COMPLETE Red Hat Essentials | Harshit Srivastava | Skillshare
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17 Lessons (3h 25m)
    • 1. RHEL Part 1

      10:58
    • 2. RHEL Part 2

      9:57
    • 3. RHEL Part 1

      7:40
    • 4. RHEL Part 3

      10:59
    • 5. RHEL Part 4 {Filesystem, directory, files}

      18:29
    • 6. RHEL Part 5 {User, Group, Permission}

      10:02
    • 7. RHEL Part 7 {Shortcuts}

      12:03
    • 8. RHEL Part 8 {STD IO, pipe}

      11:31
    • 9. RHEL Part 9 {Text Extraction}

      14:07
    • 10. RHEL Part 10 {vim text editor}

      6:33
    • 11. RHEL Part 11 {Process Management}

      14:06
    • 12. RHEL Part 12 {System Configuration Tools}

      14:11
    • 13. RHEL Part 13 {Finding & Processing Files}

      14:19
    • 14. RHEL Part 14 {Network Clients}

      14:21
    • 15. RHEL Part 15 {Advanced UID GID}

      7:09
    • 16. RHEL Part 16 {Advanced Filesystem, partition etc}

      18:12
    • 17. RHEL Part 17 {Essential System Admin tools}

      10:49

About This Class

This course is all about RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux ) and RHCE (Red Hat Certification Exam). Here we will explore various services, utilities, commands, concepts related to RHEL covering RH033 (Essentials).

We would learn about Linux file system in depth, graphical utilities on gnome,  wide range of commands for text processing (grep, sed, cut, less, pipe, tr, etc) handling, process management (ps, pstree,top, kill, etc) file management (CD, ls, touch, etc), file permission (chmod, chgrp, chown, etc in both symbolic and numeric methods, logging, Networking, system administration, mounting, installation (yum) etc with a wide range of topics with emphasis on RHCE. 

We will learn concepts in lectures and will implement by executing commands on terminal and shell scripts in practical sessions.

