishop bear. And although having the bishop pair doesn't necessarily give an advantage, it is a very common way to drive to a play or abandoned. So I'm waiting for you on the next section to keep on learning new ideas. 31. Intro – Pawn Structure: Welcome again. In this section we're going to talk about bonds. Bonds, even though they are the weakest species, they are extremely important. And again, ponds have less mobility, so it is easier to attack them than other basis. That's why the most common way to get a material advantage is by attacking and when bonds. But bonds also dictate what goes on in the game. For example, if our ponds cannot control a square, that might be a very stable and weight square for our part and species. So pawns influence the activity and placement of other bases. When analyzing the most common types of bonds and the strengths and weaknesses. So cartilages mode to get started. 32. Isolated Pawns: Hi there. We're now going to analyze isolated bonds. Isolated bones are simply ponds that don't have friendly bonds to defend them. In this position, we can see that these pollinate two cannot be defended by the bonds because there's no ponds on the B file, no white ponds on the file. And similarly, the opponent C4 is isolated because there is no ponds, neither on the defile nor on the file. Blood doesn't have any isolated bone. Because all are black swans can be potentially defended by another black pawn. For example, this 0.7 is not defended by the bone, but after a move like a five dB bond would defend the apron. So blood doesn't have any isolated bonds. And having isolated bonds is very often a weakness. These coordinate 2 doesn't look very weak so far because I don't see an easy way for black to a Daggett. But the potency for is already being attacked by the rook and white through consi, one is just defending this bond. And this is the main problem when having an isolate. The point is that we need to use pieces that are not ponds to defend the bonds are normally you want to use a rook for submarine better, for example, to attack the king or other ponds rather than to defend a bond. And a common strategy when playing against an isolated bond is to trade pieces in order to reach a position on which the open-end just have a few pieces, a few passive pieces defending the isolated bond. Let's imagine that we have this position and lag manages to change more, throw the pieces ending up with a rock on each side, we would get a position similar to what we have in front. And here we can already see that lacks rupees burden wise rook. So black is already having a clear advantage in this position. Leg is simply attacking and wide is just defending, having a passive rook on C1. And with that idea in mind here, Blackberry them. Obituary S5. First of all, Plants to exchange the bishop only seven for a bishop, only for the bishop. And y4 was fairly active. So this is normally a good trade for black. And secondly, here we see another problem of having an isolated upon that the square in front of the isolate bone, in his case, E5, is a weak square because it cannot be controlled by an EPA because you're white, doesn't have neither a nor B bone. And the squares, if they are advanced, in this case we have the fifth rank or if it was even farther on newborns territory are great to use for our business because we have control over them. And this is what you call outposts. And these outputs are normally great for night. So one idea might be after exchanging mashups to bring the night to C5 instead of Egypt Z5 black could have tried 1987 bringing the night to these outpost. But in this case, white can even give the bishop for the night. And you also see that this visual metaphor is fairly active. That's why it makes a lot of sense to try to exchange it first. Let me also mention another move in case you thought about it is to build a more visual tracery, which seems very aggressive because we attack the broken C1. But here, after the move rope to C2. Although we could argue that A3 is a weak square, the bishop 23, not doing anything there. So we can see that C5 is a much better square for black spaces. So it is very instructive the way that black paid because first of all, it occupied, I will square, but also lag is planning to exchange pieces, which is normally a good strategy when playing against an isolated bond. And here widely traded. And after about 85 when DRE for defense upon. But black simply increases the pressure after Quinto C7. And here White played actively after the move E5, but after nitrogen seven, we are ready attacking these Barney five and this policy for what baby, move F4. But after B5, what is already in trouble because there's a pin on this bond so wide cannot take, because we would simply take on C1. But after Windows E3, like to conceive for, unblock is already having a much better position, having an extra bone on Nebula basis. While an isolated bone is very often a weakness, sometimes it can be very useful. In this position, we see that white has an isolated bone and the four are low. White cannot play D5 easily. To get rid of that bond, remember that we need to evaluate if we have better business and our opponent. And here we can see that white has actually very good business. This bishop is looking at E6, also this queen, these night is very strong. So wide my sooner lady plan to attack black skin. Black has some very inactive business like the rule can aid and the rook on a fade. The isolated porn is a central bond, so it controls very important squares like C5 and 25. It is also supporting the night 15. So this bone, as we can see, is very useful. And here we have a lot of pieces. So if black manages to exchange many pieces, black might try to attack the isolated Barney for easily, but in this case, the potently for is actually very well defended. And I don't see an easy way for black to attack it with that in mind here Blackberry, they move Bishop 25. So here again, black is trying to use these outpost on the five, which is normally a great Square for black species. But after white dog on D5 and black burgundy five, black pays these 95, which is again a great outpost for a night. But why continue playing actively, which is normally the way that you should pay when you have an isolated bone and pay them move F4. And we can now see how, what is deaf blind to activate the rock on F1, which was the worst piece, that white hat. So now why does bind to play them all U5, putting pressure on E6 and opening the file for the rook. So here whites isolated bone is compensated by his activity. And in fact here white has a better position thanks to having my interactive pieces. So isolated bonds are bonds that cannot be defended by other friendly bonds. One plane against them. You can either attack them or use the square in front of them as an outpost for your PCs. And isolate the bonds are very often, but not always a weakness because they can sometimes help your PCs become more active. 33. Backward Pawns: Hi there. In this video we're going to talk about backward bonds. A backward bone is a bone that is not defended by another bone and that cannot advance without being captured. So it is basically an undefended born without mobility and normally wonder business to have mobility in order to become active. That's why bagger bonds are normally a weakness. So let's analyze a few positions in order to study them. In this first position, we can already see the spawn on C6, which is not defended by another bone, which also cannot advance easily because here, after the mole c5, y can take either with upon or with the rook. So why it has to business covering that square? So here we get a very similar situation that we had with isolated bonds, that the spring force of bond is a weakness for black. So here C5 is awakeness, or we also call this a whole. So that's why here, wide consumer later try to place a piece there because black has no control with a B or a DePaul. Additionally, we see how this point on D4 is basically controlling two bonds, the bond on the five and opponents C6. So while it has one bond to control these coupons, and in this position like has another backward bond, the bond and F6, at least for the time being, cannot move to a 5 easily because, why would capture there? And white has the spawn only three that cannot advance easily so far because black has two pieces controlling the Foursquare. And with that in mind here, what payday moved into E2 in order to activate the king and to bring it to D3 and sooner or later support and advance with y4. And in this way, white would get rid of that weakness and also improve the position of the bond. And here black can deal with the move to C8. One idea might be to play PS5 sooner or later, trying to get rid of that backward bond. But actually in this case, after playing, they move C5. For example, let's say that here white plays kinda D3 and black plays C5. Then after taking, for example with upon, then we see that now black has another potential weakness, which is the isolated port on the five. So we can see that black is having structural problems. So after root two, C8 came to the 3 was a possibility. But why didn't want to give any chance to black and pay them off of the C5. I said, this is a great outdoors for a piece. Normally, these outbursts are great for nights, but even here the rook is stopping Z5 and black doesn't have any chondroblasts in the game law can do with them appropriate. And after kinda D3, what got a stable advantage and won the game later on, play the movie for, and again, we see that why it is the only one having a clear plan, whereas black is just moving the pieces around with no clear ideas. Instead of the group to aid. An interesting dry was to really move up to a fade in order to play F5. For example, if white just plays a nutshell move like in D3, then after F5, first of all, black is getting rid of these backward bond on F6. And after either taken or if I take 25 blacks, rook is getting active. So this is an important point that here would get rid of this weakness and this applies pond structures in general that we need to evaluate if our opponent or we can change the bone structure in a game. But here instead of playing them move kinda the three white could follow. With this plan of E4, white is improving upon r Now we prevent them over five. So we're wide would keep his advantage and stop blacks idea. So in this case, what is not a duck in the backward bonds straight away, but white is using the weak squares in front of the backward bonds to improve his position. So what here placed a robin C5 and indie game. After opening the position, brought the king to a five and got away advantage. The other idea to exploit, buy war bonds is to attack them. And here we get another very instructive position because while it has, first of all, this point in D3, we discard to advance and it's not protected. But on the other hand, I don't see any easy way for black draw a target. So here we combine this idea of constructor would pieces. While it has much more active basis, There's the spawn on B5 which is isolated. But again, it is very hard to attack it. For example, black can bring an eye 2D6 because the square is very well-controlled by whites nights. So this point on B5 is actually very powerful because it is also blocking this bond. So here, like has a Bible and bone on B6. And in that way is also using these square and C4 to place a very powerful night because this night is blocking the potency 5, but also attacking these bags upon that in this case, it is blocked so it cannot advance UDL. So here white has one backward born and D3, one isolated polymer, five that are not weak. And black only has one bubble upon on B6, which is very weak because after the move to A6, attacking the bone, black only has one move to the funded. And why continue with a strong group to aid exchanging one defender and after exchanging looks kinda create, we see how this night is pinned. Continue with the move R2P to B8. And there's actually no way to defend this bond and B6. So now white is going to capture this bone. And after that, this point on B5 is going to be just very powerful, is going to be a passband. So white is already having a winning advantage. And last, I want to clarify that buy our bonds are not always weak. Sometimes who may have a backward bone and we may have something concrete in return. And I wanted to show you this idea that is very common in the opening. After the move E4, C5, we get what we call the Sicilian defense. And here after night we have three many moles are possible here, both for white and black. 1986 before and after taking only for an identity for here. Why gambling sooner or later the movie E5. And first of all, if white Dixon C6, then Languages capture with upon and black would have a very good constructor. In fact, blackmailed, tried to play the five later and get very good control of the sender. So taking a physics would not be a good idea. That's why the most common move here is to play 1985. But we can already see that white had to move this night, which was on the forum. That as we spoke, is a great Square for night. Nice. Whenever they can be in the center, they're very well-placed. So black has good control of the default square. But in return, now is getting a backward bone on the defined here, the Moscow movies to play D6 in order to avoid 1936 ideas. And after these eggs will get these backwards on the six. But in return, like God, these good control of the Forum, these narrow B5 is not very well-placed because black will also gain time after the movie six will attack the night and the night would normally have to retreat. So like God, something in return for this bond. And white also got something in return. Because white has control of the D5 square. What has a bond controlling their and white my place, C4 or night to S3, to get a night to the five. Because here we get a central outpost are normally those are great for nights. So although in this case, creating a background bone is more justified, why still gets other advantages? So a bug where bone is a bone that is not defended by another bond and that cannot advance easily without being captured. It is very often a weakness and we might try to either attack them or to block them using the weak square that is normally graded in front of it. But in some cases, the creation of a background bone is compensated for other advantages. 