Character Animation in Moho/ Anime Studio: Run Cycle | McCoy Buck | Skillshare

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Character Animation in Moho/ Anime Studio: Run Cycle

teacher avatar McCoy Buck, Create and Animate!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 18m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Setting up the project

    • 3. Getting Started

    • 4. Part 1 - Pose to Pose

    • 5. Part 2 - Pose to Pose

    • 6. Timing & Spacing (Timeline)

    • 7. Timing & Spacing (Legs)

    • 8. Part 1 - Motion Graph (Up & Down)

    • 9. Part 2 - Motion Graph (Up & Down)

    • 10. Part 1 - Arms (Timing & Spacing)

    • 11. Part 2 - Arms (Timing & Spacing)

    • 12. Part 1 - Overlapping Action & Follow Through

    • 13. Part 2 - Overlapping Action & Follow Through

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About This Class

What is this class? 

This is a step-by-step class where I will walk you through the process of creating your very own run cycle using a popular 2D animation software called Moho/ Anime Studio.

Why take this class?

I believe animation is an incredibly rewarding, relaxing, and fun thing to do. Let's say you already animate, whether you do it as a hobby or freelance, but you want to get better - that's why I made this class. Not only because animation is fun, but to sharpen those skills you already have!

How is this class taught? 

I broke up this class into the simplest of steps. First we will do an overview of the character how it works to know best how to use it for animation. Then I will break down the important poses needed for a run cycle use the pose to pose method. Then we will create our in-betweens and tighten up the animation. 

What is included? 

In this class I have included:

  • Run Cycle Template
  • Professional - Ready to Animate - Rig

Meet Your Teacher

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McCoy Buck

Create and Animate!


McCoy is an Associate Producer at CLEAVER Creative located in Phoenix, Arizona. McCoy is a talented character animator, character designer, illustrator, storyboard artist and producer. With skills and experience in pre-production and post production he has done training videos for one of Google's biggest clients, Accenture. Along with the skills of animation, one of the biggest things McCoy enjoys most is teaching and helping others become more proficient in the production process.