Transcripts

1. RHEL Part 1: hi there myself for such a Musto here with you as your boots instructor, along with my colleague, who will be teaching during practical sessions. This course is all about learning and mastering Red hat Enterprise Lennox at on, we will be administering all the Atlantic services we have. We will explore everything from Lang file system the best sale command file handling network operations, fine permissions, various things, a wide range of command, their options and everything we can do with rendered Lennox, you could be an obvious our beginner. You could be a star student, a developer, professor or an expert on the dead. But this course is focused on Reddit certification. I know. So, uh, this course would be a preparation for you if you are preparing for reading certification examinations. But if you're not preparing for it and examination, you would be learning a tremendous amount of tools and techniques without any fear off exam . So for both off the audience, if you are preparing for 100 certifications. But if you're not just learning murder the administration, you could use the scores to test your skills. So let's start with the course. So first we will explore. What is that had actually, for people who don't know what is right had that, that is. A company is an American multinational company that is leader in open source software. Production for the enterprise community and depressed community is different from other communities because for the enterprise community, like back and services, that is for ah, big giant is related by your right hand. Almost every serve around out. Whatever we see, the server side operating system is hosted on Lenox. Involvement on most off them are actually hosted using record operating system so that had operating system is different and that had is different. Rather, it is a company that produces a white range off products, which is founded back in 1993. I'm just famous order Red Hat Enterprise linens are insured. RTL, that is their trademark are popular thing popular product for read him. It also provides a wide during your product we will explore in the next life. Rather, it is the second largest corporate contributor dueling external after intel, so you can sees prisons in the market. It is tried, tested and blistered Larry Teel or read it in the price Lennox that is operating system based on laying external eyes very useful and has a good track record. Almost 100% off airlines in Fortune Global 500 companies rely on ready. The servers are hosted on record in government and everything is executed on Rennard, 100% off telecommunications. The lie under that the health welcome companies, commercial banks even if banks are running ready. So it is a guarantee that it is the most secure in government as comfort the windows. It is far more secure if you do not do any mistake. Silly mistakes like a password keeping past are very simple. Are other useless and stuff Here read it provides you are by drains off options like log and really thinks you concert permissions for different users. Uh, you It will be very adventurous yearning even executive department. The government officials rely on dinner. This is not just a U. S. A. Everywhere in the world, almost everywhere. From India to China, to Russia to Europe everywhere Rennard is preferred over other Lennox When it comes to server server side computing hosting off applications Ah, predator is open source so it isn't really free for developers are individuals, but it is not free for, well, come back or put it. If you are using it for business, you have to pay an amount. What makes redder different from other windows like I've never enough like Susie Linens uh , open toe is that read. It provides great support for service support for a software support. Every support is well provided by Redhead. On it is cheaper as compared to other solutions using like Windows Order. So here are some products offered by Richard Corporation Library Office. The Popular Office are alternative to open office. On Microsoft office is livery office that is, a product from Reddick Cloud forms. Well, well defined. Cloud solutions available online is a prudent off their opening stack and open shift. Our cloud platforms that could we platform of the service and so after the service provided wear their heart on. These are trending these days and competing with IBM Blue Mix, Amazon Web services, AWS and other solutions. Oh, pencils dot com is also what it had product. It was created by Red Hat and now you contains a wide range of library off very so pencils Project Dr Rendered exchange security and last Line X as he Lennix. That was the commonest tender that was developed by Red Heart and now implemented everywhere. It was developed by Rennert on largely clustering his eyes again. A productive subscription manager that is a content delivery network, it is also a product for off radar. Fedora is an operating system similar to average here, but it has, ah, lower release time off roughly six months, however, Redhead comes in. Ah, a new version off rendered comes up in tow two years or more. So this is how already at the stop environment looks like it is nothing different from other Ling expressed systems in Waldman. On the top side, you can see the options the applications place. The time did another thing. It may look very simple, but it is very powerful, very secured. I'm provides a huge range off services, utilities and options. When you are administering with Windows or Mac another enlargement, you are restricted to 13 domains. But with ready heart, you can access everything and anything that is available with your operating system. You can modify it, create new thing and use it. And one of the best thing is that everything for everything. You will be getting support if you face any trouble. So it is not Atlantic's without support. It is Atlantic wits about it is the blood by our Rachel and targeted towards commercial market. Uh, along with this support that had provide training that make it a leader for end oppress clinics, it provides a wide range of certifications that our prestigious in the industry like a letter certified system administrator. Artist. See, you see that is very popular and very common. Certification discourse is targeted toe Arcia say, basically because it is advanced and few other courses like RSC comes on the same thing the course overlaps. Actually, that has certified in junior is another prestigious certification off red hot. Uh, we can see here, and these are the categories off a few particulars off redder certifications. The four critically looks like administrator new to Lennox experience Lennox, administrator for a senior Lennox illustrator, that they're certified engineer R. C. And he certify you can do that thing administration level one that you want to for each course has a good you will be getting course material. If you are opting for an exam. The course material includes books on other contents, but it is quite expensive. So learning redder eyes another thing and giving examination is not a thing. First, we're going to learn everything. Then you can if you want a person certifications. The content is the same as we will be getting in the read it exactly. Certification syllabus, administration level one level to the 35 system administration. Ah, and so on. You can explore on Reddit official site. So this is Ah, end off the introduction. We will be learning, uh, rendered and the press Lennox in the coming videos on Really? We deploying our testing with running command live on a redhead involvement. We'll be having theoretical stations Practical sessions on. We will be having enough exercise for practicing order skills. So keep learning and keep moving ahead. We will not you and next we do 2. RHEL Part 2: Welcome back, friends. Now we're going to learn more about some fundamentals behind Reddit Enterprise clinics. So let's star off. For those who don't know open source, let me introduce Ah, this thing this time to you. In the last video, we learned that our it'll rendered interpret clinics is an open source operating system. So what does the word open source means? You may have ah, faced with this times over Internet when we were downloading certain software. Uh huh. To terms were written there. If you may find their thing the Bine 80 and source. So what does binary and source means by any means executed will find that you get without access to its source code. You can only use that thing, that's for sure. But when you have the source good, you can read the good addict the court or modify the court and create our own software that could be different from the original one. Or it would be a modified worsen off the reasonable. So with proprietary systems, we get on the executable or binary of the software. But with opens off systems we get, we also get access to a sore school so source code of the concept, which was going by different authors like Islamic store rules. Ho believed in a free world where software development on usage is accessible to everyone on this earth, and it is not given in the hands off a few giants take Jane's. So with open source, you have AH free software foundation policies implemented and that provides you freedoms. So freedoms, including the freedom to run the program for any purpose. You could use the executable binary for any purpose you have. Ah, freedom to study and modify the source court. You could modify the sore school. You have to provide access when you were a software distributor or developer when you are copping. The open source, for example, of Lennox is an open source carnage. When any operating system is based on leanings, that has to be also open. Source. That person could not say if distribution are. Keep that source code with him. Only he have to share the source code and keep it free for individual uses. However, taken charge for enterprise level. So the freedom to study and modify grants everyone access that source scored right. The freedom to redistribute the program. It is a water what I said Freedom toe created, elevated program. You can create from the any open source distribution and create a derivative of fuel. So, like a Rennert is a product or a Richard Araji Eliza product off redder. Yeah, but another operating system called Soucy with as USC, which was the right from red egg. But it was not developed by you. So it was done by other developers Arbitrator Ned, because that they have the access toe redistribute and create derivative programs. So these are your fundamental right. There are various kinds off licence to release any upper open source product, so license could be a party line. X bst Lennox A B is delay sensory G in gnu GPL general public license that is very popular . A mighty license. Mozilla public listens, common development and distribution license and various other licenses out there. You could choose anyone off them as you're authorizing license and you can write your own conditions along with their, but it must fulfilled with the license and conditions read. It provides two different distribution off operating system that is al Agiel. Religion depress clinics and other is federal Project they don't always. So what is the difference between two? I ridiculous this table. A very distant software. It is very distant, and it has a great support. The professional support services out there. It has a centralized management tool for large networks. It can handle a wide range of network and can operate over a cluster and distributed in Wardman without crashing down. But it has a slow really cycle. A new version is not released very frequently. It may take some time. This is good fall. Does who don't need to upgrade rapidly for certain services are being a Brit upgraded? Another thing is fedora were newer applications and more applications are provided. It just community supported no official that that support is provided for federal, and it is generally for personal systems. However, Rachel is for both person systems on enterprise solutions. Like servers, Fedora has a quick release cycle. Faster release cycle almost six months. So if we're working on federal, you need toe up a radio system very rapidly. The Line X principal polemics hypothesis is, ah, very important when it when you are a starter, starting with linens, you have used Mac or windows earlier before enrolling this course on. If you are new to Linux, you must feel that everything is a file, including hardware. In Lenox, everything is a fight. Even a folder is if I hydrate is a fight. When you mount your Brenda there did the file so you could do anything with file file operations applied to everything that is a part of Lennox. A small single purpose programs are there. It has the ability to change programs together to perform complex tasks. Multiple programs are process could be chained together to perform wide range off dust. You should avoid captive user interfaces like ah, high end g way. I prefer a command line interface which is more reliving secure on dust. The configuration data is stored in text, so you have to access their text fights. Another term religion with a retail is rpm or red at package management. It is a package management system. You have heard about R P M and Davian dot tv and R R P M ah, two variants of the linens along with some other. But these two are popular. So red hat fedora uh, su se are based on rpm and who is like Guy Sandoz we're going toe are based on Debian. So these are computer RPM is created by writer so our PM could refer toa various terms like RPM could be a fight for men. Fires in rpm are also called RPM software package in such files are also gold referred with RPM on the package. Manager program itself is also referred as our PM, even though it was created for using original it refused by man Islamics distributions. So it is again term run their open source category. You can also use it if you want to create our own Os. I don't think these are silly things. Everything we're discussing here are part off in earnest certifications. So in examination, these things may come to your is green, but those are not preparing for examinations. You may take it lightly, but keep learning and keep moving ahead from. And we were learning more things in the coming radios 3. RHEL Part 1: Hi, friends. Welcome to this video here. We're going to learn the installation off. What it had in the press linen. Here. We're installing this prank to install this already seven. When you were using him, I use a file and we were on BM Where are a portable device? You have to create a city or bend, right? Whatever. Where? When you put that inside your computer are you have to change the boot order and hit The first option is told RTL seven when you hit that option, it will install would start installation process Certain options come to on a screen. Just keep it installing. Select your language option. Suppose I'm selecting in English, whatever languages. So they will do you You can select your language then And then you can select date and time and installation Source. Select your time zone Very. You are in, um in India s Oh, I'm saying the Indian Times. Okay. You can select ah involvement with the minimally install Infrastructure server filing printers. Our were basic Web server Watch television host several. Do I? You have various options. Just move to survive with a G. Why it is ah better moan then, um, you can see also select Add on for selector Server Uh, there are various options from backup server or DNS and everything. You can select a kiddie or, you know, when you're done with selection here, Dan Burton, then you have to select and system installation destination software. Another thing. Destination. We have a located off 51 d. We here with wouldn't be aware of what? Your box. Um and your memory will show up on the air. You can add partitions mentally arc automatically configure the partitions so I will configure the partition. Select this option. Onda said. Like this Dr and selectors a partition to any other. For example, standard partition would be fine. Hit the place were turned down Here, select the Mount point for scrap User being another. I'm providing sub. It's Please. You can write a megabytes with them and gigabyte 50. So 40 will represent 40 me off this place. Force a partition, add mounting plane. So it is here you can add more point. For example, boot, I sign it 500 MB space. There were literally spaces shown error and the goat in this place for rude assigned rdd we for home am assigning any space. You can provide this right off. This is a location for users. So provided plenty off his piece to root and home directories 16.69 doing the remaining whatever I was left with. So I've done with the partitions, except that changes on move to the next thing you can also on the configure Internet eternity kind of connectivity. You can also configure thine eye, be address, are certain thing, then hit the begin installation were done after you have selected with its options, you can create users, uh, pastor for route you can set the root user that will do. That is I'm just providing a password for Rudy There. Um well done. Good. And when you're done, if you have ah, we password hit two times they're done with them. I can create multiple users you can also create later on. I suppose I including any use and then for some particular on past for for this thing the password could be same on multiple users could be different. You can always create our chains users any time after the installation, when you're them, So don't no need to create multiple users during the installation process you can created later on. It may take food from women's to install, so it is completely you can hit the woodwork done and it will move to the log in page funder Next up 100 shell. So auditioning license information except this license information and enter done garden. I've finished completion. You can restart it. Ah are UK couldn't move with that and I studied later Hit the finish working after selecting the option, uh, the clock and provide password and user name and there said we are logging with a little extra Were selected in the English You can change the language anytime you want. The tech stuff looks very fine. It is a simple you a You can change it with a more other Mort. This is Ah, genome. By default, you can change with Katie and interruptions. You have a home directory and trash win on your next up. You have options on the top, right top left the applications places and on the top left. You have time, date, name of the user showing her 4. RHEL Part 3: Welcome back friends here in this part, we're going to learn about logging on some basic clinics, command and utilities. So their start so logging in Rebel comes in are two types command line interface and graphical user interface. C l I N D y. For short, you can log in with Selim or that our Internet we have six virtual consoles are command line mode that can be switched by pressing the command control. Have one F two F three, F four, F five and F 66 vs virtual consoles. By changing the F one to F six and control oil, you can swished a graphical council by tapping control or half seven. So in total it has Ah, seven consoles. Six virtual or come on Lee, and one graphically cancel if you're interested in sitting toe graphical council. But it it is ah, inactive. You can start it manually. Why? This typing is start X s t a r d x. In any other words, your concern the graphical more dirty for genome or will Mr So logging is simply by providing user name and password and accessing your next up. Uh, the graphical mood comes in to. There's Gino and Katie. Do you know Miss Default in Real are readily interpret clinics, and these two were covered under the concept off X window. These are X window options, which is usually associated with a graphical orbit map display between we configure by using any of the two you can install Katie in place off genome. Actually, when you are using Michael