CSI Etabs: Design a Complete Building with Seismic Loads. | Marc Al Ghazal | Skillshare

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CSI Etabs: Design a Complete Building with Seismic Loads.

teacher avatar Marc Al Ghazal, Structural Design Engineer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 13m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Project Preferences

    • 3. Defining Elements

    • 4. Drawing the Structure

    • 5. Applying Static Loads

    • 6. Defining Seismic Cases

    • 7. Defining Seismic Combinations

    • 8. Seismic Analysis for the Whole Structure

    • 9. Columns Design

    • 10. Walls Design

    • 11. Slabs Forces

    • 12. Exporting Loads for Raft Design

    • 13. Thank You!

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About This Class

This class is about learning Etabs by designing a full project in a minimum time, from drawing a 3D model to making a seismic analysis.

Class level:


No previous Etabs Software knowledge is required, but basic engineering and understanding of the design codes will be a plus.

Why you should take this class:

This class is very practical for real applications in engineering and will add value to your work in the Design field. Being a Structural Design Engineer myself, I use structural software daily, which allows me to use a minimum time for the design and analysis. 

What you'll learn: 

  • Draw different reinforced concrete elements to make a structure.
  • Static analysis and design of the structure.
  • Seismic analysis and design of the structure.
  • Design of different structural elements (columns, walls, slabs and foundation) using obtained loads.

What you'll create:

After this class you'll be able to:

  • Create a 3D Model of a given structure.
  • Design the whole structure and the different elements it contains based on load results.

Who am I?

My name is Marc Al Ghazal and I'm a Structural Design and Site Civil Engineer. I mostly work in the Structural Design and Analysis field and always enjoy learning new skills and techniques that would help me improve myself. By sharing my knowledge I hope to help fellow Engineers in their work fields.

How can we get in touch?

Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/marc-al-ghazal-0a7970120/

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/marc.al.ghazal/

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Marc Al Ghazal

Structural Design Engineer


Experienced Structural Design Engineer. My main duties are:

- Design of reinforced concrete and steel structures.
- Analysis of results given by calculation software to determine the dimensions and steel reinforcement of all structural elements.
- Creation of execution drawings and supervision on site.

Now, let's learn some software!

