Camera Aperture - A Drawing Exercise | Kelly Hudak | Skillshare

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Camera Aperture - A Drawing Exercise

teacher avatar Kelly Hudak, Artist/Yogi/Sailor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 30m)
    • 1. Welcome

    • 2. The Visual Pathway and Camera Lens

    • 3. Aperture Intro and Lens Mechanics

    • 4. f22 Theory and Image Examples

    • 5. f16 and f11 Theory and Image Examples

    • 6. f8 Theory and Image Examples

    • 7. f5.6 and f4 Theory and Image Examples

    • 8. f2.2 Theory and Image Examples

    • 9. Drawing Aperture with Circle Templates

    • 10. Drawing a Large Aperture by Compass

    • 11. Drawing a Small Aperture by Compass

    • 12. Drawing Aperture with a Tablet

    • 13. Drawing the Aperture Scale

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About This Class


Would you like to deepen your relationship with the lens and aperture?


Whether this is your introduction to camera aperture, or you have found aperture settings to be challenging, need a refresh, looking for more creative control in your projects or are looking for an interesting exercise to share with your students, we will work towards demystifying the f-stops. 

In this class we explore the finer details of the mechanism, as well as,  possibilities of improved object recognition, by drawing the aperture blade configurations that allow light to reach your film or sensor.

New and seasoned creatives will be inspired to explore photography from a fresh perspective, moving through the following lessons leading to a final project of drawing the aperture scale.




The Visual Pathway and Camera Lens Explore the inspiring similarities and differences between the eye and camera lens.

Aperture Intro and Lens Mechanics What is Camera Aperture, as well as, an inside look at two film cameras and the digital Hasselblad H4D-40 lens

Theory and Metadata in five parts covering f 22 to f 2.2 Immerse yourself in descriptions of each aperture, image examples, settings, lens choices and resources.

Drawing Aperture by Circle Template Our first drawing exercise using circle templates of various sizes to represent camera aperture.

Drawing a Large Aperture by Compass Building on our first drawing exercise we move on to drawing a large camera aperture with a compass.

Drawing Small Aperture by Compass Building on our first drawing exercise we move on to drawing a small camera aperture with a compass.

Drawing Aperture with a Tablet Bonus Exercise! Using Adobe Draw I’ll take you through the steps to draw the camera aperture on a tablet.

Drawing the Aperture Scale Final Project! Now that you have formed a deeper relationship with the concept of camera aperture and have studied the various openings, let’s draw the aperture scale.

Meet Your Teacher

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Kelly Hudak



I am at home in the world while sailing, practicing yoga and photographing prototype motorcycle racing. Dynamic experiences inspire me and I love the process and journey of conceptual art. The camera has been one of my tools to develop art and I would be happy to share my knowledge from iphone to Hasselblad. I completed my MFA at University of California, Santa Barbara in 2004. Since that time I have explored abstract notions of light, time and motion, resulting in medium format photography within prototype motorcycle racing, working with OLED technology towards future sculpture, a year of working  for Apple Retail, traveling over our vast ocean and engaging in the practice of Ashtanga Yoga. Join me in class for topics that will shift your perspective and strengthen your awareness ... See full profile