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1. Introduction: Hey, guys, this is McCoy. Buck back with another sartorial. This has been the most requested tutorial for years, but I was never really ready to make it until now. In this tutorial, I'm gonna show you how to create a run cycle like the one you see here. This little guy was created from the ground up and completely rigged and ready to go with smart bones for the head, body, arms, legs and face. The sartorial is quite advanced in the techniques and tricks I'll show you has taken me years to learn. So I'm gonna break it up into a few videos to make. It is easy and clear for you to learn and understand how to create this animation yourself . With this tutorial, I will love to see what you dio, even if it's not perfect to your standards. So after you have completed each of the videos, share your progress there you can ask for constructive criticism, feedback and see how others were doing. I really hope you stick with this. I really want you to succeed. All right. I think we're ready to go. Let's get started. 2. Setting up the project: I There's a real quick tutorial to download the project files from my website and opening them up in mojo. So first thing I'll do is I'll just hit download. So once it downloads onto your computer, it's going to be in a ZIP file. So you're gonna wanna open up that zip file and extract the files. So if I right click and I go to extract all and then I just have a distract, I could put this wherever I want. You could have this my downloads folder. So now I'll have access to these actual files. So if I go into the first follow here, you can see that I have it both available in Mojo, an anime studio 11. So I'm just gonna select the file in mojo. So when you first open up the file, it'll say that there's a file missing called template frame one PNG uh, you want to locate this so you can bring in your whole template. So again it's gonna be Were you downloaded your folder? So I'm gonna come in here to the templates folder. This is where it saved. And as you can see here, I'm looking for a fine template frame one dot PNG. This is it right here. Once it finds that one image, it should find the rest of them in that folder where they are place. And so when you do have it fully loaded, all of your images should now be on the left side. There. If you have any questions, please comment below the video again. Thank you for your support and I'll see you later. 3. Getting Started: all right before we get started. And if you're using your own rig, I wanted to show you the key parts of this rig in order to make this front cycle work. If you want to make it look similar to mine. So here is You can see I have this boy character. I also have the template, everything off to the side, which I'll talk about shortly. But as far as the rig itself, it's It's pretty simple. There's really not much to it. There are some bones that are hidden currently that control the face. But as you can see here, just right off the bat, you probably noticed the eye. It looks a little wonky. Just know that this is kind of difficult for mojo. I'm using Mojo 12.5. But if you render this out, it should show up totally fine again. He looks a little bug eyed. Looks a little weird. Um, but as we get this run cycle going, you'll see how it how the end result will look so starting off, I have ahead. Turn here. Nothing too fancy. You can do whatever you want for your head turn. Really? But this is just kind of what I have. And then I have a body turn. So as he's running, it actually looks like he's turning with his body there. And then I have some target bones here in the feet, and, as you can see there Ah, they will break usually on frame zero. But on frame one and above, when she start animating that issue tends to go away, but also with these target bones and they go to frame one here, um, I made sure that they are completely moveable. So I made sure that I can translate the top of these legs here with the target bones. Ah, still working with everything. It's really important when you're doing this run cycle on your bringing the hips, front words and backwards. It really helps the cell that run there. Next, I'm gonna be using this run template that you can see here on my screen. This is downloadable with the character for my website, and this is going to be our reference and references are really, actually really important. As for an animator to understand timing, spacing, imposing, usually looking at real life references or looking at references from other animations that professional animators have created. This is a really great way to understand how things are working. In fact, I encourage you to use references much too. You can win animating this particular animation. I probably learned from hundreds of references over the years to where I felt comfortable enough and confident enough to create my own. So this little run cycle that you see here on this template if I go ahead and I just pop over here, you can see this temple is gonna be highlighted in blue if you have your own file and the the rig is gonna be in green. But if I come over here to the folder here, you can see that I have it set up so that as you're going from frame to frame to frame, it's just quickly updating. Ah, what the what? The references showing there and that'll make it really easy as you have things side by side to set up your run. Ah, that's pretty much why I have it set up that way. All right, so another thing that I do that makes it a little bit easier for the whole workflow is not too many people know about this. But down here you have your little splitting tabs that are really helpful to split your view. So I'm going to click on this one right here to split my view. And here I could have my reference I could move my window around. I really don't need that much space for this guy. So I'm just gonna move it too, right about there. And then I have my window here for my rig. Also have the ground, the ground, just kind of template, I guess. So, if you want to bring that in, that's going to really handy to know where to put your feet. And again, if if you wanted Teoh, this isn't necessary. But you can line these up too, just so you can see, like, the same height. But I'm gonna be eyeballing this myself. And I've done this. Runs Heikal a few times now, so I know pretty much what it is that I want to dio. All right, so once you have your run, sample it ready to go and you have your screen split. The next thing that we're gonna do is we're gonna change our key frame interpolation the default, and we're gonna change it from its default of smooth to step. And as we start animating, I'll be able to explain a little bit more what that is doing. But basically it's gonna help us to prevent animating our character, Um, and having any sort of in betweens or any sort of Tween happening between these poses. It's kind of like as if you're drawing this on paper. It's just one piece of paper as a drying. The next piece of paper has a drawing, and there's no animation happening between those sheets. All right, so the first thing that we're gonna do is we're gonna highlight our boy character here, so make sure that you have your rig highlighted, because now we're going to start animating. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit control F. Now what control F does is it freezes all the bones that are visible on screen here and there's a Z can see her on the left hand side. There's a channel for bone angle for translation and for bones scale. And when I freeze that, it creates a key frame for all of those uh, for all of those bones using these channels. But if I don't do that, let's say, for instance, I haven't are moving on frame one, and then it moves to another position on frame 24. But I didn't create any key frames in between that. It's slowly, slowly, slowly going to change that new position over those 24 frames. And that's why you get that floating effects a lot of time. So just keep that in mind. Keyboard shortcut control F. We're gonna be using that a lot. 4. Part 1 - Pose to Pose: So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna create are a key position, and I'm gonna assume at this point that you know how to navigate. So I'm gonna be using keyboard shortcuts you'll see here popping up on my screen. Ah, but you should be pretty familiar with what I'm saying as I'm calling all the tools. So within a manipulate bones tool, I'm gonna take this route, Bones. And what the root bone is the parent of all of these bones. As you see here, when I pick up the character, he moves and so does all the bones. So picking up that character, I'm gonna be holding down shift. And now this is really important. I'm gonna hold down shift, and I'm gonna move him up. And the reason why I'm holding on shift is it's going to constrain either left to right in a straight line or up and down. And whenever you're moving your character inside of a run cycle up and down, it's really important that he's constrained vertically and that he's not moving backboards and forwards or else you're gonna get a lot of popping. So holding down shift, I'm gonna pick this character up to write about their next thing. I'm gonna do something to select this target bone, and I'm gonna bring up his leg, so let its roughly around the same shape as you can see there in that in that silhouette. So I'm gonna bring it to write about their that leg there and then I'm gonna pull this one to right about here. Now, I don't need to do any hip shifting because of how this is originally rigged. This is in a pretty good spot again, making sure that the bones air frozen control f next. I'm gonna do the same thing for his up upper torso. I'm just going to bring his arm here up front and I'm gonna bring this towards the back now because the arms and legs are gonna be opposite of one another. Inside of run cycle, you can see it looks a little off. So now if I add this body turn, you can see now his his shoulders are gonna be rotating in the direction that his arms were going, and that's basically what we want is we want his body to be facing the complete opposite direction than his legs at this moment, his head and everything else I don't really want you to worry about. The only thing that we're gonna do is we're just gonna move his body for just a little bit more. So again, just like your template you have there. That's what therefore s. So let's go ahead. Let's move on to the next extreme position. So this run cycles could be a total of 17 frames, and then it's going to loop back. It's a pretty fast run cycle, about eight frames per step. So what I'm gonna do is because there's a run cycle and I'm on frame 17. Let me zoom in here on my timeline with the little icons right here, Me to hit control f again. We're freezing the pose. So from this pose to this pose, as you can see there, nothing is happening. But also because it's on step. It's it's not gonna be doing like any in betweens. So now I'm gonna go to the frame in between the two poses, and that's on frame nine and again, I'm gonna hit control F to create my freeze bone. But now what? You can see here is the silhouette has changed, and that's because his body