34. Hanging Pawns: Hi again. What are hung in bonds? Hanging bonds are two bonds of the same color on adjacent files. Let's analyze a few positions to see this idea clearly in the position that we have in front. If black only had these pollen MD5 like would have an isolated bone that we have already studied. Here. Black has two bonds. So here black has connected bonds. But we can see that blood doesn't have any other bonds on the B file or on the E5. So although these bonds are not as exposed as an isolated bond, hanging bonds can very often become targets. By the way, in this position, we see that the A2 and B2 bonds are also two bonds thorough separated from other bonds, from other white bonds. We could also call them hanging bonds. But the idea of hanging bonds is normally studied on C and D bonds because it is very common to have the structure on which we have Hanging Sea and neons. By the way, I would like to also highlight some points about the pawn structures. In this case, black has an isolated binary seven. Black also has three connected ponds on the king's side. We can see that black has advanced the F and H bonds and that my weekend blacks king actually. So here, black may have some problems with the king. And white has these two ponds on the queen side and these four bonds on the inside. And we can see that white has two groups of bonds, whereas black has three roots of ponds separated by files. And this is what we call bone islands. So here what it has to point islands, whereas black has three-point Islands and all other things being equal, having more islands is normally worse because the bonds are going to be less defended by other ponds. So we can easily see these in this example because, for example, the A7 bond can be potentially adapt and no other bond will be able to defend it. And also these two bonds can be attacked more easily than most of whites bonds. So in this position, I would say that white has pretty much everything because white has a bear upon structure as slightly better King and also has very active pieces. So wide can play the movie quantity to us in the game, and white is already attacking upon. And here black defended with the movie night of the seven. If black plays above C4. This is a common problem with a hanging bonds. Whenever we advanced one of them, we might create some weeks. There's some holes in the position. For example, here, the default square is going to be an I square for night, or even a rope you for exchange nights. So here black is creating some words squares for white. Additionally, in this position, we see that lack still has to develop the rogue and denied. So after a move like rock after the one. Why does already having some serious tactical threads? Because Megaplex for might be an idea, seeing that this bond is pinned because a rook is looking at the Quinn. So here black has to develop pieces as quickly as possible. And after 1987, defending the C5 bone while blade immovable graph to the one. And we can see how wide has very octopuses, rooks on the semi-urban files attacking bonds. So white is doing great here. Black continue with the default, which is a very good dry because black cannot play slowly here because after the move rotate to C8, white already has tactical ideas, for example, in this position, why might simply increase the pressure on the bond with the more bishop to have three. But even here the move 1965 is very strong because after digging the five rupees, 65, 65, bishop dizzy for the queen is going to be pinned and white is going to win a lot of material. So we already see the problem that black has with the game. And after the four, which is a typical pond break, when we have a hanging bonds, we wanted to again space and to activate the other pieces. First of all, white cannot take here because black will just take the night. But instead, wide, again, took advantage of this idea of occupying squares after the move deform. C4 is a gray square for a bishop. And again, why it is trying to exchange these visuals and exposed blacks king. And the game continued. Which objective for quintics E4, kindred seven. And here where it has more than one move. What has the advantage? Because white is the one putting pressure on black swans. White played a very nice Before. Black cannot take on before because after updates before we attack the queen and the bond, we might also play queen to the three. So we see how wide is really the one with the trapezius and when the material in the game like dried roots to C8, but white is already having a serious advantage. Unstable won the game. Now hanging bonds are normally not as vulnerable as isolated ponds and sometimes they can be very strong. Another important point with hanging bonds, if they are advanced, is that they can control in boron squares, for example, in a position that we have in front, we see how the sea and the pons control very important central squares. And here in this position we have a difference because what has many more pieces? So normally when we have hanging bonds, it is better to have more pieces because we can defend those ponds better. And here in this position, y to continue with the mortgage of digital. And here black dried an idea that from the general point of view is correct, which is to exchange business by paying them overnight to be eight. So black ones to exchange bishops. So ideally black would like to exchange many business in order to attack hanging bonds by in this position like mist, atactic idea, a typical upon break, which is a move, the five. So in this case, first of all, we are activating the bishop and the queen because. 35. Doubled Pawns: Hey, there, it is now time to talk about double bonds. Double bonds are simply two points of the same color on one file. And pretty much in line with what we've seen so far in this case, we also have a problem with double bonds because we have no money less mobility, and the bonds will also have less ability to defend each other. That's why double bonds have some disadvantages, but as we'll see, the males have some advantages. Let's start by analyzing this position here. What played the movie Bishop take C6. So white is given a bishop for a night. After taking a C6. We can see that black now has two points on the C file, the C7, C6 bon. And since lagged doesn't have any bonds on the BOD files here, black has isolated bonds. So in this case we have what we call isolated double bonds. And as we can see, these bonds cannot defend each other, so they can become very vulnerable. Now in return, like has to be shops by, has these bishop only six. But in this case, I think that it is not enough to compensate for these isolated double bonds. And white played the move D3, which is a typical idea to try to neutralize the opponents bishop. So white just gave the light square. Bishops are now why displays the bonds on light squares in order to neutralize the activity of the light score bishop that black has. By the way, just want to mention that taking 95 wasn't on our idea because here, blackboard, just attack my skin after Queen Ridge four and f2. So this would be a tactical mistake. And after D3, F6, we see that wide cannot castle short. But why blade in MOOC B3 and after nitrogen seven. Nice way for our DAG and unlike continue with the move to V6. And here, white continue with this idea of exploiting the opponents double bonds and played a very strong Bishop 23. I wanted to mention that taken on receives was not wise idea. Here, black and TE with the C Python. And after taken like we're not have double bonds anymore. I'm like would be doing fine. Unlike can also take upon because in this case, like doesn't have isolated double bonds anymore, just double bonds and they can protect each other fairly well. And in return for these double bonds, like also has the semi-open file. So now black has activated the Rogan aid. And this is one advantage that double bonds gave, that they provide more open lines for the pieces so they can help activate the business more easily. That's why taking on B6 is not in line with the idea of Dublin ponds. And why bloody move visual to a3, which is a very strong move. First of all, it develops the bishop, but it is also the square C5. Now wide has to business controlling that square. And here we see a problem that we saw when we analyzed isolated bonds, that the square in front of the bond can sometimes become weak. And here white now has control of C5 and now I will continue with going to the tool. And then we'll be able to cast a long while. It has many bees and the wind side has good control of the coincide. That's why the king is going to be saved from the wind site I in this position, White has a barrel position based on the bone structure. Another problem that black might have with these isolated double bonds is that Catlin coincide for black here might be risky. Remember that the pawn structure in front of the king is important and this constructor is damaged in this case. So double bonds my ortho exposed licking. Let's now analyze another position here. Black has double bonds in the C file, but these bonds are not isolated. So all these points are connected on the coincide in return for that, black also has the visual pair here, like has the bishop and the seven and the bishop and fate. We can also see that the file is an open file. But since black has double bonds, like has a semi-open file on the file. So one idea might be to bring the broken age eight to eight after developing the night and the bishop. So for example, black mice sooner or later dry development the Bishop, let's say 36, then i 2 is 7, and then bring the rope Create. And here black is having fairly active disease. So black will try to compensate the double bonds with the active piece play. So all in all the position is fairly balanced here. In the game black first play the more Bishop 26, which is an interesting move because it controls the C4 Foursquare, which is fairly weak for black. And it may prevent nitrosyl for ideas by white. But on the other hand, what black shouldn't be looking for is to trade or business. This would definitely benefit wide. For example, let's imagine that we trade or business, and we only keep the pons and the kings on the board. We will get this position. And here we see another problem of double bonds, which are briefly mentioned at the beginning, is that double bonds have less mobility. And in this position here we get an ending. And it is very critical to promote bonds or to try to promote them on. A very common idea is to create a past one. And in this case, like has four bonds on the queen side against three bonds. So here black has upon majority on the coincide. And why has four bonds on the king's side against three. So white has a docking site on majority. But the problem with lack spawns is that they are doubled and they cannot easily create a backbone. For example, let's imagine that here, black place kinda D7, 2012, the way the king then white my dry plain. C4 under say that black pays him of C6. Welcome play B3. And now what has fixed the bond structure on the coincide? And let's say that after B5 and we can simply just bring the king and there's no way for black to create a backbone. So there's no way to try to promote upon. For example, if that takes, this would just be bad because after taken, Like gets isolated, double bonds are now white. Sooner or later we tried to maybe fostering the king and then tried to get a pass bone on the file by brain moves like E4 and E5. And this is definitely not what blood should be looking for when having double bonds. So instead of like should try to look for activity and attacking possibilities, but they're only not go for exchanges. So double bonds can be a weakness, particularly when they are isolated labile bonds, they have less mobility. They can create weaknesses. They can be attacked more easily. But on the other hand, they can sometimes be useful, particularly if they control important squares or if they help activate RBCs. 36. Passed Pawns: Hi there. We're now going to talk about past bonds. A pass bone is a bone that has no opposing ponds on its way to promote, for example, in the position that we have in front the pawn a four is a past bond because it could advance without facing any other bond. So black woman to have upon either on the a file or the BI file in order to stop that bond. But this is not the case. So the Pantone for is a past bone. If we take a look at the bond structure on the king side, we see that like has four bonds against three. So black has upon majority on the king's side, luck doesn't have any past bond. So black would have to create one by pushing the E and F bonds. And these would not really take a lot of time. And bus bonds are normally strong. They are normally an acid, particularly as we start exchanging business, as we get closer to an ending. And why is that? The simple reason is that as we get less pieces on the board, it becomes harder to stop the past bone in the position that we have in front of. We still have many pieces. But let's imagine that we remove all business and you only keep the kings and the bonds. We will get this position. And we see that the A4 bond, we can already see that it is very strong in this particular position. After a five, the bond cannot simply be stopped. For example, after kinda fade, A6, A7, this bond will promote. So here we see that the pawn on the file is far away from all the other ponds. This is what we also call an outside postpone. And here in this pure ending, we can see that it is very strong because it is just away from all the other pieces. Even if Black managed to control upon, the king will have to go far away and leave black spawns undefended. Even if Black managed to go for that bond, then white can even try to attack blacks bonds. So here in this case, we can easily see how strong a backbone can be jamming and ending in the game. Follow this idea of pushing the backbone. Here we also have a slight imbalance because black has to be shops for a bishop and a night. But black speech up so far are not very active. So here why it has a better position and why play the movie A5? And after bishop to a fade, what continue with the movie night to D3, play in A6 straight away wouldn't be good because here, like has the streak of taken and C5 and after take 95, we would just give I tag made. So what has to be careful and not follow his plan blindly. White laid him overnight to D3, and now white can cover the first rank. So take 95, wouldn't be that strong. I'm black played him over to the five attacking denied and after night, before planning to even check for kicking and the rook, like payday move between 37 and after A6. White is already having an advantage because even though here we still have many pieces, it becomes very hard to stop that pawn. I just want to highlight a subtle point, which is that in this particular position, the bishop and C8 is very badly placed. If the bishop was an aid, for example, it would be fairly active and it will also be great to stop the advance of upon. So some dance, a slight difference in the position may make a big difference. By, in this case, black doesn't have good coordination to stop the past bone, and white has already a decisive advantage. So the last piece is that we have on the board, the stronger the past bomb becomes. And if that pass bone is protected and also connected with other passbands with one or more pass bonds. Then pass bonds can become extremely powerful in this position, while it has four bonds against a night and upon. But white has four connected PaaS bonds, which is already very exceptional. Normally, having to kinetic pass bonds can already be an advantage. But here why it has four connect bus bonds and black has a night and upon. So nominally that will be roughly equal. But here white has an absolutely dominant position. We can see that white spots are very advanced. Black spot on D5 is also a backbone, but it's not very advanced weaponry. They move D6. But even here, just to illustrate why it can just play H4, white doesn't even have to hurry. For example, after 1986, an age five. We can see how these bonds are much faster than the spot on the file. This point can be stopped fairly easily. So even if white plays slowly, wide can win this position. But in the game would be the more G6, which already has these threat of plain E7 and F7. And the game finished very shortly after 1986, R2P do B6 came to the 7. Digging cannot go to FIFO example because after F7, these two points will just promote. That's why kinda D7 is trying to stop, have seven because blood would take only seven, matter after group to be seven. Here ready black resigned because now there's no easy way to stop F7. For example, after kinda DC's F7, the sponsor already very powerful. And last let me clarify that I reposition has its own truth. So passbands are not automatically strong. Sometimes they may even have some disadvantages or might not be particularly strong. In this position that we have in front here wide has a past bone on the defile, although it is an isolated bond, this one is not weak because while it has many busy defending the bond. But here as we see, we have a lot of pieces on the board. So this bone is not blind to promote quickly, even if wide manages to play D6, then we see that black has very good control of the D7 square. So this point is not going to promote anytime soon. For example, if lab-based him obese or 37 after the Sikhs, these bonds can easily stop. But in this case, why does activating the bishop, unlike probably didn't want to play a mobile language of the C6. Because after taking a physics Blackboard, get to isolate double bonds, which are normally not very strong. But even here blackmail plan to attack the point amnesics. So sometimes when we advanced the postpone too early, it can also become a target. But here blood play something which is simpler and I think is better. Play the movie night to C4 with the idea to bring the night to D6, the game continued B3. And after night 2D6, we see how this night is already over by the square and D6, which cannot be adapted by any of white swans. So the knight is going to be fairly stable there. And this night is blocking that the pond. And nobody nights are great at blocking ponds because these can also be active there even though it's logging upon, it can also be fairly active. It is very close to the center, so it controls somewhere important squares. So here are the knight is well-placed and is also stopping the D5 point. And this point actually is also block in the bishop. And you do the speedup cannot tag the button B7. So the bottom 25 miles have some disadvantages there. And also speaking about boss bonds, maybe in the future, probably not now because black still wants to develop his business. But maybe in the future, black might try creating a bass pond himself by playing a movie like B5 and C4. So all in all black has a decent position here. Passbands are very often an asset, particularly when we get closer to an ending or when they are connected with our past bonds. But having a past bone does not necessarily mean getting an advantage. 