Windows, you get a bite if all in July mode, which you cannot change. But with linens, you can change it or even delete the graphical mood that's on you. To access a genome terminal, you can move toe applications, access cities and terminal application is visible on the screen, the first to screen on the deck. Stop the homepage on the top left corner. Application is there. Moved to application. Hit the SS Aires option and go to terminal. Or you can either type the word terminal or t E. R. It will pop up on the screen control Shift B creates a new DAB. Our new session for 10 windows, a new terminal control of Egypt or plays down. Such is new or previous taps. Control shift, see copies. Selected text controls 50 we faced their text on the prom. It is different from control C and control. In Windows, you need to type control, shift easy and control shift. The week she plus page a poor place down his calls you up and down, I screamed at the time. So these are the fuel shark cards. When you are using terminal or comin from, you can say on windows when you are logged in, you can change a users password by simply writing fast word common pss WD no are in between . Oh, in between when you type bss the bloody password command on the scream it ask you the user name. The user name is actually whatever you said, you are longer. That user is cast by default. You need to provide the old password and new us for Are we did you a mood? You can goto system preferences about me and click on the change password. These are to do options. The far, very basic thing is there. When you see a line X terminal, there are two different signs which may appear to you on the ice cream when you see your dollar symbol, starting with a recession on the every line is starting at every line off the government you execute, it is denoted that you are a non root user route is super admin or the special administrative come that is called Super User which is in order by pound symbol or has when hashes there You can know that route is being running the system. When dollar is there, you have ah limited access to this ah system limited rights. But route has all the right. So route has a near complete control over the system. Almost every control which is a good if you are, require requiring certain facilities. If you are a database administrator or the system engineer, our expert Google user would be your preference. But it hasn't nearly unlimited capacity to damage the system. Don't allow every user the root access create multiple accounts, no down on road on, allow them limited access. You can change the permissions on allow them on the limited permissions The permissions could we read, write and execute permissions which we will learn later. We will be setting permissions to various files for various users. It is very interesting. We can switch you there. For example currently I'm logged in as my name. That is not a root user on the harsh aid account. And I want to change it to root are somewhat that I come. We don't need to love out from this session. We just simply need to open the terminal and type of common as you saw its user. The simply type s you if you want a good access. Andi just provided password for the root and you will be loved him are your session would change as root access. But if you want to access other users account just write the name off other users presenter and then provide the password for that user. When you are rude and you want to access other users account, you don't need to provide password. Ato. Hi. What? It may I ask you, The Superman is used to execute Ah, certain common as root. Suppose I'm logging with non ruta gown Say Andrew and I want to execute certain command that requires root access a rude permission so I don't need toe logging with the route. I simply right as you deal pseudo Before that common, for example, I'm interested in running Ellis command so pseudo ls would be my urine takes it will execute Israel. But it has certain restrictions. Route could block certain commands. It could not be run from the client side from a Dell users, there's another command gold i d. We shows information off the current user. You can use that thing. Here comes the three more command of one more command. That is a history. History is useful when you want to learn about the previously tab command on yours. Terminal it get creates a list off all the commercial that were executed. You can use it for proof proof all flick. For example, if you if you assign other person your duty for the 10 minutes you need to goto washroom. And after 10 minutes when you arrive on the system, you suspect that he may have executed sir, than explosive contained or not writing. You can press the history command and see a list of common that is executed. If you want to check a last end number off committee Last 10 command, This simply type history is placed The number his 37 would least seven command history. If I will place five command or just typing History will list all the commercials from the installation of the computer or device in linen. So our ritual we get a three default editors text editors like the D editor, he added. Well, we I am we I rd we I am the graphical. And you too here you can create your files. I get that those files and you could also execute dirtying we I Am is an advice full feature editor. It is more and want engineered it and E v I am the graphical versions D V. I am allowed to regular expression and raise things that you can access right from the terminal. Mostly next, users use this utility. We will be trying all the commands we are learning here in the practical sessions. So clearly was the practical sessions. And write yourself on your own regretting Norman. And if we have any dog, you can ask him. Keep learning and give moving ahead. I simply went your the concept you are learning here 5. RHEL Part 4 {Filesystem, directory, files}: a friend. Welcome back. Now in this part, we're going to learn about Lenny file system and about, um, Collines. So let's start for executing a commander's journos. Syntex, off various shell commands on Terminal, begins with the command, it says, and the options and the argument provided the options are arguments could be visited by either a single character on multiple character. For example, unless the shell would be a command on their options, that could be minus a minus. B minus. C A B, C or minus is placed before that character. If it is a single later argument. If we didn't have full word option or are you man? It is preceded by double dash or double minor symbol. So there are two basic commands that only a few people use. Date and calendar day eight Commanders used to check the current date and time, which is being displayed on the screen and see elk or calendar this flavor you the surrender off the current month anywhere. But if you want to display calendar for a certain month, officer than year, don't need to cite back to simply write. For example, if my boat here is July 1995 And I just wanted to check when I was born. This day was there. I can check it by just writing. Cl his place. Month name. Months number for July. We have seven. Cal. Seven is praised 1995. It will display the month calendar off July 1995. Similarly, you can do so for any month off then. Here there are ways kinds off help options. When you get any trouble related to any command or anything else on Lenox Informant in red , we can have helped. Like what is, for example, if you're confused with the command, what does this come and do? Actually, the simply type board is without any space. Then write this piece on right there. Come on, for example, I have doubt really due date. Come on. So I will write. What is this place did simply and presenter. It will tell you some detail about what does this come and do? Some arguments and details retreat to this argument. Similarly, you can also type help. Command is please the world as symbol and have similarly you can also check manual on information by man and infocomm on you can also go through their documentations, which is a student user share. And doc, you can never get with arrows up and down. Pay page up and page down keys in the manual. Bitch. You can also search for text by just writing slash test. You can, For example, if you have multiple matches on the screen, you can go to previous marriage or next. Much by this. Typing is small and capital and, respectively, a small and gives you move to the next match and capital and moves. You do the previous match. It's more like you means quit when you want toe. Terminate the execution off a certain command to simply type a small que Come on his fault , you will terminate execution off that Come on, man minus K K were list all matching previous, and you do this. What is Databases? Five. System limits file system is far different from Windows on Mac. In limits, we have certain folders. For example, in Windows, you might have seen drives like C, u T E and everything was stored within these frames. C. R C drivers desert for or breeding system files and other fires, system files and the E and other partitions were that you create eyes for you. He's doing it, but in clinics and there are various file system we're on filed various directories or folders where everything is arranged. You, uh, you have home territory, which is the root directory for a user. We will be learning it in the next life. So files and directories are organized in a single rooted in voter to restructure in what it really means. A single foreigner on the top and rest Other folders are derived from it. The single folder is called slash or root directory. Let this forward slash and names of the five system are case sensitive. All of them in a small parts, are the living dead by forward slash route. So this is the linen file system. Hair root or forward? Slash is the parent off all the directories and whatever you see her, these directories or folders I delight from route and each directory is ah different has a defined objective. For example, being in stores executed was using executive ALS food stores, a book lord and files. There are different thing. There would be e v e d. C. Home which is Ah, Home directory for users. It has multiple user directories for user 123 and other. So users library and I be mount and will be open the option broc process Rude under folder as being damn user And where these are the directories and we were learning about these directories let so for the part. For home, that increase would be a slash route. Everything begins with high slash forward this last that is a parent directory for everything. His last route is the Home Directory for the Rude ar slash home on its last user name for other users, for example, for Andrew, the home directly would be home used. Ah, Andrew User Executable Sorry. Stored in bean user Been user is last local is last win different locations system executed Executive ALS are restored and has been that the system executed. We've been finally user. It's last system being user slash local this life system when other mount points where you can mount external devices like city uh, pain rice. Another drives, uh, and we mounted on media are mnd configuration file. Sorry story and he d c temporary files are gas fires already stored in a dam garners and book notifies Harry Story in boot. Subordinate eyes is stolen. We are very well, our server as are we system in formations hardest. Odin broke and says and fear Libraries are stored in library user library. Use a local Emily. Remember this thing? If we're preparing for that, had examinations, the doctors could be asked, and it is very vital. If you are not just simply preparing for examinations, you must know where the executed was are different fires go? So if you are to administer your US, the fire management have various commands to manage. Those five create copy, relieved move and very for the things Nautilus is ah, genome graphical file system browser, which you can use to browse different files or folders on your screen on next up. There's a very useful command that I personally like. That is length L I N K s. It could be used as a command line Web browser are donated to anything you can run. Come on. A complete browser on order command line interface. It will not open up the images. That is a secured more. You can say if you may just make under Gladys. And if you are in a low, slow connection Internet connection, when you are interested in browsing and fight just simply right away in case command links provide ice piece, then type the completely what I love the website. For example, I want to open gold Outcomes. I will write triple the blue dot google dot com. It will open the Google in the Lancs terminal, and there you can use their mouth or keyboard, pretends to never get through the shells. They start in the home that acri on. Which can we displayed by writing PWD Command or display Corrine directory? Or you can say putting working directory pwd. Come on, then you can use Siri Change directory for a wide range of uses that we're going to learn next page. Alice is used for a list of territory content. If you want to see what files and folders are good in a folder, for example, suppose we have a folder on ABC on. We are interested in, ah, getting details about both work files and folders. This of pulled on ABC contains. We just simply need to write a less command, and it wish you are you all the files and folders? Similar commanders? The idea, which is also available in Windows, the I R. Come on, also runs on Linux. Both functionality is the functionality of both the commands, the same to display files and foreigners. But there's a difference between LS India With dire, you'll see all the folders and file names in same color that is generally white. On with Ellis. Come on. Multiple files are based on different format. For example, Ah, text files are displayed with yellow color. C five is our exit risk late and been color on four last names are displayed with white color and so on. You will get through easily. It is helpful in navigation, you can manage files that the copy CP move and we and our them removed. Similarly, we can do so far that increased our fight. Let's understand about these two commands a less and city in detail. If you want todo browse through a certain folder. Certain directory. Just ah, great CD and write the exact part off the file. Awful. Suppose I want to never get to the music folder. Place the incitement, which is placed in a home that decree. Just we have to write CD slash home It's last. Simon is last welding if you want to play any music that provide the name off the music with Exchange and President enter Britain CD. Actually never guess you toe the folder. It is not usedto render file. It need permissions. You can go to a directory. One level of suppose. We are here in the music, and we want to go to Sammons folder on territory. What we have to do. We have to write CD its place double dot It will move one for it up. If you are very, you are inside folder inside folder in a folder, and you just wanted toe move to the home directory without having again and against. He did or thought the simply right city. It will lead to the home directory. Similarly, if you want to goto the previous working directory, you can go with a CD minus for at least govern. We have different options unless minus E will show twice with hidden fights included. Hidden files is also displayed when you write minus a option minus 11 show you extra information about files minus our with regards through that decrease I minus really will show directory on assembling information. We can do copy and move operations. Wait to see P an M V. Come on and we move. May simply card and based shortened form. Move. If you just simply do Gabi the original fighting to keep in Check on a new copy off that finalised made another location. But you moved that file The origin of location does not content a file anymore. It is placed in a new location for moving of files. Ah, just write C b. And if we want to write any option this provide option, otherwise keep it blank. And I don't name of the file which you want to copy The full part off the file. For example, I want to copy file called a dark txt Kept him e d c. So I will write its last UTC. Its last eight are TFT after writing CP, then I would write their destination where I want o place that fire. It will be copied similarly for move. I can do something if I want to Ah, copy or multiple fights at the same time. Just simply write the part for the multiple files. That's what we're eating. You can create and delete files you can create filed with touch common and dealing with delete with remove RM Touch will create a file. For example, if you want to create a file called we see dot Java so just simply right. Come on, touch this place. ABC Dark java Probably doing practical eso Don't worry. Just try to learn these things. Andi, if you does not do not tie the complete format for a file, it will simply create a binary files. For example, if you re right, touch this place. Uh, Simon's it will create a file called name Simon without any extension or which is a binary file. So don't do that thing. Always provided a file format. Similarly, you you you gonna remove files with Tara? I am right arm this place to find him a complete part. It would be the most. You could also provider directory when you want a recursive operation are minus, have for fourth and I for interactive options. Mjd Air command is used to create directories or fooled us. I didn't They are usually used to people off identically MD Ah, sorry I am was used to believe fires, but RMD areas use to delete folder That's the difference within these commands. So we have learned about fundamentals off fine system on certain. A simple commands with argument. Give it a try, Ana. Try to make your own files, Move them from one folder to other, remove them, copy them, move them and our taste. These commands create a file and I did your file. So keep learning. Keeping it. We're learning more command and other three days on average here in the coming videos. 