Change Management: How To Drive And Adapt | Doru Catana | Skillshare

Change Management: How To Drive And Adapt

Doru Catana, from knowing to doing

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20 Lessons (1h 34m)
    • 1. Why Change?

      3:28
    • 2. Defining Change

      3:50
    • 3. Clarify Your Why

      3:18
    • 4. Your Perception

      5:09
    • 5. Cost of Change

      6:02
    • 6. Communicating The Mission

      6:32
    • 7. Raising Trust and Understanding

      4:20
    • 8. The Importance of Clarity

      4:32
    • 9. Communication Channels

      6:03
    • 10. Feedback Systems

      4:42
    • 11. Quick Summary

      3:05
    • 12. Framework for Taking Action - Doing

      2:42
    • 13. Go To Where the Fear Is

      2:52
    • 14. Decision Making and Cognitive Biases

      6:09
    • 15. Focus

      4:47
    • 16. Dealing with Adversity - Complete Ownership

      3:37
    • 17. Force Yourself Out of Autopilot

      2:46
    • 18. Constant Supervised Stress

      4:41
    • 19. Course Overview

      11:45
    • 20. Further Reading

      3:10

About This Class

Look, I'll cut through all the fluff and hype.

This course is for those that want to change something for the better.

Be it the way you communicate with your team, speeding up production, improving customer lifetime value or any goal that you can track and measure, this course can help you.

It covers everything you need as far as change management goes.

  • Starts out with covering the foundational concepts like, WHY CHANGE? and WHAT IS CHANGE to you?

  • Then goes over the essential skill to lasting change, effective communication.

  • Continues with the actual framework to implement change. A practical guideline that you can apply and see results not 1 year from now, not 6 months, but in days of watching this course.

  • And since I am committed to this being a practical course I even talk about the main problem with successfully implementing change, dealing with adversity.

Because we all know what needs to be done. Yet we don't do it.

So the problem is not lack of know-how, but rather one of follow through.

The format is not "I talk, you listen.'

It's I share insight, you apply that insight to your own goals and take action.

The course is filled with practical exercises that will help improve the way you currently do things.

Once again, I want to emphasize the fact that this is not a "learn some formal concepts about change management" course or something that applies to 500+ employee organizations only.

This course will allow you to change something as simple as your daily routine to increase personal productivity while at the same time helping you better manage entire departments of people.

So if you're struggling in your business or professional life, change is the answer.

Either from desperation or inspiration, we all need CHANGE if we are to outgrow ourselves, if we are to go outside our comfort zone, if we are to achieve something bigger than ourselves.

And this course, takes the guesswork out of change management.

I'm looking forward to see you on the inside.