37. Activity – Pawn Structure: Hi again. It is now time to practice what they learned in this section. In this first position, it is Y2 play. Let me know which bonds can wide attack. In the second position. It is also why to play unless we know, what do you think about the move, the five, would that move improve or worsen white's bone structure? In this position? Let me ask you, what do you think about the bishop take C6. So let me know the advantages and disadvantages of plane that move. In this position here it is wide to play and let me know if any side has an advantage. And similar to all the positions that I've shown so far, tried to mainly focus on the bonds on the pond structure. So try to find out which side has, if any, the barebones and last position is quite a complicated position. Here in this position it is black to play. Let's evaluate black spawn structure. Like has these isolated bond on A6, but also these bonds on the C file. So black has three bonds on the C file, like has what we call triple bonds. And they are also isolated, so they can become very vulnerable. So normally triple bonds are not great or not good. But on the other hand, here, I would like to ask you, what does black have in redound for those bonds? So tried to evaluate any plans or advantages that black my Havre in return for those bonds. 38. Activity Solution: Great, So let's analyze the positions together. First of all, let me tell you that these positions are not symbol and the main goal of the activities is to make the effort and this way you're going to progress. And I know that sometimes evaluating bonds is way more subtle than evaluating who has a weaker king that we can a DAG, or evaluating who has a more active piece, because this is very straightforward. Whereas with bonds, it can become a bit more subtle to evaluate them, but I am confident that would good practice. You're going to get better at evaluating bone structures in the first position. White could potentially a DAG, a few bonds, one of them would we play in the MOOC window G5 trying to attack this bond? But first of all, in the opening, moving obese more than ones is normally very risky unless it has a very strong idea. But here, like unseemly castle. And after that we see that this point is very well-defended. Plaque has a great king and the wise king is still on a central file. So y will still have to Castle because otherwise this king might become under attack. So the bond G7 is not a great deal of it, like has connected bonds on the king's side. So these bonds are very healthy. Another idea might be to try to attack the pollen A5, which is an NSAID bond. But first of all, again, we're moving a bishop from me to, to S3. We still have the king, only one. Even here, black can give this bone or simply move the boundary for. So this is a typical idea when we attacked bonds or one reevaluate bonds, we need to see if they can move or not. So in this case, after the move A4, this point is not a duct anymore. And if white plays a more like before, now, even this square is weekend. So why he's not getting anything out of this? With that in mind, why it can dry plain A4. But first of all, now we have weakened the square a little bit. And this is taken time. So black and simply Castle. I'm like My even ignore that land, for example, after bishop to S3, like unseemly play PS5, just develop the bishop and we see how white has the king on E1 and many business to develop. So this is just a great position for black. Here. In this position, white could have definitely dried moving the bishop and then castle. But why tried to move rope to C1? Which is I think the most logical way to attack upon because here we are improving the rook. We're developing the rock to a semi-open file. We're putting pressure on the spawn. But why will sooner or later tried to castle. We also see how this policy 7 is having some promise to advance. For example, it can go to C5 now. So while it has some pressure here in the game, like didn't want to defend this bond. For example, after roadway seven because this rook would be fairly passive. But black consisted with this idea of having more development like gasoline. And white took the bone. And the position is actually still complicated why it has an extra bone, but black has more development. And y still has to find a good square for the king. So this position is still complicated, but wide manage to win the game. In the second position, the D5 is very interesting. So why it has a nice lead ball and D4, wisely has many pieces. The white was not forced to play this movie five, while grew up plates having different, just want to mention that dig into G5 would probably not make a lot of sense. If we don't follow up with some D5 ideas, which in this case is not very strong because black might have some ideas today gone H3 because this point is pinned. But white takes on G5. Then remember that plane with an isolate bond with fewer RBCs is not good because this bond might become a target. That's why if white is going to play with the Poland before, then it's probably better to keep more pieces. But the more D5 is very strong. Here black has many options. One of them is to take the bond. Another one is to advance a bone, and another one is just to ignore these pollen D5. First of all, if black takes on the five, then we see that white got rid of this bond and he's now getting very active species. And even here after the move takes E5, we are just attacking the visual, this bond, this group may come to D1 and we'll see how wide is getting extremely active basis. And even now, although black has to be shops, why might even consider taking 95? Having a Barabbas isn't. Another option was to play PS5. But in this case, white has improved his structure a little bit because now the bone on the five is a passport. Although it is fairly well blogged on the seven, the bond is now more advanced, stronger. Here, what might even think about playing the movie seeks to free the square for a night. And again, why does having very strong pieces these two nights might come to the center? We must apply the similar idea of bringing the queen to D5 if we compare these position to the Boston and when we had the pontine for wide has made progress. So white is doing very well here. And last IV black just ignores the bond, for example, after night to be six. Then one idea for why it might be to simply take on C6. And after diagnosis 6, we see how the pond structural change because now white has very good connected bonds, no weaknesses on the bone structure, but black has despondency 6 and 7, which are isolated. So now white has a bar upon structure than black or white. We're also be doing fine here. Indie game black plate, something similar to this Blackberry them overlook dissociate. But after nitrogen for our DAG and the bishop and boredom brush on C6, what is already having a better position? In this position taken on C6 creates a lot of imbalances. Just wanted to mention that here brain are developing mobile in Nigeria 3 is perfectly fine for white. So you can definitely pay these in this position. And Daguerre and C6 is an interesting idea, but it has some advantages and disadvantages. In this position. Wide brought the bishop to redo undo that first. White had to play the more G3, as we say in Jesse, wide-field cathode the bishop. And after taking those E6, like hazards take. The main advantage is pretty clear because like has not only double bonds, but isolated double bonds that can become targets. And also why we normally get good control of the C phi square because it cannot be controlled by any black swans. But in this case it's upon, has moved to D3. We can see how the square is weekend. And also black has a light square bishop. So wise king might become exposed, particularly if white castles short. And even here if white plays a move lane, I do have three. Black might consider plane reach up to age three, already occupying the square. And white wouldn't be able to castle. But even if like just castles and white castles, we see that potentially wise king might become weaker than lags king because some squares around the king had been weakened. So the move is actually quite interesting, but it complicates the position. In this position, Wilde has a large advantage based on having passed bonds. So it has two bonds that on a middle game, or if he had been abuses might be targets. But here, these isolated bonds are passed bonds. And we don't have many bees on the board so they can become very strong. There is an additional point to highlight here that white has a much more active king. So why it has a barrack in here? So this is also very important disposition. Black has a bath born on C5, but this bond is very well-controlled. But in any case, y has to play are greatly. For example, here just defending the pollen D5 wouldn't be that good because after 1986, black is already blocking one of the ponds, are tagging the bishop and the bond. So this is not clear at all. But here white follow these important and in principle that when we have passbands, we tried to push them whenever we can. And here white play the more B6. So this bond is actually very strong. Just two squares away from promoting. Black cannot take the ball and D5, because after rhabdo to aid, this bond is going to be unstoppable. Like dried 1936, which looks like a good idea because this night is very well-placed in the segues even prevents the B6 born from advancing. And here white could have actually played pretty much anymore like bishop to C2, retweeting the bishop was attacked. And while you still have in a better position based on these very strong postpone. But here White who was a very strong player for moral champion. Later, very pretty move, play the movie bishop to disseminate, planning to bring the bishop to C6, which would support the advance of the bond. So now like isn't a lot of trouble because this one is just going to cost black material and even hear black took on the seven. But this just loses the game after rhabdo 8. And here black resigned because Jack made is unavoidable. For example, after a rope to the aid, we just collect all the pieces and give a Jack made. And the last position, it was a very complicated one. So here black has a really bad bond structure. And remember when we have bad bonds normally we tried to compensate that with active display. And here additionally, black has an extra bond, although it has more than wood compensation for the bond because plaque has very bad ones, but still dark has an extra bond are normally when we have isolated double bonds are in this case triple bonds. We try to activate RBCs, particular rooks. We bring them to open files or semi-open files. That's why here that bade him overlook to be eight. Now the rope is much more active on B8. I'm lux. Main idea is going to be to play actively on the coincide. One idea might be to bring the night to the coincide. It may even come to a form like we normally dry Newcastle short as well and bring the other rook. So the position is still quite complicated. Just wanted to mention that here if white plays solely, for example, rook day 122 exchange queens. I'm like My simply castle. And after quandary three, there was this idea of 937 and normally exchanging business when we have about bone structure, Israel, a good idea. Here, there's a specific idea which is that after pregnancy 55, now white has the square on the three. This is another idea and disposition that D3 is weekend, and since black has upon controlling that square, this can be upgraded our boss for a black piece, particularly at night. So here, like we're also be doing great because black is planning to lambda night on the three, for example, wide cannot take on E5 because after nitrogen three, we fork the bishop and the king. And y would just have to give the ROCC for night. But like is having a material advantage here. So as we can see here, black is having some dynamic possibilities. In the game wide blade. The move window G5 are dragging these two bonds. Part here. Black also played, actively played them move HCX. And first of all, taken on D7 would not be great because after Kinsey seven whites king is now in danger of being dropped. Rhabdoid seven might follow and white skin is going to be dropped. That's why white 25. But again, like kept on Blaine dynamically and play the movie when R33 given a check and after up to the do Windex like God, the spawn bug. And we still have a very complicated position. I would say that both sides have their chances, but in the end, black still manage to win the game. 39. Outro – Pawn Structure: So we have learned a lot about bonds in this section. First, we started analyzing isolated bonds that as opposed to connect it bonds, they are bonds that cannot be defended by other bonds. Therefore, they can normally be attacked more easily. But as we also studied, sometimes these bonds, particularly when they are assembled bonds, can sometimes be useful and they can support our business to become more active. Similar to isolated bones, we studied backward bonds, which can very often be a liability because they are also undefended and they can be blocked and they can provide good squares for RBCs. So you should only have a backward bone if that is compensated by another advantage. We also studied hanging bonds, which are two connected bonds that are very often great targets. They very often create week squares around them. But whenever we have many pieces, having hanging bonds might even be good if they help activate RBCs. We also studied double bonds were their main problem is their lack of mobility. So they can become rate targets, particularly when they are isolated double bonds. But double bonds can be accepted if they control important squares or if they help our business to become more active. And last, we studied past bonds, which are bonds that have no boson bonds to promote and pass bonds are very often an asset, particularly as we get less and less pieces on the board because they are harder to stop. But in an early stage of a game, if they are not defended, they may even become a target as well. So we analyze the most common types of bonds very closely. And as beauty, it is not black or white, where we can say that isolated bonds are bad and bass bonds are good. Chess is a more complicated game, otherwise, we're probably not even played. So we need to evaluate not only the bonds, but other factors that we've been learning in this course by you now know the weak and strong points of the different bonds that might appear on the board. So I'm waiting for you on the next section to keep on learning. 40. Intro – Strategic Sacrifices: Hi again. Now that we have our good strategic understanding, it is timed to analyze those positions on which we gave material, what we call sacrifices. Let me remind you that we're not going to study sacrifices on would you force a checkmate or weekend material? Those are tactical sacrifices. But sacrifices on which we get strategic advantages and return. The sacrifices can be even more complicated to analyze than tactical sacrifices. But I am confident that we'll understand them. We'll start with the most common strategic sacrifices, and then we'll move on to more unusual ones. So let's get started. 