6. RHEL Part 5 {User, Group, Permission}: now in this video, we're going to learn about user groups and permissions so they start. Users are accounts that are graded on that system, are on operating system users could be rude, user on on your route. Users with different permission levels. Multiple users could be combining and group and multiple groups could be created. Every user has an assigned unique user. I D. That is called you i d. In short, when you write you i d. Zero, it denotes the user as Root and other users are with denoted with you, I d different numbers. The user names and you ideas are stored within location. E D. C. It's last password BSS WT users are assigned a home directory on the program. As we have learned in the previous video, there are different home banditry for different users. Um, users cannot read, write or executive each other's files without permission. Suppose I am a user on this system and there are three users in this system. One is rude. When is me on another? Is Andrew If I have created a fight right, say a C program and I looked the permission. I could like the permission that this program could not be executed by Andrew are other users, but it could be read, however, I provide that permission, but you would have access to all the fights. Theoretically, no user can read, write or executive. Others file. If permission is not granted, we're going to learn it. Ah, later, how we can grind the permissions. Let's learn about the group. Group users could be assigned to groups. This group is assigned a unique group I D similar toe use Already that is denoted with G 80 . G eight is a restored in D. C group. Each user's has given their own private group that is a soul user, and you can create a multiple users group, which is a public room that they can add be other to other groups for additional access. Are you? This is not Group can share files that belong to a group. The requirement of groups and users comes in our mind when we have ah, several involvement normally in a PC, a person computer or next up in woman we have almost there to our maximum three users on the the right does not very overlap. What in handling service we have incorporate worried. We have AH signed rules and for various rules, they have right to access different sections of the document or resources. So we need to create groups and users that is very rightto. Every finally is owned by a group and user. It have a U 80 and energy 80. Every process run says I use their process and one or more group process of the eighties Permission Presidents followed as the user is preferred more than group then any other permissions. Five permissions could be viewed by using ls minus l command where you can see permissions along with name off the files. The file permissions are read, write and execute a small R for read It's more the blue for right and x four execute. So what are these three permissions? Suppose I have a job or fight that when I want to just simply read that file as it invidious I want to read the text Good for the devil fight. I need read Permission is smaller when I want to modify death file or change the good or line of words I need w permission or write permission. But if you I want to executive code. I need the explanation. Our exit your permission. So this is a difference between read, write and execute. When there is a minus symbol representative, then no permission is granted for that user or for that file so we can create a multiple permission for different users. In the last argument, we have seen three different things. Firstly, for the same user. For admission for same user, then for a group and then for other users. Miss, we're going to learn. And next videos. Sorry. In next previous, you can change ownership, but who file only rude can change fires. Owner route All the owner canceling the files group when I say per stained with CH order Lewin, Come on. See? It's older blue and command is a ridin with the user name of files and directory With any argument they are mine. Assad. Well, a group on a ship. Could we change with C h g R P? Come on, Change group. Suppose we have a file for a user name and we can change ownership to a new user. And the new user name is written here. We see each order blew in. We can change file permissions with two matters. New magic matter and symbolic matter. First, we're going to learn about symbolic matter. Begin King Access Mort. Who's ch? More common? Ch more common See at Ahmadi, this is a command to change. Permissions are filed more. There are three symbols for user group and does you is denoted for user. It's quality for group and its follow for others. You can grant deny our said permissions by symbols plus minus and equals two respectively. You getting access mode with this? Come on and execute death thing on for a numeric matter you need to write the permissions one for execute to for right and four for read It is very, uh, friendly. More Actually, I say numeric mattered is preferred over symbolic matter. I prefer this thing. Suppose I want to provide permission Do myself the owner of the fight. I want to go in the read, write and execute all the permissions here. Soviet numeric method. I have to write four for read add to for right four plus 26 And then I had one for execute total seven. If I write ch more seven, then the file is owned by me and all the permission is granted in the last line you can see here the ch mood 640 My file is written. What does this combined? Means there are three digits 640 These are representing User Group and others. Permission. My fight is a file which have the permissions and I want to set permission for this fight. The first is it will show the permission for the user of the file That is me right here. The second digit will show the permissions for group And the last digit we showed a permission for other commuters. When it is written zero for other users say here then they have no access to find. They could not see the court they could not write are modified that file They could not execute that file. That file is completely invisible to them. The four is written for groups so they can read files and six is written for me. So I could not execute the file how I can read and write Where did the safe move? Similarly, I can change the mood whenever I like in the future. If I owned the file so writing file permissions is very interesting thing. So we have learned in this part water the users groups another concept on native. We have learned to create or file permissions, change permissions and use those things. So keep learning. Keep moving ahead. We were learning more concept in the coming videos. 7. RHEL Part 7 {Shortcuts}: here in this video, we're going to learn about various types of shockers on Other keys are ready livings. So let's talk. Here are few shorter's that you can use on Lenox Terminal Control A would allow you to move to the big wing off the line. Generally I e move toe end of the line. Control you delete first line beginning off the line control gay deletes and off the line control arrow moves left or right by word. And Bill represents home territory off a user you can also use. Wild cards are gloving that is a White Guard exception which uses regular expressions. Uh, here on come on light Too much zero are more appearance of character. You can use Asterix symbol formatting any single character you can use. Caution maximal formatting zero are sorry for in the range that could be 0 to 90271 to it. If we see you can use Esquire records on the range in between our anyone off them. You can write those characters one by one. And if you want to imagine anyone character except those in the list, then just ah, place Ah Pereiro symbol on the starting off the string within the squad records. And then the characters in The Breakers are omitted. Characters in the pre defined character class can be massed, I'll tell. So what does it do? These are the keys for a supposed for example, you have a key called Alfa, and you want to check whether the A occurred once or more than once. You can check out Bride A as trick, and they a stick will attack the currents off zero or more. So their currency is one times. Similarly, you can write a L, and the occurrence could be off treatments. Actually, in Alfa, there are two times has occurred, and so on. There are more shockers. For example, you can display a string with the ICO symbol. Geico Command, that is vitally are regularly used in Shelley script ing's toe display, Sir, Than thing information. It is somewhat similar to the brink of a statement in C and system out front telling In Java you can use this keeper. You can also use in the command line interface. You just write equal and I frame, and within the string you can provide any name that is expended for example, hosting could be provided and just simply right. Dollar was in bracket. They scream. What argument? So for taking the host time off this computer, I would write, Ah, dollar in brackets host name and it will display the host name. Here it tripled. The blue abc dot com is the host him off the system, for instance. It is defined. Whatever we save in, it is not i p address of the computer. You can also use ah brace expansion and the curly braces for printing repetitively strings , for example, for if you want to ride file one to file one. Filed 355 The simply right ego file Within the break. It's braces, right? 135 And so every cream those arguments work with, we could work with various commands. Just give it a try. They're not very variables. You can restore a variable values. For example, if I want to know is toe this spring or whole command in a single very well or character, you can do so. But simply writing a dollar sorry dollars. Ah, beside a basic thing that occurs on your screen, you don't need to type dollars dollar means non root user is currently using this system. Suppose I write HIV in capital. You need to write very well Name in capital and assign value on the right side. Off this name available. Suppose my variable name is high and I want to assign a scream just right high. It goes to the string in court. It will be assigned to it. And if when I want to print that thing on the screen, I will place the very well name we didn't the braces on vehicle we have ah, certain pre defined variables on reddit linings, the configuration variables and information variables. The configuration valuables include PS one hissed file size thought and liquor. So what does it do? The PS wants configuration Variable would allow the appearance of the best from to change appearance and anything else. His fire size would allow toe number. The command in bash history part of directory will look for executable files. If you have installed a java already on any involvement, either windows mark or limits, you will be family with this variable. This very well would it is told the executable part. The part for where the executable files for J, T K. Or other things are restored on. We can define certain other dependencies using this very long editor. Variables used Teoh configure the default text editor. Then there comes information variables We're home and you i d is Ah, very important things. Home variable is used. Teoh User's Home Directory You can access that thing. Use it as a short skirt on modified the directory. You can use you i d for users effective you use already. Are you a tea? Then there's another useful thing that is called Elias ing or L. E s. Elias is simply a shortcut. Two other comment for suppose we have Ah, people line Golf Command. Ah, huge command with countries, almost seven or eight arguments on allow a large Come on, one line to line on we simply on when we re coercively repetitively need toe type that command and we don't want always to I have the whole line again and again. You can simply Elias that come on into a single character or anything off your desired name . Even that Elias could were combined. Suppose ah, in it in it, zero actually are. Shut down your computer on Lenox involvement. If you type i n i d s press zero, it will move. Durand levels Iraq shut down the state The initial processed the parent process of all the process that we're going toe learn later would be terminated with the zero signal. So I am writing ah, greeting and Elias for in your zero ask does the syntax for writing the Elias It would be el es yellow. Yes, it's based pills closes on my given name provided name for this shortcut for nothing. Come on. Request to within single court, right? The common are with argument or you can on my daughter. Go man, Just simply type Elias Common to see set off all the aliases which are already side on your system. And he asked, Could we followed by last name or alias value? And when you, uh, type Elias close able run that thing, we can also create an Elias off command with another Come on his name. For example. If I want to mess other users on my computers if I don't want others Teoh use via editor in my computer, I will Elias in it. Zero to be I whenever they type v I the computer shirt down so they could not use we I and think to computer has crashed. That could be a security point when you need, You can write Shelley script with the simple Syntex. The first line off the shell is sell. A script actually contains the commands that we use on the next terminal on the X terminal , we use ah, white range of commands with various arguments to execute our different functionalities. We can combine those commercials in a former it off a programming language. Our program, which could be multiple income program file that is stored as shell. So the first line of Shell script recess she ran. It begins with a pound symbol or has symbol, followed by exclamation mark Onda root symbol forward slash bean This last batch This is a root access off for executable, where the shell is Michelle's libraries. It's done. Then they start typing. The common has tumbled. The note coming. You can write comment with hash or pound symbol. Equal data and timer were were using variable equal. Then we're using less common ls minus A. You can write different commands. The step to create a shell script is that create a text file containing commands. She went on the top. Make the sale a script executable By providing the CH mood. The permissions said permission on allow any user either yourself or others to execute that file by using the method, either a numeric matador symbol. It mattered that we learned in the previous videos we were trying it off. I mean, the practical sessions. Then the third step is to place the script file in a directory on the executable part, such as being user, local, bin or anywhere else. All you could also Ren di script by simply double flicking on the script or on the right leg press run. It will run. It is not difficult thing, but it is very useful thing. Shell scripts are very useful these days, So this was a brief introduction about certain shortcuts, a shell scripting and few other things. So keep learning. Keep moving ahead. We will learn more in the coming radios 8. RHEL Part 8 {STD IO, pipe}: So now we're going to learn about the standard input output and lives for our it here. So let's start. The input output could be analysed into programs. There are three input output. Tena's It's standard input, a studio you that is provided by keyboard standard output or STD out that is provided on terminal window by default. The standard at a STD IATA, which is a director to terminal window right before highway. We can generalize the important output. Do devices are programs are from text fights, so we're going to learn about how we can do so we can read at it. Output to a file are put off by standard output or standard error which can be redirected to files. So this index for writing this thing is provided. Command the command, which you want to execute the operator for standard output or standard there, and the filing with the are put or other has to be transferred. So the supported operators include the direction of the standard output below fight provided by Adul symbol on the right hand side. Then there is ah directional option for standard other profile, which is provided why I think two and director symbol on that. I can sigh. Then we can read it all the airports, including errors, and are put program output to the file by providing am poor thing symbol and right hand side of those him. But, uh So let's take an example. Suppose we want to execute the finding common on a certain part, I like changing the password we can do is told the output off this. Come on, the standard output out this Come on in the find out our food fight, Find out out our BST or see any file you you can't say so. Don't be executed him Similarly, we want we can read it better off this command if it chose to the but And we can also would put everything is the pipe commanders in really used to execute to command simultaneously along with another functionality were output off command One return on the left hand side of first. Come on is provided as input to the second line. We can use less command. There are three more command early learning here The less command which is used to display input one page at a time. We can feel anything on one big attar time. So in the in this command last line on the left hand side, the less common which is used to this cell our Children files and directories within a certain folder is used toe show those fighting this play those fights. But there are huge. I'm gonna fight possibility that can resign inside any directorial folder. But we want to see only few on the ice cream, so just provide Ah, right. This combined unless the category territory on the argument for the l s. Right. A pipe after that five symbol, then right less. Come on. L e s s this Will executor of functionality. Similarly, we can send our footwear email. Why? Using the mill command support We want to make something male ice cream, even life thing by the terminal. We can do so by just writing Ekoko mine provide I string you want to mail within the courts ? They write a pipe symbol then right the middle command provide are going on the melody every living. Similarly, we can simply simply bring any strain on a piece of paper using the printer when it is connected or to your computer by using LBR combined. So the way, if we want to bring any string badly from the terminal, simply right equal. Come on, provide this train. Place the five symbol and right LPR. It will be sent to printer and print away simply for industry on a piece of paper. Then you can use our put another combination. Where are put another could become mine with one person and directly the assembled. Similarly, as ah, literally examples. There's another option where we can redirect the standard ever to standard output by just writing. Do negative battle on person symbol and one it is useful for sending all the orphans through a pipe. And with our parentis is you can combine a standard output off multiple programs like Harry Reid for the calendar of 2007 and 2008. You can also regard it to multiparty targets using the peak online, where some operators could be a good effect both eastern and output. It is towards the commander. It was Tuesday Standard output of command one in filing, then five took a 12 Come on, who could be pie bragging to come country so you can use my tea break times the pipe operator to execute my welcome on simultaneously in a single line. The former. It would be the input off the first command eso they are put out. The first command is provided as input to the second output off. Second of the mind is provided as input to second and tired and so on. You can be that a standard input from a file with the left hand side adult symbol. Some commands can accept fatality direction to standard input from a file to simply write that same death. Right? The command, for example. We were here. We are writing to your come on, providing the range, it said Capital, and it's fun. I redirecting it toe vast profile. It will translate the upper case characters in dark bash profile to lower case the equal in condition off writing this time could be of which card Come on, provide the file name earlier and PR. Come on later on after the pipe we. Another powerful thing that we can do with shell scripting is Luke Shelly scripts that were useful thing that could be used for server administration and working over the network. Eso let us understand With an example. Suppose you have my people files. For example, you have to execute a C code on every comforter kept in a lab. The lab convicted consist off 50 computers and you have the sole responsibility of installing N C script the C programming language. So how you can execute Bill descript, you have to manually kopita descript on East computer by a friend right over the network and then manually executed script on each computer. It would take a very long time. And we create a studious like you can, uh, keep your chart, my knighting, I shall escape he storing it on the friend rife or any natural distribution in warmer provide all the Seascapes the sea school thought would be saved inside those that brain dr on a the telescope is executive remotely from for East Kombucha, you can execute simply just double click on each a script for each PC and it will execute all the command simultaneously. Your work is very reduced, but just you need to write the script that figure the GCC compiler for the ceiling and so is to use script until similarly you can perform my huge range of tasks Shalit's captor basically design do provide mighty line out execution off the same commands that are being executed on Lenox Terminal switch off system, valuables and other functionalities to here. There's an example for for Luke. Loops are used for reputation off us, which can be used in the example I provided you. The for Loop is widely used in programming languages like vitamin C, Jolla and other languages. Here we