Transcripts

1. Why Change?: Hello. My name is Doru Catana and you're watching the course Change Management, How to Drive and Adapt. A topic that is on everyone's lips, yet in the work ethic of very few. That's perfectly normal because by definition, change requires effort, energy, and risk. If you are a successful professional, doing well both financially and career wise, why would you risk it? Why would you jeopardize everything you've built so far? Isn't good, good enough? Well, it seems not. Or as James Collins, author of Good to Great, says, "Few people attain great lives, in large part because it is just so easy to settle for a good life." In many ways, change is counter-intuitive. In order to move forward, you have to go from expert to novice again and learn everything from scratch. We all know what comes with learning new things. Unavoidable failure. If you look closely, the main reason we either hate change or avoid it all together is fear. It can be fear of failure, fear of losing face, fear of regret, or in some cases, even fear of success, because you will have to keep doing it. What will others say? Did you just get lucky the first time? So from all angles, change is met with resistance. However, the discomfort caused by change is the fertile ground, out of which great leaps come from. My mission with this course is just that, to make you realize that fear is nothing more but false expectations appearing real, and that you need to change your approach to fear and make it the thing you chase in your profession. While change has a strong dose of motivation and inspiration to it, I plan on approaching the course in a very pragmatic and practical way, we'll look at the core concepts of change from decision-making to risk management. We'll give numerous examples where counter-intuitive decisions were behind many great leaps in organizations, and we will pay close attention to the many cognitive biases that hinder your growth. The course follows a very simple road map. We first look at defining change and what it means for you and your organization. We then move to the communication part, where you clarify the mission and get your entire team onboard, then we proceed to the actual framework for taking action, where we go from concepts to implementation and then share practical steps that can act on today, and start embracing change. After this, we allocate an entire module to dealing with adversity because this is the main reason why change is not universally adopted in all organizations and why many times, in business and in life, you know what the right decision is, but you still don't make it. We end the course covering the ongoing management and implementation of change, and how to set in place the right procedures and policies, to make constant change, the status quo and not fall back on your default settings, a few months down the line. Yes, change is hard. It takes a lot of energy, comes at a high cost because by definition, change is opposite to comfort. But as you'll learn throughout the course, comfort is what kills businesses, and I'll share plenty of examples, so you understand that embracing change is the fastest route to professional growth. That being said, I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next module, Defining Change. 2. Defining Change: Defining change, what is change to you? The main problem with the change management course as that it can easily go into this inspirational end of the continuum, and all it does is get you hype them motivated. Yet two weeks down the road, you're right back where you started. I'll try to shut off this aura of hype talk and inspirational speech and focus exclusively on practical things. Change is not a journey. It's not something that you should be emotional about. But it should rather be a process that can be repeatedly executed by any individual or organization. While yes, it usually starts from a state of mind of either desperation, inspiration. Embracing change is methodical or as the saying goes, motivation gets you started, habits keep you going, and the habit element, the actual step-by-step process, is what we'll focus on in this course. What is change? Why do you want it? The most common reason is increased performance. Either you want processes optimize, a more streamlined recruiting system or faster product development. Change is a requirement for growth. The method through which you reach that goal can be completely different, with some focusing more on technology, others focusing more on manpower, each having their own style. But at the end of the day, aim of most organizations is to grow and improve, and I think you'll agree with me that the bigger the change an organization makes, the bigger the risks it takes, but also the bigger the results it can achieve. The aim of this module is to help you better define change for your organization. Get your pen or pencil or open up Evernote or Dropbox Paper or whatever app you use and write down your goal. What is the one thing that if you change today, it will greatly impact your output? I encourage you to make it something that can be achieved in anything from one to three months to take full advantage of the exercises we'll go through in the course. Although you can set any goal you want, I doubt small ones will be as rewarding and worthy of spending one hour or more on watching this course alone. If you're struggling with choosing what to change, either look at the highest impact activities in your job or the biggest problems you're dealing with. As the Pareto rule says, 80 percent of your results come from 20 percent of your work. Focus on the few, not the many, the important few. Take your time to fully define your goal and make sure it's the one you're willing to commit to, and here are a few examples to further help you out. If you're worried that your current skill set as a bit outdated, maybe your goal is to allocate more time to learning and using new technologies. If you've been recently promoted to a management position and you want to improve your team productivity may be your goal is to improve communication. Or maybe you want to change the current infrastructure of your product line in our hesitating due to numerous unknown variables. Once again, if you haven't already pause the video, right down the thing you want to change, and don't worry, you can change this later on in case you made the wrong decision, nothing is set in stone, and now that you've set your goal comes step Number 2 of this exercise. What are the metrics by which you can measure the progress for that goal? It can be anything from hours allocated, customer support, response time, website visitors, website loading times, system usage, and requirements of your software, and even employee happiness. Just make sure it's something you can measure in the metrics are as objective as possible and don't leave much room for interpretation, and now that you've defined your goal, it's time we take a close look at clarifying your why. Why you do what you do, and we'll cover that in the following video. 3. Clarify Your Why: Clarify Your Why. This video is largely based on the famous TED Talk of Simon Sinek called how great leaders inspire action. After watching this course or when you're on a break, I highly encourage you to go see the entire talk for more in depth understanding of the concept. Long story short, the idea revolves around what Simon calls the golden circle. It has an outer layer of what, which refers to what you do, then how you do it and at the center, you have why you do what you do. Conventional wisdom looks at things from the outside in while remarkable people, that manage to lead and inspire change start inwards out. They start with why. You can see this in most successful organizations. You can look at Apple in the Steve Jobs era. You can look at how Elon Musk runs Tesla and SpaceX, at how Jeff Bezos runs Amazon and while you don't know what exactly they do in their organizations or how they do it, you do know what they stand for and their why. You can hear it in almost every speech and interview they give. For this video, your exercise is to link your goals you set earlier to your why. Try and carefully identify what is the core reason for that change. It's not always obvious. Here are a few examples. If you want to improve teamwork or the company image, the reason might be seeking acknowledgment from your peers. You might want to solve that big problem and the ticket system for your own peace of mind. Improving your skill set with a new technology might not be you getting better at your job, but rather you wanting a sense of security. Upgrading an internal process might not have a core why that bonus you'll receive, but rather you not having to do mindless tasks every day. Many times, a financial motive might seem your why, however, at the end of the day, most business decisions have completely different underlying reasons than the financial ones. Take your time and discover what really drives you to make that change and as I said in the first module, many times the rule of change is inspiration or desperation. What's the case for you? I'll share why this will help not just you, but your entire organization. If we're focusing exclusively on your benefits, they are increased self-awareness and clarity in chasing your goals. That clarity will also help you to get your team on board with the change. If the idea, the reason for change is not perfectly clear to you, how are you going to sell it to your entire organization? People rarely sacrifice their short term comfort and wellbeing, and when they do so, they never do it without a clear and precise principle based why. So once again, take the time and clarify your own reasons and don't judge yourself if they are completely selfish, even the most generous actions have a dose of selfishness at their root. Now that we've clarified your why, let's move on to the next video of this module, your perception in making a paradigm shift. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 4. Your Perception: Your perception. There's a lot of ground we have the cover here. The aim of this video is to make you more self-aware of your own limitations and increase your effectiveness in driving the change you want in your organization. The topic was covered by many authors, studies, and even philosophers. One particular experiment that stuck with me was the one where three-year-old children where an examiner emptied the box of crayons and put candy inside. Then they had an adult come in the room and ask the children, what did they think that adult thinks is in the box? They instantly said candy, because if they thought there was candy in the box, then everybody must think the same thing. They repeated this experiment with five-year-old children, and the answer was crayons. So somewhere between the ages of 3 and 5, our brain evolves and we have a significant increase in awareness outside of ourselves. However, in day-to-day life, we forget to tap into this ability we have since we're five and think that everyone sees the world as we see it and there is nothing further from the truth. Our perception is influenced by every experience we had so far, and since we didn't all have the same experiences, it's impossible to have the same view on life. In fact, this goes even further. Our perception of the same event can be completely different based on our previous experiences and with no intention to drop the world on its head for you, here's another one. Most of the times we have our minds made up on things even before we experience them and that perception alone, based on zero exposure, will greatly influence how we experience an event. Here's a basic example you can read in the book, Release Your Brakes by James Newman. It's about a girl that got to hate spinach, although she never ate it in her entire life. One evening she is at her friend's house and her friend's mom asked if she'd stay for dinner. Her friend immediately reacted that she'd better go because they're having spinach and she hates it. Several days later, her mom asked her dad if he wants spinach for dinner, and he politely declined and that evening they had spinach for dinner. Our little girl refused to eat it, although she never tasted spinach in her entire life. When her mother insisted, she refused and everything evolved into a fiery argument with the girl screaming, "I hate spinach." Her entire basis for this decision had zero actual experience with spinach itself, and was based exclusively on partial and incomplete stories or maps of reality. Who knows? Maybe her father refused spinach that day because he already had some. Maybe she has completely different dietary preferences than