positions could be changing. It's basically going to be the same that it was before, except opposite his legs. And his arms will be opposite of where it was prior. So first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna turn his body turned all the way over to the other side and I'm going to position his arms just like you can see they're using that little silhouettes template that I created again his legs are now gonna be opposite. And we got a little bit of distortion. They're gonna move that back. Okay, Now, as you can see here, it's a little wonky. And that is because his hips are so far back. So let's go ahead and bring his hips forward. So I'm gonna select the bone, hold be it's a on the keyboard and transform it. I'm gonna hold Deng shift. I'm just gonna move it forward. Ah, for now. And we're just trying to get that leg in a better spot there. That looks pretty good. I might have moved his leg a little bit too far for, but we'll see. It's a lot of trial and error with animation and these poses are really important. So it's important that we do get these poses in a pretty good spot here. And I think, for the most part, that looks pretty good. So what I can do to go from one key frame to the other? You hold on, Ault. But if I don't hold down, Alton, I just use my arrows. You can see it just goes one by one. And these little things are my keyboard shortcut. This is just to help, you see. So sorry if this gets a little intense with stuff all over the screen, Um but I'm gonna hold on, Ault, and I'm going to hit back the other direction there. So now I'm just gonna switch between all on both sides there. And I think that looks pretty good because basically, you want to keep your pose pretty similar to what you have for the other side or else again , because it's a run cycle. And because this is a really fast moving, there's gonna be a lot of popping another thing that you can do to kind of see to make sure that things are similar. If you don't have a template is turning your onion skin and you can go to the frame that you're basically mimicking. Ah, however, just keep in mind that here's a good spot. So, for example, his foot right here I could move that out just a little bit more. But just keep in mind that you're not going toe line these up exactly, simply because now we're on other legs and the other the other side of the legs and the ah when he's just standing there normally because of the perspective that he's in. Ah, not everything is gonna match up. Exact one thing to look for. That can be helpful if you are using ah, reference to some sort, and the reason why I created this is a silhouette is you can look at the negative space between his arms and between the shirt and things like that, to see how things were set up. And for the most part, that looks pretty good. There's a little bit extra right here. Ah, but that's because once we get into this a little bit further, this body is not gonna be quite in the same position that we have right now. But for right now, just starting out, just creating our poses in our positioning, it works. So for the most part, this this looks pretty good. I would say the only one other thing is I would just have his head rotated up just a little bit for these poses and again because this is a rotation. And I'm just gonna keep all the head rotations the same right now, I can just simply copy the the head rotation of Put on Frame one. And when I say rotation, just putting his head up. Nothing with the head turn, but go to frame one. Select. My selected bone angle has this symbol here on the Red Channel, and I'll hit control C control V and that'll pace that same pose there and again. Everything on frame one. You could basically go ahead and copy because you want that to be exactly the same for frame 17 so that the loop looks proper. All right, that's it for this video. In the next video, we're gonna key in the rest of these positions so that we can finish up our poses for this run cycle. I'll see you there 5. Part 2 - Pose to Pose: in this video, we're gonna keep out the rest of the poses and learning a new method I highly recommend using that is used in traditional animation. All right, so now let's go ahead and key in the rest of these positions. So another really important position that will really help define this run cycle is simply just going to the next position after he is in the air. Um, notice how we started on the error. And it's not kind of what we did. Like the walk cycle tutorial where he was. Well, obviously, cause you don't walk in the air. But we didn't start with the contact position. This would be known as the contact position here where the foot is making contact and we didn't start with that position. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna go ahead and select the target bone. I'm gonna hold down shift, and I'm just gonna drag this down straight down for now and then going to the root bone. I'm just gonna hold shift and pulled down that route bone until his foot is making contact . Now I want to make it, make it contact that first. Not line, not the second line. Ah, that is for the other foot. As you can see here, I just created that key frame. However, I want to make sure that I'm creating a freeze pose on all of these poses and again, you'll know why later. And we'll be deleting a lot of key frames, but it just it's gonna save me a lot of time. So I'm gonna hit control F to freeze my pose. Now the foot, it really doesn't do much in this position. It's gonna it's gonna go up like it's gonna do by default. But what I want to do is I just want a lift that foot up just a little bit more. I can probably move it back just a little bit. Ah, but that's basically it as faras the arms. I'm not gonna do anything with the arms and you'll see why. But basically all we're gonna focus on from this tutorial forward until we start getting into the animation eyes. I'm just going to be focusing on the legs. So I just wanted you to focus on the legs. Don't worry about the arms. I have ah technique toe basically make that whole process easier. We want to do the same thing for the other side, to starting to come here to our next pose. And I'm gonna go ahead and go to the next. All right? So something that we're gonna change your really quick that I just noticed is I was already separated on my key frames. A Ziff. We had already created the run cycle. But that's what you do after the timing. So keeping an eye on your template here, we're gonna go to the post where he's up in the air, and that's where we want to put this middle pose. So hopefully this doesn't make it too confusing. Ah, if it does, please let me know. But basically, we just want it Creates are simple poses right next to one another. And then when we get into the timing which will get into a little bit later, that's one will be separating out these key frames. So for now, just make a quick change again. Let me know if this doesn't make sense, but I'm going to basically just bring those positions in. Okay, So I noticed that because my template was off it wasn't following what the frame was. So we're back on frame six. So this is the main pose, and now we're gonna do this pose here. So now we're gonna go to the opposite foot, I'm gonna hold down control and you drag that down drug down my route bone And then again, the leg It's gonna be a little bit different from this first post here. I'm gonna have it, points it up and then just maybe pulled the the the hit back just a little bit there, maybe point the toll of the higher so I'll raise target bone up just a little bit more, and I think that looks pretty good. So now you should see a little bit. Not too much, but a little bit of a down of his body. You can see how far down it's going s so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit control F to freeze all of these poses and let's move on to the next one, which is going to be the furthest down position. So we have our will call this air contact and then down. So let's go ahead and do the down position so I'm going to just pull this route bone over to the middle. So now his his weight in the center of gravity is gonna be basically below his waist, his pelvis There on, we're gonna pull this down, and as you can see there, it's going to the wrong one as I pulled down the route bone. So let's go ahead and pull this target up again. We want to keep it on this line here, and that looks pretty good right about there. We're gonna grab this target bone and move it over. Now, as you can see there, it's kind of tearing a little bit. Ah, but basically, at this position here, his, uh his leg will kind of be centered of his hip or of his body there. So I'm just gonna move that with the translate bones, will there and again. That looks pretty good looking at our reference here again. Don't worry about where his arms are, but just looking at where his legs are and looking at that negative space between this silhouette. Ah, that looks, that looks pretty good. So one thing that I do that I think will be really good to get in. The habit of doing is flipping through your key frames. It's a traditional method that they did on paper. When they'd flip through their sheets, they'd flip back, back and forth through their She's to see how everything was flowing, and I suggest in the same thing. So we have these three key frames now. And as far as that foot and what it's doing s so far, it looks pretty good. Ah, ignore my little keystrokes on the side there. It gets a little crazy when I'm using my arrows. I don't know how to disable that. Well, basically, that's the concept of flipping. So the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna do the next position on the other side so his foot is going to be down. Go ahead and rotate his foot now and I'm gonna bring down his body, pull that back up just a little bit and again, I'm gonna now have the leg so that it's following the silhouette here. So the legs gonna be above this line and I might have moved the body down a little bit. But one thing that I want to keep in mind is because this is a cycle. If I have it too far down, then it's going to stutter on this second down position. So what? I'm gonna do something to highlight my route bone. I'm gonna go to the select bone Translation, And I know it's this key frame right here. I'm gonna go ahead and take that key frame copy and paste it. So now I have the exact same height there. And as you can see there, it doesn't look exact as far as the silhouette there. But it looks pretty close, and we'll be able to fix that as we go. So I'm just going to come in here and just kind of move his leg. All right? For the most part, that looks pretty good. So now we have almost all of her poses besides our push off pose. So this is the last one. So I'm gonna go back to frame for me to drag target bone behind his body slightly there, so it looks like he's gonna be pushing off with that leg and we pull this route bone up again. I'm just going to make some adjustments with my bones here. Pull the foot so that it's now creating this launch position. And with this, I'm gonna bring his hip forward just a little bit About halfway there, I'm gonna bring this hit back a little bit as well. So