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1. Introduction: Hello, everyone. My name is Mark on today you are going to learn about CS I eat ups. What I'm going to start with The small introduction about this after CS I Eat Herbs is an engineering software products that caters to multi storey building analysis on design. It has many features like modelling tools and templates, code based load prescriptions, analysis methods and solution techniques. Well, in the scores, we are going to design a reinforced concrete residential building. First of all, I'm going toe talk briefly about the general life off the construction project. It starts with the architectural drawings, of course, and after that the structure, analysis and design phase will begin. After finishing the design off the structure, the structure engineer on the mechanical and electrical engineers will throw their drawings . Onda. We can begin afterwards. The construction works in the scores. We are going to focus on this part off the project, which is the structure, analysis and design. So this scores will include the project references, defining elements, growing, the structure applying best static, and Seznec loads toe the structure. After that, we can do the analysis off the structure to begin the columns design and sheer walls design in the two last lessons off the scores, I'm going to show you how to view the slabs forces and have to export loads from E tabs to save for their F design. Because in my next course, I'm going to teach you the safe software and how to design slabs and foundations on. So, guys, this is it. With the introduction next, you are going to create the project that sets preferences. 2. Project Preferences: Now we have opened CS I e tabs we have this home screen on you are going to start a new project. So new model I'm going to click on use built and settings. I'm going to choose the metric intermission er system on for the steal that the base this one metric on and for the concrete design code, I will choose their latest version over the A C eyes here and OK, now we can set our grid system over story data on We can choose a template to start with from the list. Here we can choose to start with a blank project or great or different lives, off slabs and still debts. I will start with a great only Andi. I will choose here for the X direction pull meters on. Why three meters now for the stories, I'm going to choose six stories and click on OK, so now we have generated our new modern We can see the grid on the three D if you if we want to navigate the stories now we are in the story six year and you can see the height 18 meters. We can click on the saddle here we have in the bays. Now we are Story one and toe, or you can click on plan here and we can choose. Study on on. Okay, we are in this story one. Now, if you wanted to modify our great or stories, you can go to edit at its stories and brick systems, Not if I show story data began at it. Here. We can change the name off the stories first. Second hurt course. Fifth on six. On. Okay. And in the great system, modify. We can see the axes A, B, C, D. And 1234 We can add on delete access here. I will leave it like this. For now. I have an important note story and eat. UBS is the slab off the story with its columns and walls that are below the slab. This will be more clear later when we throw our columns and walls. But now I'm going to play it here on units on bond show units for Okay, so we have these units, I'm going to change the Rebar area. Two centimeter on Draper area for length, toe, centimeter, square, perimeter. And for their displacements. I want toe. Show them in centimeters and okay, now I will define the materials. Define material properties. So we have these materials. I'm going to start with the concrete modify. I'm going to call it C 25 as in concrete 25 m. P a. Now we have here the material property. We are going to choose a complete compressive strength off 25 MP a okay on for the model is off elasticity or the young model is we have these values for the young model is for concrete and the sheer mothers which is connected to the young motherless. And there was some ratio which is 0.2 and our case. So for enough time see off 25 m p. A. You have this value for the motherless off elasticity on. You can see that this year model is is calculated by e tubs with the equation that I showed you. So we are done with the complete Okay? Never are going to modify the steel. This one modify. Okay, I'm going to call it steel. So we have these different values for the steal material. You can change it according to the steal properties in your country or the steal properties that you wish toe use. So we are done now with the materials concrete and the steel Okay, in my design and results later, I'm going toe. Click here on consistent units toe show the design and meter. Andi and soon on. Okay. So, guys, we have defined the material, the grid system and the stories we have said I would go to the A C I on. We have chosen our units. Next, you are going to define with structural elements like columns, fear worlds, slabs and beans. 