her friend. Maybe she would have actually enjoyed it, but when forced to eat it, she linked so much pain and anger to spinach that forever changed her perception of it. While this example is pretty straightforward, more often than not, our perception of people and events can be influenced in far less obvious ways. If there's some emotion involved, we become blind to the fact everybody else's map of the world is different than ours. A different approach to this concept can be found in book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by author Stephen Covey, where he states that, "We see the world as we are not, as it is." Given an example of a man with his children in a subway station. The children were running around making a commotion that made everyone uncomfortable and quite angry at the father for not controlling his children. When one of the people there asked the father to do something about it, he shared that they just came from the hospital where their mother died. Instantly, the emotion and perception of the person asking switched from anger to compassion. As you can see, there's always a bigger picture that you need to pay attention to. At some point, you'll want to implement change in your entire organization and as we discussed at the beginning of the course, change is almost always met with resistance. However, the more aware you are of the people you want to adopt this change, the easier it will be. Their why might be different than yours, even if the end goal might be the same. But in order to reach that goal as a team, you need to step outside of your own head for a second. This video won't have a practical exercise attached to it like most others, but rather a reminder to always be aware that not everyone sees the world as you do and to use this know-how to offer more relevant clarifications, build better and more authentic connections with your team, and significantly improve clarity and transparency in your communication process. While this might be an additional effort on your side, it's an essential cost to driving change. Speaking of cost, that's what we'll focus on in the next and final video of this module, cost of change. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 5. Cost of Change: Cost of change. This is one of the main reasons why change is not the norm in all organizations. Change inherently brings risk to the table. If it were 100 percent safe and easy to implement, everyone would be doing it. Change might be a career shift, moving to a new department, going from a process that you master to one that you start from scratch, implementing a new project nobody is familiar with or is reluctant to try. Change is risk. The more entrenched you are in organizational specific procedures, the more difficult it's implementation. For example, the traditional cost of change curve shows an exponential cost growth as the project goes from identifying requirement to production. That's why solid communication is a core component of change and absolute must when it comes to seeing change implemented successfully. But more on that in the following video. For now, remember that besides any direct and obvious cost with execution and manpower, there are also cost with communication, training, and restructuring. However, change comes with surprising benefits as well. One great example that reflects the unexpected benefits of change is H Day. For those of you that don't know, this was the moment when Sweden decided to switch from driving on the left side of the road to the right side. A very complicated project if you think about it. Switching the entire transportation system of a country in a single day and making sure everyone is still safe to drive. I give this example because it checks all points for a project that spells disaster if any mistakes are made. For starters, you can't have any downtime, you can't stop all vehicle transportation in a country for more than a few hours, also the communication side of things needs to cover everyone, and I mean everyone, an entire country. In most organizations in our day and age, people still miss important memos, and we have multiple channels of communication. This was Sweden 1967. The Internet wasn't even invented yet. Then comes the fact that you don't only need full coverage with your communication efforts, but also clarity. You need everyone to be on the same page or on the right side of the street in this case. Then comes the risk and cost of failure. I don't know about you, but if any of my projects fail, nobody's life is put in immediate danger. If H Day failed, actual lives were at risk. Failure isn't even an option. However, like change in general, Sweden made this decision to reduce the increased number of accidents because they drove on the left side of the road, and most of their cars had left-hand steering, which made any overtake a real danger to the safety of drivers. They took a huge risk short-term to reduce smaller risks yet almost imminent ones years down the road. Long story short, September 3rd, Sweden made the change and all vehicles came to a complete stop at 4:50 AM, then carefully changed to the right-hand side of the road. Also roads, crossings, fly overs, roundabouts, were all redesigned. Over 300,000 signs were changed during the night, and surprisingly, on the day of the change, only 157 minor accidents were reported and just 125 the first Monday after compared to a range of 130-198 in the previous week. While you might have expected an increase in accidents, the opposite happened. All this mostly due to over-communication and a more cautious behavior after the switch. As far as long-term results go, after this decision, Sweden saw a sharp drop in accidents and even motor insurance claims went down by 40 percent. The reason I shared this story was to show you that while change always comes with risks, just as there are unseen dangers, there are also unseen opportunities. However, prior to moving on to the next module, the minimum I'd like you to do before implementation of any impactful decision is to do a SWOT analysis. For those of you who don't know what SWOT stands for, it's Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. You'll split a page in four areas, and in each one, you write down the relevant facts. When doing this analysis, make sure to define the what your goal and the reason your why as clear as possible. Never forget that your perception is not the complete map, that's why you should consider asking your colleagues to complete a similar SWOT analysis when needed because they might see some opportunities you've messed or spot some weaknesses you've overlooked. Only after doing this, you can look into implementation. Also remember that what I've shared here are just some minimal steps to avoid basic mistakes. Realistically speaking, there are many more tools and techniques, some more generic, like PEST analysis or Porter's Five Forces and some specific to your organizations procedures. That's why you should always pay close attention to everything, from the basic costs versus gains, remembering who your decision impacts both internally and externally. You might need to retrain or fire entire department or you might end up competing in some markets with existing partners, and that might damage relations. During the entire process of defining your action plan and during its execution, a core component you need to master is communication. That's why the following module is all about that, communicating your vision. We go over everything from the fundamental principles to building trust and understanding, using the right channels of communication, and having in place the right systems. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next module. 6. Communicating The Mission: Communicating the mission. The absence of this skill kills the successful implementation of change in most cases, and it does it for a plethora of reasons. Sometimes it's a principle based one with the communication breaching basic principles like transparency or clarity or social ones like trust. In other cases, the reasons are more functional by not using the right channels and systems. However, no matter the reason I think we can all agree that communication is essential to thriving in any environment not just implementation of change alone. Here's how we're going to tackle this module, we'll first create a bit more context on change going from the fundamental principle like, you cannot do it alone no matter how smart, driven or wealthy you are without the right team. Achieving any significant goal is next to impossible. So we'll tackle that first then, we'll jump to the human side of communication, building trust, and understanding. Because if you get those two things right, then your job in sharing your vision will get so much easier. Just think about it for a second. Imagine you have to convince someone that doesn't trust you of something versus trying to convince someone that trusts you of the same thing. The less trust involved, the more careful you need to be with your communication, the more policies and rules you have to set in place, the higher the trust, the less formal things have to get and the easier to get an idea across. After you've fully understood that you need a team on board for change to happen, and that raising trust and understanding is fundamental, we'll move on to another core principle of communication, clarity of message. Clarity not only makes things easier to understand, but it creates expectations in people. It makes them emotionally invested in the mission, they know what they are fighting for. If they care about this goal, odds are they will not jump ship at the first sign of trouble. Moving on, we'll pay close attention to communication channels and the principles that govern them. We'll be addressing the functional layer after this principle based foundation. Communication needs to be fast, transparent, clear, and have a complete reach. Depending on your goal, you will need to change the channels you've used so far. I'll give an example, easiest way to give bad news is through an email. However, a face-to-face meeting will abide more to the principles we've shared earlier, and will be much more respected by the people involved and also by your existing team. So it's not always about the simplest solution, It's what the best solution for the case is. We'll end the module going over the importance of feedback systems that need to be set in place so you stay on track. It's the same with launching rockets. They are of course 90 percent of the time. However, they keep adjusting speed and aim, and this readjusting is done through effective communication. Before moving on, let's focus for a while on the first concept we mentioned. You cannot do it alone. Throughout my entire career the number one thing I heard people complain about is other people. By far, the most mentioned problem is dealing with other people. People are difficult, everyone thinks they are right. Some people think they own you man. Everyone's an expert. Management just doesn't hear us when we told them about the problems, and these are just a few lines I kept hearing over again during my consulting career. Most of these have at their root, a communication problem because nobody takes the time to fully understand why. Let's say, management does ignore your suggestions. Did you ever ask yourself why, are they aware of it then simply ignore it because there are bigger and more urgent problems they're dealing with right away? Or do they just don't care? If they actually don't care about your feedback, are you doing anything proactively to change that? Or why are you still in that organization? Is the way you are giving feedback effective, and all of these are communication flaws on your side or on management's side? But getting back on track, the idea is that you cannot do it alone, as much as you might hate people, you need them. If you don't believe me, here are just five basic reasons you cannot do it alone; First, it's a time restriction. You have just 24 hours in a day. So even if you're a workaholic and sleep on the factory floor like Elon Musk does lately to ramp up production for the Model 3, he still need thousands of people hired at Tesla that all do their jobs. He still needs good relations with investors and the media. Second reason is speed. If you have a competent team, you'll reach your goal much faster. You don't have to know everything, learn everything from scratch. You have instant access to the brainpower of experts in various fields with thousands of hours of practice. Third, consistent progress. If you're a one man show and have a health issue, guess what? All progress stops for the entire duration of your sickness. If you have a team, progress still gets made. I'm not saying this doesn't come at a cost, because the more people, the more time required for communication, but the trade is in your advantage, not against it. Fourth, a team gives additional perspectives and might help you come up with better solutions. You might start out with a goal and might change the method to achieve it based on the feedback of your team. Ideas that otherwise would have not been on the table. Fifth, a team allows you to focus on your strengths. The more time you spend on activities that have high return or that you enjoy, the better it is for progress or morale. A bonus one, I'd like to remind you of synergy. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Just think about a football or basketball team. If you were to bet on a team with the most expensive players versus a team with the most synergy, I'd put my money on the latter. Now that you understand the importance of a team, we're going to look at how to raise trust and understanding inside a team, so they follow you to the ends of the world. At least metaphorically speaking. That being said, I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 7. Raising Trust and Understanding: Raising trust and understanding. As I started saying in the previous video, I trust in your organization make communication far less complicated, in fact, you can look at all the problems people have in the workplace, and at the source more often than not, it's a problem of communication. A video I recently saw that I encourage you to watch as well is Google's Selfish Ledger that was supposed to be an internal thought-provoking video, long story short, the idea was that Google will nudge people in the right direction to achieve their goal. If you set an objective to live a more healthy lifestyle, next time you're searching for a restaurant it will offer recommendations more in alignment to your goal. Many people were outraged with this video, saying that Google wants to control everything, and why should anyone control my life choices? Although, if you take a second and think about it, we're already being influenced, it's called advertising and it's been here for over a century, so wouldn't it be good to have it open and centered around your own goals for change? not seeing the idea's good or wrong that's for you to decide. Personally, I think we need more thought-provoking discussions because that's how progress is made, we debate ideas, see what's good, what's wrong, and decide which ones we implement or not. If we refuse to debate ideas, how are things ever going to change? funny how that's the main topic of the course as well. What I wanted to point out with this video, is the fact that based on how much people trusted and understood Google influence the reaction to that video. I use many of their services and I trust them far more than any government, that's why I would be inclined to trust them with this Selfish Ledger if I had a choice, however, other people less trusting of technology have a negative reaction to this, same with your mission to change your organization. If people don't trust you, be it your skills to the lever or your ethics, then it would be hard for them to join the mission. If they do, they will support you even if you fail repeatedly. I'll give Elon Musk is an example again, with Tesla he failed repeatedly to deliver on his promises with the model three and he's still stuck in production held. However, taking into consideration his strength, the alignment between his views, and the board of investors views, although the company is bleeding money and missing deadlines he still has overwhelming support to lead the organization. That's how important trust is, your team will more easily accept your short-term failures if they believe you will win in the long run. But moving on from examples to the actual framework of building trust and how important it is. For more on this, I recommend you read Stephen Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. If you realize the concept called the emotional bank account, which in many ways is very similar to a normal bank account, only that it's about your relationship with the other people. If you deliver on your promises time and time again, that bank account keeps getting deposit, if you fail to deliver on deadlines you get withdrawals, the bigger the disappointment, the bigger the withdrawal. However, if over time you kept making those deposits of trust with your team by delivering on promises, by respecting values you all agree on, by putting principles ahead of short-term interests, even if you fail you'll still have their support. Your exercise for this video is something that you should not only do once, but consider adopting it as a work style, deliver when you make a promise, admit when you're wrong, and apologize if necessary, take responsibility for your shortcomings, be supportive, and help out when you can without any hidden agenda and invest in relationships. When it comes to understanding, remember what we talked about in the previous module about you seeing the map not the territory. Try to see the other person's point of view in any discussion. That being said, we'll end this video here and move on to the importance of clarity. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 8. The Importance of Clarity: The importance of clarity. There's a lot to discuss here. The most important thing is that you need to be crystal clear on cost versus outcome. What are people going to get and at what expense? The main reason for this is that even if you manage to achieve your goal, if the outcome wasn't clear enough for everyone and they had different expectations, your team will be discontent with both you and the new status quo. In fact, there's this old joke with an employee seeing his boss come with a new luxury car and you can read on the employee's face how bad he wants to own such a car. The CEO calmly and almost fatherly tells him, ''Don't worry Joe. If you work hard, if you give your best, go the extra mile next year, I'll get a new one.'' As you can see, clarity goes hand in hand with building trust and is one of the main factors of team morale. It doesn't impact change alone. It's an all-around business success requirement. Having clear outlines of the company's procedures and policies reduces the number of mistakes and conflicts. Clear goals and guidelines might even speed up execution because people will find faster ways to achieve specific goals. Unclear communication has the opposite effect. It's like that comic with people trying to move huge cubes from point A to point B and someone carves the cube into a sphere and moves it way faster than the rest. When you have a clear outcome, you can do that. However, just make sure you have clarity in your guidelines as well. Because at your destination, those pieces might fit in a bigger picture and your sphere might be completely useless even if you get there 10 times faster. Since we spoke so much about guidelines for anyone in a management position, it's almost vital to always remember and never judge anyone's work if you decided the method. I had this frustration countless times with clients that chose specific strategies contrary to my advice then blame me for the results. As a manager, when you have a lot on your table, it's easy to fall into the sin of micro-managing. I'm sure all professionals listening to this course had such an experience, where they were made responsible for bad results, although they had no freedom of decision. That frustration lowers morale, reduces loyalty, and the bad part is that you're also crying over spilled milk. You can't do anything about it. You were right. But how does that help? The project still failed. Things get even worse when the manager doesn't take full responsibility. The only good news I have for you with regards to clarity is that the healthier your company culture and the more solid the interpersonal relationships, the easier communication is. And you don't need to read this from a book or hear it from a course. You can easily see it in day-to-day life. I bet all of you have at least one person at work that you can communicate with almost non-verbally and seen from afar, your conversations might make no sense. However, they're extremely effective. It's like you have this broadband connection with the other person. We'll end this video here with a short exercise that will train your clarity muscles. It's in relation to goal setting and how you can increase the likelihood of reaching them. It's smart goal setting. Long story short, your goals need to be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound. Most probably, you've already heard of this acronym. If you look at your past failures, I'm sure that you'll find as a source, not being clear on one of the following five points. Number one, being specific. Write in detail your action plan. Know the where, the what, who, when and how. Second, is measuring your goal so you know when progress is being made. Then make sure it's something you can achieve. If you make impossible goals without realistic anchors to time or to resources, odds are you will fail. Also, make sure it's relevant for your organization. Is it worthwhile? Then make sure it's time-bound so you stay on track. You'd be amazed by how these five simple attributes to any goal increase the likelihood of success. That being said, I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. We will talk about communication channels. 9. Communication Channels: Communication channels. As I kept saying throughout this course, communication can be the make it or break it element when it comes to embracing change in an organization. We talked a lot about the why and now it's time we look a bit at the how. When establishing an internal communication policy, many organizations neglect the social side of things. Communication is not just work-oriented, but also has the role of meeting our human needs to interact with one another and share our life experiences. So while guidelines on the objective based communication are most probably already in place, you need to make sure you have the right systems for the social needs, and this is more successfully done through a virtual water cooler. No matter if you're using Slack or Telegram or have an e-mail chain for this, people need a place to share non-work related things and disconnect for a moment after they've been focusing on a task for the past several hours. What some organizations consider unproductive time, it has been proven over and over again, especially in jobs linked to creativity, that without time to focus on non-work things during your work hours, people become less productive. It's like sleep. You never look at it from the paradigm of being productive. You don't go to bed thinking I'm going to get so much done by the time I wake up, however, it is essential to your well-functioning. In the context of your organization adopting change, this virtual water cooler can be a place where they can vent some frustrations, instead of them remaining unresolved and grow into bigger problems. A member of your team, might post a funny meme complaining that this new change policy reminds them of their grandfather working the land for the bourgeoisie. As long as things respect some norms and don't get out of control having a place where people can communicate non-work related things and just relax or vent, let's call it a Digital Lounge, is essential if you are to implement change in any organization. Now, for the practical side of things, the four basic principles, effective communication should have are speed, transparency, clarity, and reach. Speed being a core requirement for productivity and success. Having a product ready in three months is always better than having it ready in six. Transparency is a criteria essential to the trust aspect of communication. If communication is transparent, people don't have to fear double standards in the organization or that their interests are secondary to those of the company. Clarity is your safe guard for the future. If your objectives are clear, if your rewards are clear, nobody will ever feel betrayed or disappointed once those objectives are achieved because the cost reward promise was clear from the start, and reach is a problem that technology once promised to solve, yet after it solved it, now it's recreating it in the form of noise. Now, it's easy to have everyone get that e-mail or have access to that company update. However, due to overuse, many times, important memos get lost in the clutter. If everything is marked as important, nothing is important, and a form of communication that