41. Pawn Sacrifice: Hey, there, given upon is the least that we can sacrifice. Because as we know when we studied the value of the PCs, the bond is the weakest piece. That's why pond sacrifices can be very common and they can be done to achieve any of the strategic ideas that we learned in this course. So broadly speaking, we can sacrifice upon to get our king, to get better business or to get a better upon structure. But let's analyze some very common scenarios on which we can sacrifice upon. And let's start with the opening stage. In the opening, it is fairly common to give upon, to get a strategic advantage in return, and we normally call the sacrifices gametes. I'm going to show you the most common gambit that we can have, which is called the Queen's gamete, which we get after the moves d4, d5, and here white plays him of C4. So why does offering upon which by the way, black is not forced to take black and perfectly play other moves like E6. So whenever we are our upon and sacrificing material, we are not necessarily forced to take that material. But if here black takes the bond, which is also a very playable moving the position, let's try to understand what advantage wide will try to get. First of all, what white is not trying to get is the bond bag after the move green waveform. Because he had like conceivably develop pieces night to the seventies and idea or 1986. And we are ready to adapt. The spawn told us, imagine that wide defense is bond, then now black and simply develop a night. And if white bread to get this bond back, we can see how black is getting easy development, unlike has a perfectly good position here. That's why white would like to either give that bond or to get it back, developing a better obese, normally a bishop. So sooner or later what we'll try to play them move E4. And we can already see how wide has more open lines for the business. So why do we try to claim an advantage based on having more active species or quicker development. And in these particular gamete, at least for damning, white has two bonds on the center. So white has good control the center against one bond that like has. So it has a central bond maturity. And these will influence, as we know, the placement of the OBCs in white has better control the center, then why do we normally get better square for the business? So ultimately, most of the gametes, they will aim to get quicker development, better development. And therefore, getting therapies is getting more active BCS and having a better position in return for a bond. More material, less unless another gamete, which is called the Volga gambit, which occurs after the moves D4, night we have six here, both white and black have many options, but I'm just going to focus on these specific gamete. And after C4, C5, D5. Here, black can play the movie B5, which at first sight doesn't make any sense. And the main idea is that if y takes, again, Why does not forced to take the bone very wide takes upon them like we'll follow up with A6 offering these exchange of ponds or trying to capture me five. And here white also has many options. By white takes on A6. Then after beach uptakes A6 like a blade, these sooner or later, we're gonna crazy how black has two pieces developed, two pieces that are more active than whitespaces. And white only moved the bonds. So while it has all of the other business on the first rung and also the gluconate will become active fairly quickly. Normally will come to the B file to put pressure on this bottom BI tool because lie would normally follow with G6 and Mitch of the G7. So we can see how lag will have very good PCs, very active disease in return for the bond. The position is very complicated. I'm not saying that black has an advantage, but black has very good compensation for the sacrificed bond. Another very common way to sacrifice upon is to try to attack the opponent skin are very common way to do that is when we have opposite side gasoline, when you have the king's on different sides. Because they are these very common to just push the bonds and even sacrifice them to open lines against the Obama scheme. But that's not the only case. Even in this position that we have in front at first sight, the position might look a bit dull. Here, white can continue developing, for example, bringing the bishop to E3. But instead wide played a very interesting move, F5, which is offering upon eve black doesn't take the bond. Then why do we normally follow up with D4 and tried to push the bonds are dug in black species. That's why black 225. And after Dagan and U5, night decks F5, now white brought the room to the semi-open file and we can see how like has many pieces on the coincide. So why do we try to adapt black skin? So it might seem very abstract in this position, but as we'll see in a few moves, what we'll have a lot of activity on the king's side. Here. There's an indirect threat on this night. After wide moves, the knitr have three. That's why he obliged, retreated to E7. Pain the night to default normally would make sense. But in this case here, what would exchange the night on B3, which actually is not doing a lot there. So why would exchange a fairly bad night for a good night? So after taking a knee for this would be a very good trade for wide. And additionally, bringing the night 27 is good to try to defend decane. And after nitrogen five wide is having concrete threads. First of all, what it has rook, the queen that might come to age five anytime the night. And also these visuals, although it is on the coincide, it has some control of the king side. So here white has many business that might drive to a dark black skin. These bishop may also come to reform to a DAG H7. That's why here white has very good compensation for the bond. The Bosnian is too complicated, but why has good compensation for the bond? In the game, like continue with the move F5. And here what could have continued with the window edge 5. But also nitrogen seeks makes sense because now E6 has been weakened after a five and after rook to have six dogs attacked. Why do going G7? And after kinda G7 here, black is trying to defend the king, disrupt may come to a fade or the G8. But even here, white has two very active bishops. So remember when we studied material to be jobs can sometimes even be an advantage. And this is another common idea to give upon to get the visual pair. That's also very common strategic sacrifice. And even in this position after which of the G5. Now white also has some tactical ideas. Not only attack and drug, but here we've, the rogue goes to D6 for example, then y can take on is seven and we see how these 90 spins. So after taking the seven white gay material room to have seven would also be fairly bad because after taking the seven, again, we cannot deal with the night. And after taken with the root, what would get these very important bond now has access to the Foursquare. Black skin is going to be very vulnerable. Because why will follow up with ideas like Windows you for bringing the other rook. So this is definitely not a good option. So after BWT five, white is already pressing a lot. Here, black dried it given the exchange after ROCC aid to fade by the y still got a good position and won the game. It is also very common to sacrifice upon in order to change the constructor. For example, we might break the bonus constructor would migrate weaknesses like isolated double bonds. Or sometimes we may even change the bond structure in order to improve our business and even worsen our abundant species in this position, Black seems to have a fairly good position because black is putting pressure on a form. So for example, if white jazz defense this bond, then black can Castle short or even gas along, because life has very good business overall. Playing a five here would actually be a strategic mistake because black will get this very strong square for the night or for other black species. So black and simply retreated. But even here, black might take on H2 first, even a check. And after Gingrich, one jazz move the bishop. So even here, black is again the material. But here what played a very strong move, which is a bone break, which is something that we should always be careful about. And white plate remove E5 through our first side. Why does just given material, like yesterday with the bone, the bishop cannot move and given a piece for two bonds wouldn't make a lot of sense. That's why black hazard day with a bond. And after dignity five, white followed up with F5. So we now see a huge difference because there's a botany five and we adapt the bishop. That's why Black had to move the bishop. And then white play them move night before. So with these ideas of E5 and F5, white killed two birds with one stone. First of all, what God aggregate square for the night, assemble square, which is controlled by white. So black cannot, for that night away with a bond and the bishop on the six. Now, it's really bad. Sometimes we call this a big pond because it is blocked by its own bonds and it literally cannot move in the situation. So this visual MRC now is not doing anything at all. It was very reactive, but now it just logged in with these polymeric white managed to clear our screen for a piece. I'm also to limit the activity of black spaces. And white is already having a great position despite being up-and-down, like Castle long, ie blood causes short. Then here after Windows you for black skin might already be in danger because ideas like visual to H6 or F6 are very strong. And after black castle along what followed with quantity for even a DAG in this bond, what has even a better position already unblock gave upon after kinda B8. Maybe with the idea, draw a DAG wise king. But why still do going G7? First of all, we attack this beach up. That's why black late mesial to H5 and after group to have two white God upon bug Hasbro pieces. Now this button F5 is even a backbone that later in the game might be very strong and wise king is very safe because why it has a lot of pieces on the good side around the king or close to the king. So black doesn't have any real attack on white skin so wide it has a better position on this game. And ponds sacrifices can be done not only to attack the opponent skiing, but also to improve our own king. As we know, these normally happens when we get close to the ending because activate nicking might be risky otherwise, here in this position, white is upon up, but black is blind to dig and S4, and there's no way to defend that policy for, but white has a much better job than blacks. It is rookies active putting pressure on E7 while still has to make promise. And here White played a very nice move. Our multipurpose move, which is the movie E5, which gives upon and wide by even blend to play E6 are taken in D6. That's why black here has laid upon and have to dig in any five here will continue with the move in graph theory. So again, we change the bond structure. And here why did God allowed in return? Because white God, first of all, a backbone despondent, D5 was blocked by the bond on D6. Now it's a past bone that can be very strong in these positions on which we don't have a lot of pieces. But why also now we'll manage to activate the king. Because in this position with the polyene for the king doesn't have a way to penetrate. But with this change in bond structure, now Frumkin draft 3, the king will come to me for, might come to a five, will also attack the Barney five. So why skiing is going to be great? And additionally, that square, any form may be used by the night. For example, the nightmare come to S3 and then reform. And there would also be very powerful in the center, stable and attacking black swans. That y here, y da material and ever after night Dixie forum, what is given another bone? White is going to be upon noun, but after quandary for most of black sponsor going to be weak and wide will not only have compensation, but a much better position in the game like dried activating group with the group to the eight. And the idea is that after taking an A7, them black would give a check and get another pon. So trying to defend. But here y took his time and play them over 9 to S3, which defends these two bonds. And after row 37, defending a seven loop to zCX, white is getting the material bug and is still having a dominant position and won the game. So pond sacrifices are one of the most common, if not the most common, strategic sacrifice. So they can be used to get any of the strategic advantages that we learned. 42. Exchange Sacrifice: Hey, again, another common way to sacrifice material is to give the exchange, which is given a rock for a measure or night. So nominally here we will be given two points or two ponds whenever we go for this exchange. So we will be sacrificing more than in the previous case where we only sacrificed one bond. These type of sacrifice is still fairly common and we can do it to get one or more strategic advantages. Let's start with this first position. Here it is wide to play. Lag is putting pressure on C2 I in this position wide, didn't want to defend. Passively enters play a move like S3, but instead wide one for a typical exchange sacrifice to damage the bond structure. And additionally here to weaken the opponent's game. So why play the movie R2P takes F6 and after taking or F6, whatever the exchange. First of all, we now see how blacks pawn structure in front of the Kim has been damaged. All of the bonds are isolated, and we have two isolated double bonds on the file. Additionally, black doesn't have the night anymore, so like has less busy defending the king. So although white doesn't have any direct Jack made, because NOT gates, this would be a tactical sacrifice. What has the potential to attack black scheme? Here we'll continue with the more bishop to the three, bring in another obese to the attack. Also possible could have been to take on F6. Here. Probably white didn't want blood to play, window the aid. So here black ones to exchange queens to avoid an attack on the King. And here, why do we normally avoid the exchange of queens and the bassoon is still quite complicated. So this wasn't done. And if instead of going for the bone vibrator more bishop to the three, and we see how wide has pieces looking at the King, this rook might come to their file. So y will have a better upon structure and a barricading. In the game luck played actively, which is normally the best way to defend black radium, appropriate planning to evade, check on counterattack. And here I played him a window age four, covering the E1 square with the queen. And also a duck in H7. And here Blackberry they move kinda fade. Black is already preparing akin walk. So why it has excellent conversation for the exchange, the position is still very complicated because log is also attacking some of whites bonds. So the position is fairly balanced. And although black won the game, the exchange sacrifice was very interesting. Let's analyze another position on which we had an exchange sacrifice. Here y is a bond down, but white has better RBCs. White has some nice pressure on the Sikhs, although the bond is being defended so far. Also has the bishop pair that in this position are not very active. At least the Giovanni do is locked by this bond. So this is not particularly strong. White has more active routes. So what has compensation for the bond? But avoid just waits, for example, plays the group to see dual, then black might avoid whites idea, play in the move P6 and trying to get a very nice square for the night. And this was region is not clear at all. Instead of white tried to attack why these materially down. So while it has to play actively and after the move, C5, looking at the night, first of all, black cannot take on C5 would the night, because after which uptakes E5, this point is pinned. But wide had a reply in mind, which is a move night before attacking the queen and also the bishop. And here, if white just move the Queen, for example, to be true, then black, My Drive to be D5, try not to open the position very much unplugged, still negative. But here whites idea was to give the exchange, to play them over, obtain xy for the night was Blacksburg space. So it makes sense to trade that base. And after taking money for what follow-up would see takes E6. So why did God the bond bags. So now white is still a full Exchange down by the white has many strategic advantages in return. First of all, these indices is well-supported, is already attacking a night. The night doesn't have many squares, like Brady moment I