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1. Welcome : Hi and welcome to camera aperture, a drawing exercise. My name is Kelly and I'm an artist blending photography, drawing, and sculpture into a variety of visual projects from photographic installation, two forms using OLED technology. I'm happy to be your guide along this journey. In this class, we will be drawing camera aperture in its abstract form as an experiment to encode information into the brain. Or experience of this world has fascinated me for some time. I have challenged my own body and processing systems in the form of skydiving, yoga, photographing prototype motorcycle racing, and traveling offshore, sailing to the Bahamas and British Virgin Islands. The center of my artwork became a study and interpretation of the awareness, balance, and focus and dynamic spaces. I wanted to share with you studies that have recently inspired me within the realms of psychology and neuroscience about multi-sensory brain activation. Specifically in the repetition of drawing patterns through using the stimuli of language processing, the visual system, and are kinesthetic abilities. So my question is, by drawing a camera mechanism such as the aperture, shutter, or sensor, can we move towards a deeper level of understanding and image-making? Whether we use our iPhone film, mirrorless or medium format cameras. Can we translate our drawing exercises into our photographic experience? In this class, I will be guiding you through an inside look into the camera and visual processing system and our body. Providing some inspiration ahead of our drawing exercises will take apart the digital Hasselblad H 4040 and film cameras produced by an icon and contacts. I will show you the role that aperture plays in photography, including depth of field and exposure by looking at some of my favorite stock photography websites where we can view camera metadata. Final project will be to draw the aperture scaler. Class materials needed are pencils, paper, a ruler or compass, and circle templates. I will also be sharing demos with my tablet and stylus. You may be wondering, is this class for me? This class is for anyone interested in creativity. You do not have to be a photographer or artists to take this class. All that is necessary is a curiosity in expanding awareness, Visualization, and perception. Please feel free to The any questions I'm always happy to help. Everyone is welcome to join and will find the material covered can be used in many areas beyond photography. Similarly, if you have joined this class to learn about drawing in memory, you will pick up some important aspects within the world of image-making. A note for the professional. Some topics are quite basic and the learning aperture section, though I have provided some interesting elements for the more advanced student, including a look inside the hustle lot, age 4040. Professionals may be interested in the basic materials to share with our own audience or student base and experience. Creatives maybe interested in the links between the topic of Azure, drawing and memory. Classes are clearly mapped out and easy to navigate. Feel free to explore sections in the class that makes sense for you. I would love to explore with you new ways in which we can look at conceptual information through drawing and how that may relate to photography. Looking forward to seeing your projects, Let's get started. In the next section, we will explore the visual pathway connected to some great research on drawing and memory. Hi. 2. The Visual Pathway and Camera Lens : You may be familiar with the reference that the eye can be compared to a camera lens. Let's take a closer look. Light is bent and refracts on and through the cornea. It is like the cameras frontal lens element helping light rays to focus on the retina. The actual lens of the eye continues this process once the light rays pass through the IRS, similar to a camera aperture which opens and closes, controlling the quantity of light on the move. Mental conditions from dark to light. The lens of the eye focuses light to the retina, where it is transformed into electrical signals traveling to the brain by way of the optic nerve. We can think of the retina as the film or image sensor. Yet the retina is so much more than an image sensor with millions of receptors helping to send information to the brain to resolve what we experience in the world. The fovea is the most sensitive part packed with only cone photoreceptors responsible for our color vision and allowing us to focus more closely in great detail on a particular object, texts or section and our field of view. As we move away from the fovea, we find more of the photoreceptors called rods, responsible for peripheral and night vision. The photoreceptors receive wavelengths of light and transform that stimuli into electrical nerve impulses for the brain in what we understand today as the visual stream, including the primary visual cortex and beyond. The 2016 study conducted by Jeffrey D. Waves, Melissa a. Mede, and Myra a. Fernandez found that drawing enhanced memory recall. I first found this study while researching why drawing is an integral part of learning and how it may relate to remembering something like the amateur scale in photography. What I found so fascinating was that the brain seems to create a strong neural connection to layered experience involving different parts of the brain. The more parts of the brain involved, the stronger the connection and recall at a later time. Drawing is the perfect multi-sensory tool and studies have found that the level of experience in drawing is not important. Yet, once you begin in practice, always improves your ability. You will find links to this study and inspiring articles about drawing and memory in the resources area of this class, there is so much to be explored within the visual pathway. Many new discoveries being made. Yet, why drawing from this particular study, drawing improves memory in part because when one creates a visual depiction of an item, the trace set is encoded, is rich and contextual information forming and especially detailed memory that is more readily retrievable. Moreover, subsequent work has suggested that this contextual information is likely distributed across three primary sources, the semantic or elaborative process one engages in when deciding how to depict a particular item. The manual motoric program required when putting pencil to paper to produce the image. And the visual inspection and analysis of one's developing work. Allow me to take you through a general mapping within the brain concerning our area of interest to become a little bit more comfortable with the terrain. Here we are at the occipital lobe. This is the home of the visual cortices where the brain receives and processes visual information coming from the retina in a layered manner. V1 is known as the primary visual cortex, also called the striate cortex. Basic visual signals within the realm of color, shape, and movement information is received for processing and sent to the extra strike or surrounding areas of the visual cortex. The two processes more detail within the visual signals such as contours, textures, and the location of something foreground and background. The three through 78 are higher-order areas of the visual cortices, such as motion and spatial orientation. It is interesting to note that two pathways are studied. Dale Purvis, gallery, professor of neurobiology Emiratis, and the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences writes the following. The ventral stream leads from the striate cortex to the temporal lobe. The information carried in this pathway appears to be concerned with high resolution vision and object recognition. And that accords with other evidence about functions of the temporal lobe, the dorsal stream, these from striate cortex and visually relevant areas into the parietal lobe. This pathway appears to be primarily responsible for spatial aspects of vision, such as the analysis of motion, orienting attention, and positional relationships between objects in the visual scene. Connecting this research back to our task at hand, drawing a camera mechanism for deeper understanding, let's review how drawing can help you boost your memory from an article on artsy dotnet by Abigail Kane from May of 2018. Waves theorizes that his findings might have something to do with the multi-sensory nature of the activity. Drawing incorporates and potentially integrates three distinct types of experience. Semantic, the internal generation process that allows you to translate a word into a series of visual characteristics you can draw. Motor, the planned movement of your hand as you draw, and visual watching your drawing appear on the page. These various components are likely linked in some way inside of our minds, said waves. So if you can retrieve one small detail or components that might help you reconstruct that full representation of what you studied. Reading or writing silently, on the other hand, engages viewers senses and thus offers fewer details with which to retrieve the memory. Next we'll cover aperture. Take a look inside a few cameras and explored image examples and aperture technique. 