I found, met all these criteria and prevents future problems best, is written non instant communication. So I'll explain, from the start, written communication is superior, because you can always come back to it for clarification. You won't have to debate who said what, it's there in writing, and while instant communication has its place and time, it can cause problems like creating lots of interruptions and not allowing time to think things over thoroughly. Another problem is that instant requires synchronization of schedules many times for more than just two people, and this can lead to lots of productive hours being wasted, and I'm convinced many, if not all of you have been in calls or meetings where you could have been absent 90 percent of the time and wouldn't have missed a thing. So a one hour call where it would have been enough to be present five minutes and read a summary in other five, just cost you an entire hour. Multiply this by the number of people in that organization or department, and you realize the damage to productivity is enormous over time. As I said before, while I consider written asynchronous communication ideal, it's not a one size fits all, nothing ever is. Your exercise for this video is the following. First, identify your current internal communication channels. Group them in two categories, goal or work oriented, and social. Make sure the social one is not neglected. People need to be informed what's okay and what's not okay as far as jokes go. This way, you'll not only avoid possible conflicts, but also encourage a more laid-back atmosphere where they can relax. After solving the social side of things, take a look at the goal oriented communication and see if you can improve it so it better meets the four principles: speed, transparency, clarity, and reach. Maybe you should rethink what's considered important in the message board, if the percentage of important problems is too high. Maybe you should rethink the way you do meetings or experiment different communication channels for a week or two. Once you have everything in place, make sure to inform all the relevant parties involved, and allow for a transition period. Another thing you should always take into consideration, and I can't stress enough its importance, is having in place feedback systems. The best solutions to a problem usually come from those who have to deal with that problem every day. So coming up next, we have feedback systems. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the following video. 10. Feedback Systems: Feedback systems. As I said earlier, they are essential for the adoption of change because many times, feedback is the spark that leads to change. However, unlike many of the things I talked about earlier, this is probably the element you need to approach with the utmost care. The reason for this is because it's just so easy to ruin a system that involves feedback. There are so many things that you need to solve prior to its implementation. To make things simpler, I've organized the guidelines for implementing effective feedback systems into just four components. First, make sure you are taking data driven decisions. If the foundation on which you base your decisions is flawed, the odds of you reaching your desired outcome are close to impossible. Same with feedback, if it's not based on facts, it won't be of any use. Even when it comes to subjective matters, they still need to have a foundation in some principles if nothing else. Now the second one comes to ground the first one into reality and this states the relationships matter. The reality is that we as humans are rarely truly objective, even when we do our best, we are still subjective based on our upbringing, experiences, and view of life. We are never fully data-driven, but being aware of this helps with the problem. We already discussed this in previous module. For now, I want you to at least be aware that relationships impact the way you receive and give feedback. Most obvious example is if you have a culture of fear, nobody will share feedback, if it will have repercussions. This often leads to project failures, although they could have been saved, many might offer anonymity as a solution, but I would never recommend this to any organization long term. Anonymity just keeps protecting the culture of insecurity when sharing your views, even if it's in the interest of the organization. Anonymity may lead to witch hunts and finding out who said what creating more problems than it solves. My advice is to better fix the culture first, then focus on feedback systems. Anonymity is just a bandage, and it's not always about fear. People won't share feedback because it might impact their workload. While fear is not the culprit here, laziness, or a misalignment in values and interests might be. That's why this module is structured this way. If you don't have trust and understanding in your organization, having effective feedback systems is close to impossible. Even when the culture is right, there is always the problem with people being sensitive to getting feedback. When someone criticizes your work that you've put in so many hours to deliver, its not easy to take criticism. A good strategy that overcomes this fear and resistance to criticism is the, I like, I wish, I wonder method. You start with what you like about the product, then you go to what you wish was better, and then you discreetly suggests a solution towards that objective. Although minimalist, this approach works wonders. The reason it works both in the short run and in the long run, is that it gets things moving without hurting any egos. It allows growth in the long run, making people perceive the change made originates from them, not you. I know it's a sleek HR trick, but as the saying goes, "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." Moving on to the third component of effective feedback, we have the follow-up. This is another top reason why feedback systems fail. People don't trust their suggestions will be read or considered or adopted based on past experiences. If possible, when getting constructive feedback, make sure to clarify why no action was taken, or the very least, you can do, as always, highlight decisions that are based on feedback received. This component as you walking the walk and not just talking the talk and like trust is built over time. For fourth and last element, you need to make it routine. Allocate time weekly or monthly to analyze feedback and don't hesitate to bring your entire team on board when disseminating the data. That's all you need to know to successfully communicate the mission to your team and have them not only understand it but adhere to it. Coming up next, we're going to go over a quick summary of this module because it was a very dense one. Then we'll move on to the next one, creating the framework for change. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 11. Quick Summary: Module summary. We'll quickly go over everything we've discussed in this module so you see everything as a whole and not just the individual components. We started with the reality that you cannot do it alone unless you're on a deserted island, you can achieve success only with a team and the core skill required to get your team on board is communication. However, communication itself is strongly influenced by another factor and that is trust. The higher the trust level the easier communication gets, the lower the trust levels, the more difficult it all becomes or as Jack Welch said, arguably the best CEO of the century, ''Candor is essential to the winning company and if you rewarded, you'll get it.'' We then moved on to a core component of communication after building trust, and that is clarity. Before anything else your message needs to be clear. If you are to have your team embark on this mission and adopt change, unless your message is clear, they will jump ship at the first sign of trouble. As far as communication channels go, they need to abide by four simple principles. Speed, transparency, clarity, and reach. Communication needs to be fast, needs to be transparent otherwise, it can have damaging effects on trust. It needs to be precise. Vague goals will reduce productivity because people might be fast, but if they don't have a clear target, they'll be going nowhere twice as fast. Don't mistake speed for progress. Your communication needs to reach everyone involved. While in the past, this was a problem. Technology solved it, but replaced it with another one, noise. Make sure that the core mission doesn't get lost along the way. Getting more specific, we established that written asynchronous communication is the best form without neglecting the importance of all the rest. However, it checks all the key points. It's clear, minimizes interruptions, easily accessible, and allows for fast progress. We ended the module looking at a key component, not only to communication, but to change as well. Feedback systems. They need to be data-driven, you need to take into consideration that the organization culture and interpersonal relationships matter, and also that criticism, even when well intended, is not always easily received and if you want an effective feedback system, you need to follow up and execute based on it. Otherwise, you place it at risk of making it perceived as pointless. The last criteria for feedback is to make it a routine. You need to do it consistently, similar to staying healthy. You need to allocate time regularly. Doing it once in awhile helps, but it's not as effective and that was it. Coming up next, we'll get you to actually create a framework inside your organization to make change the norm. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next module. 12. Framework for Taking Action - Doing: Framework for taking action. This will be by far the most practical and action-oriented module of the course. With that in mind, let's proceed with the first concept that is essential to any successful implementation of change, and that is doing. As simple as it might sound, doing is one of the main reasons change is not universally adopted. Actual implementation is lost in most cases due to over analyzing. You can see this both at the micro level in your own life and at the macro level in organizations. Just try and remember the things you've thought about doing and the things you've actually done. For most of us, the lists differ enormously in size. In fact, what defined successful people is just that. A significantly smaller delay between planning and action and a shorter time frame between thought and action. No, don't get me wrong. I'm not saying you should not plan. That's just not the way you do it. I'm saying over planning and overthinking is what kills progress. Instead of analyzing all scenarios and possible outcomes, a better approach would be to look at the worst outcome possible of a project and if that risk is acceptable for the potential positive outcomes, then take action. I remember Warren Buffett had some great advice on this for all of his managers. "If your decision would be published in tomorrow's newspaper, would you be okay with it? If you're not sure, call me, but if you have to call me, then chances are it's not a good decision, so don't call me." The main idea I can't stress enough here is to focus on action, not thought alone. There was this movie called, The Secret a few years back. Many people watched it and they believed that, if they think about something a lot, it will materialize in their life. Wrong, if I go in a corner and think about making a business, I can think there until I grow old. Nothing will happen, but if I use that drive, that passion and take action, now, I have a chance. In conclusion, action is essential in a framework for change. It's similar to how Muhammad Ali answered when asked, "How many sit-ups can you do?" His reply was, "I don't count sit-ups. I only start counting when it starts hurting because they're the only ones that count." Same with change. It will happen only when you take action, not by watching this course or just thinking about it. That being said, we'll move on to the next video. Go to where the fear is, I'm looking forward to seeing you there. 