are using the for you for three francs. Here we have three things Joe, Jane and Julie, and we have a user defined very well. Call the name. It will search in these training strings. When the condition is true. The execution off the tree lines followed by Do I done so what is done in the first line of after do anyway? Like dress is stored in a very well called address. And, ah, another string is restored in a message, and the Tar Line executor, the executor string with fight where the message very believes e chord are displayed, the output is transferred to the email address and the email address is provided by the address. Very well. So it is a simple me off writing the email to Jane, Joe and Julie. Three persons with that, they may have an email. I d like Jean at that example. Don't go here. You can write a demon Lord. Come yahoo dot com are you index dot com arriving every melody that you have. So this is what we have learned today. We will learn more about it later. The pipes standard input in our food. Keep practicing those concepts. The simply write multiple command, they allow you a greater functionalities. So keep learning and keep moving ahead We will learn more. 9. RHEL Part 9 {Text Extraction}: so first. Now we're going to learn about text processing tools for manipulation, starting and a wide range of obligations. So let's start. We have, ah, text extraction does for business purposes for having a file contained where we can view 1st 10 lines and last 10 legs off file using head and tail where which drives the excerpts for their taste. Then we can, ah, check the file content using the cat functionality. So can't come on. And we are family with less common. Were multiple command. Could we cover? Executed simultaneously? We can extract by column or field using the card Come on and can extract by a keyword using the grip. Choline G R E P. Come on. The guide command is used to dump one or more files to a standard Output on multiple files could weaken coordinated together. So how we can use those five when you write the head common, it displaced the 1st 10 lines of a fight. The syntax for writing head with head and filing. When you want to see more lines or less lines, you have to provide the number off lines by using the argument head minus and 10 3 for anything. Then that number of lines are displayed on the lines terminal. You can also provide the output in and store it in a text file. The delicate mind is usedto display the last 10 lines off a file. Usually you can write the F argument to follow subsequent addition to the files. The both commands are very useful for monitoring Lock Fides support. You have a computer server involvement, which is running our ajeel on. There are very system administrators, but some trouble occurred and you want to check who was the last in charge and what he did that our current log in, uh, you can check run the tail command and last 10 lakhs will be displayed. Similarly, if you need to find the 1st 1st 10 logs are more or less number of logs from the starting off the day you can use the head. Come on. You can also extract text from a text fight using a key work. The give that text. Five Could be any fighting with PST. Extinction Doc Extinction Doc X or D P. C. Java fighting anything that is containing a text, any fight we can extract text by keyword were using the grip. Command, geography. Come on. Suppose I have to search Extreme Called John in the fight, which is a student TTC password. No, they provide the folder directive we need to write. The command asked G r e b is praised The strain within the single court on Ben off full pie file part for the text file ready to stop. Then we conserve. They've cream. If you are the great command takes three arguments or options I and and we you can use minus i to search case insensitively uh, where we need to match a small case. Uppercase full uppercase. Fully small case, first capital arrested. Small all kind of stuff for the same misspelling. Similarly, if you want to bring line numbers ah, number off lines actually lined them where where the matches occurred. You can do so by writing minus him. You can also print lights that are not containing the key word. Similarly, we can use the other argument like minus e x and minus B f to include explains after each match on include excellence before each match, respectively. You can use also the minus our option to wreak Assembly. Such a directory. Suppose we have multiple clients in Afford in Order territory, and we did not do not exactly know which file contains the strain. We can search all the fight. It might take some time based on your computer. Haitian capability, a processor, his feet you can use the color are going to highlight the matinee. You can extract text by column or field. You think the Qalandiya card the countries are used to find a based on column will feel you can be also used with by which may take the, uh are put off. Great. Come on as I mean for a guy. Then I'll tell ya, women for this thing minus T minus fnc be used. Be toe. Specify the column. Really miniter, which is generally Tab. The delimited could be comma full. Stop his face far anything you can use. Our miners have to specify the cooler to print. See to cut the characters or its life. You. Can you gather text statistics? Um, where you can count number off lines, words. Characters all bite. My nice thing. Alright, Next way, which can act upon the file or STD I am. It could be operated on input as well. We need to run the command. WC forward count. Suppose we have a file oil book Dark PST on. We want to check. Count the number off lions, words and characters we simply need to write. WC is placed on file name with full part. It will show as well. Oh, the number 42 shoes number off lines in the file text file. 1 90 It is and I'm one of words 2110. There's a number of characters we can use to. Four different arguments are options with this Lucy, come on. If you want only to see the number off lines you can use minus l. If you want to see Onley number of words you can use minus W. If you want to see on the number of bytes, you can use mine, etc. And if you want to use only number of characters to see, you can use minus m. Then there comes a starting techniques. The sorting text toe STD out is off the original file were the filings and change. You can do so by writing the sword come on SRT and provide various options separate, followed by a final name file pot. The options include R M, F, U, P, C and King X. We're RD knows that for is used to perform a reverse descending sword where you can sort given a file text file in the descending order and performs and the medics are ignores. The Ford are case off characters in the string. You remove the removes duplicate lines in our put it is a nipple ending. Unique characters. PCU, they see, is a field separator que x sort by see the limited field character Dementor feeding X. They can be used to solve my tea party times. You can also eliminate our duplicate lines using the unique common or either sword minus you the sort of minus you command removes duplicate lines from the in for and unique. Come on, you and I. Q. Come on removed. Duplicate at this and lines from day in food. You can use mine ISI to count number off our parents off any unique number. Use the 13 for best technique. You can use a combination of both and so we can also compare my people files. Suppose we have two different text files. We're the country that's almost same more than 90% the same. But there is, Ah, a little difference, and we want to check the difference. Waters There difference between there so we can write the common d I'd ever left for difference. The area that I left provide the name of the two, uh, text files it really is filling in finance. It will display their difference on line number with line number. At least lined the differences there. We may do various a spelling mistakes. And if you want to check the spelling mistake, there is an utility narrative going expand, which is used to check the spelling off eyes spelling of the whole fight. It is the non interactive Lee on List and Count Mrs Paperwork on. You can check the missus spell words. You can also perform various operations like word counter and short on it. We can also manipulate text in various formats, for example, that we can translate characters from a per case to lower case or a wide range of operations. You can converse characters in one sector, corresponding characters in other say, for example, out based on STD again, you can do convert a small character cases to capital, unifying the farm it off Writing this thing could be tr provide the court with in Khost of mine inflate the transected character in which it has to be. And then you think with the left, I reckon Addo followed by the final name You can order order strength in a vial using the SED. Come on that the school is free medical. It performs a surgery place operation on extreme off text. It normally does not alter the source file, so the source file is being intact on on the stream is being edited, so we have to save the stream. Otherwise it is lost. You can also use regular expression for pattern matching. If your family or with languages like fightin or born, you might be family with a regular expression and have used it off far light range of obligations. I like that expression is used to marches. Train characters award based on certain parameters. We have ah, brief. We already have a brief introduction in the starting videos. So just a recap the operator symbol represented beginning off the line. Suppose we want to mastered and word or strange from the beginning Off the line. If it is Matt, we want to raise a flag that it is found. Otherwise we don't need toe found anything so far. I suppose. I'm I want to search U S A from the beginning off the line. If you essays returns as the first word of a line, it will be mast. So the former tough writing it is that is that, um a person, right? A Panero symbol, then right, they string which you want to search. Similarly, we can Sarge is free from the end after link using the dollar single. We can also do including include or exclude operation by providing them with in the square brackets. If you write characters in describe records, all the characters are so we mast If anyone occurred, they were real master. Similarly, if you place a Pareto symbol as a first argument inside the ascribe record, it will ignore the strings organic does from the From this quiet record, these regular expressions are used by commands like grip said less and so on. So we have learned a few techniques about text manipulation and extraction. It is very useful off throughout various operations wide range of operations like a manipulation off lock. Five extracting data from takes place from Gore's programs and a wide range of utilities so you can use them on the command line interface as well as with shell script. So give it a try trying to go to your own programs. I'm practice them. So keep learning. Keep moving ahead. We will be learning more in the coming videos. 10. RHEL Part 10 {vim text editor}: Welcome back friends. After learning takes processing and manipulation techniques, we must move toe, learn about their divorce text editor off pretty l that is. We re I are we? I am. So let's start less no more about we I am editor So we I am is a text editor or utility on the commercial and agility and D B m is the graphical utility for me. I am. We I am can perform a wide range of operations on text files like writing, manipulation and so on to create a file or open a file with me. I am. We need to right there simply a common we I am his base filing. If the fight with Fight same file, name and extension did exist in the same part, it will open the file on the commander interviewees in the Line X terminal. Otherwise it will create a new file. Then we can edit it. Remember two keys, shortcut keys, the escape to exit the current mood or press w two times escape to return to come on board Escape of support. If What is the mood when we are using a commander in the language terminal? It isn't an interactive mood we don't have come on. Who didn't it provides the output are ask you another common you can always like. But when you are in a V, I am editor, you are getting more. So you are writing a text for a file so you could not provide the context for mine. If you need to provide next command, you need to press escape. It will exit the writing war and moved to indirectly board where you can execute cute that collects. Similarly, if you want to move again back to the editing most, you can write the type escape one more time. There are various options or arguments, and that can be used with me. I am Have you Deb? It's more like means insert more, which begins that in certain that the cursor the many operations could be a capitally for a plan to end of line where you can add contain were they string of text file and on the last of the after the last leg with capital you can insert at beginning off the line. If you want to insert, it's Morley to insert new a new line our capital owe to insert a new line above and below, respectively. You can use our exit more. You can ender x e X mood with which creates a command prompt at bottom left screen. You can use our three different things. It's more than blue toe right back. Or save the radiator toe the file disk. That is the key that you press look you to write and quit and small cute toe quit. Even if changes are there, I don't hesitate when. Don't worry. When in B I am editor, you could not re back to get back to the command until it interactive board. You may type president. You is small, que command are on escape. You can move around through our die string toward a file text file using different characters at g k l would act like a Rocchi's up, down left right. Non Iraqis could be useful in the motor connection to order system where Iraqis are not very helpful. You can use our tentatively alternative Good. You can move word by word. You can give one word and move to next word. Why? Using W and B B for right, moving right inside. W for moving left hand side. You can move by scientists using the opening and, uh, losing bracket. You can move by paragraph by opening and closing braces. You can jump to the next line with X de or X. Come on. You can jump directly to the end with a capital T. Similarly, you can run that you girl building Help using the health help copy are we? I am due to a one. We have different shortcut keys. Suppose you want toe based certain things you can be our capital p to put based on copy data are dealing. Data is small, you toe under most recent changes capital you to undo all the changes to the current line since the culture control all eyes used to redo the last under continuous we small way to start character or entered highlighting capital we to start lying or intern highlighting on you can use ah different operation to split the control. W were to split screen horizontally controlled a blue to split the screen verticality vertically and control are W with Adam moves between the windows. So this was a brief introduction. A lot of we I am a text editor. You can also use Ah, leave bad open office. Other graphical utilities like the editors. We will allow you more operations if your family or with G y one. Otherwise, you can use a command line interface that sounds more programmatic, so you can give it a try and keep learning. Keep moving higher. We will learn more in the coming radios. 11. RHEL Part 11 {Process Management}: Welcome back friends here in this part, we're going to learn about original or language processes. So what are processes you might have seen? Windows Task Manager. If you're using windows where you can see we're various background and foreground task, they're not running on the systems. So does could be also Corliss Process. Actually, processes are different from task because of certain tasks may need different process to be executed. So in linen, it is very whiter to understand what processes are and a lot of different processes and how we can organized them. Control them to perform a better operations on, provide different solutions. So let's start a process is a set off instruction that is loaded into memory. The pneumatic process R P a. D. The process idee is used for identification off each process. You a DJ 80 on da A seal Any context leader mines five system access to different processes . One thing, though, up there with that in linen system, there is a process that is parent off all processes, which is scoreless in it. I and I d the unit processes started the beginning off the west and executes to land. If you um also passed within the mind of a number two in it like an egg zero, which gives the any process. And so the system was shut down. If you write in it, the six, then the system reboots are restarts, so there are different process. You can view information regarding release process with a B s. Come on the PS and provide the number. It will show the processes. You can also use various argument. It shows the process by the current user on the current terminal. By default, they don't have any assumptions. Minus, he will show you all list off all processes. You will allow users to show all processed by the user based on each user. Capital left, we print extra information Capital edge with Indian child processes. Oh, small will show the properties with properties. It could print custom informations and you can use three year streak among for process cream. It is a reverse tree. Were the the first processes in it and all the process are derived from it. We're going to do a practical off these things, so don't worry. You can find a process by using the command. Be if provide the options on you can use a pipe operator and perform with other commands. You can also use the pretty find patterns will be grip G R E p uh, as here, you can also extract program names which are restored and now has been be ideal if data cream there are really a signals that could be saying toe kill the process, uh, to terminate our performance operations. I've already told you you need to little our inner six the six and veto either signals, which is number and could be used to perform with its operations. Signals are saying that actually due process no user interfaces required programs associate actions with the signal signals are specified by name our number one thing for example, signal 15 that term it terminus cleanly. Signal nine will kill the terminate the process emitters with signal. One really configuration of fights is down on Manuel. Seven will signal show complete list. There are various types of process of one of them is going down in humans. What background process. When you see the after any name off the process, it is actually a demon. For example, any night isil not in it It's not things like that. We could be using anything. There were demons right there. The hidden process could also be controlled. Our foreground posters are also be controlled. The shoe doing is an adult thing. We can she do different processes like execution that this process will be your first. This will execute next, and this will after the after them, in case when different process arrive where the processor or trip you at the same time. So see if you could not decide to which process this process it need to execute. If you do not provide any she doing your priority. So the priorities affected by the nice value Lennox had provided you the nice value nice value would allow you to upgrade our prioritise er process or be prioritized process. It brings us from a value minus 22 19. But before value off all the processes zero you can you over the nice process. It means lower. Nice where you means higher CPU priority. The process which have the lower nice value. Yes, there's CPU. You can view the not a priority with with PS minus. Oh, come on. On a night you can change the nice value by writing the common nice his base minus and provide the number the nice number and come on and you can also change by using the re nice value. However, Onley root access a good user may decrease nice values. You can not only increase any user any non rude uses, but only dude can decrease our enterprise a process. There is our interactive process management tools out there. The top is ah you that the CLI more and Genome system monitor resumed Innogy Waymo. It has various capabilities. It could display the engine process information. It allows you sorting, killing and realizing the processes for your functionalities. Then we have job controls for the process if you have Ah, if you have read our learned about operating systems and with this process you might be family which job controls when different process allows to the system CPU. At the same time they are assigned with this job to be perform. It may occur that a certain processes executing and it is a stop in between to allow other persons to execute in parallel. Actually, there is nothing like Tyler system only once abuse allow sorry in single core processors. There's no concept of parallelism, but actually my deep asking is done. That is because, ah, the processes are and allowed and be allowed. The assigned certain time limit to execute doctors has called a job control processes could also be called as jobs in the West. Having a large is it We can run process in the background upend or 1% to the command line you condemn really hard? Are any program our stop? You can use control there to send a signal. 