do D8. And we see how, what has, first of all, monarchic business. Second, what has the bishop pair? It is very common to give the exchange for the visual PR on a bone by in this case, while gave the full exchange. Now these visual Mike I'm dizzy for white also has a very strong night that might come to the five. And this postpone, although it won't promote anytime soon, is still controlling boron squares. Blacks camp. So with that in mind, what has a lot of compensation for the exchange, even a better position. And after night 35, there's an additional idea, which is that white might try to attack black skin. Rub the C7 is coming and wide will also have a barrack gain in the game blood played the move kingdom age eight, and dissipating group to C7, just one-dimension that group to C8 wasn't alternative. Normally it makes sense to exchange material when we are materially up. But here after the group to C7, given a check taken, a C7 wouldn't be very strong. Wight can even take with upon because we attack the queen and now we attack the bishop. So we're even getting the material back. But even after 1967, we see how the night will land on the square and the white is already getting an advantage. In any case in the game after Hindu 88, root 37, what is already having a better position? Our DAG in this bottom B7 bishop do we do might be an idea that was played in the game in order to trade bishops and attack the king on this diagonal. So white is already better and won the game. Another common idea to sacrifice the exchange is to get one or more passbands. Particularly if those passbands are connected, then sacrificing the exchange might be possible. Here in this position, like just play the movie night 34 and is planning to play 1982, forget nicking and the rook. What it could have continued with the move. Rotate to C1, for example, stopping that idea matter after 1986, black is getting these Pantone seven unblock would regain that bond. Likewise upon down on Blackboard, regain that bond. This was possible. What is not wars in this position, but white play more ambitiously. And instead of stopping that idea, play the very nice F5, planning to play F6 and defend that bond. So after 1986, what would just play F6? Therefore, black has to go for this idea. Otherwise, why would even be upon up and after night? Does he do? Kendra four, we see another idea of the mobile F5. Then. Now the king has the Foursquare and he's getting more active. And the king is very safe there. And after dig in and a one and dignitary one, like on the new row j to aid. And after F6. Why it has two very nice connected passbands, uneven F7 is already a thread in this position, attacking the two rooks. That's why Black played him over 36. And here we'll continue with the move draft one. And the night is planning to come to a five which is awake square. After night 33 or 1903. 1905. The night will attack HCX or when bland play nitrogen seven. So in this case, what is only an exchange it down four upon. So it's not even a full exchange. Sacrifice. And white has this extremely strong connected passbands are barricading. We can see how blacks rooks are just very passive. So what is already having even away in position? So similar to pond sacrifices, exchange sacrifices can be very common to get a strategic advantage. So keep the sacrifices in mind. 43. Minor Piece Sacrifice: Hi there. We're now going to talk about minor sacrifices. So that's given a bishop or an ICT. Let me clarify that sometimes we refer to these sacrifices as P sacrifices. So here the word peace is only used for a bishop or unhide. So when you say that I sacrifice a piece or I went obese, sometimes it is used to refer to a minor obese. And if we talk about material, we studied pond sacrifices. Sacrificing upon is the least that you can sacrifice. Sacrifice in an exchange is given two points, and sacrificing a beach overnight is given three points are normally that's a lot of material. And whenever we give a full minor piece, we normally do it for tactical reasons, either to force a Jack made or to gain a material advantage after a series of moves. So given a full minor piece, for strategic reasons is not very common, although we might sacrifice my RBCs for speculative reasons, it is more common to sacrifice a minor piece bad get some material in ridden and strategic advantages in return. For example, we might sacrifice denied for one or two bonds. So normally here we would give material bad, we would get strategic advantages in return. And I want to show a minor BY sacrifice, by going back to a position that we had when we analyzed pond sacrifices. Here in this position we studied the mobile F5. And after Black got the pond, what played the mook to F1, planning to bring peace to the king side in order to attack black skin. And after night V7, E5. Remember that we discussed that now white has ideas to add tag like window H5, bishop to a four. Here, black pay them more F5. And then, as we discussed the game continue night 26 and wide managed to get an advantage and win the game. But another move that I didn't realize because I wanted to discuss it here is the move HCX. So the mortgage six IED attacks night buried weakens the bond structure in front of the king because agencies can now become a target here wide could have played a very interesting piece sacrifice by blend them overnight takes F7. So what is taken? This bond also attack in here. So blacks would normally take that night. And after taking on of seven and negative seven. Now white gets another bond after the sequence, after playing Quinto H5 check. And after any move that black base can radiate would be logical to try to safeguard the king. Here y can take another bond. And after all these series of moves, we see that so far, while only has one bond for the BCE. So why it has six bonds against five, but is a minor piece down, white sacrificed or night. But again, we see how black skin is exposed. So here, the main idea of the sacrifice would be that white has a much better again, a much safer again. And white is trying to attack black skin. I'm like already has some problems because one idea might be to Blake Windows E5. If black plays a more bishop to F6, which might make some sense trying to keep a defender. Then here white can play Rudolph one, bring in another piece. And we can see how wide has a lot of compensation. And in a practical game, it is very hard to play this position as black because black has to find very accurate defensive moves. And any mistake might lead to Jack made What is just having more pieces on the Qin site planning to attack the king, bishop to reform I come next. So why it has a great position here? Also, after digging on H6, if black takes 186, why still has a very strong position? One idea might be to bring the rook, the square y4 is very good for wide. Additionally, here we see how these Poland, the six, is being attacked for the time being. If white takes another bone, then y will have two bonds for a piece which is normally not given a lot of material. So while again here has a great position without this be Giovanna, E6 is completely out of the game. So these digital contributes to make the sacrifice work. And here black would normally try to play rock to a fade, trying to bring peace to the fender king. And again, why it has many ideas, might take this bond and even bringing the night might be an interesting idea because neither B3 is the worst piece that Y has. So while it has excellent compensation based on these wicking on G8. So minor b sub devices, whenever we do it for strategic purposes, can be very hard to analyze. So don't worry, if you find these positions, how to evaluate. Sometimes it really depends on the style of the player. Attacking players normally like to sacrifice pieces, to attack. Sometimes those sacrifices are more speculative. Some dams, they are, objective is strong. Let's analyze another position here. Why played another Sacrifice based on this idea of attacking the king or having a hurricane. So normally when we give a piece, we need to have strong reasons. And playing against the King is a very sound reason to the material. That's why it's very common to give a minor obese to attack the gain. Here were played him overnight takes me five given the night. And after quitting takes me five, major ploy for we attack the queen and we'd be in this night on the seven. So y can take on E5. So white so far has two bonds for the bishop, which is roughly similar as given. One bond to white has a one-point deficit. And the main point will be to use these pin on the night. So this night kinda move on since blacks King is one of the pieces defendant denied, it is going to be very hard for black to castle. So one of the main ideas of the sacrifice is to keep it black skiing on a central file, on the file. And by doing that, the king is going to be exposed. This Ronnie Jade is going to have a hard time getting active. If blood cannot castle does my wife has very good compensation in this position. Just to give an example here, black cannot take on the five. Because after taking on the seven and Dagan and D7, we're going to raise see how this came on. The seven doesn't look well, particularly if we have a rogue on day one. And even here the movie y4 is already very strong because this visual is pinned. So now why does even getting the bees back in the game like played better, like dry them of Windows 7, which defends the night and also attacks the other night, 15. And here why do on D7? And after taking an A7, would definitely wants to give this bin while you continue with the move window G for putting pressure on the night. So why it has a very good position here as well? Because black is having very bad coordination with his business. What will normally continue with bishop to the dual mission to S3, activating these visual on C1, which is passive. And even here, this policy forum might sometimes become a target if wide manages to get that bond, which is not Weisberg idea at this time, because white is now focused on attacking black skin by divide ever manages to get that policy for why do we live in get three bonds for a piece and white will not even have a material deficit. So wide got a good position in this game and managed to win it. So, so far we focused on giving a minor piece, mainly to attack the opponent skiing or to get our safer king. But sometimes we may give a visual Fahrenheit in order to get one or more past bonds. And as we discussed when we talked about past bonds, they tend to get better as we get less and less species. So the sacrifices don't always work, but they can become interested in, in positions on which we have few pieces. Or if we have very advanced pass bonds here in this position, what has a good position? What has this active Ruben C8? There is an idea of a drug in this point on the six, but black is defended so far. So black is trying to hold this position. And here why did try to make progress by giving a piece for two poles. So wide sacrificed a piece on C5 by playing the movie Bishop takes E5. So the sacrifices are not very easy to evaluate. Sometimes they become a bit concrete here. White had the alternative of digging with the night after night X.25 and it takes you five. So here why would get similar to the game to connect it to pass bonds. But in this case, we see that white, first of all, is not a DAG in anything so far. So black micron start playing active moves like night to A6. But even if blood place anymore, let's say a five black has some ideas to counter that. For example, if one goes back with the bishop, which would make sense in order to put the bonds. Then 1936 might be annoying because we attack the rock and the bond. Or if wide pushes the bond by playing D6. Then after night V6, we are dug in the bishop and the promotion square is very well-controlled. So this was Asian is definitely not as clear as in the game. So when we have bus bonds, we need to make sure that we are going to advance them. Otherwise, the sacrifice might not even be good. And after age of 65, and it takes you five. 1985 is array strong because we attack the rook. So this is an advantage. And a rook cannot move because what we'll just take the night and C7. But here black counted on them overnight 36, which is a good movie cause we can't do attack the rook after dig in on B7 and enunciate. These exchange of rooks is benefiting white. Because remember that when you have less and less business, the past bonds become stronger. That's why in this position, while it kinda replace C5 and these bonds are already gaining space on the night of m7 is even supporting the advance of the bond, even so these positions are not that easy. So here what has to be careful? That leg doesn't lock the past bonds with the night or with the bishop. And here the game continued night to A6. And since white has full control of the position, night to A6 doesn't threaten anything because S5 is defended. Here. White continue with the move kindred to bringing the king in order to support the bass bonds. So the material given is minimal and wide has a great strategic advantage in the form of two very strong connected bus bonds. White also has Berra pieces because lux night are on the edge of the board. So here white has great compensation and managed to win the game. So minor PEs, sacrifices for strategic reasons are not that common. And since a minor piece is a lot of material, the sacrifices are normally done for less material, like one or two bonds. 44. Rook Sacrifice: Hey, there, We're now going to talk about rook sacrifices. Given a rook, to give a check made, or to force a material advantage after some movies might be fairly common. So that will be a tactical sacrifice. But on the other hand, given a pure rock for strategic reasons, only is just very rare. And the reason is that our MOOC is just too powerful, but it might be more common to give a rogue for a minor piece for a bishop or night, which is given an exchange that we have already studied. And another option is to give a rook for one or more bonds. Normally given a rook for just one bond for strategic reasons is very rare. But we may give a rook for a bunch of bonds and get a strategic advantage in return. Let's analyze some games on which this can happen. In this first position, we see that we already have a very complicated position. Black is obese down for coupons and he's trying to claim some compensation based on these activity shop. These ruins have four, might be badly placed, but all in all the position is complicated and I'm not even sure if black has compensation. So black has two bonds for a piece. And in this position the rook on E6 has been attacked. So moving the rock, for example, 26 wouldn't be very good. What has many options? One of them is to play five, even taken on a five would activate this measure. So that's why in this position, like sacrifice more material. By the way, here we have a formal champion vessel into power of plane as Black, who was a player who really liked to take risks. And in fact, these sacrifice is fairly risky. But on the other hand, on this position, he didn't have a lot of options. So here black played the very pretty rook takes you four. So black is given an exchange, but since black is already a piece down, black is going to end up being a full rope down. But in return, after 1984, 1984, Black gets a very strong night before. That's why, Why decided to take the night. We get to this position on wheat. Black is a group down in exchange for three bonds. Unblock will have other advantages, like we'll have this central ponds. And we also see how this rook on z4 is badly placed. So here if we give a rook, we blend to play against the opponent's rooks. On so far we'll see how wide strokes are not active at all. Here are played the good move, Luke to S3, trying to improve this rook. And after D5 root do D3. Like played beach of 36, which is another compensation that blood gets. Like we'll get good pressure on this button. I measure if the sacrifice is objectively sound. But what I can see in this position is that black has some care plans. One of them might be putting pressure on the bottom. 