C.M.G Software | Ali Hamdan | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 15m)
    • 1. Intro to CMG

    • 2. Software's Overview

    • 3. CMG Launcher

    • 4. Reservoir Section

    • 5. Components Section

    • 6. Rock Fluid Type

    • 7. Initial Conditions

    • 8. Wells and Recurrents

    • 9. From Builder to Results

    • 10. Results Tool

    • 11. Results Analysis

    • 12. Suite Results Analysis

    • 13. Project Proposal

    • 14. Project Solution

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About This Class

About This Class:

In this class you will learn the basics and fundamentals of simulation using CMG software. Before starting this class, please make sure that you have enough background in the basic glossary of the   Petroleum industry, added with basic knowledge of reservoir simulation.

At the end of this course, you will be able to understand how CMG software and its Builder tool works, so you can simulate any project you want from scratch.

This class does not require any physical equipment or machines. All you need is your laptop with CMG is downloaded.


Meet Your Teacher

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Ali Hamdan

Petroleum Engineer


Hello all

This is Ali Hamdan, I am a Lebanese Petroleum Engineer and currently the President of the SPE BAU student chapter. I speak 6 languages, Arabic, French, English, Spanish, Russian, and Mandarin. I also speak the language of the "Future", the computer language from python, html, C, java, etc.. 

In addition, I have the skills to work on different software and programs, from Excel, PowerPoint, CMG, Saphir, etc..

I believe in "Communicating & Networking", that's why I learnt different languages and aim to learn more. I am on Skill Share to share with you my skills in a very interesting and amusing way. With me, learning new skills may be your new hobby ;) 