again, we're creating that negative space. It's a little bit wider there, the gap. But that looks fine. For right now again, anything that looks off, we can go back and fix. Um, animation is just a lot of trial and error. Ah, but that looks pretty good as far as that pose. So I'm just gonna take that key frame there for the route bone. For that positioning, I'm gonna go ahead and hit control C and then control V so I can kind of get more or less where I want that, uh, that position to be as far as the height. And again, I'm gonna pull down this target bone, and he's lifting off with this foot. I might turn on my onion skin so that I can see a little bit better the position of where things were before. Um, so I'm gonna go ahead and do that Gonna turn on my onion skin and again select what That position was and we're changing our legs now, but this leg is gonna come back to basically the front of where it was before. Now, after this position is gonna fully extend out and then I'm gonna move this leg here back, making sure that it's on the other line there. So, as you can see, there is again. My reference s so you can see what that silhouette should look like, more or less. And one thing that's very important I forgot to do as you can see is I need to freeze all my keys again. We'll go back. We'll delete a lot of these keys. But it's better to delete then to miss them, cause then it just creates weird in betweens once we have everything set up. So now again, just using my method of flipping through, I'm just gonna flip through. I'm looking at this back leg first just to make sure that everything looks pretty good and I think it does. I'm looking at the hip as well. You can highlight the hip and you kind of see where things were out as well. And I think that looks pretty good. Goes next pose here, and I think that looks pretty good and then we'll just go here. I think there's a little bit of distortion on that back leg, but it's gonna be a really fast run. There's give me some fast move it. But overall, I think that looks pretty good. So now the next part that we're gonna go over is a timing and spacing we're gonna stretch out. These key frames were set the timing and the spacing for animation, and I'll see you there. 6. Timing & Spacing (Timeline): in this video, we're going to set the timing and spacing for a run cycle by using the timeline. So now that we've got our keys set, we have our main pose are extreme pose, and we have all keyed out. Ah, the real fun begins. And this is figuring out the timing for this run. How fast we want. How slow do we want it? This run is gonna be a fast run, like I said and and you kind of hard he sought before. Ah, but we're gonna be creating a eight frame step. So for each step, it takes eight frames, so it's gonna be a total of 16 frames. However, we're gonna bring it out to 17. So a really quick way that we can do this is I can highlight all of these key frames and holding down also on my keyboard and left clicking. I can take this last key frame, making sure not to highlight frame zero Just highlight, uh, 10 through the one I'm going toe hold also, and I'm gonna drag it out to frame 17. The reason why I said 17 and again because I've done this a lot. Ah, but it creates a nice even spacing between all the key frames. There's a frame between each of these of key frames here. So now the next thing I'm going to do is because this is a cycle is I'm going to create a, uh, the playback. So where it starts and it stops so holding down control and right clicking, it's gonna create my stop. If I want to create a start that wasn't on frame one maybe start out frame six. I can do that just by left clicking with control. But to turn those on and off just left click right Click control, move positions as well. So I'm just gonna go ahead and play this out and you can see overall, that looks pretty good. But now we're gonna go into the timing and we're gonna change some stuff up. So what? I'm going to Dio you can see here. I'm gonna go ahead and turn off my template and let's just go ahead, bring up to a full window because now we don't need that template much anymore. So what I'm gonna do is I am going to start timing this out as far as this run. This is a pretty standard run, but I want to make it a little bit unique. I want to change it up just a little bit. So I'm gonna change up the timing and to keep things simple, like this is good. Ah, but to make it more interesting in your animation, it's It's also good to change up the timing. So with this particular run, what I want to focus on is having some air time. So I want this guy to run and then be in the air for a little bit longer than he is running and make this run with him in the air slow and then with this steps fast. So what I'm gonna do is I'm simply just gonna take a look at my poses and figure out just kind of mentally figure out how many frames I want between each of these poses. Again. It's a lot of trial and error. I already know exactly what the number is as far as the poses and how far apart they are. Ah, but I want to show you visually how how I would go about doing this. So the first thing I'm gonna dio is going to come here and I'm gonna say OK, so from this post to this post, how long is it gonna take my character to go to the ground? If I just have this pose straight to this pose, there's pretty much no time. That's a really, really fast movement that's happening in one frame in granted, I have 24 frames in this one second, so that's pretty fast. I'm just gonna get myself a frame. I'm gonna leave that space just where it is. However, right here, too. Right here. That's a pretty if you look at the spacing. So now we're talking about timing and spacing both under animation and in our keys. You can think of timing as his footsteps what his timing is as his foot steps land on the ground. So, for example, right here we have one. And then we have this other footstep to how many frames that we want in between each those footsteps. It's kind of like your rhythm with music. It's the same thing with timing. So again, like I said, it's eight frames eight frames per each footstep. But for this, let's say I didn't really know exactly what I wanted. How many frames? This is the process of how I would figure it out. But going from this position to this position, there's not a lot of movement. He's basically going heel toe, right There s O. What I could actually do is I could bring that key frame a lot closer versus this other key frame. It doesn't make sense, toe have those right next to each other because that's a pretty big distance. Yes, to cover. But this not quite so much so because the spacing is so close. We could also change that timing up. Now, what I wanted to do those I wanted to kind of slow out of this position. So if I go to this next pose, you can see it's his launch. But I don't want to have all these key frames and I don't wanna have no frames in between. So what? I'm gonna do something to do the same thing as as this first pot's going to go ahead. I'm just gonna bring that in, and you can see that what it's gonna do is it's gonna create in between for both these key frames once we change them to smooth, because this is what step is doing. Like I said, imagine that this is just one drawing for each page. There's no in betweens or anything happening. Uh, that's that's what's going on with step. But once I changed these to smooth the software's automatically going to create the in betweens for us. Or it does the process of twinning where the computer program tries to figure out where the next pose would go in between these two poses. So again, between here and here, mojo is gonna try to figure out Okay, where does this pose go for this frame? Uh, that has not been keyed before. The timing of it, I'm just gonna go ahead and play this out. So, you know, you can see the difference between these two poses on this run. You can see it kind of drags a little bit, and that's exactly what I want to do. So I want to have that drag. But then I wanted to go 123 So I wanted to take three frames before it goes up in the air. So we have our push, and then we have our air pose. And again, I want this to be like some hang time. So I want this position to slow out as he's going up into the air. And then again, all this is repeat. So as we come to this post, we know. Okay, there's one frame between there and then between this post here, there's going to be no frames because it's just a really quick position there. Ah, this next one of you drag, it's there and then it's going to repeat. So now if I play this out, that's exactly what I want. But now if you take a look at it, it looks a little, Ah, little weird. It's holding into this weird position, and then it pops up and then it goes back down again. A Zara's, the up and down movement. And this is because because it's step, it's it's not going to know. Okay, from here to here, it's gonna be up in the air. It's just gonna automatically assume that it's gonna hold that position and silicates that new position 7. Timing & Spacing (Legs): So basically from here were you start working with our smooth key frames, so change your default interpolations from step back to smooth again. This is the ah, the default key frames interpolation for mojo and anime studio whenever you're using the software, unless you change it here. But now we also want to change it in our main ST timeline. So I'm gonna select all of these key frames and I'm going to right click and I'm gonna select Smith. And now watch what happens to what's what's happening on screen here. Ah, ignore the arms again. We didn't do any animation for that. But if we take a look at the legs that looks a lot better as far as that up and down, it's not perfect. There's a timing that I want to set to his up and down as well. But right now the software's doing automatically for us, and that's kind of why it looks a little a little too smooth. Um, not quite natural. Eso we want to make this cartoony but also make it realistic According to cartoon physics, I guess eso that's what we're gonna be doing next is we're gonna be changing, Um, basically that time in that spacing for these animations themselves, cause right now I'm just letting the software do a lot of the animation for me. But I don't want to do that necessarily. I want to start to get in and start to create my own animation. So again, to not make this overwhelming, we're just going to focus on one thing at a time. So let's go ahead and let's play this out. And the first thing I want to look at is I want to look at these feet. Is everything working properly like it should? I can tell you right off the bat. No, it's not that one spot where it goes from the passing position to the push off position, that extra extra frame we left, I can see that the software is putting his foot through the ground, So let's fix that. We're just gonna go one by one right here. I think that looks pretty good again. It that's because the software is doing this in between for me, But let's say I want a favor, this first position here, which means I want to have this next position closer to that first position I could do that . That's changing the spacing of of this animation. But what happens is when I do change that again, we're back to where we were before, where it takes a little. Because of the spacing between this pose and this post, the animation is gonna play out a lot more faster. Watch what happens when I play this back. Now watch what happens when I take, and I put this for this foot a little bit further down. It's not very visible, but if this had more frames, it would be. But basically I'm changing that spacing and it's creating a slower motion. Now, versus if I left it up here next to the other foot, and it's creating a little bit of a faster motion again, with a run cycle this fast, you can't really tell. And that's why I I think it's OK to leave it as is, so I'm gonna go ahead and with this 70 frame that this software now has keyed, I'm just gonna go ahead and hit control F. So now everything is going to be pretty good there. Now it's taking a look at this other leg for this new frame that it created. I think that looks pretty good as well. All this is really doing is the legs lifting up just a little bit. And this toe is pointing back towards his, uh, back behind his body there. And I think that looks pretty good as well. Now, let's go to this next pose. All right, so right here. This is where we need to help the software out a little bit and take control back of our animation eso right here. The foot looks pretty good. It's going through the ground. But that's just because of the shape that I gave the foot. Um, but as far as the toe, I don't need the toe poking through the ground. I can keep that level. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take this foot the toe right here. I'm just gonna push this back up. So that is level. So I want the hell basically to be in line with the with the ground there. But if the foot itself goes through, that's fine. But the hell in the toe. I just wanted to be above the ground. Something hit control F again that looks pretty good. Now, if we take a look at this pose right here, um, again, this is a really fast run cycle. But say, for instance, it was slower. The software as well on this is trying to also try to decide. Okay, from this position here in this position here, what's this leg look like? And again, I think this looks pretty good. But as you can see there it creates a little bit of Ah ah, weird. A weird sort of artifact right there, which we can fix frame by frame. But again, those air. Just little things to keep in mind that even though the software does a lot of animating for you, it's it's good to take control back of your animation and do a lot of this week's in between because it doesn't do it perfectly. All right, so now let's go to this next pose here. So now we're doing some air time. We're getting some launch into the air, and I think overall, that looks pretty good. Okay, so now we're going into the air. Ah, the timing looks great as faras. How long it takes thes legs to get to their next position again. Mojo is doing a great job at getting from one position to the other. And let's go down so again here. That looks pretty good to me, going to this next position that one's already created again. We're getting a little bit of that foot moving through the ground. So let's go ahead and let's fix that now, In this position, it wasn't the same on the other side. This foot wasn't necessarily planted, had a little bit of a lift to it. So let's do the same thing. So what I'm gonna do or how I'm gonna do this is I'm just gonna bring this foot back a little bit more lifted up and then point this toe down because again, with this other thing that I forgot to mention. But with this particular rig, if yours doesn't have, it is I have a maximum I k stretching on these two bones, which is allowing its A stretch, which only works with target bones. So I have that sets of 1.50 so that's why I'm able to adjust that leg, and it's able to keep everything in place without bending the knee, So I'm gonna hit control f there. That looks pretty good. And then again, we're lifting up to the air. If I wanted to, I could have that close to the ground. But I think that's fine again as faras the foot, the closer it is to the ground, the more weight has behind it. All right? And then coming to this frame here, just make sure that it is again that the toes on the ground there and then it's gonna go up . It looks good. And yeah, I think for the most part overall, this looks pretty great. The next thing that we're gonna do with these legs really quick is we're gonna take a look at thes thes points. We have this run position exactly where we want it now, and the legs are almost done except for a few things. Ah, there's a few points in here where we have a little bit of points that can use a little refining. For example, his his But right here it gets a little bit pointed so I can come in here to the actual layer for the pelvis, and I can adjust those points again. I'm not going to do it on that exact frame. What I'm gonna do first is I'm gonna go to the frame before, and I'm gonna create the key frames because I don't want this to slowly change and silicates to this point. I want the key frames to be exactly where they are. The frame before it's actually go a few frames before, so we want it. So where it goes round, I think the smart bones air affecting one another, and I'm just gonna pull it to where it falls the arc of that leg there. And if I do it properly, it should follow it through pretty good all the way again. Yeah, we took out that sharpness of that, but they're here on this position. Ah, we can do a little bit more. So let's go ahead and let's go into this leg really quick here. I'm gonna go to the frame before, cause this frame, it's fine. Create the key frames, and then I'm gonna go in here and just tweak things just a little bit to make it look a little bit better. Um, I think I was trying to get, like, a knee position in there or a little bit of the bend. So I think that looks pretty good again. You don't really have to do a lot with this again. Here's a little bit more on this side, so let's go back to here. Sometimes you have to go in and fix things frame by frame, and there's no there's no problem with that. Um, and don't expect to have a perfect rig, because again, this is just the cleanup. This is usually a process that's left towards the end. Ah, but we're basically done with this this leg part right here. So again, I'm just cleaning. Something's up here so that everything looks a lot better. And again you can do control of here to freeze your points. Um, as you can see there, there's a little bit of a weird thing going on there, so I can go ahead and I could come in here, fix his leg. Ah, his pelvis. Again. We're getting a little bit of ah, some shapes showing through. But this is a really fast run. Um, so it might not be that visible. Some of it might be like, for example, his foot. Um coming out right there That might be a little bit visible again. This is Ah, Clash of my ah, my smart bones is what what's happening here as the smart bones weren't quite, um, working together properly for a couple of these poses? Ah, because it's, uh, with the with the particular design that I gave this character. It's a little hard to do to get Thea the rig exact, but I think that looks pretty good. So now last thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna turn off my points and my bones and everything, and I'm just gonna take a look at these legs and make sure everything looks good again. That's not such a big deal. If you want to fix your strokes, you can totally do that. Ah, lot of great animations. If you do the playback, you do frame by frame, especially Victor's. I noticed this. He doesn't really go through and finesse everything frame by frame, but yet it still looks really good, and the reason why he probably doesn't do it is one. It's a really time consuming process. Ah, but also you can't see it with really fast motions and overall, I think I think that looks pretty good. So everything's really smooth here and again. The only reason why I'm doing it, because this is the cycle. If you're if this was just part of one action inside oven animation. Ah, this wasn't this wouldn't really be noticeable. Ah, but when it's a cycle, it's definitely gonna be a lot more noticeable. So it's It's good to fix a few of these things up again. Just come in here to the foot, go to the key frame before the frame before, and I'll create my key frames and then I'll just come in here and I'll fix it on the frame . And there we go. So we're all set with the legs. The legs look good. The timing looks good. I like the timing of it being on 88 steps with runs. I don't really know what the exact numbers are, but I've seen a couple different things. But as Faras, like how many steps it's usually like 8 to 10 is a fast and then ah, I think it was like 12 to 13 or something like that is normal. Eso This would be considered a fast run, and it is a pretty pretty fast, but that's basically it for this tutorial. On the next one, we're gonna start working on the arms and the torso, and I'll see you there. 8. Part 1 - Motion Graph (Up & Down): in this video, we're gonna be working on the up and down motion using the motion graph. This is where things start to get a little more advanced. All right, now we're ready to start on the arms and torso. But actually, one thing that I forgot to mention and this kind of goes with the legs and it goes on with the rest the body and it's still covering. Timing and spacing is we're going to fix the up down position first for this run cycle. Eso again. I kind of like it, but not really. It's a little too like bouncy. It looks just like a constant, never ending bouncing ball that doesn't look that great, has no spacing to it whatsoever. So I'm gonna show you how to do that first before we work on the entire torso and the arms . So the first thing to do is I'm gonna select the bone. Let's go back to our main bone layer, making sure I'm on the boy main layer here, and I'm just select that route bone. Now again, all that this route bone is doing is it's going up and down, so there's no bone scale so I'm gonna go ahead and just like that channel lead it and there is no rotation. So I'm gonna go to the bone Angle channel and I'm gonna delete that. So all I should have is this bone scale. And if I go into the motion graph, what you're going to see is the curves for this particular animation. And I'll try to explain the best that I can. What's going on here? So to bring up your curves, you can kind of see it right away. If I scroll upon my mouse and I right click and I pan this up and down, it'll move it so you can kind of get a better idea of what these curves look like. So I hardly suggests zooming in. I think you can also go to auto zoom here. All that zooms things out. Um, yeah, so you just use your mouse will to just kind of stroll that up to see those curves. Now to see that key frames that those air affecting, I'm going to double click this channel here. So if I click at once, it's gonna hide it. But if I double click it, it's gonna bring up my channel. This red line is representing the X axis. This green line is representing the Y axis. The reason why there's no curves on the X