51. Activity Solution: Okay, so hope that the Activity 1 well, and don't worry because some of the positions are hard. So if you had problems analyzing some of these positions, it's because some of them are not easy. But the ultimate goal is to learn from the activity, not to find everything in the position, but to learn from it in the first position. If we take a look at the pons on the center, we see that black has these two points on D6 and E5, and that the square root D5 is controlled only by a knight. So like doesn't have any pond to control a square. And this is a typical idea that we exchange the piece defending that square in order to gain better control of it. So when this was John plane, night 35 straight away wouldn't be very strong because the black can simply take on D5. But after the movie job 3d5, since this night is pinned, it cannot move because what will just capture the bishop? Then white is going to force this exchange. And then what is going to gain control of the five square in the game-like continued wood roof, F2.8 and Y2 are going F6. Like do with the bishop, taking with the bond would even damage the bone structure. So that won't be very good. And I've taken with the bishop now what has the square for the night? In fact, what played nitrogen five straight away. And we see that this night is going to be there forever. Blacks only idea will be to sacrifice material, for example, an exchange. But black cannot attack the night with other masterpiece or with a bone. So this night is going to be very stable layer and white is going to have a long-term advantage. We'll see how this bishop is not doing a lot. They're black pride reach up to the eight. Just want to mention that taken the opponency do wouldn't be very good. What can play rock to F2 and then plan to play 1987 for organ. These two rooks. For example, if blackface, Quinta C6, like an array playroom to C1, and let's say Quinto D7 here. Why can even play room to C7? But also nitrogen has seven is drawn. Why would now again material after capturing the rock and even in this position, if white was up and down, if I didn't have this idea of mitosis seven, what would have excellent compensation? Because why does it have a good night against about bishop? And also this extra bone on the six is a bugbear upon. It can never advance. So even if black was upon up, black wouldn't even be better in this position. So instead of taking those, he do black paid reach up to the eight. And after S3, now it has a clear advantage. And even if these Bishop comes to B6 to activate it, white skin is going to come to age one, and this bishop is not going to be very useful there. And whites mains idea is going to be to attack black skin. These night is close to the king, supports F6 ADS and white my even continued book to have three and bringing the queen and attacking black skin, which is what happened and wide won the game. Class. I wanted to make a general note about exchanges in the original position. You might argue that this be Giovanni three is active. And in fact it is quite active. So we will be given fairly good piece. But on the other hand, Blacks night on F6 is also very strong because it controls important central squares. It puts pressure on the form. And another thing that we sometimes miss when we talk about is changes, is that we need to evaluate the position after the exchanges. White can play a movie like bishop to have two, which would be a bit passive, but what can definitely play such moves defending the forbidden. But this was vision is not as clear as the position that we got after exchanging or F6. So in this position, we have a clear plan which is broken by d phi square. And even though white gave the bishop only three, which was active in the resulting position, wide even has a better position than before. So when evaluating exchanges to gain an advantage, evaluate the resulting position after the exchanges. Not only IV, we give a good or bad piece in the second position. First of all, why it has a clear advantage. And we'll see why. And first I would like to joke about the bone structure. And we see that we have a symmetry on these six bonds. And this is a bone structure that can occur in different openings, which is called the Stonewall formation. And just to give you an example of how we may get that position, here, we might play before and after Black place D5. Let's imagine that we play in a draft 3 or E3, then black my blade, E6, answering or later, blackmail play D5. And why Mowbray F4. And we might get something similar to this. So I just want to only show the ponds to visualize the plants more easily. So in fact here we would have asymmetrical position because we see that all bonds are on similar opposing positions. And as you know, the bond structure defines the plans, what we will play unless first evaluate what we could do with the bonds. So normally plain E5, black or white plane E4 would be hard because black has good control of V4 and wide has good control of E5. But the other point breaks that will I have in this particular position might be to play D4 or C4. Either to take or to gain space after Blaine C5, unblock may have similar plans because we have a symmetrical position. Blackman played G5, prepared first with HCX and then play device or place E5. These are some plants that we could have with the bonds and other bone that I want to notice that here we have central bonds on both sides. So we have the E and the pons, and this leads to what we call closed positions. So regardless of how we'll call them, the main point is that having central ponds, this May also be only five affect species as usual, and particularly nights and Misha loves. So impositions on which we have central bonds that are blocked or that cannot move easily. Nights are often stronger than mashups. And another bond is that time is not so important because it is hard to create very direct threats. So having said that, let's go back to the game. In the game, we see that it was only why did the one who pushed the pons and gain space. So here y has a clear space advantage. That's why white has a dominant position here. And we see how this bone structure is limiting, lacks bishop on the seven. So blacksmith shop, we could also call it a big pattern. It is really trapped by its own bonds, is not controlling and youthful squares. So black here would prefer to have an R-square Bishop instead of a light square bishop. So why it has a much better Bishop? It has the potential to attack black spawns. Since white has a space advantage, black species don't have good squares. For example, the night and F7 is kind of trapped. Black strokes as well. And with that in mind, wide would like to keep his basis here. Because why species are definitely more active. So although occupying the phi square is a typical blending the structure. In this case, since white has a dominant position, why would not like to exchange the Nikon F3 for a passive 90 and F7. So for example, play nitrogen five here wouldn't be very strong because black will get rid of the night. And F7. Additionally, we're changing the bond structure, which in this case is very good for wide. So here, if we take with the bone, then black, my dream of a DAG in this bond. Although I still has an advantage here, black my dream of a DAG in that barn, maybe playing the four to open the position. Or if white takes with the F1, then after rope to a fade, lag. My thing about plain FR, and trying to gain some kind of play. White is still better here, but just wanted to show you that this would give away some of the advantage. So what this constructor, an idea, white water maintaining this bishop for these night. In that case, we will get the following position. And here whites advantage would even be greater. Because why we're simply playing I35 occupying the square, which is a typical plan on this constructor. And this night would be unchallenged, so I wouldn't be able to trade it. And this bishop is really bad. So why has even a better position than before? So having said all that, white has an advantage. But now it's a matter of converting disadvantage since it is hard to open lines in this position. Attacking the king is hard. That's why we'll have to slowly maneuver. So as I said, this is a close position. So what has to slowly improve his position? What is already occupied by a file? That's why bringing more pieces to the file is idea. And as we'll see, bring in the night might even be an idea to a DAG this point on B7. This will take a lot of times bad wide has a lot of times since the position is closed in the game world, continue with Brooke, do a one. Again, plain Quinto. A7 may be possible, but why doesn't want to exchange the queen? Because it is more active non-blacks when that's why in the game, wide road PCs to the file because the species we're not doing a lot on the H file. And if I continue a little bit, black is really just waiting because black doesn't have any plan. White blade, Quinta before. And rather two rooks to the file. Again, black is just waiting. And after Queen race, we'd just want to mention that this is a typical idea when we place the business on an open file to place the stronger piece behind the other pieces. For the simple reason that the quinone three cannot be attacked, but it's still supports the attack. And after can radiate, why still played some moves that didn't change the nature of the position. Can do D3 kinda wage for this really doesn't change their position while it just needs to be careful about P sacrifices. But in this case, they don't work because black doesn't have business to attack. After a few moves. White finally, follow this plan of bringing the night 25. Now we're antagonist B7 and after night to the aid or to finish their game in a few moments after the move bishop to A6. And the point is that after Dagan, this is not a sacrifice because Y takes on the seven. And now we see how these robots are diagonal age seven. And these two bonds are weak now. And after 37, why play the movie? Luke takes the eight, which is not even a sacrifice because after taking on the 8th, 1966, what is gaining the material back and while already has two connected pass bonds. So this is just a winning position for white. In the next position, we also have a close position because we have ponds on central files. White has a space advantage on the coincide, whereas black has a space advantage on the king's side. So at least in this position, like has something in the other position. Latch was, Qian was just really bad. But here black has more advanced bonds on the king side, black skin is not in danger because even though like advanced the bonds, black has many pieces on the king's side that are not only defending like skiing, but they can also be used to attack wise gain. So y here has a slightly bear upon structure because one idea might be to adopt this policy 7, it has more active basis overall. Although luck has an activity of an H3 like bozo has some very passive pieces like the night on C8 and Murakami aid. So what has slightly more octopuses? Thus why lab will try to gain some activity on the cooking side in order to attack white skin. So this is the main corner play that like has in his position to a DAG wise king. And since black has more bases on the inside, black will try to do something there. In the game. Black continue with the move H5, window, G6. What's possible with a similarity of bringing more business closer to white skin. And the idea of H5 is doorbell lines on the good side by plane, either H4 or G for the position is still complicated. Probably white has a slightly better position. Y will try to gain an advantage on the coincide normally will try to bring the rocks to the a file. And Dr. Dre, dark black species or the bottom C7. In the game world continue with the window D3 and after window D6, the game was very complicated and like even mind you to win the game. Just wanted to mention an interesting alternative that y hat here, which is to play the more bishop do have one. This is our typical idea, which is to exchange, first of all, blacks, most active base, which is the major punished three. And here black cannot avoid these exchange because after play major bridge before, what would they have? Three, unblock would have to sacrifice his peace within this position doesn't look good. So based on this bone structure, we see that the Benjamin D7 so far is not a good piece, but this visual manage three is what we call the good bishop. That like has. So like here exchanges the Bishop. Why do we normally take with the rook? And the main point is that why we'll try to get control of these light squares that are now weekend after white managed to exchange which offers. So for example here playing F3 would be really bad. Why do I even take the bond? But even if I didn't have this move, these will allow 1983 undeniable come to U5, which is now a weekend square after exchanging bishops. So bishop to have one was an industrial alternative that white didn't play. This position may look fairly complicated, but black has a better position based on having the bishop pair. So here black wouldn't like to exchange with jobs. Even hear dig into G3 would just improve white's bone structure and connect white spots. We must also say that like has these fairly weak bond on a five. White spawns can also become targets, as we'll see. So here, black plate very correctly played the mortgage of the C1, keeping the visual bear and attacking this point on B2. And after night way for again, black has to play actively because this bond, my fall. I'm like play them with h5. So black has a docking site bond majority. Black has four bonds on the king side. That's why light wants to play activity there. This bishop is also putting pressure on this bond. And in the game was played, they move up to the one allowing h4. And just want to mention that plane age 40 here wouldn't be very strong because after exchanging, like doesn't have to exchange straight away. Although black might still take an edge for this borane, H5 is going to become a passband, which is what black is trying to get on the first place. And after group to the one like bade H4. And after the age of 21 be Chapter 4, nabla is attacking white spawns. And even though like my loose, these Pantone five Blacks plan is very direct, like just wants to take on H2 and then go back with the bishop and bought the H1, which is supported by the speedup GTO. And this 0.84 is going to be faster because it's already advanced. So black managed to win the game. In this game, the position might look very similar, but white has some clear advantages. One of them is this pollen D6, which is a postpone. A lower does fairly well blocked lag is using a route for that anomaly. Using a powerful piece to block a bass pond is not very good. We want to use a rockfall somebody matter. And white also has very good control of the dark squares since white has adults grubby shop, black has a light square Bishop. That's why like has a lot of weaknesses on the dark squares. So for sure in this position. Why wouldn't like to play the move G3 because it will just weaken the least squares. And here as you do, try to find an active move. And white has many options. One of them is playing Quinn rough six are dug in on G6, bulb-like my tried to hold with kindred seven, another ADHD, very direct breach of duty for planning to give a jack on a jade, which is honestly the first move that I analyze. But this wouldn't be that strong because black has the similarity of bling kinda Edge seven. And now like with Blendtec on the six. So probably why it has to go back with the bishop. So what here wouldn't be making progress in the game? White follow this idea, but in a better way. And white play them overlook takes the five. So this is a very nice exchange sacrifice based on the domination that white has of the dark squares. And after dig in on the five, why 225, so wide in return for the rug, got a bishop and Uponor. So why didn't give a lot of material? And now, even after the mortgage of the default, we see that this point will be defended. And additionally, this rope is going to be very active. So here black followed with kinda H7 and disobedient visibly before and after the age of 34. Now we've got a similar position, but like Canada egg on D6 because the bond is defended. And why it is now even a DAG in this point and B5. So this was originally so already very bad for black because black has weaknesses all over the board. So white has ideas either