See full profile

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1. Intro to CMG: Greetings everyone. This is the highly Hampden, and in this video I will be doing a small introduction about the CMG software course. From what are the prerequisites to what to expect from this course, and how to get in contact with each other. First, let's start with the prerequisites for you to understand and learn fully from this course, you should have a background and the petroleum industry. And by background and the petroleum industry, I mean at least one year or two years in this field, or at least you took a course about the petroleum industry. I may be doing a course about introduction to petroleum industry. However, to start with, you should know the basic parameters such as well, a reservoir, ballpoint pressure, porosity, permeability, how one parameter can affect the other, etc. Also, we should have the basics of reservoir simulation concerning this topic, you should, you should not, or you are not required to be fully advanced in this topic. Just the basics, the grid, the contour line, why we use it? Now, the vision or what to expect from this course. At the end of this course, you will be familiarized with this relation using the CMG software. Cmg software is one of the most important softwares when coming to simulation. Because of its simplicity and because it is easy to use it, it is simple, not complicated, like other softwares. Also, you will learn how to use the builder tool. This tool is built in inside the CMG software, and it is like an interesting tool. It allows you to manage the reservoir, visualize it at that soft parameters, see some basic results, etc. Also, you will know how to treat the input and the output. It's not an easy thing. You will know that this parameter should be in this condition in order to get this output. Also learned how to analyze the results to combine this output with this output, for example, putting acts on y on the same graph to see the trends, to see the brakes. This thing is very important for you to understand how the reservoir is acting on the long term. Also, at the end of this course, you will be aware of the common mistakes when simulating, gaining time without making mistakes learning than making mistakes learning. In this video, you will see the common mistakes that generally beginners do. And finally, at the end of this course, you will have a good background to improve your simulation skills because this course is not from a to C. C, I'm new software is very vast, very general, and very big. You can do a masters and simulation. But this course will help you, or we'll give you the basic Bush for you to be on the line of the simulation and start improving your skills. Finally, how to get in contact with each other. This is my main and the Hampden D21 want to add hotmail.com. The phone number is in front of you, 50 if you want to talk to me through WhatsApp Telegram. Also, this is my LinkedIn link. You can get in touch with me whenever you want. If you have a small detail, if you have a small question, any point that you feel, it should be a more elaborated if you are trying to do any other project and the R stick on a problem, don't hesitate and contact me. I'm here to help you. Thank you. I hope this course will be, will benefit you and it will be helpful. See you next. 2. Software's Overview: Hello again. In this video, I will be doing a small overview about the CMG software. First, let's start about the CMG launcher. Cmg is an abbreviation of computer modelling group. The software is to help oil and gas industry personnel and organizing files and programs. It has a great number of advantages creating projects and organizing numerous modelling tools. Cmg is continuously being updated by its developers and starting to be one of the most helpful applications when simulating and forecasting that reservoir parameters. It can be used for conventional and unconventional reservoir modeling, and it is implemented with augmented visualization tools to facilitate the simulation results interpretation. This software offers a three, it is that a word simulation applications and many intelligent interpretation and visualization tools. Let's start with the simulators. We have imax. This is a conventional black oil simulator modelling three-phase reservoirs. It is considered as the fastest black or it's simulator. It can be used to model a wide range of reservoirs and assist in solving many management issues. In addition, it can be used for simulating primary and secondary oil recovery processes. In addition to being able to model enhanced oil recovery techniques. The second simulator is the jam. This is a conventional and compositional simulator consisting of advanced equations of state. It can model the flow of the phase multi-component fluids. A petroleum engineer uses jump to model any type of reservoir where the main focus is to understand how the fluid composition and interactions are changing. Highly used when modelling processes such as gas condensates are volatile. Oil gas cycling, for example, miscible fluids vaporizing or condensing as drives. Also the well-known process, the wag water, alternating gas, and several other multi-component reservoir scenarios. The third simulator and the final one is the stars. Stars is an advanced process simulator which is used for advanced modelling of oil recovery processes that consists of thermal injections such as Teams and other solvents and polymer chemicals. It simulates the procedures of wellbore treatment that are required for the application of previously mentioned processes. Now we arrive to the tools. We have different tools. First, they're intelligent optimization and analysis tools, software, the SEA must. Then they cope flow for reservoir and production system modelling. The wind probe for fluid property characterization. The results. It is a post-processor to visualize and analyze. And this tool known as builded. It is a preprocessor and it is a simulation model building. But before reaching the roadmap to reach the desired output of the reservoir model. Let's talk about builder. Builder is a very interesting tool in CMG. It is a software tool based at Microsoft Windows that can be used to input simulation