axis is because we didn't move this backwards and forwards. And if you did that properly, hopefully your red line will look like that as well. Again, I don't want any backwards and forwards movement. I just want to straight up and down of the axes for the Y position for this run. So now let's go ahead and let's just zoom this in a little bit. Um, if some of you might know, you can separate the dimensions. However, I think there's some type of bug that when I separate the mentions, I create one set of key frames totally different than the other. And then I combined them again. It resets it, Teoh the X axis. So I'm gonna leave both of them open, and I'm just gonna zoom in here on the the Y access. Now you can kind of see right off the bat that this is basically doing the exact same thing here. So as we can see here Ah, this length is representing time. This vertical is representing the height, The jump. So we're going from this higher distance down to the ground, Back up in the air. I can change these key frames again. This is the why only that it's changing. This is only changing time. If I move these left and right. Um but yes. Oh, that's what it's doing. I have this one bone selected. So I have that bone selected, and I'm messing with its key frames. And this is the why. And if I did this properly, all of these, Why values and all of these values down here for the full Sorry. This is the air key frames. And this is the down key frames. They should all be on the exact same value. See, that one's a little bit higher than the other one, so I can come in here, Hit control C control V, and that'll put put it right where I need it. But what I'm going to do is I'm going to delete all these in between frames. See this frame right here and this key right here. And this key right here and this one here, these really aren't doing anything. The main keys that are really important are these extreme ones, which is all the way up and all the way down. Everything else I can completely modify myself using busy a key frames, and that's what we're gonna be working with next. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna delete all of these keys and you're gonna see it's gonna change the shape of things. So now if you remember what the original run cycle look like, this is what's gonna look like now see, it's even more jagged e It's almost it's almost linear. There's really no timing to it. Ah, any sort of ease in ease out whatsoever. But what I want to do is I want to create a hang time on these up positions. Now that you have those key frames deleted, go ahead and select all of them, right click and then go to busy A. So now this is what you should have, and this is really important. But basically what I'm gonna dio is I'm gonna have this play out in real time, and I'm gonna adjust these values so you can see what's happening. And I'll kind of explain a little bit better than trying to explain this without showing you anything. So I'm gonna have this plane out and watch what happens as I adjust these values. So this curve right here essentially represents speed. So again left her right is the time. And then up and down is the distance the distance travelled. But these curves a representing the speed, and this is what I can control. So the closer I have this curve to the key frame as faras this curvature, the closer I have this curvature. So let's see if I can pull us out even more. I can't well say, for instance, I have this curve straight down. Like this curve right here is closer to this key frame that lets me know that this is going to slow out of this position. This just tells me that this is going to be linear. There's really not any slowing now. It's just gonna go is just gonna rapidly go into that position like and see there. It's just going up into that position. But if I take this busy handle and and I pull it out, there we go, I can pull it out a little bit further now. Not quite so much on that side. But you can see that the closer it is to this Keith to this key frame, it's now slowing into that position. So this is an example of slow in the other side is an example of Slow out and let's go back to frame here. So all of this is basically the same. This is Ah, this right here is gonna be this side here, so I'm just gonna pull this right there, and then this key frame is this side right here. So I'm just gonna pull that out right there again. Like I said, I want this toe have hang time. I don't know why creating extra key frame. You delete that I want this tohave hang time. And then I wanted to follow gravity. So going down, it makes sense. Toe have this go faster because he's going down. And then, as he's pushing up, it starts to slow down into this up position 9. Part 2 - Motion Graph (Up & Down): But now watch what happens if I change this curve right here. Let's say okay. I wanted to have it go fast. Well, look what happens on this position. This would technically be where his foot should be touching the ground, but it's not. So what I have to dio is I have to make an adjustment between these two values, this higher value, where we're controlling the speed which is making it slower here, which makes it faster here. Or I have to make it slower here, which will make it a little bit faster here. Or find a medium between the two. So again, I'm gonna try to zoom in again. This isn't the best motion graph. Um, but I'm just going to try to come in here and address these values, but I can so that between the two, we find a spot that connects. You can see there. That looks good. And this looks good right there as well. So now as we go to this next position again, this is where the foot should still be touching. This should be the push off where the foot should still be touching. So again. Now, I gave myself too much of a speed that's taken away from this speed here for this liftoff. Again, it's a little hard to explain, but with trial on air, you'll figure out how these things work as well. So I'm gonna pull this in a little bit. And as you can see, it's lowering that side down. And I'm gonna pull this down a little bit so that it's now going to be kind of a slow off into a normal speed back into a slow speed as the jump is occurring. So kind of like that. So this is what my hill looks like. And then it goes up, and then it goes back down and we could do the same side, Same thing to the other side, kind of like this. So I'm gonna go to where the contact should be, and I'm just going to pull that key frame again. I don't want to mess with this one too much. I'm gonna do a little bit more, uh, refining with this one here. Okay? No, it's pretty good. And then we to go into this next position here, which actually looks pretty great. His foot still on the ground. Yeah, that looks looks perfect. So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna play this out. And now you can see it's a little bit different of a bounce. It has a little bit of smoothness as it reaches that top there. It slows in and slows out of that top position rather than just bouncing. And ah, I don't know if there's really an easy way to show this. Um, but if I just go ahead and I go back, you can take a look at these curves and you can see maybe I have to dislike them now if it still shows the curves, but you can take a look. If I was to change these back to smooth, you can change. You can see the difference between these two curves. Let's go back. Let's go ahead and just play this out, See how it's going up, down, up, down. And it's a little choppy. Now watch all smooth. This is because we gave it a little bit more air here and we fix the timing down here, see how good that looks. That looks a lot better. At least it does to me. So that's the busy curves and again there really helpful when you're trying to adjust timing and spacing for things like this. It works with basically anything, Um, when it comes to bones, when it comes to layers and things like that. But again, you have to be really careful about it, because it's gonna be difficult the more, uh, movement and stuff you have, like in this example here it was pretty easy because I didn't have anything going on the X access. But if I did have something going on, the X axis moving backwards and Ford's, it would take a little bit more trying to figure this out, getting things set up so that both the X and the Y flow smoothly, so hopefully that makes sense. If it doesn't, I could make a separate editorial just for busy a handles and the curves and how they work so that it's a little bit more helpful. So that is it for this video, that is for the up and down movement of this character. Now that that's finessed, let's go ahead and let you jump into the arms and the torso and I'll see you there 10. Part 1 - Arms (Timing & Spacing): All right, So now we're really making progress on this animation. Things are really starting to come together. And the next part that we're gonna work on is the arms and the torso. As you can see here, there's really not much going on with this, but it could use a lot of fixing. Let's go ahead and get started. So the first thing I'm gonna dio is I'm going to fix the torso rotation right now. There's nothing going on. Ah, All we have is this bone that's rotating. So again, I'm gonna take out the scale. Don't need those key frames and I'm gonna take out the translation. I don't need those key frames. All I have is this rotation of this body going backwards and Ford's. However I know because I have set up my extremes that this key frame here, this key frame here in this key frame hair are by extremes. So I'm just gonna delete everything else. Go ahead and just delete that. So now we should just have this a slow arm movement going backwards, and Ford's nothing too fancy there. But what we're gonna do is we're gonna change the timing, the spacing of this rotation of these shoulders and everything, just like what we did similar to the torso of it going up and down. So I'm gonna select all these key frames. I'm going to go into the motion graph, double click. And here is our motion graph. It looks pretty nice. It doesn't look too bad there. Ah, but it could use a little bit of fine tuning, so let's set up, are busier. So I'm gonna go ahead and select all of these key frames, right? Click and then go to busy A. So now let's fix this a little bit. So again, like I said, the closer that this curve is to this key frame that is a slow out because it's happening after the key frame. Anything that's curved and his in front of the key frame is a slow in. So I'll keep this in real time there, and I'll start adjusting these curves so that we can see in real time what is happening. Okay, so I'm creating this nice little s curve, and as you can see there, it makes this motion. If you just focus on this bone moving back and forth it's moving a lot nicer than it was before. The way it may was moved before it was just on smooth. And as you can see, there has a little bit of a curve How we had it prior It has just a little bit more of a slow in. Slow out that really works. So I'm gonna go back into the channel. Now we get a pretty good idea of what's going on. So let's focus on the arms now, so the arms is going to be a little bit different. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select all of these bones. So 123456 or however many bones Aaron, yours. I selected one more to the selectors. Hold control and then toe hold to select the other bones again, Hold shift with your bone selection tool. Okay, so the arms just have rotation. But I don't want to leave all of the key frames for the rotation. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm going to delete the slick bone, and I'm you delete the bone translation again. There's no translation going on. That is all inside of this spark bone, but I created for the body turn. That's exactly why it created that. I just didn't want to give myself more work with more frames, key frames to work with. So there's no translation. There's just rotation. Make it really easy for yourself. Okay, so now the next thing I'm going to Dio is the same thing. I'm gonna go to these three extreme positions on. I'm going to lead that first set out. You lied that one out. And so now I should only have this. And for the most part, that looks pretty good. Now, with this one, I'm not gonna worry about going into busy and changing these up. I think, for the most part Ah, these these arms are rotating pretty pretty good. If I go in here to the motion graph with all these bone selected, I can't see the curve itself. This can only be seen with one bone at a time. And as you can see there, they all have pretty similar similar curves. They're a little bit less on this arm here, and that's because there's just basically less movement going on with the other pieces. The parts that are moving the most are definitely going to be the shoulders as faras the rotation. But what I want to dio is I want to offset the arm and what's happening first. This is using the principle of animation called overlapping action. Ah, by having these actions kind of overlap each other. So what I want is I want the arms to reach their extreme position before the legs. Even Dio says, You can see here right now. Everything's matching at the exact time. Both the legs and the arms are happening all at the same time and it looks pretty good. But ah, I want to lead the arms and the shoulders and everything else before the waste. So I want to kind of drive that movement forward. So to do that, I'm gonna slight all of the bones for the arm again. Keep on selecting that one. I'm gonna de select it just like all of those bones, and I'm gonna take a look at this cycle right here. As you can see here, it's it's it's gonna be repeating. So this is the part. Get that's a little tricky. Hopefully, it makes sense. I'm gonna take all of these key frames and I'm gonna pull them forward and I'll keep this plane in real time so you can see what's going on. I'm gonna pull them forward about two frames. You can see right off the bat what it's doing. You can see how the arms have changed their position. Let's make it really drastic, so you can really see how. See now, he just looks like he's just running all goofy, Um, which would be really great for a goofy run there. It's type kind of matching up, and now we're just running with the arms and the legs, going in the exact same position. So it's really cool. You can see all that in real time to see what it's doing. There's a little bit of popping and again that's because we have a run cycle that cycling back. So we have to have those positions exactly where they are, which will fix here in a moment 11. Part 2 - Arms (Timing & Spacing): So that's showing how you would have your arms dragged behind, but to have the arms move forward, I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna bring this back to frame one. So I just wanted to show with the whole example of how that would work. But I wanna have these arms now be in front. I can't move this one because this is frame one. It can't go past frame zero. So I'm just gonna use these for my example. But I wanna have my arms first. Ah, get to their position and then they're going to Then the legs are gonna catch up and again , you can trial and error test this. I'm probably doing something that I originally intended. Ah, but that's just cause I want to see what this looks like and show you the process of how this works. What I now have to figure out is, if this was looping, I have to go out another eight frames. Let's go. 12345678 Again, All of my bones were selected, and I'm going to take this key frame here, and I'm going to paste it here. So let's just pretend that this was continuously going in cycling. So I'm gonna go ahead and hit control C Control V. So I just created this new key frame So that these arms nowhere to go back to, even though the animations finishing Ah, I still have to figure out where those arms go back to. So right here, Not at the end of frame 17. I'm going to double click, and it's going to create this key frame. Now, once I click one once I created this key frame, these right here don't matter. All that I use this is so that I can use this software to tell me. Okay? This is where the arms should be positioned on frame one. Right? Hopefully that makes sense. If not, um, I'll try to explain this as I go, we're going to a little bit more fine tuning with the arms. Teoh, fix those up as well. So now what I can do is I can just delete that and key frame there. And now we have this. So now I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna turn off my bones and the point so you can just see what this run looks like. So now can you see how that kind of looks different? It looks a lot more organic. It's It's the arms now that are basically powering this Run the arms air going before his legs reach their extremes. Their arms had already reached it. Um, And again, I offset this for about two frames, so you can see the arm good since the full stretch position, and then the legs start to follow, but you can see now the arms are starting to go back, and I actually don't want that. What I want to do is I want to keep those arms Ford for just a little bit longer than we turn my bones back on. So what I'm going to Dio is with all of the arm parts selected, So all of the arms, I'm going to go forward one key frame, and then I'm gonna double click on this rotation layer. So now what I just did is I created a rotation key frame that's going to be key framed of this position. But the cool thing is, I could move this key frame anywhere. So again, I'm gonna hold. I'm gonna push place. You can see this in real time. The key for my just take I just created I can take and I can put that anywhere. And what this is gonna do is it's gonna hold that position of that key frame until it gets to the next set of key frames. So as you can see there, there's a lot more slowing out of this position. It's the exact same one that's right here. But I just took and I just drug it so that it's holding that. Whoa, it's not doing OK. There we go. So now it's now it's working. I I think I just had to stop it and play it out again. So now you can see it's holding this position the entire time the body and everything is rotating. But then it's gonna snap, and I don't want that. All I want is I want I want this arm to kind of stay in position while this leg goes down. So I'm just gonna pull it over to the next frame. So I created it on frame to, But then I took and I drug it over to frame three so that it has that whole. So if I play this out, you can see it kind of has that hold. And then it starts to go back. But now I want to do the same thing on the other side. So I'm gonna go to frame eight, and you can see there has that new position. Um, the reason why I don't want to use this key frame here is because I don't want it. I'll go ahead and I'll show you. Go ahead and I can pull this out. I don't want that. I don't want this. The hold. What I want is this. I think it's called a moving hold. I don't know if it applies in the run cycles, but it's just that slight additional movement. It's more of like a slow out. This is really, really slow, and then it speeds up again into the next position. Um, but I just want some slow movement happening before it goes back to the other position for these arms. So again, with those bones highlighted, I'm going to go to frame eight, double click, and then I'm just gonna drag it over to frame nine there. So we have this offset of our shoulders so again. Let's go back to our shoulders. Our shoulders are basically matching our feet or this torso rather. So when I say shoulders, I mean this torso and the rotation there. So that is matching basically the feet. It's nice and smooth, but as far as the offset, we have a little bit of offset on these arms where the hands are basically leading this run . He's propelling himself forward with his arms, as you see there. And overall, I think that looks good again. It this takes a lot of trial and error. Just looking at this live right now In this reporting, I might find something outside of the recording. So do a lot of the testing yourself to figure out what looks good. Try different timing. Myth. Let's try a different spacing months. Overall, as far as I can see right now, lives on 14. This is this looks pretty good. It looks pretty organic, Pretty, pretty realistic. So the next thing that we're gonna do to finish all of this up is we're gonna work on just cleaning everything else up, adding some overlapping action or the head with hair. Some follows through, um and yeah, just kind of finishing everything up in the next few videos 12. Part 1 - Overlapping Action & Follow Through: all right if you made it this far, that is awesome. That means you didn't give up. You're sticking with this and congrats to you. I'm super excited that you're still sticking with. So now we're basically towards the end of this animation. There's a few key things that I want to do to really make this animation come alive, and that's having to do with overlapping Action falls now. The first thing I just remembered that we could do to make this a little bit more fun is let's add some head rotation in there. Let's take advantage of this head turn bone that we had created. So at our positions here, where things are matching the shoulders, let's go ahead and match the head the same way. So here we have our position of his head. But here in this position, let's go ahead. Let's turn his head towards the camera a little bit. You can do it all the way. You can do a halfway whatever, whatever works, I'll go ahead and in this situation, just have his head all the way towards the camera, and then it's gonna go back, as you can see it snapping back because we have a bunch of unwanted key frames we don't need. We just want rotation. So I'm going to delete the scale and I'm gonna delete the translation, and I just have rotation for this bone. And again, I'm just gonna delayed out all the keys in between are extremes. Now, as you can see, there has a little bit of a weird back and forth with his head. And so let's fix that with our busier. So I'm just like these key frames, right? Click, go. Too busy. A going to our motion graph. Let's take a look at what that looks like. It looks pretty good. That's clean up a little bit, play in real time so you can see the changes as I'm making them. Go ahead and give herself a little