to push this bond, to attack the king, or to attack the bonds on the coincide and avoid, manages to get more bonds on the coincide. White will get more bass bonds. So this was a zone is already losing for black. Indie game black tried to defend with group to be seven. But after rook to be five, window D7, Quinto, F6, black cannot take on C5 because quinoa jade is going to be a checkmate. And after appropriate group to 85, like Plato into the aid IV black takes, then after F5, while we'll get to connect with bass bonds. But after going to the aid white blade, a very strong tactical move. Why do can be five gaining more material? And the point is that after taken and F6, why would take on B7 first given a check and then take the queen gaining more material. But after group to the seven white dog on the aid. And then defended the ball and D6. And after group to S5, What is collected more ponds and won the game in a few months? And the last question is a really good example of just having this relative advantages. Why it has a very active king. So why it has a barricading? White also has about a rook because this rook is attacking a boron and black stroke is just defending the bond. And also black has these Barney five, which is isolated, although the surpass bone, it is being attacked and is very well-controlled, That's why it is not an acid. And these Pacinian that might look fairly well as foresight is in fact already when for white, amazingly, because why It just has all the advantages. And white lady move C4, creating a backbone and after dignity, foreign dignity for what has this very simple VLAN of push in the bond, while also having this pressure on E5. An amazingly there's nothing that black can do about it. And the game finished in a few moves after rope to create what they looked to have three planes. C5 was also possible, but do I first played him a room to have three? And after kinda D5, C5, we see how wide is just planning to Bush the bone. Black dried E4. Bad decision work because after H4, kinda before, it makes sense to activate the king, but after rope to a four, take energy three. Why do Ghani for unblock Canada actually change rooks? Because this point is going to be much faster. And after appropriate C6, G5, why do 185? And after dignity five, C7, Qin draft 3, root 2, y1, black array resigned. What is going to win this fairly easily when ideas to bring their king. And then black will have to give this route for this bond. And then y will simply take this other bond. And although black and Dr. Busch in the bone, what can simply give this route for this bond? And in the end, the A5 bond is going to win. So I'm not sure if that was complicated, but in any case, we see how wide jazz has the burger business here. This point is just about remote. I'm like spawn and G5 is far away from promoting. 53. My Kingdom for Two Passed Pawns: We're now going to see a game that was played between two very strong layers. We have Beslan and above plane as wide and the dam that the game was played 2006, he was just playing amazing Jess and a slag we have live on Iranian who is a very dynamic player, who really loves to attack. So whenever we have such players, there's definitely a chance that we might have a very exciting game. What I really like about these gaming is that once you understand the main ideas, this is actually quite simple to understand it. Although the game has complexity, once we see the main idea of the game, all the moves that white plays are actually very natural. So the main bone of this game is the power of connected pass bonds. But we see a lot of fallow ideas, including pond sacrifices, exchange sacrifices because we have more than one exchange sacrifice, we have a double exchange sacrifice. And amazingly, this double exchange sacrifice occurs on the same square, which is really unique. And other ideas that we'll see are the power of the bishop pair, having good control of the center and plane precisely because very often we have a strategic advantage. We need to play very precisely to convert it. This is honestly one of my favorite games, not only about strategy, but about chess. Because I really love to see games that involve sacrifices. And the sacrifices are long-term sacrifices. So they are strategic sacrifices which are, as we spoke in the course, even harder to analyze. So let's get started. While played the movie D4, like pedum of night to F6. I will not focus a lot on the opening wide continue with MVC for E6 night we have three. And here black pay them. Or B6, like has many options. For example, D5 was an eruption. And the move these six leads to what we call the Queensland and defense. And the ADS to develop the bishop either to be seven or 26. So here what you can do with G3, black continue with bishop to A6, antagonist upon B3. Measure up to before. This is a more modern approach to the opening. Visual to E7 is another way to develop the bishop. And the idea is that if white plays, which actually do, then black will go back to E7. And this bishop only do has some disadvantages. They are, for example, after nitrogen for the night will attack the bishop. The bishop is also blocking the queen. But this is just very subtle. Open ideas will continue with B2B digital developing the mashup. And after C6 measure to S3, D5. If like doesn't play, the five would die sooner or later to play E4, for example, after 1982, play E4. That's why white plays him of D5, which also puts pressure on the form. But the main disadvantage of that move is that it leaves the phi square for the height. That's why we'll continue with the moment I do E5. And here black cannot play night to the seven because this bond would be hanging by black, played him over night F to D7 to exchange these very strong night in the center. And after taking and D7 and dignity seven, where Blaine 1982. Like gasoline and oil, gasoline. So so far, everything is pretty normal. Night to F6, the knight is going back towards the center, which makes sense. We're blade the move E4. And here BlackBerry mobile B5. Again, this is a more modern way to play the opening. If black takes on the form, then we will just take only four. And white has a slight space advantage on the center. And whitespaces are a bit more active. Now these be Giovanni six doesn't make a lot of sense because this point is very well-defended. So here y would have a slight advantage. That's why Blackberry, they move B5, putting pressure on C4 and C5. They are other alternatives like plane group to Y1, which happen later in the game. But take it on the five sooner or later make sense because white ones to make use of the bishop putting pressure on the center. That's why here, Why do 135? And here, black dog on the five. So here we're still in the opening, but I would like to show a line because it's very interesting. It involves an exchange sacrifice. Take it on the five with the E bond is stronger than digging with the C-H bond. If like takes with the C bone, then here y can try, similar to the game, blame them of C5. And these might seem like a mistake because here, black has a tactical idea which is to play the more before. There's an dagger on the rook. So here Blackboard sacrifices bottom before, and then black would take on F1. In the end. Like God Iraq, bad white gets a bishop and upon. And we'll see a similar idea in the game. And he White has an excellent position actually because while it has a queen said Paul majority, these three bonds against one and white has. Bishop pair. So why it has great compensation for the exchange here? To show you that nice line. And after ED50 here, White played him a rookie one. Getting out of this pressure. I'm like continuous loop to B8. Like could have dignity for but the spawn on zCX is also hanging. Syrup to be 80. Also make sense. And here we'll continue with the move S5. Here, blackbody move bishop to C8, which might look a bit weird to go back plane before. And let's say bishop to be due was possible. But Black thought that the bishop would be better on nicking side rather than on the queen's knight. That's why blood play the morbidity of dissociate. And now this visual might come to have five or D4. And so far honestly the game doesn't look very interesting, but it will get very excited very soon. Here we're bleeding overnight, we have three. So wide wants to put an idea. He would attack this bond on C6. And judging by what happened in the game here, black could have considerably in the mortgage of digit four. But he was very hard to see what, why do we play. And the idea is that here we've been denied, which is very strong. If it comes 35. And if white breaks, it's been so 1990, they blend Duke, I'm doing five. Then black may even give this bishop. And after dig in here what we'll have the bishop pair, but the position is not very open. What is probably still a bit Barrow, bad blacks player Lebron Iranian is ablate who likes to play actively. And this is probably one of the reasons why he didn't go for these nine. So instead, here he played them overnight to form, which looks very logical. Denied, goes through the center. E4 is every square foot like the night of the exhibition. So it makes a lot of sense. But here, why blade, the first exchange sacrifice after the movie loop takes before and after dig into four. For sure the night came to the sender. And now the bond structure danger little bit. And we see that this point is a target. And also we are tagging despondency six. So in white gets upon while we'll get a night and upon for the exchange. So wide will not be given a lot of material. And it is harder for blood to defend the bonds. Quinto D5 is actually the only move that can defend the two bonds which was played in the game. Planar move like Windows C7, wouldn't be very good because after dignity forum, here white it has a lot of compensation for the exchange quite is already putting pressure on C6. For example, after visual 37, Quinn draft 3. It is already very hard to defend this bond. For example, if Black Defense the bone, then why do I even take on the 7.5 to dig in and the seven reach up to five. Why these gaining material back? Because after the queen moves, while my sooner or later taken C8. So this wouldn't be very good for black. Instead, window D5 makes a lot of sense because the queen defense, the coupons. And here what played a very nice move when to u1, autonomy for black continue with chapter five. The other alternative to defend y4 was to play F5. But this already weekends the phi square a lot. And why can't simply continue with F3 planning the De Ge and white is already having a great position. For example, dig in on F3 is really bad because after daikon, y will also capture and C6 and white is already gaining a lot of material that take, when do we see x? We take on the Sikhs and we basically attack everything. The rook, the bishop, and we are also attacking the queen. So what is already in, in a lot of material here and spoiler alert, these bonds are going to be very strong, as we'll see later. That's why bishop to F5 makes a lot more sense because we develop a piece rather than moving upon. And here wide attack the bishop with the mortgage before and after a beach of the G6. What continue with this idea of planar three to activate division of an attack C6, taken an M3, as we saw in another line, is not very good because after digging in the bishop, despondency is x will fall. There was another idea which was hard to see after knowing what happened in the game is easy to suggest this idea by whenever we sacrifice, it is very hard to Greg evaluate the sacrifice. That's why play in this idea of giving back the material was not that simple. And the idea was to play Bishop takes E5, given a bishop for two bonds. And after dig a 95 and queen takes, we give a check. So why do you continue with the kinda edge one? I'm Black and Decker have three. After dig in R3, we get this material imbalance. Magazine materially, okay, black has a rock and coupons for a visual and night. And even here, why doesn't have connected vast bonds, as we'll see in the game. And this position is very hard to evaluate. Unblock can also tried to activate the rocks, so black ones to have good basis, for example, before attacking the bishop. And I say that white lace, which up do we do then? Rogoff to aid. And these 1985 is pinned the other rogue my gum to the file for example. So say that in this position, both sides have active disease. These policies will most likely fall and then we'll have this imbalance of Abuja Parmenides against the Rogan upon. So this was an interesting alternative to play by, probably very hard to see. And if you tried to counter attack, which is normally correct, because when we're in there, if we can find active moves, it is very often a great way to defend. So black is a very strong player. So like isn't going to give up easily. And bloody more before. First of all, taken on before is really bad because black will just capture the fore. And when material attacking the king and the bishop. But instead of moving the bishop while played an intermediate move on to Ghani for our DAG and the queen. So black history in time, reading the bishop and African 36 bishop, do we do wider, ready has upon, for the exchange. What has a very nice 1985. And these bonds are really dominant. So here they are not targets because the Doobie shoves defend these two bonds. And white is ready to advance these bonds sooner or later. Here by played visually F6. Playing the five was an idea, but after the queen moves, then probably wide didn't want to have the spin on the bishop. So here what played a move which is much simpler in my view, which is 1966. This is not really a sacrifice because after taking the night, why blade remove E5, attacking the queen and wide will get the piece back. And the main point is that after the queen moves, y takes on F6 and white gets these two connected pass bonds on the C and D files. And now the whole game is going to be about advancing those bonds. So we talked a lot about passbands in the course. If you remember, the last piece is that we have on the board, the stronger they normally become. And we'll see this idea very clearly in the game, like play the movie rogue, F2.8 taken and F6 was not very strong because white can play the movie Quinn draft tool. It is going to be a recurrent idea. What is happy exchanged in Queens and having less species in order to advance the connected bus bonds. So here, why did they blend into play? D5 and white is already having great position. So black is correctly dr. Drug debate the rooks, Rogoff to create a gigantic win. And here while again tries to exchange queens, black doesn't want to exchange Queens. For example, here if black takes on F1, then after Bishop takes, an important point is that the rook cannot be made. So these drugs are very useless so far. And what is just willing to continue with the C5 and C6 pushing the bonds. So that's why black doesn't want to take on F6. Because what will seem the exchange queens. That's why blood play the movie Queen do E2, which is an interesting idea because here black would like to exchange Queens, at least having more active disease and attacking the bishop ohmmeter. Here after day gunnery, do group Daisy do. These visual, doesn't have a lot of queers, can only go to F1 and after group to u1, kinda have to live with during the Iraq, I'm lag is really gaining activity here, attacking the king. This bishop is pinned. So this is definitely not what we would like to get. But instead here, what Beta, another very nice move, acquired mobile, which are sometimes very hard to find in a game, where simply defended the bishop by paying them off quint laughter. What would remind exchange in Queens? If they King comes to F2 and controls the two square. And now we're also defendant division. Like took a bone. So here why doesn't even mind given ponds on the king's side, as long as he can push the past bonds after Quinn days before, he would have to be careful about group, do we do? So black is trying to gain Connor Blaine. Does Y here, Y bled him. Move H3, attacking the queen, Black, continue with the G5. And again, why it has to be a bit careful pH of 34, maybe an IDM and these visual would be binned. Widespread job on G2 is very important because since white doesn't have many bonds now this video is really