that Assets Files referring to CMG simulators builder can support all three CMG simulators. I mix, jam and stars. Buildup can cover all tasks to create a forecasted model of the field or reservoir under investigation from inputting data, implementing grids, properties, locating walls, importing while production and PVT data until importing the initial conditions. Builder is frequently used to its simplicity in manipulating and checking data and creating tables and correlations in addition to allowing the visualization of data before the run of the simulation. Going back to the roadmap to reach the desired output of the reservoir model. In this course, I will directly start with the project, because the simplest and easiest way to teach someone software, just give him an example. First, who would run the CMG lunch? I will teach you how to add a project. Then we will move to the builder, create the model, import staff data, input data set that I do do these inputting section. Then we will run the data input at builder and the Ionics located in the CMG launcher, then move to the results. It is a very interesting course. I wish you like it. 3. CMG Launcher: Hello again. Now let's start working first. As we said before, we'll start with the CMG launching. The first step in the CMG launcher is to add a project. Before I didn't project. These are the tools that we previously spoke about. Builder, results graph and results 3D, the jam, the cmos dynamics, the stars, the one prop, there isn't a threefold DC al, the ACL is a little bit advanced. We will not get in touch with it. Let's start with adding the project. On the top Project, Add. You can browse to wherever you want in your PC. Then we will make, will put the project description. And this course, I will call it Skill Share dot tutorial. And okay. Then we will have to enter to build up. A window will open. The same for Builder. We have to File on the top and new. And we'll start putting the reservoir simulators settings. We said before we have three simulators. In our case, we will use the imax, the working units, and the petroleum industry. Usually we use the field unit, however, some parameters and the rescue model. Now you will understand what the meaning of rescue model in the following section. Some parameters will put and defeat in the SI unit. So I will stick to the US, our unit. Then the datatype, the datatype is very advanced, so we will stick all sorts of porosity this simulation start date. In this case, you should refer to the rescue model. Where do you get your data from? According to my reference, the simulation will start 1993 in the January 1st. And then okay. He would reset the current reservoir simulated settings and you have to make sure simulator I mix working unit, I fractured know, do a porosity type. It's a singlet, but then okay. Okay. This is builder. In order to be done from Builder, we have to make all these red axis into yellow ticks. So that's the simplicity or what's nice about builder. You are excited to finish them. It's really interesting and simple. It's not complicated. We will do a single video for each section of this tool. 4. Reservoir Section: Let's continue. I said before that you will know what the meaning of a rescue model. The rescue model is a model or a file that contains all geology or almost all parameters of the geology of the reservoir. This is very hard. This is very complicated to add each parameter alone. However, in case the students watching this video, we're interested to know how to add each parameter. I may be do, I may do another video making another example explaining how to add each parameter alone. However, in our case we will add the rescue model. To do so, we have to do file and then import from another file. Then rescue mode. The rescue model. I'm going to my my file reference data model. And I will add it takes a little bit of time. This is a description of the rescue mode. In case you want to do it alone, you have to add each parameter alone. Okay, Important global grid you just put, okay, there is no problem. Okay, Perfect. These data were added, the blood volume, the ballpoint pressure, delta P, delta V, That's the threshold, the dispersion coefficient, lot of parameters I will add. Okay. And the reservoir section, it's still a red stick that acts. So we have to see what is missing. The grid is done. The array properties and drop compressibility and the alley properties. We click this plus. On the left, we go down everything, okay? The permeability, okay? How to add the permeability and the I, J, K, and the porosity. I have to go here to specify property on the top. And go to porosity. Porosity, the whole grid. It will be important from all it will be up-scaled. The concept of upscaling should be well-known. That's why I said you should have the basics of reservoir simulation because the upscaling in general is getting data from a model just by us making assumptions. Because, you know, in the petroleum industry, porosity and permeability are highly variable and have a great importance on the reservoir performance. Thus, we have to make some assumptions that's out of our hands. So burrows deep to add or to upscale it, we have to put edit specification. Right-click, I will do it. Right-click Edit specification at the UC upscale from the rescue model. From which property? From the porosity property. Okay? This is done. Then the probability and the I direction, it is the same in the horizontal direction. Same for the other horizontal direction. Upscale G. What's missing also is the probability in the k direction, the vertical permeability. If I want to add that specification upscale from rescue model, I will have no permeability in the k direction or vertical permeability in the rescue model. Thus, I have to improvise. In my case, the easiest way is to approximate from a current. But mobility val those, what I will do is I will redo it right-click Edit specification. And I will assume that the permeability in the vertical direction is 10 percent of the permeability in the horizontal direction, in both I and j direction. So as I and j are equal, so equals I times 0.1, it is a 10 percent. Then I will click Okay. He's telling me which parameters will be included. Okay. The reservoir section is not yet a green tick. There is something missing or trying to make to catch my attention. The other properties are done. Let's do the rock compressibility. Let's enter it. The rock compressibility of the rock will never be 0. It will never be 0. And my case, it will be, let's assume it as 7.25 e minus 6. And okay. Okay, excuse me. Very small. E minus 5. Try. Okay. Okay, okay. It's not taking it as a point, okay? Okay. Now it's done. The reservoir section is now done. We can move on to others. 