3. Aperture Intro and Lens Mechanics : In our last section, we explored the visual pathway and how engaging the brain in the sensory rich activity of drawing seems to encode information for later access, including similarities and differences between the eye and camera lens. Studies researching how drawing can improve memory. A brief tour through the visual system, and the multi-sensory activity of drawing connected to a layered visual processing within the mind. In this section, I will share with you the inner workings of the camera aperture to provide a deeper level of understanding regarding the mechanism. The aperture of a camera is the opening and a lens which allows various amounts of light to reach the film or sensor that people have a cat's eye as a great analogy, opening to allow light to pass through and the darker environments, and closing to adjust for brightness. F2, 0.845.68. What do these numbers mean? The numerical expression of camera apertures or ratio. You will see the italic F used in a mathematical manner, standing for focal ratio, F ratio or f-stop. It is found while dividing focal length, which is the distance between a specific point of the lens called the optical center and the image plane where you will find the film or a camera sensor by the diaphragmatic opening created from the arrangement of thin blades moving synchronous, ugly inside the camera lens. Let's take a closer look while breaking down the Hasselblad H 4040. This is the medium format camera that I use while making my artwork. To twist off the lens will hold the button on the camera body and rotate counterclockwise. Let's set that down and make sure it doesn't roll off the table. This is the HCI 100 millimeter lens. The 100 millimeter being the focal length that we just discussed. On the side of the lens is a depth of field scale to aid and manual focussing technique by turning the focusing ring reading infinity to three feet. This is a useful practice in adjusting depth of field by using distance back to our aperture. I'll take the lens cap off and we can see that its widest aperture is 2.2 with a focal length of 100 and the filter thread is 77 millimeters. Here we can see how the lens connects to the camera body. We cannot change the aperture on the lens itself. So I will show you how that is done. Once the camera is turned on. By turning the aperture dial, you can see the f-number changing. The AFC 100 has a range of aperture settings between 2.2 and 27, to point to being the largest opening, allowing the most light to reach the sensor and gradually closing to the smallest opening, F 2007. The aperture can be changed for settings including exposure control and depth of fields. We'll take a look at some image examples using different apertures. But first, let's look at a few more cameras are contacts. Here is a film camera. Let's twist off the lens and take a look. This lens is a Carl's ice. Its largest aperture is 1.4, and it has a focal length of 50 millimeters. With a manual lens, we can easily see our aperture changing. The 50 millimeter lens is said to be closest to our human field of vision. This lens has a depth of field scale, reading from infinity to 1.5 feet. Super versatile, a very popular lens to have. Let's take a look at my dad's Nikon. This is the first camera I used while learning photography. You will see some familiar numbers by noun. The focal length being a 135 millimeters and the smallest aperture expressed as a ratio, one colon, 2.8. Like the contacts, we can easily view the aperture of the Nikon manual lens closing and opening. 4. f22 Theory and Image Examples : I wanted to share some images with you so that we can further study how aperture settings may be used in different situations. Stock photography sites are helpful in this endeavor, not only for inspiration, but also viewing camera metadata from a wide range of photographic styles. We began by looking at an aperture of f 22 on Unsplash. From their about page, unsplash is a platform powered by an amazing community that has gifted hundreds of thousands of their own photos to fuel creativity around the world. After entering a few keywords in the search field and making a selection, we can click on the Information button of any image to read the metadata. Here we can view the camera make and model focal length, aperture, shutter speed, ISO, image dimensions, publishing information views and downloads. The aperture of f 22 allows for a deep depth of field, meaning a greater area of the image is in focus. The Sony 16 millimeter lens is small and lightweight, perfect for an outdoor adventure. I've added a review in the resources for more information. Taking a closer look, we can see that details near and far remain sharp. F22, this particular lens is close to its maximum. There may be some softening around the edges. So some photographers will open up to f 16 or f 11, which according to lens optics, can be a bit more sharp. There is a wide range of glass out there. The lens is incredibly important and my best advice would be to think about how your final images will be viewed. We can click on the creator of this image in the top left corner and view more of his work. We can follow or message which I think is a nice part of the Unsplash community. Moving on to f 16, we'll take another look at the impressive Unsplash collection. Some of their partners include BuzzFeed, Squarespace, and Trello, all powered by the API. Unsplash also houses collections from institutional libraries. The summer of 2020, Unsplash celebrated 20 million contributions from 200 thousand global contributors. And I think their yearly awards attract some great curators to. Here's the perfect image to discuss how the Sunny 16 rule works. Is on a sunny day with your subject in direct sunlight, use F6 and then match your center speed the time you're seen as exposed to the film or sensor. Do your ISO the film or sensor sensitivity. One of my first jobs was working at a camera shop. We sold many types of film rated for various uses. For instance, one hundred and one hundred twenty-five was rated for sunlight and outdoors to 100 was in the versatile range, still for outdoors and indoors with enough light. 400 was for lower light and faster action. 800 and beyond reserved for night scenes and speed cameras. Sensors today go beyond these numbers and we will get into the details of sensors in an upcoming class. For now, this is a place to start experimenting with manual camera controls. Remember that at f 16, set your shutter speed to match your ISO. As pictured in our F6 example, where the aperture is set to f 16, the shutter speed 1, 200 of a second, and ISO to 100. At this small aperture opening, we still have a deep depth of fields. Another note is that with a smaller opening, you will tend to see longer and more defined sun bursts, the type of lens, and it's mechanics also play a part. For instance, the number of aperture blades in the lens will actually play a part in the number of rays in your sunburst effect. See the resources section for great article on the topic. Let's go ahead and download this image. I love the Unsplash pop-up here so that I can easily copy a link or an HTML embed to credit the artist. So I will open up the image full screen from my downloads folder. The image clarity and sharpness are perfect across the entire space of the image. And it looks like we have 14 rays and the starburst. Odd numbers shutter blades seven in this case, will produce a doubling of rays zooming in, we can view a great amount of detail. The aperture range of the eight millimeter lens is 3.5 to F22. Again, when closing your aperture a bit, also known as stopping down, photographers find the sweet spot of the lens that point in the optics that is the sharpest. When a lens is close to the maximum, you may find softening in the optics. Something to be aware of that can definitely be used to your advantage when composing your image. 