defending the kidney in addition to support the advance of the passbands dysplasia when you do also defends why scheme whereby the more Bishop dc1 attacking the Quinn. And after Queen Ridge 5 measure to U4 attack in Iraq, Laplace group BY to the aid plane group do you do wouldn't be very strong because he wide complaint window of three and would practically force the exchange of twins, which is what white is looking for. And after Ruby to the eight, now why I started pushing the bonds. Finally, C6, black dried breach of for C7 attack and rural route to C8. And here comes another important point. Take your knee 40 would be really bad because after the exchange, lag is managing to block the pons. And also, as I said, wise king is going to become more exposed. So not like has all types of threads. Windex when the G6, Quinta D5, that's why white continue with group 2, 1, bring in Iraq, which was really passive. And in this position, exchanging mischievous makes a difference because, why will exchange pieces? And also the San idea to give a Jack made on G7. So here after dig in and you do, well, we'll just take on the aid and after-dinner, need white decks on you do and why it has many ideas like Windex and D7. The Queen, my gum to be seven to support the bone. So these would just fail tactically, four black. So instead of taking on YouTube like dried Quinn 36, which would normally make a lot of sense because we're been in the bishop increasing the pressure and you do. So here it might seem that black is managing to hold the position. The five-year wouldn't work because the bishop is pinned. So black and assembly take on D5 and we're going to take back and hear black wood. We're doing great. Black would even be better. But here, topology played another brilliant move on to 24 again. So sacrifice and other exchange on the same square error, which is really nice to see why Dani for. So if I go back to the first exchange sacrifice here, why 224? And again, what is taken only four on the second die. So after taking only for like has to take with rook because the bishop is also an agony for and now here, white blade, they come D5, just pushing these coupons. And we see the power of the to-be shops when they support the advance of the pons. So here, the two bishops and the two bonds easily I'll play black strokes. And the game ended after a few moves after Roxy to create the Sikhs. Black is trying to gain some kinda play, but the two bishops also defend the king. So wise king is very safe. K2, H2, quinoa five. And here after 2003, planning to give a Jack made G6 window d5. Remember that whites main ideas to just exchange queens and when with the ponds. And finally wide manages to exchange queens because Like place queen 36 for example, then there's a very pretty way to win. What can they D7 planning to promote the bonds. And after Queen takes Quinto H6, black cannot avoid the Jack made on G7. So after quint 85, Egypt 85, the game is pretty much over black continued a few movies group to the one which have the C6 group do we do kinda D3. And here black resigned. Black doesn't have any attack on the King. For example, after root two the three, the king may simply come to a form. And then while we'll just promote the bonds. 54. Pawns Can’t Move Backwards: This game is very impressive because the way that black out plays his opponent looks very simple. But I selected the game because we have a very strong players. It might be very common to see a stronger player. I'll play in a very weak player. But here we have two former world champions, plane, plane as why do we have Alexander audio him? Who was a great player, a very strong tactician. And as black we have Jose Raul kebab Lanka. And seeing coupled Lanka having such a dominant position after less than 20 moves plane as black is just very instructive to see, particularly when gaba blanket didn't play very aggressive moves, but just improved his position throughout the game. The main ideas that we'll see in this game are about squares, either gaining control of squares and getting good outpost for the BCS. The risk of advancing the pons too much, having good coordination. And here we'll also see the risk of having a night on the edge of the board. So why play the movie D4 night? We have six S4, E6 night Web 3. And after B6, we again get the Queen's Indian Defense. Remember that in the previous game, played the bishop to A6. But here after D3, Black Plague be up to V7, which is a more classical way to play this line. So this week we normally try to put pressure on the king site, an afterimage of didgeridoo hearing the opening. Normally we have many alternatives, like play them off C5, just wanted to mention that bishop to E7 and Castle was another common alternative. And after C5, likes means IDEA's to exchange the C-H bond for the bond. And trying to gain assembled by majority would do pons against one. But here we're played an interesting move and play them off D5. So wide wants to give the central ponds. And the idea is that after take 95, as it had been in the game, like is not willing upon because white is not capturing backplane the movie night to h4. So now why it has the spin on the bishop. So black cannot move the DePaul and white will later on take on D5 and gain our central bond maturity himself. But the main problem of this idea is that this night on edge forum is not very well-placed. And if it ever goes back to have three, it will lose time. But this idea still very interesting for white. And here black freedom of D6, which controls possible animations. But also proposed to develop the bishop digit seven is visible normally be very good on the signal. And after night to S3 wide is in no hurry to take on the five P's of G7. Castle. Castle. Why develop the bishop to afford? Taken on the five was an alternative, an even more flexible than me geographer just wanted to mention that taken on the five with the night is probably not the best option. Because after Dignity Five, these bishop would get more active. That's why in general, wide wants to take with the bond. So it takes the five-year wasn't alternative. And one of the main ideas is that white wants to play against his bishop. And B7, for example, after y4, this visible m7 wouldn't be doing a lot. So this was an interesting alternative. So after bishop to have for D6, white finally do Gandhi five. And here black cannot develop the night to D7. Because, why would take on the segue's? This is the main advantage of the bishop honor for, so by the way here I want to mention that even though we got the same opening, the queens in defense than in the previous game. Here the pons structure is completely different. Therefore, the plans that will be here are different. And these constructor that we have is more common on another defense, the binominal defense. Some common plants for wide here are to attack this bond on the Sikhs, which is a backward bond. And also to try to block this position on the coincide and have good control of the least-squares. Quite also has a king side palm majority. Thus y plane E4 and sometimes you an F4 is a common idea To sooner or later play five. So to exploit these, sendall upon majority unblock score implants are to either push the coincide bonds like has-a Quincy at bond maturity. So black will try to play B5 or to repair it first with a six. And then even tried to play before Genspace on the coincide. And also to put pressure on the center with the rook. If white plays for black will try to put pressure on the form. So both widen lag already have many plans in mind. But now black wants to develop the business. Route to create is a common idea. B to the seven has said, doesn't work because why will take on the six? Another idea is to play night to A6. Although the knight goes to the edge of the board, it would normally come back to C7. And here it might put pressure on D5, but also support the idea of ln B5, which is a standard plan for lag in his position. But here black played another idea at night to age five. Although the knight goes to the edge of the board, it adapts the bishop. So here what it has to do something about it while played him move bishop that they do. And then black finally develop the nylon, meet and hear what has many options. One of them is to play E4, which is the most common plan. The Queen my companies do. That's very common. Even playing the movie a4. Here is an interesting idea and DC debate in blacks plan of playing A6 and V5 group. Do you one might be an idea because sooner or later plays a move E4 than the rural county one will be well-placed. But instead, what baby move F4, which is already a bit strange in this position, by the way, also blame the movement I do have three was logical because an Iron Age 4 is not a lot. So the 90 NO3 is going to be better placed. And I also wanted to mention the 10 white plays E4. The square becomes a bit weak. But as we'll see some dance, we can weekend squares if we get something in return. So here, the default square has been weakened. But like Canada plays a night, for example, there quickly. And on the other hand, why does gain space on the sender uneven limit in this bishop? So this is very common that sometimes we gain something and we lose something in return. So Blaine, the movie E4 here is definitely not a bad idea. But after F4, light blade A6, so this is a standard plan. And here comes a move that I really didn't like, which is the vision of two or three. So here what I could have played E4 or even a for bad after Chapter 3, the idea is to take on H5 and weaken the bond structure. But the night on H5 wasn't doing a lot there. That's why black simply wrote the night back to F6. So after these movies, why bleeding or bishop two or three. The bishop there is no doing a lot on, is helping black to improve his business. That's why this movie doesn't make a lot of sense, at least to me. Then I don't age for now also doesn't have the F3 square to go back. That's why all in all, I don't like these moments of 23. And after night to F6, a4. Here black played a very interesting C4. Move. C4 is gaining the square for the night. So the nightmare come true C5. And a very important point is that now the foursquare has been weakened, but white cannot exploit that easily. This idea of planes y4 is very standard. But here this particularly strong because wide cannot bring an item to the form at least quickly. Because these neonates for if it wasn't F3, it would come directly to the fore. And in my already think about coming to the six. But with an iron age for black is gaining the scaffold night that might come to be three, which is more important than given the default square in this particular position. So the game continued bishop to E3. Windows seven, preparing to play 1985. And after 16 moves, black is already better. So this is quite surprising because black is playing against a very strong player. And he won't probably didn't want to play quite moves like when two C2. Because like will simply continue with appropriate or 1985 leg is already having a great position. But why preferred to play more actively? And braid emoji form, which is consistent with the way that I played, but it is not strong, like tinnitus E5. So we see how blog is playing on the coincide and white is trying to gain some activity on the king side. And here I played G5. Taken five wouldn't be very good because black and simply take on C5, gaining good control of the dark squares unprepared to play B5. That's why this one made good for wide. And after D5, 937, again, why didn't want to play quietly, but follow with this plan of putting the bonds on the king's side. I'm blade the move F5. And this is really not a strong move because first of all, it weakens the phi square a lot, which is a grid square for pretty much all black pieces. The nightmare come there, the bishop may come there, even a rock may come there. And white doesn't have any real attack here, because black has a lot of pieces on the good side In the king. And white is not opening a lot of lines against the king in this case. Here, black paid rook F2.8 a DAG and the bishop. After bishop to have for black babies of 25 to trade business and gain the phi square. Just wanted to mention that even blamed 1985 was wrong here because F6 is not a serious threat, because black and display bishop do a fade and white doesn't have any follow-up here. So now blood is going to play in the coincide and white doesn't have any strong continuation package of 25 is simpler because black might not want to have the beach on a fade. And after a breach of duty for V3 attack and rook. Why do one G6, which is an interesting dry, but Cabo Lanka is a very strong player. Didn't take the rock here because why would simply take on F7? And after taking an F7, which uptakes is a discovery check. And if blackberries kinda G aid, then why can simply retreat? And we see how now blacks King is going to be very exposed there. So flag is trying to play strategically. Black, doesn't want to gay material, tourist being attacked. So this wouldn't be a good option for black. Instead, like simply took back on G6. And now after up to be one. Black is already having a great position. And here black played some concrete moves in order to convert the advantage. And Duke on z3. And after taking AC3 Windows E5, no black is planning to get this bone. And even though, like I gave the dark square Bishop, like still has gray control of the dark squares because this be Giovanna form is not placed on this diagonal. I'm like simply has more active disease. So like seal has Deborah pieces and it's even trying to gain material. That's why the position is already very bad for white. White lady move E3 are now this night is attacked. That's why luckily the movie 95. And after Bishop two or three night came to the three. So we see these two strong nights. I'm leg is already winning the material because these Poland E5 is going to fall after kindred one, reach up to 65. Here, white dried to complicate the position and play the movie rogue days B3. And the idea is that after Dagan rook, what was planned to play them of Winn-Dixie three, although human here, black would have the more visual C4, but this was more complicated. Instead, like simply took the bishop honor for another MOOC is hanging. That's why white lady move be one. And after reuptake C3, lab already got two bonds. But here white dried, uninteresting trick and delay the movement energy do. And the idea is that after taking the night than white here could have taken on the five. And what is a DAG and rogue. And this night is also hanging. That's why here black would be losing material. For example, after exchange in Queens, we see how these two pieces would be adapt. But gaba Lanka was not only upgrade strategic layer, but also a great tactical bilayer. And here play them over uptakes F3, which gives the exchange. But after dig energy do AND gate takes leg is getting the material bag because this rope is binned. Like even play them appropriate first. And after kinda have one measure uptakes queen takes. The game is pretty much over like has a gray material advantage. But while continued a few moves, Windex D5, getting another bond. Here I played rope D1, taken to be six, would lose after Windows one. Kinda judo. When do they do? They can kind of go the first round because of rope D1. And after, let's say kinda CH3, group 33 would already when material. But after rook do one rope days we get this bending on which black gets a lot of bonds. So this is quite a matter of converting the advantage. But the game is pretty much over. Kinda C1, Windows E5, kinda, we do kinda Jiddu queen draft to B5, B6. We dated for Windex and after, when do we do wide array resigned. Sublime has four extra pounds. Sublime has many ways doing this. But one simple way here would be to force the exchange of Queens. So after kindred three, for example, when do the one really strong defending this bone and planning to come to B3 and avoid takes on S4 than black will just for the exchange of Queens. And then when these ponding easily after D5 pushing the bonds. So this is not a first-line but after when do you do like has many different ways doing this position. So as we can see here, a black didn't play any fantastic moves, just played solid moves and good. Jess, unmanaged drop lay, a former world champion. This way.