5. Components Section: Hello again. As we were done with the reservoir section, we have to move to the component section. However, before i I want to show you something how to play or to manage to act with the builder tool. And the top section, you have different sections about the geology pleasant or the data pleasant. You have the IgA to the aerial section. You have the IK to the Act section. This is from the side of the reservoir also. This is from the other side. We have the 3D view. To act with. The 3D view, we have to go and the upper section, unclick probe mode and click Rotate onclick probe mode here and declare rotate. Here. You can change your reservoir in the way you want and the way the directions, 360 direction. See here is rad. If you want to change, for example, the parameter we are seeing, Let's go and check porosity. Before. If you want to change the parameter, you go to the upper section here and see what you have. We have the porosity, okay, we can see that at this side, the porosity is hired than the side. Here. The velocity is considered low. He has the reservoir and the right section is not so porous. However, we have here like very poorest areas that are interesting. Okay? If you want to move sections, you press the band reservoir, you can put it as well. You want to do it here to resize viewport, here to move the object. If I want to move this section, all in all, if I want to offer this, lower it, et cetera, and this is added to the wild perforations. Next, that's not its time. Let's move on to the components. Components we have some properties that are missing. To do so. To add these properties, we are going to create a model. When pressing the model button, we have to, we have options launch dialogue to create a quick block or model using correlations, gas, water mode using correlations or none of the above launch detailed dialogue, no, in this case, as we used the iMac simulator, it is a black oil simulator, will use the black or the model, okay? The reservoir temperature is here in this section. You have to fill the data about the reservoir you had, okay? And, and our sections, we will put it as 86 degree Celsius. Okay? Just according to my reference, in your reference, you have to change it. You have to put the real reservoir temperature of the reservoir working on it. Here, generate the data up to maximum pressure. There is a concept here, we do it. We know that the first pressure is the highest pressure, one perforating the while it has the highest pressure. However, we know that the reservoir is composed of sections and compartments. Thus, we may do another in another area where this initial pressure will be surpassed. Thus, in our case, the maximum pressure is 20000 kilo pascal. Just for safety, I will keep the maximum pressure as 35 thousand kiloPascal because I know that the area working on it is a brain area. It does IB find higher pressure compartments. The third is the bubble point pressure calculation. We can generate from the gas oil ratio value at the GR value, however, I prefer making it as a fixed as a value provided because the water is or where the bubble point pressure does not greatly changed. It's almost the same. And our case, according to my reference, it's nine thousands kilopascal. Then the oil density at STC Stockton conditions, we will consider it as stock tank or gravity API 18. The gas density as Stockton condition and we will use it as according to a equals to 1. I repeat these value out according to your reference, you have to search of the reservoir. You are working on a on it and try to get these parameters 0.7 reference pressure for water properties would be the standard pressure dependence of water viscosity are not entering this loop because it is greatly at highly advanced, deception is highly advanced. Then we will keep also the water 70 as 10000 ppm particle paid millions as a standard value. Okay? Now the component section is done. However, we know before that, after we're done with builder, we run it at I mix and then we got the results. This is not the case in belted as we launched the model, we have some calculations and some some results that have been generated from the PVT religion. We have Our as the overseas pressured. This is greatly important when planning for the surface equipment, the EG versus pressure, we can see the trend. The viscosity versus, versus pressure. The red one is the, this o viscosity of oil and the blue one is the viscosity of gas. Okay? We are done with this section and done. 6. Rock Fluid Type: Now arriving to the rock fluid section, we can see that the missing is the rock fluid type. We enter it, we have a missing rock type. You have to create tau we created, we'll press this button here and press new Doctype. To do so, we have to fill it, fill this table. However, filling this table is really frustrating because it takes a lot of time to calculate each for each section. Thus, we can generate it from some correlations that are already present in the ion mix. The black hole simulator that we pressed and the beginning of the project. And thus we can press Tools then generate tables using correlations and fill these sections, at least 12 sections at first, because these data are given from your reference, I will fill the data present in Maya, my reference and don't worry, my reference will be given for you anywhere document. I will add it or put it as a video. We will see the data will be given for you, don't worry. The first one was according to my reference, than We will continue zero-point 232, excuse me, than The following from Part 13 to 16 are generated from those from this equation is thus you have to put the data that you took and make the calculations and find the answers according to my calculations to 4, 4. And