3. Defining Elements: Welcome back, guys. And this. Basically, I don't really find our structural islands, so I'm going to go to define on section properties. We have framed sections like columns and beams, slur back and wars. First of all, what is the difference between slap on deck when usually addict is for one way spending recast, slaps. So in this lab section, we can enforce a one way distribution. But for the deck, it is imposed. So we are going to begin with the frame sections on at the new property so we can use whatever shape you want on whatever material we want. I'm going to choose a concrete rectangular section. I will call it, see 30 times 50. As for the dimensions, the material is C 25 m p a. And I will choose here 0.3 and 0.5. Keep in mind that the 1st 1 is in the X direction and the second is and why Directions. So now for the property modifiers. First of all, why did use the moment off in ASHA? Well, after the model is off, rupture is reached on a structural element. It will crack on the moment off inertia will be reduced. So we as structure and design engineers we should take this into consideration According to the a c I These are the values for the different types off structural elements to be used for our reduction. So here for I will call him. I'm interested only for a bit ocean on the moments and OK, Onda, we have our color so to add and you'll being now concrete Rectangular I would call it be 30 times 50 on change the dimensions. So for the modifiers, it will be 0.35 for the ocean and the moment and for very enforcement were going toe select Burdine design Here we can change. Recover. That's okay. Okay, so now we have our column on being We are going toe select now the slab sections at the new property. I will call it as as 25 over the material. We have 25 MP a concrete material. Now for the modeling type we have be these options now for the layer option. It is a costume slab began at whatever layer you want. As for the difference between the shell and the membrane, remembering elements is usually used to represent only in planes thickness off members, so it does not have any kind of bending stiffness, and it will bend without any resistance. So, in other case, this is not the time we want. We will use a shelter, but which one? Thin or thick? Well, we have two main definitions for this, and thin and shell fig types off slabs. The 1st 1 is that the thin plate neglects trance. First year the information, but the thick late formulation will account for sheer behavior, and the second definition is when the ratio between the span off the bending curvature on the thickness is more than 15 to 1. We use a thick plate on. If it's slower, we use everything plate. So it is debatable whether to use any over these two options for this labs and for the wars . But for me, I will use the thin shed for both. So essential here now, for the money fires off the slab. These are the types off money fires for the plates and eat herbs. So it is also debatable what to use all the worlds and what to use for the slabs. No, usually for your design, which are our typical wars. I will not quantify the F 11 but for the slabs or the spangle design, I will not modify the F to toe. So these are the money for years for my slab. And OK, now we can choose the type of slavery want Drop, read or Waffen. We are going to choose Islam because it is a two ways. So that slab and the ignorance as your opponent 25 meters and okay, now for the wars define war section and new property. I'm going to call it W 30 as in 30 centimeters. So the material is 25 MP A. We're going to choose Finn Shell and for the money fires. I'm going toe input these values on. Okay, this is it for our wards. And we are done defining their structural elements. In our next lesson, we are going to begin drawing the structure on generate the finite element mesh 4. Drawing the Structure: Hello again, everyone. Now it's time to begin drawing our structure so we would grow over columns, beams, walls and slabs. First of all, we come into stand and the first story on okay. And we can draw our elements in this story only. Or we can draw them in all stories that Waas or we can choose 1/3 option. If we go here, we can choose one story, all stories or similar stories where the third option is found when defining and stories. So we have our master story, which is the 1st 1 and we can choose if we wanted to make any story similar toe the 1st 1 here. So if you choose, make the story similar to the first on we choose similar story option here it will be drawn on all similar stories. Now I'm going to leave it as one story only. I'm going to begin with the columns. We can go to throw and select whatever wanted grow. Or we can click on this icon here and choose the property. We want to go. So I must choose the column that you created on. I will put it. No, I'm going toe sures here this I can to draw on my team, and I'm going to select the being property. So now we have the beams and columns. Its time for the walls dribbles on W. 13. On this level, we can choose a rectangular one, or that's really shame. Now I'm going to generate the MASH or this love on the walls before for being them. Toe the other stories. We have two methods to generate a MASH. We can do it manually, or we can do it automatically. If we double click here on the slab, you can see that the floor mashing option is the default on. So if we don't want it toe photo, generate the match. We can click here on no auto mashing on. That's what I'm going to do. We don't have to change it for the world's because the different value is the no other mashing option. Now. If you choose the automation option, you can go toe, analyze on. You can set your options here Now for the floors, you can said the element. So as you want, um, it is the same or there waas. I'm going toe. Generate the mesh manually so I'm not going to use these options. If we click on this, I can hear divine chance. We will see different options for our cutting. You can cut when selecting a joint. Oh, you can cut a slab or a world with a line or a frame. Or you can set the number off small elements. So I'm going to select my slab, and I will input the values 12 and mine. So we will have square areas off one meter on. Okay, so our slab is now cut. It's time to cut the walls. If we select them like that, you can see that they are notes now. So I'm going to choose this option selected drunk objects on Angie's And okay, so you can see here. And the three d view that I were wars are got perfectly. We can, of course, make an opening by deleting some floor areas. So we will have our opening here, Andi, Now, to cut the walls or is entirely we can stand and