19. That is the stop. You can manage background or suspend job. Many background or suspended jobs. You can list job numbers and names with jobs. Govs. Come on. You can resume the back in the background, the process in the background by using the bag around. Come on the assembly, right Bt and provide the job number. Job number is the process idea. You can resume in the foreground. Using the FG Kaline, you can send a signal like kill signal with Kay Davala and a signal number and the job number. Similarly, you go. Dad, use the exit, the status, the exit. The status is used to process the report success or failure, which connects it. You can do with existing status. Zero is used for success. Oneto 2 55 Values are you for failure. You can check whether the process is completed successfully. Are it is it is organ failure, Donor question markets told the Exited Staters off most recent combined exit is placed the number which you are assigned for success or failure. Terminators, Cetus, Traitors, Toe number. This is an example how we can do so. They are convicted conditional execution execution operators like on or which can be used to rent conditionally touring of very suppressions like a fence. Conditions. Developers in simple represent on then and double pipe symbol represent conditional or as you can taste the Willis commander test someone is used to evaluate bully statement with conditioners. Return video for True Returned. One is used for falls. If the execution is fine, then return. Zero means group. If it is not fine, we don't want to do 45 I taste commanders used with variables on a different arguments were on person, double in person, simple for end on the well pipe symbol for all is can be used. You can taste fights with three different arguments minus F minus. Steve Miner Sex minus F refused to test to see if a file exists and is a regular file minus . Need to paste to see if a file exists and is a directory minus X two. Test. If a file exists and is an executable, you can test a fight. Learn more about that fight. Then there comes a script. Things we have been learning shell scripting in all your parts. Here I introduce you to the if statement for shell scripting. You might be family with certain types off programming languages. The thing that could be different for you if you have been using Java or C baseline with this here, the defense's statement is written as if I live. That is else if flash card, Um and as and after that, you have to again right after I in this re worse off if because I here we don't use any records and the kind of quality records or any type off my jeans that we use in a biter here, the office defense letter could be created if a statement is a check. If we disconnect, then the execution is processed within the effect state when, like the first line of equal station, one is up. If the condition feels the eloquently sensitive condition or lift condition is checked, if it also fails, it moves to as whatever condition is satisfied that one is executed only. But I start not executive. You can write your own shallow stream. We're in the process manipulate process, use the signals on do a wide range of operations on jobs, doodling process. And with these things, using a process manipulating process and drops is actually an administrator job. It is a very good thing. So if you want to be a several administrator on narrative, must be family with jobs, profit and certain. So keep learning. Keep moving it. We were learning more in the coming videos. 12. RHEL Part 12 {System Configuration Tools}: Welcome back friends here in this part, we're going to learn about system configuration tools. What we can do with various options have level that could be Internet connection. Koran tips. I'm more so let's explore a little later. See, start with Internet connection. When you have install your next of environment or server and warming, you would like to install your eat 100 drivers. If they are a leading start, you would like to configure them. The eternal drive the I P address and the M S subject mosque are various things before the negotiating. When you have a server in the warming, they stole you. Your main content would be data, ways and network. So we need toe have a grip over this concept. So let's start with you there next. Even it provided a connection. Uh, they provide network interfaces that could be named sequentially. Uth zero, our eternal zero Internet one and so on. There are various things. Uh, Elias is are there, for example, Eternity Low is represented with one Internet to, uh, do you no good. We also presented with two and so on. When it's ah, miners could be there. Multiple address can be assigned toward device will tell Yes, as there and the others are treated like separate interfaces. You can be the configuration file for eternity. Rivers in the Espen directory Off the I be addressed where you can see that did it is still a never interferes. You can go with a has been and moved toe if up territory and provide Ethernet eggs and you can similarly disabled them The basic command too. Well, your I p address in her comfort complete information is with the command i f conflict In windows we have ibeacon faith and in linen we have I have conflict. We show use that come complete information from i p address, submit mosque Mac address and release other details. From there you can configure it. I use accordingly. You have a graphical network configuration option that just located within system administration On network, you can activate and deactivate interfaces. You can assign I p address or a dynamic host contributor. Guardian Suplee. You can modify domain name system DNS settings for your website, a website if you have a several involvement for your company and I suppose the company has a website that is hosted on your server, so your ah survey data has to be directed from website name the U. N. That is provided with the DNS information. You have to modify the gateway address accordingly. You can do so you can type. I have conflict E. T s zero for getting Internet informations. Then they come toe more. Return it configuration ties. The device configuration is stored in text file in the 80 c directory system Configured network, A script and this but to get completely stuff options, you can browse there. The users here dog, any scripts there is a huge range of command. They are not actually frequently used, but suitably, you can go through them there are released. So we open letter accepting that could be check back in the TC directory again. UTC system configured, mate, what you can do so the gateway can be over with them. Whether I've have conflict file, we're networking. Could we say yes. There are variables. These are actually used pretty find variables. The networking very will host name Gateway. These are variables on providing the value toe. This very of us would allow you to consider your network settings. You can also run sale is great with these were even names on executable functionality. Domain names are always translates. Host name to a network address or an I P address. The host team is a website name Good that could be translated to net for galleries. So Dennis configuration is required for this purpose. It could be resolved on E T. C result or configuration file. Suppose we want toe check an example. Here we write the command search. Come on. Providing you are ill or domain Name and time are testes. Could run a test a script remote. Don't test. It would have done the name server and the i P address. For this, it's specific. Domain. Name another utility that we need to. Ah, check this printer Bring. The result is a device that is generally used over a network supporting your office. You have 20 or 50 computers on 15 or 20% for controlling those operating on on those computers. So if if you need todo, print certain information on papers so he assigning each printer individual are unique. Printer to everyone in the office is very costly and inefficient thing. You can install a printer. Ana provide that same printer to 50 or 20 people, so they can, uh, used a print. Come on on. A bring your information on they are allowed is large. Our cues so we can configure printer here from four of eight year. Uh, if you want to go with a graphical configuration, you can check out system administration and printing the supported printer connections are local that are in parallel CDs or USB connections and the configuration file for print. That is a story in E. T. C. Cops, printers, not configuration file. The printer command We have already learned about LPR. There are few more. Come on the NPR Sensei job to the Q two. We printer. Suppose our 10 people simultaneously you send something to be printed are single person since multiple files. So they are saying in a cube, the first who arrives in the queue will be given the fastest Lord, and they will be printed earlier. Then the leader arriving instruction there except a sky in boosted script PDF or D D and various other files. Then there comes. I pick you command where you can view the contains off the Q Using l pick you command, you can take water. The fights that are to be printed under by a printer and reading in a queue with help er m common. You can remove a job from a cube. Suppose you ever accidentally hit the print water and you want to remove that file. You can do so with help. Er um Come on, system reprinting. Come on. Such as l b help me start. Could we also use can sell? Commanders also supported here. Similarly, you have his first specific options to list configure printers. Suppose we have a multiple printers I signed over the network and we want to check which can Printers are there so we can take the printer similarly live with as a less common. We simply need to write LP is that minus a So it will list all the configure printers. Can I get to your device or what I think? Then you can convert text to post a script with short hair. Come on and this script are a groupie is coming Similarly, you can convert postscript to pdf You can print my Seawell previous, but she you can set system dating time. The system dating time is, I didn't release it drew during the installation, as we have seen in the second video. Well, the installation off our eight year. However, you can configure it later any time you want from the command line, as well as from the G way. If you want to configure out in the G Y, you have to go to system administration data in time the utility scholar system convicted. You can also set to determine time men really ana from Syria. Like if you want to set, you simply need to write date. Come on, the 80 and the light, the information in former it off month, day hour, my neck and so on. India, you can take input out with positional parameters for selling scrap things. The position perimeters could be related as ah, dollar 123 These are actually values. Um, it's first of believers could be used to hold the command line argument, as we have seen in the in the fall of with the for loop rescript ing that we have seen you . 35 variables could be made on with the dollar symbol. You can use them for any purpose like equaling printing on the high screen are generating STD out things. So here two things are new dollar a strict which holds the command line argument on dollar hash or pound timber, which holds the number of common in arguments. You can take input with the read. Come on. Uh, as here you need to write read. Are you ready? Minus three. Our toe from toe display. If you want to do this with everything, if you don't want to this for anything, Any message. So amid this thing, provide a string that you want to display. For example, enter a filename or Enterra anything, whatever you want, then provide a very well user defined very well where the import is stowed or assigned. The file in capital here would take the input and it will be assigned later on. You could use that thing. It can work both in Ah, come on line interface as well as with cell is scripting within directive Way are with cell is you can use that thing. Then there comes a unique feature on a Rachel that is chronic tab client that would allow you to should do command to execute later. We all we have learned here that we have time execute. Come on on the under run when we type and press, enter the execute, but you can also shoot commands to execute later. The one time job can be used with at the recurring jobs can use crunch time. If you want to execute a come on only once you can use the ad command 80. And if you want for repeated work, recurring jobs you can use the quantum is specifically so for creating ah, treating a Come on, you can do so with 80 just right 80 under time US. Provide the time on which continent you need to write. Quantum common on minus E for create It is an option. Similarly, for generating a list, providing a list off their jobs, you could do so. Where did it is removed? I did, and so on. Here we have no one to things that non redirected our POTUS made to the user and Root can modify jobs for other users as well. If you have, ah created a sequence of jobs to be executed and there's a system Edwin who have access to root he can. He or she can modify the job full on the Q anytime you want. So this is, Ah, a brief introduction about system configuration utilities about a printer and various other things This would be selfish would be required when you have to work on the server side over the network on for demonstration purposes. So give it a try. If you have a network, you can also do so virtually either on wear our virtual box building. Keep learning cabling at we will learn more in the coming videos. 13. RHEL Part 13 {Finding & Processing Files}: friends here in this video, we're going to learn about five processing on very suppressions on five that we can do. We can find the file, sultan their data with Onda, look up and perform certain operations. So let's start. Here is a command that is called a locate, which can be used to locate a file. It is you. It works as a query on a pre able to database off part or five on the system, the but for the directory or to exact finally location is query. The database must be updated by the administrator is to be required the full part. It's sized not just a filing here. The file name is not just a first, but you need to provide the file name that could match, for example, the Syntex off writing at the locators. All right, look it. It's a common loc 80 provided space and provide the name of the file, which is to be first. So it will start for a file going forward in the name or part. We can use the previous options as well as an argument like I and annex the I performs case insensitive search as we have no capitally small, the mixed and every possible combination using this small and capital character for the same expelling, said. Similarly, an ex commander option would allow you to list on Lee the first expenses. Suppose ah, multiple files with the same name exists in the location and you want to display on the first fight so you can define it by writing a minus and five after the looking alkaline, you may only search directories where the user has a reading execute permission. Onley had dark location for the non route users. If you are root user, you can search anywhere. Then there is another era Come on that is similar to find but is somewhat more at once, which is called fine. You can open a file with fine. Unlike locate. Signed will do a real time search off the machines Fire system toe find Fight that master criteria off the command line argument. Since fired findings are looking at files in the file system as your user account, you must have read and execute permission as locate for a directory to examine it. Country. The locator We need the same reading. Execute permission Here it is also required that it is a slower but more accurate than located. The current working directory is used if no starting that increase, given all files are massed. If no criteria is given. Great idea. You can be fined a number of fights. Here we have, ah, multiple options argument for finding the state, the Syntex you need to write the final common provider directory criteria and action. The action means exact file name. Suppose out. We write does command as fine minus name, and it's no not being. It's not being these any much file with extension PNG and file neighbors know and we want toe use this ah, name option. So this the language search for five named as It's not our TNT in the current directory, as we have not provided delegation. Similarly, if you write my name, it will perform keys insensitive Search for five name. I know if you want to set for five anywhere on the system that ends with any particular extension, you could write as it does fine. It's less Reuters, please minus name and within single court right, a strict dot extension, for example, if you want to serve, see if I decide a strict party I stick means all any fight. Anything could take place off a streak. If you want to suggest if I you need to write aspect or java. Similarly wild cards could also be used and they have to be provided within the single court as well. Uh, you can search for files in any folder. You can pass those things. You can find a mythological operator as well. Support you want a logical operation off and or not? You can do so by writing this index for all you can negate with help minus o are small. Oh, for nor do you get right with minus nine. Parentis is can be used to determine logic order. But must we has kept in best the former for writing this thing could be the find command. It works with fine, fine minus user. Usually the option on the in the name of the user is Joe here on If you want to use knock. Come on. Not option There You can use a minus not and minus group you. It will make with the group Joe Similarly, you can use our ire of condition. Must be true not will check if the following conditions the north condition is false, then only the first condition is mast and for and what condition it to be true, you can find with permission can match ownership by filename Our i d. You can do so the bottom p e adam argument. You can match local or symbolic permissions. You can not exactly any permissions. For example, 755 with a combination of permission. But the same user group and others the first digit represent the same user, which our, which is currently using the device system. Then the second it represented a group, and the terroristic rest of their users would have a privilege Where everyone