5. f16 and f11 Theory and Image Examples : You may have noticed an extra set of blades in our Hasselblad lens here. This is the leaf shutter. Some lenses, how's the shutter mechanism in the lens itself? The shutter opens for a specified amount of time, allowing light to move through our chosen aperture opening bathing the sensor. So why have a shudder in the lens from Hasselblad website, a central type shutter minimizes vibration and ensures a lifetime of accurate performance. The camera body itself can be smaller, leaf shutters synchronized with the flash up to one, two thousandth of a second, so that immense creative control as possible in the studio and outdoors. I've provided a link to the hospital and site for your reference and our resources section. Share and subscribe to stay tuned for the next class in the series on the shutter mechanism. Now see if you can notice the leaf shatter in our following sequences on aperture. Here we are at f 11. Let's visit Unsplash one more time. You'll notice that when you visit a photographer's homepage, there is a small About section. I love this one coming up. I believe that through photography, every human can be more aware of the environmental issues, can be more interested and learn about the residents from the heart of the forest and discover something in himself, herself, the return to nature. Let's take a look at this image focusing on the fjords of Norway with beautiful accents of light, edge to edge sharpness and a glowing sky. Taking a look at the metadata, we can see that this image was shot at F11 using the Sony A7 and a 24 millimeter lens. Which 24 millimeter lens? That's a good question because usually that information is not provided. We can imagine that it is a Sony 24 millimeter. Sony uses additional elements and their lens lineup for extraordinary performance and sharp and overall resolution. I've added a link and our resources to the Sony G master FE 24 millimeter from Adorama website if you are interested in learning more. In the meantime, let's get back to our photographer's gallery of images and enjoy plenty of inspiration here. Feet. When I think of F8, I think portraits, an early mentor of mine taught me to use F8 at a 125th of a second in a portrait situation. Now take into consideration I was using studio lighting, yet I still like to apply the rule in the offshore environment for a portrait like this, one of captain Bruce at sunsets. I'm using the viewing and editing program focus created by Hasselblad. It's ready to use for any camera system. And I have provided a link in our resources section. If you wish to try it out. Within the metadata, you will notice that I have used the hustle lot H 4040, the HCI 100 lens, and ISO 400 to compensate for low light, is shutter speed of 125th of a second and an aperture of f 8. There is a lot more information here beyond the scope of this class. So we'll leave that for another time. I'll go ahead and select the zoom tool so that we can take a closer look at our image. There's just a moment to wait for the image to come into focus. Then as you move, there is a slight blur until we stop again. We have a good amount of subject clarity. It with the foreground and background gradually softening. I like this subtle falling off and focus for this kind of image. The last slide of the day, falling on Bruce in almost a silhouette. There's very little noise. Because of the large sensor. Though I tend not to use an ISO beyond 400. The House of Lords developed after the age 40, were produced with improved sensors and lenses, I could achieve faster shutter speeds. All of that said, I have had this cameras since 2013 and am happy with his performance. 6. f8 Theory and Image Examples: F5.6, we have arrived at the beginning of a journey towards shallow depth of field. The diaphragmatic opening is getting larger and the light rays that pass through create a wider cone converging on the sensor. This allows for much softness and blur in the background. Let's take a look at a tire portrait on Pixabay. Pixabay has developed a high-quality database where you can find photos, illustrations, vectors, videos, and music free for your creative projects. The work submitted as carefully curated by a talented team and I think they do a great job offering quality contents. We can bind the metadata. On the bottom right. We can see that this image is not quite 5.6. It's 7.1. Though. Take a look at the lens. It's a telephoto, 70 to 300 millimeters, and the photographer is zoomed into 300 millimeters. I bring this up as telephoto is going achieve a beautiful separation between subject and, and. You can also begin to see defocus spots called Bokeh. They are most apparent in specular highlights or point lighting. I would like to point out that on Pixabay you can follow or buyer photographer, cup of coffee. So let's download this image and take a closer look. I love this thank you page. Where you have easy access to credit the creator and donates. Lens technology just gets better and better. For a telephoto like this one, there is vibration reduction. This size is small and weight is light. It's fast and super quiet when auto focusing and at the smaller apertures, it maintains edge to edge sharpness. Kitchen on Pexels. Their mission is empowering creators, helping millions of designers, writers, artists, programmers, and other creators to get access to beautiful photos they can use freely, which empowers them to create amazing products, designs, stories, websites, apps are, and other work. I want you to notice how sharp the entire images. This is because there is very little distance between the spices in each spoon and the spice splashed background. I can click on the image in pixels and see that there is an app azure of 5.6 using a 55 millimeter lens at an ISO of 100 shot with the canon EOS 2030. Look to the top-left. And we can also view more images by this creator. Scroll down and we can use similar images by a variety of creators. Back to our spices. Let's download the image and check out the details. You'll notice that this creator has connected a PayPal account for donations and a link to follow her Instagram page. As always, I appreciate this, as well as the copy link to credit a creator when I'm using images in a project. Zooming in, the details are beautiful. So in terms of depth of field and aperture of 5.6 with this particular lens and camera combination has a range of focus that includes the distance between the top of each spice mound to the incredible texture of the blue backgrounds in the last image. And this one here, I wanted to provide you with subject distances close and far, so that you may begin to get a feel for the creative control possible with different lenses, yet similar apertures. I encourage you to experiment with your equipment and see what happens. Okay, One more at 5.6 from my first trip to Germany in the Bahamas. This seemingly beautiful evergreen is the castle arena tree native to Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh, and the Pacific Islands. It can also be found throughout the Bahamas, introduced to the region a couple centuries ago for windbreak shade and ornamental purposes. I am using the HCI 100 lens and ISO of 100, a shutter speed of 150th of a second, and an aperture of 5.6. The gas arenas seems to frame the Bohemian see so perfectly. Yet to date, it has become quite invasive, causing terrible beach erosion and destroying native plant diversity due to its aggressive nature and salt resistance. Here it was my AM to isolate the slender branches. An aperture of 5.6 covers enough distance for sharpness and clarity across the scene. With some of the most distant parts of the tree softly fading into the background. The windward waters of BMI fall out of focus quite nicely. And upon closer investigation, we can see the specular highlights creating the visible defocus spots called Bokeh. 