13. Go To Where the Fear Is: Go to where the fear is. You might remember at the start of the course, we addressed the topic of fear and discomfort with change by definition, happening when you leave your comfort zone. Fear can take many forms. Fear of failure, fear of being judged by others, even fear of success. However, besides the enormous discomfort it creates, fear is the best indicator for progress. If you are not experiencing discomfort, by definition, you are not growing. So instead of avoiding it, you should embrace it and whenever you feel its presence, know, it is only then you are making real progress. An interesting acronym I heard from Dan Pena, a famous high-performance code is fear being nothing more but false expectations appearing real. I know for myself on many occasions I was afraid to make that call or to renegotiate that contract. But when I did it, I was amazed by how easy it was and that fear was just in my head. So a practical exercise is we'll always remember that whenever you feel fear, it is always an opportunity for growth. I know it won't be easy. That's why you can use any trick in the book for this. You can tell your team about this new approach to fear and promise, to remind each other of it, go and stick several post-it notes throughout the office. Avoid making them cliche motivational ones, but rather practical reminders. Or a method I've used in the past is talking to my future self. Write an e-mail and send it to your future self. There are plenty of services out there. Just type in, send the message to future self in any search engine. You'll find multiple solutions, set one after week, another one after a month, or have them come in regularly. If even this fails, record yourself giving yourself a pep talk. I know some of these methods might seem unconventional and you won't find them in a traditional change or Risk Management course. However, I promised I'd do my best to make it practical. A problem with the implementation of change is not lack of information. In most cases, you already know what you have to do. The main problem is follow through, and well you might be motivated and hyped right now and say you're going to crush it for the next year tomorrow, you might experience that fear we talked about and your state of mind won't be the one you are in now. That's when you'll need all these unconventional tactics I've mentioned earlier to get you in the right frame of mind once more and have you follow through and make the right decisions and changes that will get you closer to your goal. Speaking of decisions, that's what's coming up next. Decision-making and cognitive biases. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 14. Decision Making and Cognitive Biases: Decision-making and cognitive biases. I'll go a bit formal here, but bear with me. A decision is the process of selecting a choice from a range of possible options with the goal of achieving a very specific objective. The traditional process has the following steps, you first prepare for that decision. This involves anything from gathering the raw data required to getting insight from the relevant parties involved. As the saying goes, the more you investigate, the less you invest. Good preparation can open up more choices or can make the decision much easier and exposes your organization to less risk. However, don't overdo it and risk paralysis by analysis where all you do is research and you don't get to actually do something about it. Or to quote general S baton, a good plan, violently executed now is better than a perfect plan executed next week. Maybe you can leave out the violent part when making decisions for your organization. But the speed at which you decide is always a defining factor in the ability to react to market changes, customer needs, and competitor strategies. Then comes making the actual decision, and there are many approaches to this one can have. We have autocratic decisions which practically are dictatorial. One man has all the power and if he is a gifted visionary, that's good for your business because decisions are good and taken fast. However, if the person at the home of the ship takes bad decisions, then you should consider having ready your life jacket because that ship can sink pretty fast. Another downside to autocratic decision-making is that people from the ranks might feel as if their input doesn't matter and will become unsatisfied with their workplace. Then we have participative decision making where it's pretty much the autocratic one. However, the person in charge takes input from team leaders, a council, or a board of directors. This usually steers the company away from any dangers that the leader has previously been blind to. Having multiple relevant viewpoints on any problem is always a good idea to avoid risk. However, the downside of this is that it slower than autocratic decision-making. Unless communication in your organization is streamlined, then you might have a problem. Democratic decision-making. This is the best so far, but has its flaws as well. For starters, it's slower than the previous two. Also, it has the risk of people agreeing just to conform with the group. If you look at it closely at the end of the day, it's though a dictatorship where the majority decides for everyone else. For the last form of decision-making, we have consensus. This is by far the best. However, it's the hardest to implement a lot of negotiating, evaluating inputs, and reaching common ground. Now that you are more aware of the types of decision-making, let's go back to the steps of the process. The next one should be communicating that decision. This boils down to just three things. What the decision was? Who made it? Why was it made? As we discussed in the previous module, make sure to use the right channels when doing so and then comes the actual execution of the plan followed by constant monitoring to make sure the effects are those desired and that needed adjustments are made. Before moving on to the next video, I'd like to go over some of the most common cognitive biases. For those of you not familiar with them, there are errors in thinking that occur when people process information. Look decision-making has lots of restrictions. You gravitate around the four criteria, outcome, choices, timeframe, and involvement. These are interconnected. Taking a decision sooner might give you more choices. Involvement of less parties might speed up the execution. However, it might negatively influence impact. The idea is that you don't have infinite time and infinite data to make a decision and you can't take into consideration every possible outcome. That's why cognitive biases are dangerous. You think you're making the right choice, but you are not. You're lying to yourself. I'll list just some of the most common ones then share some ideas on how to counter them. First, you have confirmation bias, where you are favoring information that confirms your existing beliefs and you disconsider evidence that opposes your beliefs. Then you have self-serving bias, where you blame external forces when bad things happen and give yourself credit when good things happen. Then there's also attentional bias where you pay attention to some things while simultaneously ignoring others. My favorite one on the list is actor observer bias. When you fail, it's an external cause, but when others do, it's an internal problem. Another one that is especially detrimental to problem-solving is functional fixedness, where you see objects as only working in a particular way. If this tool was made with a specific purpose, you're not restricted to use it for that purpose alone. I'll share two more that I consider very dangerous. They are anchoring bias where you rely heavily on the first information you learn about something and optimism bias when you believe that you are luckier than everyone else. There are many more cognitive biases, have just shared the most common ones, just do a simple Google search and I'm sure you'll be reading about them for days. But for now, remember that they exist and make sure your future decisions don't fall trap to them. The best counter besides being aware of them, is to have a healthy communication system inside your organization where people openly share their views and feedback. If you've paid close attention to previous module, you already know how to set that in place. Now, we'll move on to the next component of this framework for taking action focus. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 15. Focus: Focus. I first want to create a bit of context and give you a bird's eye view of the entire module once more. The aim was for you to take action and execute change in your organization. You already have most of the fundamental principles. The aim here is to follow through. We started with doing, which is essential when executing. We then handled the state of mind necessary with you running towards and not from fear. We then dealt with decision-making, because it's not enough to be brave, you need to be smart as well, and now comes focus. This concept actually encompasses several ideas. As I stated at the beginning of the course, I don't want to get you hyped, demotivated, but two weeks down the line you're right back where you started. That's why with focus, I want to address many of the aspects required for achieving your goals. You need both motivation, but also good habits if you are going to succeed. A good sports analogy to this are the concepts of sprint and marathons. Running a successful organization is more like a marathon, you need consistent progress over time and good resource management. Doesn't really matter if you're ahead the first six months. If you don't keep the pace and get left behind, short-term loss and the form of investments or restructuring can prove long-term wins. However, while this marathon concept is valid in day to day operations, sprint are always present. You're launching that new product, pitching that new client, always there is a new feature to be added. So you need a form of balance. You need speed, but at the same time, you need resistant and finding the right mix of the two is probably the same as finding balance in your own life. A healthy mix of family, friends, and hobbies. No, I don't plan on telling you where that balance is because it depends a lot on who you are. But as far as work goes, I'm going to show some examples and ideas that you can experiment with and find that balance for yourself. When it comes to short-term focus, the quote by Woody Allen says it best. 80 percent of success is showing up. Same with adoption of change in your organization, you will boost by 80 percent the chances of success by executing, not pondering, or thinking about it. There are so many risk free ways of doing this. You can start a pilot program where you have themed weeks inside your organization. Jason Fried the creator of base camp, the project management software, has an idea. Try having silent Wednesdays. When you don't talk or interrupt each other outside specific hours or do something like Google. Anyone can allocate up to 20 percent of their time for pet project, or have something like at [inaudible] has. Each quarter people form teams and work on a new idea or project they have. This leads to a lot of great new features and new company product. Or you can create a leaderboard system on how many pomodoros each member of your team has done in a specific week, and you can test quirky and sometimes even crazy ideas and see what happened. Always measure the results and repeat the ones that generate the outcomes you're chasing. It's not rocket science. You already have your goals set so all you have to do now is test out ways to achieve that goal, and once you've found a strategy that works, take it from sprint to marathon. Remember, there are two different sports. No, interruptions can lead to better productivity. However, if you turn your no talk Wednesday to no talk every day, that won't necessarily be effective because you might be neglecting other needs your team has. Make sure to make the transition from Sprint to marathon gradually. Have reliable feedback systems in place, and as far as long-term focus goes, you need a clear mission and to constantly remind yourself why you're making this change in the first place. Although you are fighting resistance, trying to effectively communicate the mission, never lose track of your main objective. That's all you need to know for an effective framework for implementing change and taking action. You already had the fundamental principles from the previous module. Everything that's required from you now is to take action, use fear as a signal for growth, make data driven decisions, and avoid being a victim of cognitive biases, all this while maintaining focus both on short term by testing out sprints and measuring their results and long term by constantly seeing the big picture. Easy right? Well, not to worry, coming up next, we have a module dedicated to dealing with adversity. I'm looking forward to seeing you there and helping you deal with the number one enemy of change. 