elevation of you off the third access and really use this option with one and city. I'm okay. No, we'll do the same for the access be So now we have generated our mash for all our elements . We will go to the based plan to set our supports to fixed. So sign joint restrains and fixed supports. And okay, now you can see that our supports are fixed. I chose the fixed option because I want my structure to transfer its moments through the foundations. So it's more realistic this way. Now I'm going to check my model before continuing. I will choose on the options. Okay, so we have no warning messages. We can now copy the structure, toe all the stories. So at it replicates story. Andi. Well, chores or the stories. Now, as you can see, we have We're structure. We will now assign beer labels for our words. I'm going to stand in the elevation, be and subject my wars on click on this icon on a sign. The P one label No or the axis. Pity I'm going to assign another labor. I'm going to name it is too. And added Now we have signed the cheerleaders for the walls because they are vertical elements that support their structure. If we had any openings in the wars, we could assign spend relabel below on above the opening because it will be designed not only to carry the upper structure, but similar toe being mechanism. We can find the spent three labels here. So if you wanted to assign them now, guys, all we have left to do is assigned. I have cramps for our slabs. So what is a diaphragm? They have two primary ruins. Resist and transmit various types off Note anti the vertical elements firmly. So in a project like ours, we should use a diaphragm for the slab. I'm going to select on this labs and my mother select on. I'm going toe. Assign them a diaphragm. Before that, I'm going to show you that there are two types off the crags Bridget and similar Egypt. It usually depends on the thickness off this lab. In my case, a 25 centimeters lab will have a rigid. But remember, we cannot use a diaphragm if we have large openings and our slabs. So now guys were assigned that I have friends and the piers and we generated the match for divorce structure. I have ah, simple remark to make. If you wanted to add stairs, we can add them or is entirely we can assign them maybe a new section or if you want, you can throw them, like in the real life and implants lab for the design off the whole structure. I'm only interested in their weight, but if I wanted to design them, I will throw them in the more realistic way. So when we design, I was that we will put an opening where we have a stare, and that's what I'm going to do when I designed this lab and safe. But for now and the Terps, I'm going to leave them as they slept. So, guys, that's it for this lesson. Next, we are going toe. Define static load cases on combinations. 5. Applying Static Loads: so guys, in this lesson, we are going to define and science that club basis to our structure. We have the cell frayed discipline, post that load, which usually mean tiling and politicians. We have the live load, the temperature effect on the earthquake notes. In this lesson, we are only going to define these cases and the next lesson are going toe. Define the earthquake clothes. I'm going to show you briefly how to input temperature effect, but I'm not gonna use it in my design. And of course, there's a lot off different low types like wind loads. But they are usually used for cladding design. And in this type of structure, a six story reinforced concrete building. The earthquake load is usually more important than wind loads. Off course. There are exceptions and bill are areas where the wind is very strong. Now, back to eat ups, we're going to define load patterns. We have the sent wait given by default. I'm going toe rename it on. We have the live loads I'm going to add they're STL on, modify the name off the lifeboat and OK, we can see that we have the low cases for our no patterns. So now we have our static low cases defined. The self aid is off course is signed by default. No, I'm going to select all my slabs and I'm going to assign them the loads. So it's sign shall notes on and unit for I'm going to choose the life on the fly A 0.2 Don't worry. Meter square on the night. No, to re select the slabs, we can click on this All can get previous selection. I know I'm going to add and 0.5 conquer square meter for our STN. Now we have to set our load combinations According toe, the A S c seven We have these combinations for their strength design and for the global stress design. So I'm going to use these three combinations in this lesson on and the other four are going to be used and their next lesson with the earthquake notes would be fine load combinations at the new claim book on going to call it one points for it. That load. It's a linear combination on you will and a factor off 1.4 for the self weight, and we're going to add affected off one points for for the STN and OK, for the next combination, we will call it 1.2 that plus 1.6 life. So we have the self it and as the l with a factor off 1.2 on the live load with affected off 1.6 on. Okay. Now, for the local stress design, we have that plus life and they have all affect er off one. Okay, we have our three combinations. No, when we are going toe and put the design options for the columns or the walls we were separated these combinations between ultimate state design or a local stress design. As for now, we are done with aesthetic load cases and combinations. Next, we're going toe the fine. Besides the clothes cases on combinations 6. Defining Seismic Cases: Welcome back, guys. Before beginning, I'm going to show you briefly how to input temperature effect and our building. So even go to a sign. We can assign it for shells, frames or joints. So if you wanted assigned to shells, we would create a load better named temperature and we will assign it on this lab with a uniform temperature