7. f5.6 and f4 Theory and Image Examples: Let's move on to Azure F4. The diaphragmatic opening is more than halfway open. Now let's explore what's possible at this aperture setting back on Pixabay, I'm searching for an image where the subject distance and the background is of a medium range, providing a shallow depth of field. I've typed singing bowl into the search field and have a wide variety to choose from. With this one on the right, the wood green of the table, the malate and the edge of the bowl in focus. We can see that this type of shot can be achieved at a focal length of 55 millimeters at F4, 130th of a second, ISO 400 lets download the image for a closer look. My eye is immediately drawn to the center of the malate, as well as a small amount of the adjacent instrument and the texture in the table. A gradual blur moves from this space and can be seen in front and behind the selected focus area in stark contrast, this is also created using a similar aperture to F4, F35. How is it possible? The distance to your subject is a tool for creative control. Looking at the metadata, we see the image is shot with the Nikon D 5300, a focal length of 18 and aperture of 3.5, a shutter speed of 1 sixth of a second, and an ISO of 500. So what we may gather from this is that the aperture is not only used for depth of field, but also exposure, lighting or darkening as needed. Opening and closing the diaphragmatic mechanism to control light reaching the sensor. The focus and clarity is unaltered simply by distance. Nothing is too close to the camera. And the point that the photographer focuses is often the distance details remain nice and sharp from top to bottom. F2 0.8, pretty close to completely opened, creating a shallow depth of field. Yet also used in images of the night sky, featuring details of the Milky Way and other celestial objects in focus. Camera settings are essentially part of our recipe using aperture, shutter speed, and sensors sensitivity known as ISO. In the last few images, we've used an open aperture to achieve a picture that is akin to using f 11 to F22. We have a special situation with the night sky. The stars are dim, so opening the aperture helps with that. The time that the camera shutter is opened will depend on acceptable amounts of sharpness. And if we want to see the rotation of the Earth, the star streaking across the sky. This image was created with the Nikon D 600 of focal length of 14 and app azure of F2 point a, and a shutter speed of a 165 seconds at ISO 800. Zooming in on the image, we can see that little bit of blur that we could not see before. An important aspect to consider is viewing distance. However, the wide open aperture allows plenty of light to reach the sensor for details in the foreground. And often the distance of focal length of 14 can achieve a larger range in depth of fields. 8. f2.2 Theory and Image Examples : Our last stop is F2 point to this is the widest opening for the HCI 100 lens. The shallow depth of field paired with a longer focal length is extraordinary with this lens. In particular, I wanted to accentuate the smooth water surface on this beach front pool and BMI while portraying its depth. This is the HCI 100 lens set at ISO 100 using a shutters of 1 800th of a second at an aperture of 2.2. Let's zoom in. The selected range of focus is incredibly thin here. I would like to point out that I am using a manual focus in this image because there's not much contrast on the water surface. This makes it difficult for the autofocus mechanism and it may continuously search or hunt for something to focus on. Manual focus provides so much more creative control in this situation, and I like to use it, especially offshore. The pool and architecture almost immediately fall out of focus into abstract shapes. Further highlighting just the hand of water in the middle of this composition. Moving offshore. Here's an excellent example using manual focus at 2.2. As you can tell, I love my HCI 100 for this kind of work. We're still using ISO 100, a shutter speed of 1 800th of a second at the wide open aperture of 2.2. I'm on a sailboat in this shot, so there is a little bit more distance between the camera lens and the C. We can expect that there will be a more gradual blur. Then if we were in the water itself, the wavelets close to the viewer are sharp, zooming in, we can see that the depth of field is shallow. It then area is in-focus. Moving further away, the blue water softens and the most distant edge as blurred. Here's an instance where I used F2 point to and household blobs, true focus, a type of focus setting that makes micro adjustments for accurate subject sharpness. I especially like using this setting with an aperture and a longer focal length, like the HCI 100, I'm using an ISO of 200 here and a shutter speed one 250th of a second at F to point to having the opportunity to try new house a lot equipment. In 2016, I set out to create new artwork in Italy. I also had some time to explore and create images like this one. Here I have accentuated the elegance in the mechanical parts of motorcycle racing. Would the age 6050 see the focus softening beyond the edge of the carbon brake disc and rotor in a diagonal fashion. Our range and focus begins on the left side of the rotor. Then closer to the viewer, we can see this spatial slice extends to the rider number 46. A specular highlights are quite nice and the distance causing beautifully colored defocused spots. I would like to introduce a research tool on Adobe Stock, the depth of field filter. It does a great job guiding you through a mix of content with and without blur to a selection of content with more blur. I've entered the keywords photo studio close to the default depth of field selection, Adobe Stock is available through subscription or a variety of licenses, including a selection of free content. It works seamlessly within Adobe Creative Cloud applications, searching and downloading right from within your project. Notice that upon selecting the image, the actual metadata is limited, but there's still plenty of inspiration adjusting filters. On the left. I can save my Adobe Stock library, download a preview to open an app. All before making a purchase. I've increased the Blur setting. Let's see the new selection. Here we find more depth of field and images that are perhaps connected to a photo studio. Stylists, photographers, cameras, lighting models and the subject matter shot. Occasionally the odd image will pop in, like the ceramic studio or the cancer. The search is not a 100 percent all the time. Now let's select images with a copy of space and perhaps a little less blur. Lots of portraits and maybe an object or two you would find in a photo studio. Back to default, I find more of a connection to the traditional photo studio with lots of empty space ready to be filled within a creative project. I like our current combination of settings the best so far. So you can see how adjusting a few filters can really narrow your search and finding specific content for your project. In the next section, we'll begin exploring a drying exercises. 