bit of ah Hill down here so that we got some slow in and slow out, all right? And I think that looks pretty good as faras that there his eyes air Weird eso Let's fix those eyes as well, along with everything else. Um, so the next thing that were you to do is we're actually to do the hair. Let's let's add some overlapping. Ah, some follow through with the hair to his jump. So as a character is basically up in the air like this, his hair will be up. That part is pretty obvious. If he's at the top of a top of his art going down, his hair is going toe follow through. It's it's it's going to stay up until he lands back down the ground and then it's gonna go back the other way. This part for me when I was learning this Ah, in my first few years of animation was very, very confusing. The concept of it made sense, but in an animation program, I could not figure out technically how to get this to work. So hopefully I do my best to explain this to you so that it makes the most sense to you as well. Um, but again, going back to all these bones right here in the hair, all these air gonna have is ah, rotation. So take out your scale and seek out your translation and ah, you can actually take out everything besides the first and last key frame. Xperia key. Those and manually. So with this hair What I know that's gonna be happening is before he is fully ah, planted for a few frames, his hair will be up. So here is hair is gonna be up because of gravity here. His hair is gonna be up because the bodies landing. But yet the hair and everything loose clothing, whatever it is, is going to follow through. But right now, this hair is gonna be up basically and it's most extreme position I was gonna see there. That's a lovely piece of hair that could use a little refining. So I'm just gonna put it right about there, and we'll move this up a size we can. Yeah, And I think that's basically all we can do is we could just move that one piece of hair up . Something I noticed that I was missing is I was missing a piece of hair. I was really confuses what was going on so real quick, I'm gonna select all my bones. I just brought them in, and I'm just going to take out the ones that I don't need because they're just creating a whole bunch of crazy key frames now and let's go toe head and hide selected bones. Okay, so this is a pretty important piece of hair that I that I can use. Um, but the first thing I'm gonna dio is I'm gonna take out all of that mess for that additional bone that I just had in their lives. Let's delete that, and let's just go ahead and take it out of there, okay? So now I can use a little bit more with with that hairpiece. That was kind of ah, standing up there. As you can see, it added, Oh, as you can see, it added a key frame. That means I got a stray bone in here. Here we go. The eyes. We don't need the eyes right now, so I'm gonna hide that as well. Okay. All right. So we're gonna move all of his hair up basically into into its most extreme position, and then as he's going up, his hair is going to be down. So here it's, it's it's as he's going down, his hair is going up. And as he's going up, his hair is gonna go down. So now he's gonna push. Or basically, at some point, his hair is gonna catch up with gravity and it's gonna fall back down. So let's go ahead. Let's move his hair all the way down into its most extreme position onto his head. So it's just falling flat on his face now. So now we got this, okay, and it might look a little off, and that's because my timing's probably off. But, ah, we'll fix it once we once we get all the hair pieces up. 13. Part 2 - Overlapping Action & Follow Through: So now he's gonna go back up. And then at some point, which is gonna be probably right about here, his hair is going to be up all the way again. Again. I'm just gonna pull his hair. I can't really do too much with that. The bindings kind of bad, but pull all the way, Pull his hair all the way up again right here. We have rather let's do this. Let's Ah, let's go back to this position so that it matches and let's just have his hair pulled all the way up on this position here. So I just moved all those key frames back to where it is. Let's go ahead and copy these key frames here. So where they are, so now we should have a looping animation. So again, I need to play this back to make sure I did it properly. I'm going to play this out For the most part. I think that was pretty good. Um, for the most part, we can't offset a few of these hair strands, which I think would make it maybe look a little bit better. Ah, say, for instance, this hair right here, this piece right here we can easily take and ah, let's see here, just pull it back. So it's back a frame, Pull it back. So it's backer frame, so it'll be kind of slower than the other pieces. Then again, we could do the same thing for the other ones. Just offset them because it's a really fast motion. We can't really do too much like I can't really pull back this two frames. I probably can, but it might look a little bit slow. Eso is going to pull it up front words, so it's a little bit quicker I get. All I'm doing is just I'm just offsetting hair strands here. It's good. Well, if I pull that one, it's going to be about the same as that. So we'll see what that looks like. Yeah, No, it's OK. So, again, that was the main point that I wanted to stress here is you got to remember when the body is fully down the ground, not everything has caught up with your body. If you jump up in the air, if you have long hair and then you land on the ground, your feet are gonna touch first. But your hair is gonna still be up in the air. And then if you're thinking about timing, is gonna be up in the air for about 2 to 3 frames or 1 to 2 frames, depending on how much weight is in your hair. Like if it's wet hair versus dry, really thin hair. Ah, so you have to kind of keep that in mind. And it's a lot of trial and error as faras testing that as far as how it works, you could probably have thes pieces of hair. Kind of like this just slightly cause it's not fully extended yet. He's just come up from jumping off the ground, See like that. Um, but I couldn't take basically that key frame and again because this is a cycle I'm gonna cycle. I'm gonna copy all these keys and I'm gonna pace them here so that it's pretty ST similar. I think overall, that looks pretty good. So we got a little bit of again. The hair pieces aren't rigged. That great, they could be better. But as far as their overlapping action, I think they do a pretty good job of showing what they're doing. Next thing that will have for, ah, an overlapping action rather for follow through. Keep on getting those two confused is we're gonna have his head. We're gonna give him a little bit of a head, Bob. So again, same thing. I'm to select my main bone. I'm going to leave out the scale again. I'm going to lay out all the keys that I don't need or that I didn't keep purposely. So I'm gonna delete all those out and let's go back to just the headpiece here and let's go ahead and laid off all those key frames in between our main rotation. So this is gonna be somewhat similar to the hair, but not as drastic. You want to be really careful to not make this movement uh, really broad or else he'll look like a running bobblehead and I won't look that good. So what I'm gonna dio is same thing at this step here. Basically, his head would kind of be like this again. I'm making really, really small movements here. I'm not gonna do anything drastic like that, which is why I set up these constraints, but I'm just gonna move his head back a little bit there. And then as he lands, give myself about a frame and I'm going to Ah, without selecting everything else, I'm going to just move that part of his head ever so slightly. So that's the only two key frames I want to create There is that just that slight bubble. And because I know basically that it's gonna be on his contact and on the ah, not the passing with one extra one that we created, I'm just gonna go ahead and I'm gonna pace it right there. So we're gonna get this little bobble action with his head again. It's not that noticeable. Ah, but it does make it more organic. There is a little bit more of a bobble to his head that looks a little bit better if you wanted to. And you gotta be careful if it you could do the same thing with this body. But use your references and see how much the torso and everything is moving. Ah, whenever someone is running, um, you'll see it's it's it doesn't stay exactly stiff, but make too much movement. And it's gonna look really off. Eso just keep that in mind something I noticed upon playbacks. I don't like him fully looking back at the camera. So I'm just gonna dial this head turned back just slightly. The thing that might make it look a little bit better again. As I'm moving this, uh, smart bone, you can see how much it's actually changing the curve here and again. Let's make sure that's busier. Okay, I think that looks a little bit better there. Lastly, you can do whatever you want, but I have a head layer as well. If you go to your bone and you show all bones, it's getting bringing back all of the bones. Um, first thing what I would use, I would actually just go through. And let's just delete all the key frames that these bones had made. So all these here just gonna delete them because they're pretty messy. So now we're back to Ah, pretty good. Ah, pretty clean timeline there. And the only really thing that I could figure out to do to make the slick kind of OK without his weird eyes is just have him kind of looking back. So something like that and then we can come in here with his mouth. You can move around and figure out what all these things do. But I have couple different. Ah, smart bones that are pretty cool to make things like you make him look scared or make him look happy. Opening closes mouth. You can dio basically whatever you want. Um, have a look like he's gritting his teeth or he's running away from something. Ah, yes. I think that looks pretty good there. So again, I have all of these bones Ah, that have all of their key frames that are popping up here, which is kind of bizarre. So I'm gonna select all these bones like that bone. It's like all the bones that we just brought in, which are the ones that you see highlighted right now. And I'm just gonna delete all of their key frames and just make sure that it loops with the same animation There again, we can give him him a little bit of eye movement if we wanted to. Not much cause again. Remember, this is a cycle. So maybe we just have him looking up and down is kind of the the thing that he's doing there. Maybe while he's looking down. His eyes were moving a little bit closer to the camera towards us, and I think that looks pretty good. So that is basically it. That's everything to create this run cycle. Hopefully, this has been helpful of a house that's awesome, because this is a pretty advanced technique. As you can see there, there's kind of a lot to it. If you have any questions, let me know if you want to leave a comment on the video. That's awesome. I would love to know what you think of it. If it's been helpful, be sure, share with your friends and I will see you guys later.