so going, buddy, you can find with a numerical idea many creative. You can take numeric values. For example. Ah, filed with the size off size exactly 10 megabytes. If you want to search 10 megabytes night, megabyte gigabyte and so you could write find minus sighs the file name. Obviously you need to provide, and then, after decides argument tonight the size of the file. Whatever you want. If I want a 10 m b, I will like them and capital M after that. If I want 10 GB, I would like them and then G Capital city and so on. If you want a file with size over a particle, arrange suppose over 10 MB. If I want, I would just simply right plus symbol before 10. Similarly, if I want a fight with size less than 10 m. B, I would write minus sign before then. So this is a nomadic based criteria. It would be helpful if you know the file size. For example, if you want to distinguish between image in text, what may have the same name, but it may finally is usually bigger than the text file, so you can do a search. Do it, use it. Similarly, you can find an access times, uh, for accessing time. You can use the options here Time when the file was last freed. The last edit Ana, you can the last Megadeth 19. The meta data data about data or the file information. If you came, you can value given in days. If you want to search for 10 days ago, you can write the command like fine, it's last be embedded. Location minus C time. First time it was that fires change more than 10 days ago. After the final game, you can also use a value off minutes and second size. Let you can execute Command with fine command can be exude to executed on sound bites. They must be proceeded with a minus E x e c r minus. Okay, off again The minus. Okay, option with a prompt. Before acting on each file, it will alarm you on. Come on. Must end with his place. You can use up. Parentis is opening and closing Parentis is good grief as a final name Placeholder the syntax for writing this thing. Could we here in the last line find minus size? Here we are defining the size. So it was such files with size greater than 100 MB because we have use place symbol. Then why writing Minus okay. It will prompt you before acting on each file. Then we're writing MB. That is a move. Come on, providing the calibrate say that finally in place formula. So I don't need to repeatedly right the same my name and provide, uh, directory, That's all. Similarly, we can perform backup operation on configuration files, but adding a dot All our i d extension the former it off writing. This thing is fine. Minus name within single good. Provide the configuration file a stricter cunt. It will start for configuration. Fight the minus E x e c and C P. Come on, CPI would we use for copy and just simply right Dark. Oh, already it will back up the file, Make a copy of that file it really story in another location on Adam Extension Dark Already it is a useful reasoning to distinguish between original and duplicated from toe removed and the user's name filed that are three days, four days old. You can do so with the same Texas here, using the C time on the plus three symbol the seed I would candidate and the place will. We moved up more than three days if you don't write. Plus, um, plus him well, it will check exactly three days or, if you like minus simple, it will take less than three days and so on. You can fix other a veritable variable files on your home directory with the CH more. You can also apply the ch more come out here. Similarly, you can list all the directly with a less command. You can execute the ls Come on as well. You can find different fights that and with a particular extension like asset shell script but are not executable by anyone. You can do so and performed the permission. The permission is Ah +111 more than one. And we are using not kill for you this last. Come on. We want to search shell script five which are not executable by anyone on make it executable by everyone. We have to change. We have to find Sally script. I think the permissions so that we need to write the command Fine. Minus not it will check if the permission is not satisfied. The minus partner for permission +111 more than +11 is for read. It has more 1/2 for execute. If a more than execute then they will be omitted. Then provide the name The file's name a strict or test. It would be searching all the fight with S H extension then Ok, it will change the permission with ch more 755 and so on. It may look a somewhat complex to you, but it is not complex. When you give it a tray on practice these commands, it will be a fun. You will enjoy it. Really? So this was our brief introduction about this. Find command, locate Callen. And with this argument that we can use along with this plan, it would be very helpful if you want to locate particulars, fights based on certain parameters and perform backups and various operations. So keep learning. Keep moving at. We were learning more in the coming videos. 14. RHEL Part 14 {Network Clients}: Hello, friends. Welcome back after learning very civilities and we're a wide range of command now we shall move with various learning about various network client. So let's start. So the first flight is our length ally. In case that we have learned in the 1st 23 videos, the length is a non Jew I Web browser as we know it. Events in the line X terminal on it. Throwing it is provided by feelings r p m. The full support of the fames and SSL is there. You can download links by writing the common Why you, um, such links Similarly, for different utilities that are not a priest told on their system, you can download it with the same command you first. You have to such it on Internet. When I think that come on by, um, search, then you need to install that file after it is it has windows. Why, um install. Then it will be installed. Length is not a default program. You need to install it. Similarly, when you can open a link, for example, I don't to offend google dot com. So I will right the commander's length ally in Ks space scdp of Golan slash triple w dot google dot com, or you can simply right triple delude or Google. It could be used at various argument, for example, down and source. The source. Would I display you the source port after a fight? It could be particularly used for connectivity testing when Ping is blocked. When being combined this log, you can check whether site is being open or not. UH, it is used for final retraining when you don't remember the fully world to die for the car or it can be used with W get come on the delegator dress files wire, STP portable and after. For the bus, it is a not interactive. He was fully in Shelley scripts. It is not interactive. You can followings and covers the bacteria tree on the remote server, which is useful. What wondering Web and FTP sites. Then you can use our different graphical MILF lines on a tear, which is only available on the our little plant. Ready in the utility. Could be evolution or tender Were evolution is a flexible email and group were dual on Thunderbird is timed alone. Mozilla really plain it is similar toe. Microsoft access our agreement planes that a Saudi Orgel that could be used, their toe set up next up emails. You can also use 90 y e email. Clients like you can support a pop I map on local mailbox. These are the protocols for when I'm at work a bus over the Internet to for transferring off limits. They're highly configurable. They are capable with hard keys, the shortcut keys that can trigger What example. Five times a briefing off shift key could be a hard key. It allows you to message trading and colorizing the G N u. Bt Integration is allowed here on the context. Sensitive. Have precaution markets office alone here, the 91 human client this Carla's EMU would ever be that you can use on our terminal. Then there's another utility that is called Region, which is an instant messaging. Uh, it is a previous and messenger or other utilities are terrible about these days and can be used for allowing messaging over the natural plant. Suppose you have ah, different systems devices over the network. Install on your office on your officers stop or employees may want to communicate with each other in a secure line over the network. They can do so by using the futility called region. It was formerly known as a G. I am. It is a level on our material client wasn't only it is Ah, my reputable instant messaging claim. It supports various network, including Yahoo IRC, Internet relay chart and videos of their planes. The plug ins can be used to add a functionality, the functionality explained you, and you can also use for a different purpose. Along with over the Internet. You can use a remote access and fight for better, not less. Ah, we just moved to places and connect to a server. It allows you toe graphically browse which my people protocols and allows you drag and drop files transfer the supported connection type include off. I transfer Portugal after be sftp SMB rebel theory and so on. You can also connect why you are by moving toe file and open location. Then we can use a security. More chill are with you political open. Ssh, secure shell. In short, it is used for providing secure replacement for older remote access tool. Remote access tool is not very safe, considered very safe as it as with assess it, it allows you to authenticate and crimped access to remote systems. If you want to access a system remotely. For example, if you have a servant installed on your office data center on you honor database Administrator But you are on a vacation auto, uh, on best idea at home and something at some instant you feeling that you need to, uh, changing. Perform certain dust on your system and you don't have time to move to the data center. You can remotely access your Fife using ssh that you define earlier on the system. Uh, we can't host name Apostle on which is authenticated and encumbered, So it is not prone toe simple hackers. How about anything that is their love Could We had the command for S a. T s message user for why they use their name and the host name, and you can also execute the remote command. You include a minus x for a graphical applications only under a state systems. Otherwise it really compromised. You can secure file. You can use secure file transfer transfer multiple five security with your political S e p . It is ah, replacement off RCP the more plain transfer transfer for device. It is a layered on top off SSX. It uses a sensitive situation. The syntax for writing is SCB. They write source and after destination from where the file has to be copied. The source on where it has to be copy, then a destination. Any more files can be specified. Using the horse on the box related. You can use our different options. For example, minus are to enable precaution minus P to preserve times and permissions and minus capital C to compress the guy streams. Then you can use our neutrality called, I think, for efficient filed thing. You can think your whole fight efficiently. It makes a copy It Copies of file uh two are from remote systems. You can copy five from a system or to a system. Do the secure cell connection for transportation. This index for I think it could be a sippy minus. Copies are are as light rs volume. See, I think plastic garcon for all configuration files and a but it is faster than recipe on it is. It has differences in light files. Open necessity is give it out. Indication could be used I did cough them. It does not require password every time, but it is a still secure authentication uses keys. The keys are generated by SS age that is called ssh key gin, The private key and public e They are generated. The private key is your key that it stays on your system and the public is distributed over the network, which can a combination of private and public e is used to accept anything you usually up better face protected is ah, prediction is recommended. You have to protect it by a red of face. Pass. This public is copied destination with a common core. Ssh, minus copy minus idee. And you can copy. Ssh key. That is public ing. You invited senator with our greatest ally, but it seems like our sale Golgotha RMB five that these are little graphic Asbury items based on what the cryptographic keys are generated. Not indication agent is a stored on description off every case down the benefits passed phase on the nears, Toby internal ones and they didn't exploited automatically in genome. Otherwise, you can run assess its aging on bash on terminal, there are various ftp claim for transferring fights from a system to other that discord ftp plane It is not generally used with SS it however you can use the FTP command is used for five transform after Be plain You can automate transfer with this fight and the guo utilities called G f T B which can be located from application Internet g ftp It allows you to drag and drop five France First Anonymous on our nothing authenticated accepted there So I don't need to attend the gate. You can also transferred it sftp over a says it. It is an option not compulsory. If you want a secure transfer, you must off with sftp If you are transferring simple face are not over a secure Condra country. Go on, finish it Location. You could don't use a message. There are various network diagnostic tools that allows you to analyze network statistics that our upcoming their command where the Ping command is used to create a connection, established a connection and here are response from there. Sarah so are being Google Ping command could return after being this place. You are, for example, if I want to connect with Google so I would like being his place Triple a lot. Google article on my system will wait for the connection to be established. If I get a response, we will reconnect it. If I don't get that response will not get connected. Similarly, we can diagnose on the life for these things. We can their trees route off the packers that traveling there, here and there over the network. We can check the host. We can dig into data. We can use that netted start that would allow you take the Internet speed and radius. Um, statistics. You can also use a genome now tool for the job as you're utility for network agnostics. That may be present, you patella jock thing. Dagon arms. So this was a brief introduction about network plant. You can prefer the graphic award. They're secure a so much as a command line interface. But you must create a sausage when you're copying. Files are attentive getting our next ball with the server. So keep learning capably head. We were learning more in the coming vehicles 15. RHEL Part 15 {Advanced UID GID}: in the rear section. We have learned about user group and permissions, and here in this video we are going to learn more about user groups and permissions in their device label. Here we will learn where their passport files, the FAM file and other files are located. Shadow flies this having is it in Windows version of and what we can do in a dress for user group information. So let's start. The authentication information is stored in plain text files in the locations. As a TC possible Shadow group decided the prosperity stores that a user names the shadows towards the passwords for respective is in him. Similarly, the group of stores in the group names on the G. Sardo restores the group passwords you can use. Our various management does, however, you could not read shadow files, but with certain utilities, you could access those fights. Uh, the location is very Oscar because you need to protect it securely. You must lock this location. The director could be loved on non road users could not access the file. The user management tools included US tools and the sea like tools. Come system can pick users is ah Dubai dual, where you can manage user group in permissions and the with zero you can use a user. Add user more and user till delete the securing off shadow files and the passport files. It is very important because a certain kind off tools are there, which can be used toe. Sniff your busters. There is a utility called Root Kit, which can be installed in your print in a pen drive. Different fights when that when drivers are connected to a system, it definitely attacked their chair profile on a certain location. It is a shadow on copies, all the files that is placed this so you must block all the copy based and other options. If you want to secure your system, you must also look any external devices like USB or feeding drive. You must lock it protected. Otherwise your system would be compromised. A system users and groups could be used. The several programs, such as where about printer cells, typically, which is a run as unprivileged users. Not as root you must. Our security do not run into room and demons that are Cordless background crosses in linen , male healthy and nobody this could could be used as an unprivileged user, not as a rule. So this does not cause any accidental harm to the system that only programs in this really Mr Amount off damage at any single program can do because they could not access each location and does not could not perform really stuff. You can monitor the log in for connecting you that you can use the loo locking and they would history You can use last to see the last logging who loved the last before fatal organ a tive you can check last be. And for most recent logging, you can write Come on last love who loved the comforter lasting the Ford permissions could be said with her for dignitaries is a Triple seven minus unmasked Triple seven means read. Write again, secure all permissions There's are permitted for directories so carefully high change the permissions for the directly which are sensitive, like the shared set off better dreams. Ready for permission for filed. Is the direct ready for without execute permission, so you need to provide execute permission when you want toe. Allow a user to execute certain five. I must either set with unmask a mine. A non privileged users. On a basket of these A year or two, the fires would have permissions have 664 The dead trees will have permission off. 775 24. And users and mask is there to do. You could change it on this. Is that do for you? You can have a special permission for executing. The special permission for Executive was would be placed with SC ready and SDA drink a lot with an estuary. You could. The command, which runs with permissions off the owner off the command, not executor of the common. Okay, come on. And similarly, as the I d. Runs with a group affiliation off the group. Come on. You can also create your own command on restored it with the shell script family. We can do with a bad script on windows. The West. You could get special permission for Derek, please. You can use is taking it off for fires in that place with a stick. It bit that can set on lee removed by owner are good. Regardless, off right. Permission for their directory, it could be removed. The files or directories which had to find with his sticky bits can be removed on Lee by user who created it all. My route. Who can do anything whether write permission is allowed or not to the directory. Similarly, as D. I. D. Is affiliated for a group with a similar functionality as a stick it. So we learned out brief about user group and permissions on. We need to secure it. Keep in mind about the route. Get on various things a lot easier. If we explore ethical hacking and cyber security, it would be considered a and the A book in your career that would allow you toe secure your network or database or your involvement So you must explore. Be curious and keep learning. Keep moving ahead. You will learn more and implement. 