9. Drawing Aperture with Circle Templates : In the last section, we're able to see how the aperture is a diaphragmatic opening in the lens, allowing light to reach the camera sensor. We also covered the mathematical expression of aperture and the aperture scale, followed by a look inside the digital Hasselblad and film cameras. Finally, we poured through image examples and technique at the various aperture settings. Now, with a better understanding of the mechanism, we turn to drawing, this process will deepen our experience of the aperture, perhaps creating a stronger connection with what we have learned so far. In this first exercise, you will need paper, pencils, a sharpener, and an eraser. Blue contractors tape circle templates, a straight edge and compass. I also like to have a cutting board with measurements and a triangle. That paper I am using is 11 by 14 mixed media by Strathmore. I have found the vellum surface nice to work with. I've taped the paper to my cutting word, so let's measure the center with my straight edge. I am drawing a horizontal line at 5.5 inches. Now let's draw the vertical line at seven inches. Here. Circle template will have marks to align with your center. I'm using the 2.5 inch circle representing the outside of my lens. I like to check for accuracy with my compass. Setting the needle in the center and adjusting to the circle size. It looks pretty good so far. Next, we draw our aperture opening. I'll use the one-inch circle for this exercise, representing a half open aperture, not too small and not too large. Align the bottom of the 2.5 inch size circle along the horizontal bisecting line of the page using the vertical center mark and draw just a little bit more than half of the circle. Move the template so that the top of the 2.5 inch size circle aligns with the horizontal bisecting line of the page using the vertical center mark and draw just a little bit more. Then a half circle for this side. Now, set your template as if you would repeat the half circles on either side of the vertical bisecting line of the page using horizontal markers on the circle templates. You'll notice that the half circles will cross paths. Here. You only need to make the intersecting line. So we all make small arcs top and bottom on the left of the vertical bisecting line of the page, and also on the right side of the vertical bisecting line of the page. We will use these intersecting points, do diagonally bisect our circles representing lens and aperture. Align the triangle with the intersecting arcs. Every time I meet the circle, I will draw a small line. Now let's do the same on the other side. Here's a closer view. You can see that our intersecting arcs lineup and I will draw a small lines every time I meet the circle. The marks that we have laid out should create an octagon. You do not have to draw it out as I have here. This is for illustrative purposes and a little bit of fun. The marks we have made already are all that you need. An octagon having eight sides will provide us with the path to draw eight aperture blades. Measure from the outer left side of the aperture opening to the outer right side of your lens representation. It should measure one and three-quarters. Multiply this measurement by two, and find your next circle templates. We're in luck because this is the largest circle template I have on this particular Westcott product at 3.5 inches. Keep in mind, there is a larger circle template produced by Westcott. And if you plan to draw anything larger than this example, aligned the left center of the circle template with a left center point of our aperture opening representation. Now draw the arc for an aperture blades. Rotate the template center line to the next point, the aperture opening and align it with the next mark on the lens representation. Draw the second arc, though this time, extend the arc to touch the first arc. Now we have one blade. Rotate around the entire representation of Azure opening and lens to create eight blades, making sure that all arcs are touching to create an octagonal shape, like the diaphragm of an optical aperture on the camera. In this exercise, we're drawing round aperture blades, though some cameras also have straight edge blades. The shape N number of blades will at times have an effect within your image-making. I have added a useful link in the resources from B&H titled Understanding bokeh if you're interested in learning more. Next class, I will show you how to use the compass for two more amateur openings on the same page. I would love to see your progress post your work in the project section. Skillshare recommends an image size of 690 by 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0. Please feel free to reach out for any questions. 10. Drawing a Large Aperture by Compass: In the last section, we covered my favorite materials for successful drawing exercise. How to draw a representation of camera aperture or using circle templates technique to account for the number of aperture blades, as well as the different types of aperture blades with resources To learn more about them. Let's now try drawing with the compass to reinforce what we had learned while using a different approach. We're going to use the same sheet of paper from the last exercise to draw a wider aperture opening to the left and a smaller one to the right. To begin, mark two center points to the left and right of our first shape. Now we can line up the needle of our compass to each center point and draw the outer circle representing a camera lens. In this drawing, I will repeat the diameter of the last outer circle. We used measuring 2.5 inches. To get a nice feel for the aperture range of diaphragmatic openings by drawing three lenses with aperture blades on this page. Once this shape is complete, let's move to the other side of the page. Draw another circle at a diameter of 2.5 inches to match the others. I like to trace over my work a couple times to get a nice solid line. Next, we will be creating the aperture openings for both camera lenses. It's not necessary to have an exact measurement, just a larger and smaller opening adjacent to our lens in the center. So here I am creating a wide aperture opening of about F2, 0.8, as you can see here in the Hasselblad lens example from an earlier section of this class. This aperture could be used in sheeting shallow depth of field in our images. Let's now draw an aperture that is closed down. I find it a little bit tricky to draw tiny circles with a compass. Perhaps you feel the same way. Try using the compass thread to stabilize your position. So here in our lens example, we have an aperture of f 16, a small aperture useful in photography to achieve a deep range and depth of fields. Now we have finished all aperture opening shapes in this exercise. F2, 0.858, and F6. Let's now prepare some guidelines ahead of drawing our aperture blades. You can barely see that I have drawn a line through the center of each lens. Align your compass point to the top center of the right circle and adjust the pencil so that it touches the center of your aperture opening. From here, draw an arc that is slightly more than half of a circle. Next, drawn arc, aligning the point of your compass to the bottom center of the lens shape. Sweep your pencil through the center of the aperture opening, just like the last arc. Again, this arc is slightly more than half of a circle. Now, aligning your compass point to the right center of the lens. Draw a short arc intersecting the top and bottom left side. Arcs. Switched sides and do the same for the right, creating short intersecting arcs top and bottom. Using the triangle, I can now use my guides to create short bisecting lines on the lens and aperture opening. Let's take a closer look. I am using the intersecting arcs to create marks at 45 degrees, 1, 2, 3, and 4. Now I'll turn the triangle and create the bisecting marks on the other side. 1234. We're ready for the next step. Align your compass point to the right and center of the outer circle or lens shape. Set your pencil to the left, center of the inner circle or aperture opening. Now, turn the compass to draw a complete circle. Keeping the same campus setting a line the point to each of the eight marks that would make an octagon. Within this process, you will begin to see the aperture blades emerge. It's not necessary to draw a complete circle yet. I think it's an interesting way to get a feel for where the aperture blades line up within the inner circle. What I like to do when I finish the arc section representing a blade is to sweep it with the pencil one or two more times. Continue working counterclockwise around the outer circle. Finally, reset your compass to the original 2.5 inch diameter, and let's draw a nice heavy line, redefining our lens. Use the compass threads to bear down on your pencil. 