change. We can do the same What I was saying or good joints. So this is it for our temperature and this lesson. We are going to define our say it's make load cases Now for the parameters we are going to use in this lesson, they can be found in the chapter 11 and chapter 12 in the A s C seven. For this easement design, I will start with defining my function. We have two options response spectrum and time history And this lesson I'm going toe define a response spectrum function. I will add a new function with the A s c seven. I'm going to call it RBC. So for these pedometers here they differ from the country to another. So I'm going to input these values for now. Now for the site class, we have no information about the soil. So I'm going to choose a side Class D. If we had a job, technical report, it will tell us what side class to use. So that's it for our function? No. Let's define the mass source. I'm going to select the loads from my load patterns. We have a multiplayer one for the STL and the sulfate and for the life load over 20.25 s and 25% off the notes. Now for the mess options, I will include the lateral mass, but I will uncheck this option. If we had a ramp or a staircase between two slabs, we would have toe check this option so it will love the mass at the stories. Okay, No, for their motive cases. I'm not going toe. Modify it. We can choose either eager or reds. Andi, I'm going to begin my calculations with 12 goals. If they are not enough after the calculation, we could increase the number later. So now let's input our saves me Clothes patterns. Thank you, X, Say yes. Make on the A S c. The same for the wider election. And let's modify them now for the static based fear we can dropped. Extend publicity now for the time period, I'm going to choose a program calculated method with these values for city and X. It is in the court for other structures. So the story range is taken automatically on Daz for these factors. Our Omega and CD, they can be found in the table 12.2 in the A S C. They are connected with the building system. In my case, they will have values or four and the only go two points life no over importance factor is one for residential building and the values as s. And that's one well defined earlier for the function. So I'm going to choose the same values for the cyclists or so on. And OK, now we're going to do the same with the Why direction. The only difference is the Y direction here. And OK, so we define our load patterns automatically. They will create load cases. Ik o ETS and E. Coli. Remember, These are for the static face she And now let's define low cases for the say Smith based here as new case, I would call it spec in the X direction. That will be a response spectrum, No ad acceleration direction one. I will start my speed factor with a value off 2.5, which is G oh G being the acceleration off gravity on our was defined earlier with the value off foot. We will do the same for the Y direction, but it will be in there direction you toe. So these are the cases or there say's make based feel that is it for this lesson. Next we are going to define This is the clothes combinations. 7. Defining Seismic Combinations: Okay, guys, and this less and we are going to define our say, it's me clothes combinations. We talked about that earlier, so we have these combinations for this tank's design and or the global stress design found in the A S C. So for the combinations five and six, the sales Mick factor will be considered a h plus e V on for the combination seven and A. It will be considered the H minus TV. But what is the age and what is TV? So the age is the effect off the horizontal seismic forces defined in Chapter 12 It is equal toe grow times Q B Andrew is the redundancy factor. It has a value off on on three or the Seznec is on category D, which is over case so th will be equal to 1.3. I'm screwy now for E V. It has different values. According to the number off combination. On it is related toe that load. So if we replace our say smock factors and the seismic combinations, we willow pain, these combinations for restraint design and the global stress design, we can know in with them into eaters. Andi, start our calculations. Let's go. So the load combinations at new combo. So I'm going too. At first, a combination named spec, it will have a type off s S s. Which means Square wrote some off squares in this combination. I'm going to put the Spectrum X on the spectrum. Why that I defined in my load cases. Now I only have to include this speck combination in my saves me combinations. And the analysis will be around for the two directions X and y No, I will begin with my first combination. It will be called 1.37 that load plus one life alone plus 1.3 earthquake note. So for the cell fate and STL, we have factors off 1.37 for the lie. We have effective fun. And for the earthquake load one point city. Okay, now for the other you ls combination 0.73 d plus 1.3. Okay, so we, uh, effect or 0.73 or that that load on the factor off 1.34 earthquake looked No. I'm going to do the same for the service combinations. So these are the two new combinations that I added. Now I have a small note. If we have a planted column on a slab or near air, wall or economy, the supporting elements should be designed with a combination of 1.30 70 plus one l plus 2.5, and the same goes for this combination. We should use 2.5 instead off 1.3. But why? It is the Omega factor that we defined earlier. It is present in the table 12.2, and they see Onda. We use this factor for a nover strength design because an element supporting planted column should be this time with more security. So we should add another combination. And instead of 1.3, we used to point fire. So that's it, guys for the load combinations and our lesson. Next, we're going to began. Our say it's make analysis or the whole structure 8. Seismic Analysis for the Whole Structure: Hello again, everyone. Now it's time to begin the analysis and design off the whole structure. First of all, we're going to run the analysis. We're going to click on this. I can hear or press f five so we can see the deformed shape off our building. We are going toe display the tables. We have four important papers to display. First of all, model loads. Auto sales. Mick on. Go to say yes. Make a S C seven to display the static based fear. Next, we're going to go toe analysis and the results we have the story drifts to check and the base reactions to check the dynamic base year on. Off course, we have the model participating mass ratios and okay, so we will obtain these tables began check for their to load patterns that we created. We have the city. The only got there are Onda. We have calculated parameters f A F V s ds as the one on the periods on the coefficient CSU's. We can check the weight used for the design on the static face year and both directions. Now I'm going to go to the base reactions. Andi, check the dynamic base year. If we right click on this icon and we can choose the loads or low combination that we want to see, I would choose Spec X and Y Max to see the dynamic base here for the two directions. According to the code, I can scale the dynamic base year for the factor off, 85% off the static one. So if we calculate their values for the dynamic base year for 85% of the static base year will obtain these two values. Now I'm going to scale my structure in orderto pain, these two values as a base reaction or the cases spec X and spec wall. Now we divide the values off our desire dynamic based years by the good and values and our structure to obtain the scaling factor. To input them into eat herbs, we must unlock the modern and go to the load cases. For the next election, we will change this value here we will multiply it by the scaling factor for the X direction. So we obtain this new factor. No, we'll do the same for the Y direction. So we scaled our more than No, we can get on it again. This place, all payments even open the same tables on Goto there. These reactions, it is the same procedure. Now we can clearly see that these two values are the desired ones for the dynamic base ship . Now we will check the model mass participating ratio. According to the A S C, the analysis should include a sufficient number off molds to obtain a combined more than mass participation off at least 90% off the structure and both directions X and Y. Now we'll go to the motor participating maceration stable. We clearly see that the sum and then to direction is above 90%. You can see the period is 1.13 seconds, which is acceptable for this kind of building and you can see data on all the molds. So here we can see that eight Mohs were enough to obtain 90% off the value. Now we will check the story drift. I'm going to choose spec x and Y Max. According to the SC 12.8 point six, this is the equation for the story death. We have city for an important specter one. So we obtained this equation. Now, according to the day belt, well 12 1 the ILO been strongly drift 0.2 times H h is the height off the story on the value 0.0 toe s in accordance with the importance factor on the type off structure. Now the drift given by eat herbs as this equation. So all we have to do is make sure that the drift is lower than zero coincident toe divided by city, which is for in our case. So we have to verify if the drift given by eat ups is lower than 0.5 So we are checking the drift values here and we can see that we have some values. Greater gun 0.5 This is our maximum value on the third floor. It has a value of 0.614 and three. That means that we should increase the rigidity off our structure to decrease the story drift. So how to do it? We can increase the dimensions off the columns off course in accordance with the architecture and drawings. But before that, there is one way to verify the story drift. We can copy this model and change all the modifiers for the structural elements. Who? 0.5. It is allowed for drift calculations. So, of course, the inertia of the columns and walls, which waas 0.7 will degrees. But the inertia for this lab will double it waas 0.25 it will become 0.5 so we can make this verification for the drift only I will consider that these values are acceptable for now who continue and our design. I have one more thing to mention before concluding this lesson. It's the Beatles. The Effect analysis in the section 12 28.7 We can see how to verify if our structure needs a Bill. Delta Analysis. I am not going to do the verification here because in our building it will not be necessary , of course, but depending on the reviews and requests, I can make a more advanced course with a more advanced and complex structure and include the PTL analysis in it. I will only show you now brief. He also included, if you're structured needed delta analysis so you can include there be that option that you want on the loads that you need for your analysis? Like I said, I'm not going into details now, but a more complex scores could be prepared. So, guys, in the next lesson, we're going to begin designing the columns. 