16. Dealing with Adversity - Complete Ownership: Dealing with adversity, this will be both external and internal. Each one with its particular risks. When it comes to external ones, this will most probably be resistance from your team to any change in the policies. We already discussed earlier that by definition, change or progress comes when you are outside your comfort zone and nobody likes discomfort and increased stress. Without a solid reason, they will not only not fight for change, in fact, they will fight against it. When it comes to internal resistance, this is even more dangerous because you are the initiator of the movement in your doubt will so doubt in the goal itself and the best behavior to counter adversity as complete ownership, and what do we mean by that? You might remember some of the cognitive biases we've talked about in the previous module. One of them being that people place responsibility on external factors when they fail and consider their merit when they win. Well, the problem with such a behavior, besides the obvious one that you are deceiving yourself is that you place control and power of action outside yourself, and the framework for this was theorized by Stephen Covey, in the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People where he talks about your circle of influence as the area where your actions have an impact. The more you focus your attention inside the circle, the more it grows and the circumstances where you have an impact on grow. If you don't take full responsibility for your shortcomings, then the circle will never grow because its never your fault, call it victim mentality, call it learned helplessness. This type of behavior will never lead to result. I think everyone knows the famous quote from JFK's inaugural speech where he said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. " Only in this case, it's not about a country, it's about yourself. An adaptation might be ask not what the external factors do to you, ask what you can do about external factors and you can start this by asking the right questions when solving the problems you're facing and trying to implement change. Let's say you want to improve productivity and want a daily report system. However, nobody seems to use the system, although you struggle to explain to everyone how important this is. Some of the default questions you might ask yourself would be, why are they so reluctant to change? Why are they so lazy? If you look deeper at these questions, you are doing nothing more but pointing fingers and blaming others. But if it's result you're after and not becoming gray martyr in the fight for productivity, the right question might be, what more can I do to get them to complete that daily report? By asking this question, you become the one in control of the outcome and not external factors. Something you should always remember and consider doing as an exercise is to pay close attention to the questions you are asking when trying to solve a problem. Are you focusing on your circle of influence or are you placing responsibility on external factors? It might take some time, but as you will keep doing it, you will see that not only will you empower yourself, but you will also have a significant boost in result and coming up next, we'll look at the main problem with taking on more responsibility and implementing change, forcing yourself out of auto-pilot. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next video. 17. Force Yourself Out of Autopilot: Forcing yourself out of autopilot. You've kept hearing me say throughout the course that in most cases, you know what needs to be done, especially when you want something to change. Then why haven't you done it already? Your autopilot is the problem. Call it your comfort zone, call it your internal thermostat, it is what stops you from growing. The problem with a culture of constant change and ongoing improvement is that you need to keep doing it. In most cases, after you've achieved your initial goal, you stop, thus no longer changing. In time, any system degrades, loses efficiency, and you are right back where you started, so fighting your autopilot is the most important thing when trying to adopt to change as a core component of your organization's culture. A good formalized explanation of this, you can find in the book Release Your Brakes by James Newman. He explained that your famous comfort zone is in fact more like a thermostat rather than a circle. The good thing is that you will change when it reaches the low end. The bad part is that you will struggle to get back to its center when you reach the high end as well. The problem, after successfully implementing a great policy, is that you will self-sabotage in some way to get back to your default. Maybe another example would be more relevant, especially since it's a very hyped topic these days, AI. There's this company called OpenAI backed by Elon Musk, that made a bot for a game called Dota 2. It's a very competitive multiplayer game where teams of five with each player having one character with special traits, fight each other to destroy their bases. The initial bot was made for a simplified version of the game in a 1v1 match-up. What makes it very interesting is how it learns and changes. The bot plays against itself and if it wins, that behavior becomes its new default, and it keeps growing with these small increments. From nothing more than some basic objectives and huge amounts of game time against itself, it managed to beat last year that top professional players. A few months later after the event, a player nicknamed Black managed to beat the OpenAI bot and one commentator immediately said, "Black is the new OpenAI now." In many ways, this is what you need to do with yourself. As soon as a successful implementation of changes made, you need to make it your default and improve it further. But unlike the Dota 2 game bot, you can't play the game at 10xp then learn in a few weeks what professional players spend years to learn. But you do have the next best thing for professional growth, constant supervised stress. That's what we'll be covering in the next video. I'm looking forward to seeing you there. 18. Constant Supervised Stress: Constant supervised stress. This is by far the most effective way to make progress in any field. It takes many shapes and forms. One of the most familiar one is, getting a mentor or a coach. The importance of this is best seen in athletes. A good coach, can sky rocket the progress of any team and can help peak performance, athletes get unstuck whenever they reach a plateau or a mental block. Ideally, a coach needs to be someone, that has been there and done that, because at some point you will face problems bigger than yourself and having someone that faced them, will give you belief to push through. Another reason why a coach or mentor needs to be more experienced than you, is because they need some form of authority. The longer the period, you've been working in a specific field, the bigger the resistance you will have in taking advice, because you will immediately think to yourself, who are you to give me advice? I've been doing this for the past 20 years and that's why authority is a very important factor, especially when it comes to high-stress periods. It's the same problem with motivation. You might be hyped right now and driven, but when your stress levels and discomfort will grow significantly, you won't make the same decisions you would now. Your task for this video, is to get yourself a mentor, ideally someone more experienced. If you're a big organization, look for senior managers that are willing to give you guidance, if you're in a small company, try LinkedIn and search for local professionals, far more experienced than you. I'm not saying it will be easy, but the time spent to find one, will be insignificant in comparison to the time you'll gain by speeding up your progress. The things you consider now huge problems, a mentor might find them trivial, and that will make you realize, they're not impossible to overcome because others already did it. I remember a story, Dan Pena said, who I've mentioned already in the course, at some point during an investigation of his company, all his assets were frozen, and he couldn't write a check for several months. He went with his mentor to the local golf course and shared the story, being obviously unfocused and playing horrible. All the other people present, most of who were ex CEOs in big organizations said," It's going to get a lot worse" and seeing that they all laughed about it, made him realize, it's not a singular problem that nobody ever dealt with and can't be overcome and here's a less grandiose personal story. Last year, I encouraged my girlfriend to start freelancing, because with her skill sets, she could earn far more than she did at her job, for several weeks, I kept pushing her to apply to project, to the point where we started to argue almost every day. Only several months later did she thank me for my persistence, because otherwise she would have quit on the idea of freelancing. Because when you apply to 1,2,10 projects and nobody even replies back, let alone ask you for more details, self-doubt starts to seep in. What if you're not good enough, what if others are far better than you, what if, what if? However I knew freelancing was highly profitable, having done it for years. Why most people fail, is that the entry barrier is hard to breach. When starting out, you have no portfolio, you haven't proven yourself. The problem with a mentor without more experience in a field than you is, that doubt gets them too, those are to be supportive and say, "You did your best, you tried, maybe you should try something else," and making someone feel better about themselves and offering short-term comfort, is not always helpful towards them reaching the goals they have. That's why you need constant, supervised stress. Constant because you need consistency to perform and supervised, because although you need to push people, you need to know when to stop, so they don't snap and quit. Same as in a gym, you need a good trainer, so they know when you've pushed enough and not damage anything, thus slowing your progress in the long run. In conclusion, remember these three elements when dealing with adversity. Take full responsibility, force yourself out of default, and don't drive on autopilot and have a form of constant supervised stress, ideally from a mentor. But it can also be your team, or even a tool, like a daily reminder app, if you have no other option. That was it, coming up next, we have the course overview, where we go over everything we've discussed once more, so you have a better grasp of things as a whole and then I'll share some further reading material, in case you want to improve your skill in a specific area. I'm looking forward to see you in the next module. 19. Course Overview: Course Summary. First of all, I want to congratulate you for reaching the end. Although throughout the course I kept saying reading, listening, and learning are not enough. Action is what makes the difference. What I didn't say is that so few put in the work to learn. Several studies from 2015 show that one in four people haven't read a book in the last year. Although everyone talks about book sales, nobody ever talks about book engagement rates. How many actually read the books from start to finish? I'm someone with multiple courses online. I'm amazed by the high percentage of people that don't follow through a course from start to finish. At first, I thought it was a problem with my content. But comparing to the platform averages, I saw that my metrics were actually way above average. So before we proceed with the actual summary, I want you to remember that you are among the few that actually took the time to at least consider improving themselves. However, the closer you get to peak performance, the more you need to take consistent action if you are to succeed. That being said, let's proceed with the course summary. From the start, I made a promise to make it both informative and practical and avoid motivational cliches and stereotypes Because although mindset and motivation are essential to change you need a working framework, not just hype. You then discover that you will have to get used to fear in its many forms. Be it fear of failure, fear of losing face, or even fear of success. More often than not, it is nothing more but False Expectations Appearing Real. One of the main reasons people pursue change is to increase performance. However, change comes at a cost. This being the risk and stress you expose yourself and your organization. So your first practical exercise was to define a clear goal that this course will help you with. It can be anything from improving your skill set, getting a