11. Drawing a Small Aperture by Compass: With our second aperture opening completes, let's head over to the right side of the page. We'll set up our guidelines just as we did on the right side of the page, creating two arcs, top and bottom and short intersecting arcs, lefts and rights. Use the triangle to bisect the circle shape on the 45 degree angle, marking the lens and aperture opening shapes. Once again, align your compass point to the outside lens shape centered and to the right. The pencil on the outside of the aperture opening centered and to the left, begin rotating the campus, creating the aperture blade arcs. Continue moving around the lens shape in a counterclockwise fashion. Notice the aperture blades beginning to take shape. Let's go over the aperture blades, arcs for definition. And finally, adjusting the compass to our original 2.5 inch diameter for the lens-shaped definition. Now that we have finished our first aperture scale drawing, I'd like to share with you a few design considerations. First, you may like to add a second circular shape outside the lens to further enhance the representation. Here, I am using the two and three-quarter inch circle templates. Another design element that I like is adding additional arcs to the aperture blades shapes begin by aligning your compass point to the center along the outer right side of the lens shape. Adjust your compass so that it is slightly smaller this time that our previous arcs work your way around counterclockwise. No need to draw the entire circle. You may discover additional design elements on your own. So please feel free to add them into your drawing. Also, if you wish to ink, she'd add color or paint at this point in the exercise. I do encourage the experimentation and would love to see your results. Thank you for your participation in the class. Next, we'll move on to a short and fun exercise on the iPad ahead of our final project. 12. Drawing Aperture with a Tablet: In the last few sections, we learned how to draw a representation of a camera's aperture using circle templates as well as using the compass. We also work to create a mini aperture scale with three different sized openings. Let's continue the exploration with the tablets. Beginning with how we may set up guides and Adobe Draw dutch settings at the top-right. Move into grids and graph. To adjust the points of our grid. Touch the minus or plus symbols at the bottom of the screen. Touch done when you come to a grid that you like. Next, touch the shape icon and select the ruler, center it within your working space. A reminder about working space. Images posted to your projects in Skillshare should be 1, 0, 0, 0, 0 by 690 pixels. And under two megabytes. When the ruler reads 90 degrees, I like to release one finger at a time for better accuracy. Select the first set of brushes to the left. I'm happy with the point size, but I like to set the pressure dynamics to 0 for a nice even line. Now select Done. I'll make certain that I am happy with my ruler positioning set to 90 degrees, again, releasing the tool one finger at a time. Now draw a thin vertical line along the straight edge. Rotate the ruler to draw a horizontal guide. I would like to make you aware that the ruler tool as precise and even with a 0 degree read, there is some tolerance, as you can see here in the adjusting. Make a new layer by selecting the plus icon and draw layer. Touched the new Draw layer by selecting the current name, which is by default draw layer, we can change it for better organization. It's definitely worth the time so that you can navigate your projects with ease. While we are here, we'll name the first draw layer as well. This layer contains our vertical guide. You will notice that our vertical guide is not quite centered. To fix this, select the layer and choose PTR. Now you can freely move the object on this layer. So I will just nudge it to the center with the pencil. Select Done. And I like to count the grid to make sure that everything lines up. Next, I am using the pinch zoom method to check my work. At this point, I can make micro adjustments to further align the grids on their respective layers. Let's move back to our Shapes panel and select the circle. This shape will represent the camera lens. I can expand the shape, pulling my two fingers in an outward motion. Honestly positioning the shape as I am increasing its size. I want to get it as close to the center as possible. Just like the ruler, I will let go of this shape one finger at a time to decrease any chance of it moving. This application is incredibly sensitive to touch. Before we draw the circle, I will create a new layer. Select a color using the palette and where this shape, a brush size of two, is perfect. Now trace the shape using your pencil. Let's zoom in to check for accuracy. Select the new Draw layer and tap transform. I'll drag the corners slightly to center the circle within the grid. Select Done, and we'll continue checking for accuracy left, right, top, and bottom. You can double-tap to hide and reveal a particular working layer. Press and hold the layer to move it within your project. Finally, let's rename this layer before I forget, it's happened a few times. So we'll name this layer Lens Dutch outside of the layer options panel. When finished. Next, we are going to mark the center of our lens shape on a new layer. I am using a brush size of seven. The reason why I have created a new layer for this mark is so that I can transform the object separately and merge them. Once I am done, Let's zoom in for further positioning. Steps towards accuracy and the guides will lead to precision in our final camera aperture of representing. Now we can select this layer and by choosing merge, it will join with the layer below, which is our lens. Now for our next shape, the aperture opening. Create a new layer, select the Shape panel and choose another circle shape. I'll make this aperture opening somewhat close down. To do this, move a finger on opposite sides of the shape towards the central point within the project. I can further adjust the template shape with the pencil. I'll bring the brush back down to two and trace the circle shape will name this layer aperture. Next, let's create another layer, and this time select the triangle polygon. We will be using this shape to bisect our circle. This shape is set to a right angle. So all we have to do is line up the opposite side or hypotenuse with the center of our aperture opening and lens, I'll choose a green color for our marks on each side of our lens. Aperture opening representations. You will notice when I rotate the polygon, a guide showing degrees of the shape helps me to align it with the drawing. At 90 degrees, I can let go of the shape. I'll now bisect the lens and aperture opening. On the other side. We can check for accuracy using the ruler tool and can see that the bisecting angles a line at 45 degrees. Let's name this layer 45-degree guides. Next, select the lens layer and select again to reveal its options, choose Duplicate. You won't be able to see it here, but the new layer sits above the old one. Both are now called lens. Let's rename the new 12 blades. In the same options panel select transform. Now we can increase the size of the circle to make guides for drawing the aperture blades, just as in our last two drawings, we want the outer left center side of the aperture blade guide to line up with the outer left center of the aperture opening. Now we want to align the center of our aperture blades shape guide to the outer right side of the lens. I like to transform as well as zoom in and out to check for accuracy here. Next, I will duplicate and transform the aperture blades shape guide. When transforming, the new layer is always located on the top of the selected layer. Align the new layers center point to the remaining seven points around the lens. Make any micro adjustments as you work around the shape. Here goes a mistake, and it's so easy to do. Make sure you are lining up your center point correctly. I'll fix this in just a second. Here we go. Much better now. Let's finish up our last couple aperture blades shape guides. What I am looking at here is a nice even octagonal shape where the intersecting shape guides meets all the work and accuracy has paid off. You can see that with the aperture blades shape guide, we can draw our aperture blades in either direction. Various camera lenses are designed in one way or the other. Let's continue by adding another Draw layer. Once again, choose the circle shape. Aligned the circle shape with any of the aperture blades shape guides will use this template to draw the arcs representing the aperture blades. I like to start the process on the lower right section of the octagonal shape. Draw a thicker black arc out towards the lens edge. Move the circle template in a counterclockwise direction to the next arc. You can always draw the arc from the lens edge to the next octagonal side of the aperture opening. Repeat this process around the entire show. Finally, line up outside lens edge, perhaps a 10. Now, by double tapping on the visible, Let's also hide the lens layer off the ground. Fill in a couple of parts of our drawing, automatically become part of the vector and then adjust your brush size as needed in your sections. And it's not right, just go back color to the first choose a color, press and hold inside each. I think I would like to change the color on the outer edge of the blades since they are on one layer, we can achieve this with one selection. I'll choose a lighter gray. Zoom in to be certain that I am pressing in the correct spot and change the color. A couple of design considerations before we end this section, you can resize your design by choosing transform in the Options panel and dragging on a corner of the selection. To rotate your artwork, plays a finger on opposite edges of the shape and begin to turn. Play with the color and size of that. And share it with the class. 