16. RHEL Part 16 {Advanced Filesystem, partition etc}: Welcome back, friends. Throughout the course, we have learned about where the Celtics on learned a wide range of command on average, yearly involvement. And here in this video, we are going to learn about five system in debt. Learn more about what we can do with five system as water, 30 days that we can together for our solutions. So let's start. We can create partitions on five systems, and the five system consists of videos, partitions that we have to understand. This rice are divided into where these partitions the land extract support do it into partitions. Their phone with file systems, allowing users to store data with consisting off borders directories on various abilities. The 45 system is called E X t three, which is full fondle third extended line expired system. So the file system was whatever we say in the earlier this light. Earlier videos in the 1st 3 sections, the whole thing, rude whom it is, he been, and all the stuff like that that is a file system 84 5 system with the new version. The other common find systems are e x t do and every stores, which are typically used with floppies. They're outdated, so they're not used these days. I usedto 9660 is typically used for CDs on GFS and GFS to is used for storage area networks or Sam. Then there is another concept. Oil. I know. I know that is an entry in the table. Actually, it is full formed as an index note it consists. Contain information about file, which is a data about data or metadata about the fight. The information, the last creator editor, the permissions on all informations. It contains a list ofall files in a txt. Tory arrested 35 system. It includes five dive permission User I d Group I d. The Lincoln, which is a count off partners went into this fight. Multiple parts could going to the same fight in Lenox. The file size and various timestamp timestamp is a unique moving off time, which is recorded. We have hours, minutes again, followed by data month. A time step is a certain point off time, which is a unique a time may differ from times on throughout the world. What timestamp is always the same. It begins with the first part mission of the database back in 19 seventies and eighties. Killed in it is used as a common sick difference off time in databases these days. Also, it wants to fight data blocks or this. Oh, I get about the fight. The directory is our waiter and five system. The computer's refreshed for a fight is the I know number. You went way to reflect our file by file Name a computer user. The I know number, but we use is filing because we could not remember a huge range for I know number. I want each I notice assigned to a Finally, A directories are mapping between the human name for file and the computers I know number. That is a visual presentation. The copy and I note command, I could be good work here. Is it the copy command or cyclical on? Allow lookers of free number placing a new and clean the I know when we use this. Come on. It creates a three I know number a new one blazing a new entry nine or table. It creates a d. The entry or directory entry associating a name with the item number. The name that we see it is actually what happens behind a curtain that we don't know, actually. So if you want to understand how the system what it is for you, it copied data into the new file. These are the steps that the copy command follows. We simply write the CPI command and we think everything is them. So what is actually being done here by the system is this? Then we have move for move. What happens exactly? In the estimation of the move, commanders on the same file system as the source, The move Command has to perform this pretending does. It creates a new direct Cree who it is our entry with the new file name and the list. The old directory entry with the old find name. Now I said it has no impact on the I know, David. It is simply the change of the difference on the The timestamp is being changed, Not the table on the location of the date on that. This noted I moved. Actually, did I seem at simplest? Only the boiler location or a name or directly name is being changed. If the direction is a different system move, act as a copy and dribble cut and paste. Adam. What does Adam removed? Does disagreements link counter that spring? I know number two really used. Actually, when you relate, if I it delivers the link degree My selling counter and I know number is free on it could be used for Adelphi's. It places data blocks on the free list. The number which is freeze it places on the free list that native available for free. You could use it. It removed it at a preemptory. Do you guys actually? Not actually, really. But we'll be overrated when the data blocks are used by. So this is the thing that cortana system when we do leave. Actually, nothing is being related. It is. We're over it. I delete Operation is an imaginary phenomena. That way we can recover each and every file from a system. Since when it was created, Hi was a huge chunk off system of five. Good with beer. It could be hard if the file, which is being deleted was ah year or more than a year old. But we can recover that thing. That's why, for water time, a grand stories device like hardest got penned by degrees. It could not be used because I have a certain scale. The override operations could not be performed, and we need a new drink for Harding's Harding's. Our Links That art an additional de entry or directory entry to a difference of single file one physical file on the file system. Is there East Eritrea difference of the same? I know number It increments the Lincoln, the remove command, the criminal income we will command declare rattling cow and harling incremental income. The file exists as long as the at least one link remains. When you relieve multiple length, that is, a file being copied over different folders does not exist and different locations actually different pointers or length out there. When you delete all the links, the file is being lost. The difference is not there. Actually, it is there. When the link count is the root of file is normal, theoretically cannot expand Drive's partition. It could not expand over drives. Different partitions are different. If you create a copy or duplicated off the file in different partition, it will actually competent five. The symbolic or soft feeling applies to another fight. Ls minus. L just place the link name and the difference as you The file life one is your for symbolic link. They contend off a symbolical ing is the name of the file digit references. There are seven fundamental five times when we use the ls commonly shell. Come on. We have different file types. Uh, that is denoted by different alphabetic characters. I think we'll have file is represented by minus sign or dash our directory. Is it presented with Tell us more D. A symbolic link is represented with a small l. A block. A special file is apparently with small be a character. Special file is presented with a small C I named by is presented with this might be a socket or what report is represented with s, we can check free space in the system using the deal A utility of the commercially with the deal A utility we came move. Do so by moving the applications system toe. I use a disk. Use it and ELISA. If we show you the free space and they used this piece, you can be fragmented. Onda. Create your own team. There's a different options. The EU produces text uses report in kilobytes of the directory. It could be used to list size off every filing, the severity by the force. Minuses in capital. Its options are used to display sizes and easier to read. Unit minuses is used to summarise the sub planetary. I know the minus T includes fire system types so we can learn more on do an analysis over the fire system and decrees for whoever media like friend right CD drives another great the This, uh, well, you have to do mounting on amounting in living's when we insert a friend right safe rendering on a system we have to mount that render to a particular location, and when we removed, we have toe amounted. So what is the process that actually does surmounting in degrees of foreign five system into the country? The vendor continue can consist off different file system, and the system consists off different fight system as he array Extra three or txt. Two Different five system. When the Penders file system is to be invigorating, your systems next ops, involvement or surveillance warned me. It has to be mounted, however, in these days art amounting tools out there so you don't need to create a mounting location before accessing media. Must we mounted before the moving media must be amounted? This is simple thing in Genome and Katie E G. Why Involvement Devices work amount under media. They are automatically Monterey Media Location. If you're not using the dual mode you have tow, specify the Mont Congregation by commands. Eyes here in Control group can manually mount device eternal are two different matters one for route and went for non route users. For Rudy User. If you have to provide a good actor, the allegation Mount MND. Then write these three commands M Kedia Create a device location within the Mount, Then write the mount. Come on for a particular location and when your work is there right now, I'm Monica Line for the same location. Similarly, for non road users, you can use the genome on mount Come on for amounting and you know mount for mounting the file. The directly would with shame and you have to place the dynasty and my honesty argument for CDs and DVDs, the same accessible from on they are ejected with, but actually get there, notice him the U. S. We made the eyes handled with you know, Mark. As we have learned, you can archive files, so I create a zip file. They are not actually zip deep rod identify, which is a shorter words in our compressed form. It after original five. Our timing places mine if file into one target files, it clears a single file with Consists off are different fights that are not executed ble until it has answered, it has been one thing. It is easier to keep back up because the sizes less and the single file is there to restore and transform. God is a standard line X archiving. Come on. We can use the dark amount to create our guys and unpack to, uh, decompress. I've guys are commonly compressed and algorithms applies that compressed file. They start an algorithm that applied on competition. Uncompromising restores the original file, but are natively support the compression using the jeezy or guns? You cannot tell you the busy to our buns hip. There are ways to open source tools and things of level online. Not most of them water being on time and a great fun. Wait, I didn't boil order in the news it on other formats. There are Village essentials are our options that could be used. No accidents, which is required, include money C, T and X C clears, and five. He creates a list off list and archive ex extracted from another kind, so you have toe right. This actions are options by creating another file. Typically, when you require archive name, file out off. I'll OK, you can use F on day, not optional, uh, accent that can be used, that for using energy zip compression J for a reason to compression. And we forward bulls on exactly built that is toe as he line extended seal properties and silliness is Security and Islamics, which is being implemented. Why are ideal the creating file archives you can use other to says Well, the former is being We have to write Zip Common said. I be minus. Then provide the filing on the location, then right on there. If you want toe under the fight with the extent in Dorset, unvested the files there and write the file Polo cologne graphically, you can do very easily without writing any alarm. So that was a detail about file system. Now we know how move copy removed another commands are physically executing. The concept is clear. When you're concepts are clear. You understand the operating system better than our does. So you could, Adam. Instead, it more, uh, preferably you need to understand what is actually happening within the U. S. That we have done here. You should also explore some ethical hacking, our system security utilities, how they could be compromised. So you should secure. You must be aware of different type of attacks out there. The doors a time he does attack for at that thing off Metrotech deal isn't actually would explode if you are going toe become a several ministers had Mr So keep learning. Keep moving ahead. We should outbreak feature here. 17. RHEL Part 17 {Essential System Admin tools}: French. Now we have reached in the last two critical part off the record enterprise Lennix Essentials. Here we are going to learn about essential system at Windows and finish our journey with our little essentials. So there are different tools that you can use on average feel. For various purposes. You can access the installer originally Stoller with graphic and installation or default installation type, you can say to useful. There are useful searchers like low resolution for low risk resolution is keep Delisi, our Regency based installation, where you can provide we and say password On the next month with network pedometers, you can install a graphic card text based installation are serial installation off other devices When you boot your boys, the post installation configuration allows you to configure different as packed, like Kate, Um, firewall on Security and Asli next, along with do I X window system, if necessary. If you want toe change your default genome toe Katie or install any other G Y X window tool , you can do so by configuring X window system. You can see settler dating time and anywhere after installation during installation, and any time in between, you can really start with our average rated network and get updated rpm's that desert had package management systems you can create our user account are configure different things. Hardware devices You can install additional rpm sorter, another documentation from sitting room or friends. Are you 30 wise or any other things you can manage many services on? That is a graphical services or other services. The graphical more to access that services system Convict services which would be found easily in application on the command line interface. False. A risk management will be located in Espen service and as Queen Chk can thing, you can imagine a difference off for years on other there, um which is provided by RPMs Package manages. They provide you easy installation and removal. The software information is stored in a local data base. Packages are provided by audit original on brother. They use it. Ah, centralized when it went off. Multiple systems. So multiple system candy store their common data on the same system and rpm is very different from Libyan. So they've been command third and every native files wandering on rpm and our PM Native files won't run on Debian like a pretty getting stall is a native utility off Debian based systems like Who went toe so that command would won't work on our retail. Onda Young that is a by, um come on, which is used to install and downloader software, are other utilities from neck that is an rpm package and would not work on Debian based systems like Open do There are these really travel off different back ideas and customer package repositories can also be used on downloaded. There are other different graphical package monitoring systems like Bubi Pop, which is located in application system. Does Software Update er you can list and install software updates from there? The puppies are useful doing where you can update your systems, they're told. Then there is another tool that is called pirate or P I R UT, which could be found on obligation. Add and remove software where you can install view and honest all different packages with the same has add a little feature windows where you can install uninstall, different suffers. Then there comes the young package minutes when tool that is short for Yali Unified Yala management package. When this went named after the Yali investing off the USC were the result of colors founded . It is a friend and you are being replacing up to date. Come on. The configuration file for young is located in e T c slash younger configuration file on e t c slash young dart reposed guard If I it is used to install removed at least different Softwares so we can sort. First we need to search a portable A package online. So the simplest for deserting the package we space so it and the name of the package as we did in links they when the subject um, is found, then we need to install after installation. If you want to remove, you can be wolf. If you want to update, you can update. If you want to know information regarding the package, updated information or other informations you could do so on. Similarly, if you want to list all the packages that are available on the Internet to be downloaded, you could be you could write it why you were list of level. It will show you all the available packages with name. Similarly, if you want toe genital list off all the packages in start on your device system. You could do so by writing young list installed. Then there comes after main concern the system that is security. You can secure system by raising security principles. Award running survey says that you don't need limit access to services that are running. Uh, don't allow all the permissions reunite. Execute permission to have the user for every sense that your folders and files a wire you things that we says that same data unencrypted over the network, such as Eastern A messaging Bob. I'm at my leg use SSL, which is preferred over other wards off communication. Then there's a great contract that is implemented by rhe. L is like that security announced Line Next, which is a carnal level security system were all presented in files. Have a context as he lamex policy dictates how processor then files may interact based on context. Policy rules which cannot be over it in the fourth policy does not apply to all services, so it is a colonel living security we kill allows you to secure your system. No virtual contact would be implemented without by without implementing, etc. Linings. Later we learn about them that is Virgilijus and technology. I hate you. The managing as he line X would be, um a useful thing. I see Lennix relations are logged in the system Log when you warlord and see line extinct like X trying to access the Colonel O R multiple area off the colonel that is being log. I did not allow you to access. Then it is printed on the system log. If you could do any harm, otherwise they could not do any hump heavy. Leila's can be disabled in an emergency when you need toe need an argent gator backup are different in a wide range of scenarios, however disabling and seal annexes not encouraged because it is unsafe specifically if you are. If you're surgeries are over, Internet neck makes is one vulnerable system configuration. See, Lennix would be the file where you can manage as he like next on Do you anymore Could we find with within system administration as he likes management? Then there comes up management off firewall and S Eli mix. Firewalls allow you to provide toe Keep your network secure from outside. Attackers are malicious traffic. The system country security level would with fire a location. It could be found from ah system administration, security level and five or could be configured. Why do I r a ce label? It allows you dissected selectively block incoming connections by port r Block You could block allow you could lock virtual fourth different port numbers like 80 is zero are 4 43 and different pores. The responses to outward what is always are accepted. I donated interfaces for a C Lennix configuration. Could we found here on more? It wants configuration possible with other tools. Could we implement it here with a semantics and firewalls? So this is the security. Try to learn more about security. I know you have learned a lot about our right here. Keep keep practicing. I use it. Used a practice paper. Andi was the practical exercises carefully. If you are preparing for the certifications, all the best to you. If you are not cooperating for the certification, you might have learned a lot of things. I wish you a great victory hug. Keep learning and get moving