9. Columns Design: Now we are going to begin the final art off course, which is the design off the structure and elements. We are going to begin with the columns. First of all, we are going to set our preferences. We can click on design Corbett frame design and will obtain this window. Or here we can click on this arrow beauty voice preferences. So the design goal is the A C I. I will change the value off omega, which is 2.5 and Roll, which is 1.3. In our case, the system STS is 0.81 and six. We can see it on the tables that the open dirtier. Keep in mind that we are going to assign our own load combinations that we defined earlier for the design off the columns. So he's only used every wanted to generate. Automatic sees me combinations. Now for the safety factors. I'm only going toe change. The sheer say it's make toe 0.75 and if we wanted to design foundation, we would use a sheer seismic factor off 0.9. So this is it for the references. No, we will select our design combinations. Andre will only select the ultimate limit state combinations to design over columns. And OK, I'm going to stand in this window. The elevation A So we can see over the Collins and I click on this. I can so start the design. No, we can select what to display on going toe display now very by percentage. For our comes, we can see the rebar percentage for the columns and all the stories off course. We have high values or the lower stories. We have a 5% here, which is unacceptable. It would require a lot of steel reinforcement so we can increase the dimensions or these columns and they designed them in my opinion and value off to or 2.5% is acceptable. But sometimes the architectural drawings will make us do some exceptions. Perhaps three or 3.5%. It is still in love, but it will ready for you some serious diameters for the steel bars. Now I'm going to check my sheerly enforcement who s means overstressed so we can see our beans require bigger dimensions. But relax, it's not a disaster. Once we change their dimensions, they will be OK, We can also remove that. I only added them in my model to show you how to grow beans and our structure No, for the sheer reinforcement and our colors to see the units We go here on units on. We can see for the rebar area per link at this and centimeter square meter. So these values are in centimeter square permit. Let's think the biggest value here 8.415 If we make the unit centimeter square per centimetre, we obtain the maximum Maybe over s in their columns. So if he is the steel area on S is the spacing No, If I wanted to choose and 10 millimeter bar for our sheer be enforcement on the spacing off 15 centimeters We will obtain this value off a V over as 0.1 centimeter square her centimeter so we can see that this value is greater that our maximum value and other columns so we can use the 10 millimeters bar in the 15 centimetre spacing in all our columns. Now that I calculate the value zero point 104 we have a V which is the bar they a meter it is B times the diameter square, which is 1/4 and the two is for the two layers off the trans verse reinforcement. For sheer off course, it will be more than two layers I choose to and 15 years for this spacey. So we have no problem for the sheer reinforcement and our columns. But we have a problem with the longitudinal and reinforcement. So we must get please our column size. We can off course change that prime, see, But it is not as effective as changing our column sizes now. Other than this bank reinforcement, we can spay whatever forces we want. Our Collins, we can go toe display four stress diagrams, trained peer span trending forces. We can choose our case or our combination. Maybe you want to the 1.6 l on we can choose the actual force, the sheer forces or the moments If you wanted to design the in reinforcement of cells we click on OK, we can see the diagrams or the colons and the beans. Now I have one more thing to explain to you tourists. I'm going to stand in the pretty view Click on the other from shape. So maybe in this kind of year, her silly enforcing problems on but not open toe fix it with increasing its size or whatever Visa. And we want to decrease the values off its moments and forces. We have one more option toe. Consider. I'm going to assign for this frame the partial fix city so we can choose toe Police our column from the force. The start means the bottom off the column and the end is the top. So if I don't want toe give my garden moments, I'm going toe. Release it from the moments and okay, we can see now that this column is released from moments. But remember, if you release a column from its moments, these moments will be carried by the other columns close to this one. So we should check if the other columns could support the other forces that they will carry . Now, this is all for the columns design next to are going to design our shields 10. Walls Design: it's time to design. She rules and meet ups before beginning. I want to show you how to input a customized steel bar. So we'll go to define section properties on reinforcing bar sizes. This stable has all get reinforcing bar sizes. If I want to add one, I could kick here. Perhaps I want toe there 2016. I will leave the body meter 1.6. But the steel area would be the Dublin off 1.6 centimeter steel. But so it will be 4.0 22. And OK, I will show you later why I did this. Now I will around my modern and we will set our preferences for the world's like we did for the columns. So here she tore design on view device preferences. We have the a C I coat for their Oh who will write 1.3 0.816 City four. I will change the factor for the seismic shirt like I did with the columns. No, we went or so set the design combinations. These combinations are automatically created by etops. I will remove them on import my own combinations for the design for the next step, I'm going to stand in the elevation, be to see my wars now to display the loans on the world's we will click on Shell stresses forces. You can choose the case or the combination you want, and we can choose what force we want to see, like the moments or the sheer forces. Let's say I select the moment someone one Okay, so we can see here the values for the moments and our walls Know what? This a moment m 11 If we click here on said display options an object assignments for the share on going to see the local access. So we have edit access on degree Enhances. Keep in mind that ETOPs the local one accesses read the to screen on the three years blue. So now you know what forces and in what direction you are see. But if I wanted to design my sheer wars using it absolutely enforcement, I will first of all select all the