13. Drawing the Aperture Scale : In the last section, we learned how to draw the camera lens aperture using a tablet, apple Pencil, and Adobe Draw. Previously. We also learn techniques and using the compass and circle templates. We have also learned how the aperture works through camera and photographic examples. And began this class by digging a journey through the visual process, learning how drawing maybe useful in remembering conceptual information. I hope that by drawing the aperture of a camera lens, you have a deeper connection with the mechanism. In our final project, we will draw an aperture scale including seven f-stops. This will give us a great look at the gradual diaphragmatic openings that make up camera aperture settings used for the various photographic conditions we discussed early on in class. For this project, I am using Strathmore is 18 by 24 inch recycled drawing paper, medium surface, 80 pounds. It is acid free and 30 percent post-consumer fiber made for dry media. I have taped my paper to my cutting board surface and mark the center for each edge. There is an extra 1 eighth inch on the horizontal side of this paper. I have placed it outside of our measurements on the left for trimming. Later on. Let's draw the horizontal center line. This will be located at nine inches. I have taped the measurements so that I can easily center with the straight edge. Flip your straight edge round and we'll draw the vertical center line next. I have pre marked three inch sections for our lens shapes with one-quarter in spaces in-between, each lens will have a total of seven different aperture openings. Three on each side, left and rights, and one in the center. I will also mark the center of each lens at 1.5 inches. For my compass rotations, carefully draw the 73 inch lens shapes that will contain your aperture openings. This is a great time to reflect on aperture. Imagine the scale from open to closed, and think about what these settings mean to you and your own image-making journey. Creating this sequence of circular shapes can be felt as a meditation. Align your compass point in the center of your lens and sweep the pencil in a circle. You will notice that I use various handhold when drawing with the compass. Find what is most suitable for you, what is most comfortable for the particular mark-making. I find that those threads help with a little bit of down forests in the drawing sequence. Within the first lens, I have measured three-sixteenths from the edge. Make a nice wide open aperture close to what you could imagine being f2, 0.8. Each aperture opening will measure another three-sixteenths of an inch from one edge smaller than the one before. After some consideration, I found that three-sixteenths of an inch over seven aperture openings gave me a gradual aperture scale from open to closed. This next one represents F4. Let's move through the rest of the scale. Now we're ready to draw the aperture blades. In this particular project, I will be drawing Six blade aperture of mechanisms. I will need to begin marking two points on either side of the lens to create a hexagonal shape. For now, I am only focused on the marks of the outer circular shapes. Aligning the point of my compass where the horizontal center, line and circle meet my pencil, the center of the lens. I'll run through the same four marks on the outer circle representing our lens for each circular shape. Here's a closer look. From each side of the circle. I am sweeping the compass top and bottom to make the slightest arc markings. Next, we will focus on the Azure opening marks. These marks will align with the lens markings we just completed. This time, I am aligning the point of my combust where the horizontal center line meets each aperture opening. The pencil is still measures to the center of the circle. The work is the same, sweeping the compass top and bottom to make small arc markings that will aid us in drawing the hexagonal shape for our aperture blades. As you complete the sequence metadata on the shapes and what they mean to you. They do not yet look like the diaphragmatic opening inside a lens that we have seen in previous classes. Though, these shapes are still the basic building blocks containing vital information about how light will flow through the lens and to the camera sensor. The quantity of light reaching the lens is partially determined by the aperture opening. In our next class, we will study the shutter mechanism that determines for how long light moving through the aperture is allowed to flow towards that sensor. Now, we're ready to draw our hexagonal shapes. You may notice that I skipped the first aperture opening. This is because as the blades open, they lose their hexagonal shape, ultimately becoming more rounded. I like to use a smaller straight edge. And my triangle here is perfect for this sequence. All that is left to do is connect our markings with straight lines to create the hexagons on the inner circle representing our aperture opening, and the outer circle representing our lens. Now that it is not necessary to draw the hexagon, I like to draw it for visual reference. It seems more complete to me. And the points that I am using to draw the bleed seem to stand out more. Ultimately the choice is yours to add the shape. As an all of our other aperture drawing sections to draw the blade, we rest to the point of our compass on the outside circular shape and find its matching points on the inside circular shape. Excuse my hand for a moment here. Okay, That's better. Remember to extend your arc to the last arc drawn just before the matching point of your inner hexagonal shape. Now the aperture blades begin to emerge. Note that for each aperture blades set, you will draw some adjusting of the compass will need to occur to accommodate for the changes due to the diaphragmatic opening. This lens and aperture opening does not have the hexagonal shape drawn. I will use the small arc markings to draw the blades. For this next lens and aperture. Let's have a little fun and continue the aperture blades arc until it makes a complete circle. Open creativity as welcome, especially in your final project. This could make an interesting design element in the center of our drawing. I know that many of you taking this class have knowledge using a wide variety of artistic techniques. I would love to see how you can use those techniques in this final project, whether it be colored pencil, ink, charcoal painting, or perhaps a combination. As you complete the aperture scale drawing, think about ways in which you can enhance it to become meaningful to you. You've come a long way and learning this camera mechanism, and I'm so excited to see your projects. This may be your first step in learning an important element of photography. Or if you're already a photographer or familiar with the camera, a fun break from conventional theory. What's next? How will you put into practice the new knowledge you have learned? I want to thank you for being a part of this class. Remember to post your final versions and provide feedback to your classmates. I'll be working on my drawing too, and we'll be sharing it with the class. Please reach out if you have any questions.