promotion, changing the existing infrastructure of your company, or anything else that is relevant to you right now. The second step of this initial exercise is to know precisely what are the metrics by which you will track and measure your progress and results. Because as the saying goes, what doesn't get measured, doesn't get achieved. We then dug deeper into this goal with the hope to determine your, why. Because the better you understand your why, the better you will counter self-doubt and disbelief when you'll be struggling to achieve it. Also, having more clarity on the reasons for this objective will help you in convincing other people to join the mission, and help you determine and understand their, why. After clarifying your goal and both emotional and pragmatic levels, we covered a very important topic, your Map of reality. You first learned that you see the map, not the territory. The way you process experience and reality in general, is highly influenced by all your past experiences and global view of the world. This insight will help you better understand yourself and most importantly, better understand others. Which is a significant leap to the effectiveness of your communication skills. Still under defining change module, we dealt with the cost of change. You know the objective. You can read the map properly. Now, you need to know the requirements for this mission. After finishing the orientation part of the course, we moved on to the next essential element, effective communication. Because unless you're on a deserted island, you cannot do it alone. As difficult as people can be to manage and deal with, having a team is paramount to any meaningful endeavor. Among the main benefits, are the fact that a team allows you to scale your time better. You're not restricted to just 24 hours in a day. Your speed of implementation is much faster. Because you have access to thousands of hours of knowledge in different fields, or elements like synergy. Where the whole team is greater than the sum of its parts. So in your pursuit to effectively communicate the mission to your team, the first step after understanding that you cannot do it alone is raising trust and understanding levels. These factors impact a lot of things down the line. Take feedback systems as an example. You can have the best system possible implemented. But if the trust levels are low, nobody will ever use them. Because fear of repercussions from sharing honest, blunt feedback. But getting back to communication, you learned another factor that needs to be simultaneously present when building trust and understanding, and that is clarity. Your message needs to be clear especially,the cost versus outcome offer. Failure here will lead to discontent for any change you will want to implement. Because even, if not a direct breach of trust, failure to deliver a clear message will make people feel betrayed and that will lower trust in all future collaborations. Not to mention the other obvious problems lack of clarity can have to the project itself. That's why, as I kept saying throughout the course, the order in which you approach all these concepts and principles is also relevant. Because they all rely on the previous ones to be successful or as Isaac Newton elegantly puts it, "If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." That's why you need first to have a clear mission. Then understand that everyone sees the world in a different way. With that knowledge, build trust with your team and so on. After we clarified the principles of effective communication, we took a look at communication channels. We determined they have two main purposes. Social and goal-oriented. Even something as unproductive as sleep, is essential to being productive. The same goes with the virtual water cooler I suggested you implement for the social side of communication channels. On the practical side, we talked about the four basic principles: speed, transparency, clarity, and reach. Your message needs to be delivered fast, needs to be transparent and clear, and reach everyone. It should not getting lost in the noise over communication can cause some times. You discovered that written asynchronous communication is a great example of such a channel and that it minimizes risk and improves efficiency. However, there are a lot of company-specific factors that need to be taken into consideration as well. Since I don't know the ins and outs of every organization of everyone listening to this. It's your role to change and adapt your existing communication channels based on the four principles. Last but not least in the communication module, we looked at feedback systems. A core elements to any successful implementation of change. After all, in most cases that's where change comes from. The difference in effectiveness,is when it comes and how it comes. You can have feedback from the market when people return your product because it's badly manufactured or badly advertised, or you can have feedback prior to launch and not have tremendous headaches down the road. The sooner a change is made, the less it costs. That's why feedback systems are so important. In the hope of making things easier for you, I've boiled things to just four components. First, you need to make data-driven decisions. Make sure the feedback you gather is not only irrelevant, but as objective as possible. Speaking of objectivity, you need to know that relationships matter. The culture of your organization, will greatly influence the quality of feedback. If it's a culture of fear, people won't share anything negative, although it could be extremely useful for the project. So at the risk of sounding like a broken record, make sure to solve all the previous factors before moving on to the next. Even the best of us sometimes can't see the forest for the trees at some point in our career. You will never have effective communication without having a clear mission. Why? You can't have effective feedback systems without already having high levels of trust in your organization. Wrapping up on feedback, the last two core components are, follow-up and making it routine. You actually need to use the feedback you gather. Because otherwise, people will gradually start to doubt its effectiveness. You need to make it a routine, not do it just once in a while. All the components make perfect sense. But it's just so easy to overlook them and in time, what started out as a great idea can easily become another task that most people don't even understand why they are doing it in the first place. Because it's trade so much from the principle it was meant to follow in the first place. After the module on communication, we started on the framework for taking action in your pursuit to embrace change in your organization. By far, the most important component here is doing. While research, preparation, and analysis are always welcomed, the action part is where change happens. With thought alone, no real results will ever appear and I think Gandhi said it best, "Without action, you aren't going anywhere." From doing, we moved onto an omnipresent component of taking action, fear and instead of looking at fear as something to avoid looking at it as a sign you are growing. Because you feel fear when you are outside your comfort zone. By definition, that is when you overcome your limits. But taking action and chasing fear is not enough. You still need to make the right decisions. You need to take into consideration outcomes, choices, time frame, and involvement. But most importantly, you need to avoid cognitive biases. Although you do your best to be objective, our internal wiring is made in such a way that it makes it extremely hard to be fully objective. We ended the module with focus, which is your follow through ability. This has both short-term requirements like motivation and drive. But also, long-term requirements like discipline and good habits. We then dedicated an entire module to dealing with adversity and resistance. Which are the main causes of failing when trying to implement change. The solutions, where to take full responsibility. This will not only help encountering many cognitive biases. But also, empowering you to take action. Still under the module of dealing with resistance, we have to tackle the second biggest problem. This time more dangerous due to it's stealthiness and easiness by which it can disrupt your mission. It's going back to your default or autopilot settings. The hardest part of change is that you have to keep doing it. It's the management of change. You have to keep improving. You don't do it just once. You have to do it for the rest of your career. As weird as this might sound, change has to be the constant in your profession. The most effective way to maintain change and growth is with Constant Supervised Stress. Ideally, you do this with a mentor. But you can do it with your team or with a reliable software if the previous are not available. You need constant pressure to keep changing. Otherwise, you will do what we talked about earlier, fall back on autopilot. That was it. I hope you enjoyed the course. I did my best to cover even the more formal components of change management. Whoever I tried to make it down to earth and practical. I did my best to share both personal and public examples on change. So you can relate and adapt and use it according to your own specific needs. Coming up next, I'm going to share a short list of books. That you can use to extend your expertise in various topics I briefly covered in the course. Then you can be on your way and take action. I'm looking forward to seeing you in the next and final video. 20. Further Reading: This short video contains a list of resources that you can use to expand your knowledge on specific areas we've covered. If you have any recommendations of your own, feel free to share it and the discussion section. Without further ado, let's proceed. First, I want to recommend Simon Sinek's book, "Start With Why". The reason is obvious. If the Ted talk wasn't enough for you, read the book, then comes a personal favorite that I periodically go back to news to change specific behaviors, am not satisfied with. The book is called "Release Your Brakes" by James Newman. It's a very practical manual that will allow you to make changes to your map of reality. Either you want to break free from an irrational fear you have, or changes a specific behavior towards how you see your work or your life. This is the go-to manual. Then we have Stephen Covey's "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People". I think it's by far one of the most life-changing books one can ever read. The book is filled with so many eye-opening concepts that I'm actually surprised it's not being thought in schools. A concept that keeps fascinating me is when the author emphasizes on the importance and difference between efficiency and effectiveness, similar to how I said in the course, don't mistake speed for progress. Another book that's very enjoyable to read on your commute, at least that's how I did it as Kelly McGonigal, "Willpower Instinct". This book will help you strengthen your willpower muscles for those moments when your motivation levels are low, stain in this area of willpower and following through with your goals, I have two more recommendations. The first is "Flow" by Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi, and then there is "The Power of Habit" by Charles Duhigg that will help you stay on course for the long run. For those of you that want a starting point and be exposed to several interesting ideas, I recommend you give "Rework" by Jason Fried, a quick read. The book isn't entire philosophy of ideas that they've implemented at base camp that you might consider using in your own organization, and last but not least, I encourage you to read biographies of the people you admire and aspire to in some area of your profession. For me, the top three ones was Mosque, Jobs, and Phil Knight. The reason for this is because you will see just how difficult change can be and how much resistance you will have to face but finding out that people follow through over and over again will help you in pursuing your own goal despite adversity, and ultimately, that was the main mission of this course. Do not only expose you to new ideas, but to have you take action and change something for the better. My name is Donald Katana, you've listened to Change management: How to Drive and Adapt. It has been a real pleasure making this course for you. I'm eager to hear your thoughts, insights and even criticism under the discussion section. I want to remind you one last time, don't forget to take action no matter how small it is, don't settle with knowing start doing.