world's, and I will sign them. A uniform reinforcing so with the material is C 25 the birth size. I will choose about off the 16 with the spacing or 15 centimeters. I want the cover to be three centimeters. Andi, I will input in the corner bar in to t 16. But what is a corner bar? If this was our world, it would have a dimension off l Centimeters. So the code permits us to use zero point toe L in each and off the world toe and put our corner bars. These bars will be tied with stare apps and ties and will become like two columns on each end off the world. So they will give it more rigidity on the war will resist the moment better. So any tips? If I input to t 16 it means that it's only in one layer off one and corner. So if this was our world and these were our and bars, I will input three d 16 and two eaters. No, I will assign the reinforcement Toby checked on. Okay. We applied these properties Who are all our walls now? I will begin the world design so we will display the design, inform your we can select the beer project. It'll be enforcing. But I will choose appear this year issue which means demand overcapacity. So in our ward. We have a demand off four times more than the capacity to solve this situation. We could decrease spaceman between bars. We could increase the bar sizes or we could only increase the end corner bars. Maybe put them 25 now to display their sheer reinforcing. If we have a span drill, we could see its reinforcement here. So the P A sheer reinforcing will give us the sheer values and our rules given by centimeter square per meter. This means that in one meter we have and the total off our two layers off sheerly enforcement, a value off 27 centimeter square per meter soap in one layer we would have approximately 14 centimeter square were a meter. So if we put and one meter seven bars, we would have for each part a two centimeter square steel area. Given that the T 16 bar has an area off 101 centimeter square, so this world needs 70 16 bars and one meter, which is a lot for sheer reinforcing. So maybe we could increase its thickness, or we could add more walls, giving that our building has only two wars to resist. The latter and sees make forces. So guys that set for their walls designed and eat ups in our next lesson we are going to see this labs forces. 11. Slabs Forces: in this lesson. I'm going to show you how displayed the slept forces and etops Persephone. We're going to display the local access so we see the red arrow, which is the local one access on the green Arrow, which is the local to access. So now we're going toe display the forces we can choose the shell stresses or they result in forces. We can choose whatever case or combination we want to see. Maybe we want to see the stresses for the lifelong case For the slab the map is displayed on We have the values by colors. We can check the units here it is in Tom per square meter. But guys, I will not design this lab and eat herbs. I will do it and save safe is a product off CS. I like eat herbs and it is better for slabs on foundation design. So in my next course, I'm going toe design the slab and foundation and safe. We're going to throw the slab and put loads and design it with the final element on this trip method, we will have a look at the moments, stresses the one way she on the punching shear safe is very similar to eat herbs, so it will be very easy to use. So I will see you in my next course to design the slab on the foundation off this structured. Remember that this lab does not need to resist letter and forces induced by the earthquake . So it isn't the job off the sheer walls, the columns on beams. So this label only resist vertical forces when we design it and safe we will not use, say yes, make forces unless off course, we have a planted column on a slap. Usually it will be a post tension slab. So this lab will resist the seismic forces in this column. But in the general case, it will only have started clothes cases defined. So guys that set for the slap forces and meet ups. Next, I'm going to show you how to export the loads from this model. Tow them, import them into CS I safe to design our left 12. Exporting Loads for Raft Design: now guys are our final lesson and ETOPS we are going to export or the loads off our structure and then import them into CS. I say to design the raft. So after we solved, or the problems related toe the columns and walls, forces and reinforcement. Now our structure is designed. We only have to design its foundation. So we are going to click on five Export and eat ups gives us the option toe save a story as safe after K five. So we're going to choose the based story which has all the reactions off our structure on. We are going toe export the floor loads and loads from a boat. We are going to select both the cases except for Spec X and stay quiet on for the combinations. I'm only going to select the static ones because we will introduce the salesman combinations directly and safe. So OK, now we are ready to export the file on when we open safe. We will import this file on. We will have the loads off our structure down to its base. We will then begin throwing our love or whatever on vision system on. We could design it. And safe. That is all. Or Etops. Guys, I hope to see you in my next course, which is C. S. I save for the final video in the scores. I'm going to do a small announcement. 13. Thank You!: So, guys, now that our courses over I wanted to say congratulations to your oil and thank you for taking part in it. How to reach me. You can find on my lengthen over my instagram profile is you can ask me anything in the comments section. I will be more than glad to answer you or enter and a discussion with you about structural engineering or any other topic. So please get in touch now. Thistles. Not the end. We would have courses or something to learn the next. That is, this is how I saved stuff. So he's stay Joon's.