this is almost four also how we'll press Apply. Then. Okay. In this section you can change the rock type properties. For example, I can go to rock, rock type practice and change the ability of the reservoir from water lead to oil that junior good. Now I can press it. I have to change many stuff. Now I will go back to the water. What also as an advanced, if you want to improve yourself, you can check what the meaning of high-status as modeling and what is its importance when coming to the rock fluid type? Moving back to the relative probability tables for sure, stuff will be deleted. I will reapply and press Okay, Apply. Then, okay. Also in this section, some data will be generated as the relative permeability with their water saturation. We can see there are and directly proportional the KR with respect to the US I, the three-phase Chiara KR relative mobility. You can see that putting here at this point, the oil saturation is 0.28, the water saturation is 0.17, or the gastrulation is 0, 55. This data are very important and very essential when coming to the reservoir equipment at the surface or before starting to produce in order to know what saturation out, how much saturation of each fluid type we will be getting at MC podcasted expectations for the following. A US. 7. Initial Conditions: Now arriving to the initial conditions section, Let's start filling the missing data. First to have to perform gravity capillary equilibrium of a reservoir initially containing. In this case, according to the reference, the reservoir does not contain gas, does it contains only all underwater? We have to check this choice and then move on to the reference pressure. And the pressure according to the reference is 20 167 kilo pascal. And that's of the reservoir. The starting depth is 1605 meters. How would also, according to the reference, the water or the contact is below the depth. And the reference depth by 145 meters, thus 1750 meters. The bubble point input format is as previously, input or assumed as a constant with nine thousands kiloPascal, we press apply and then we check, okay. If you see, you can see like a blue homogeneous reservoir for sure because it is showing me the bubble point pressure. The bubble point pressure that we assumed that it is constant at 9 thousand kilopascals. Thus, that's logic, very logic. I'm going back to put it as the grid bottom. And by this, we have finished the main model tree view. Now we have to continue with the wells and the current. 8. Wells and Recurrents: Now arriving to the final part of the model tree view the wells and recurrent and the builder tool. To add the data of the walls. We press on the wells and recurrent add plus. While trajectories, then move on to the wall trajectories also, the file type will not be the rescue format. According to the reference, it will be the table format. Thus, I have to browse it and evidence that Imax trajectories. And thus I can press Next. I have these ones have 1101, while one, while 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 5789. In order to eliminate surplus trajectory nodes while preserving the aviation data, I have to unclick auto data points production. And I have to clear all existing trajectories in order to ensure that previous applications on the same table format does not affect your project now. Then we press Next. And this section where you see the same, The same, The same. You can edit your ones. Walls while Byblos, once it on, while maize, etc., whatever you want or according to the real project you are working on. Then we go to go to BRFSS than we check that preserves existing and create new for selected dwells. Okay. Then we are after wells and recurrent well trajectories, trajectory perforation and turbulence. And here I have readFile for selected and then go to the reference data and get the imax perforations than open. At this stage, all perforations for all walls have been input from the reference data. Then you press Apply. And then, okay, there is something missing yet. I have to go to a board production and injection Data, browse. And also from the reference data that you will have. We got I mix production history. Then next, Here he is asking me to select or highlight the start line of actual data. Having validate, we can see that it is starting for, well, one it is here, 1993, also for 1993, it's also here are in columns I can go to next or that our input than Next. And this stage I have to modify the import production and injection data. Let's see. The first stage is not ignored column it is the will of the group name. The second, it has the date and time. That's correct. However, I have to check that the related info, R and D, why? Month, day, and then the year. This is correct. Then I have the oil this column and present the oil produced. This column refers to the water produced. No, not injected, produced. And this one is for the guys produced. At this stage we are done from the import production transaction data. However, there is a common mistake that some students are beginners fall in it after finishing identifying the whole columns and they're related info, I have to check the units, the expected period and the missing days should be always 0. And I have to give the software the ability or the acceptance that in case there is a missing data, take the value in this date as is-you. The units are meter cube per day, meter cube per day, meter cube per day. That's correct. And the expected period? It is correct also each month. Then we'll go to the next. All is good. However, there is, there is a problem. The oil produced here that it's not the same, It's not the old produced does just that we are applying. We are changing the whole process to liquid produced because I'm not producing just oil or just gas. We are produced or just water. We are producing the liquid, the whole liquid, oil and water, because we know and the petroleum when producing the hydrocarbons, water is included in the petroleum foods. After this, I have to import data after this date nor for each one at all. Then we go to fish. Let's see, to limit output size, limited grid output I, I don't want to limit the grid, keep it as it is. Then close. By this, you can see that a well one appeared to the model in front of us. Why just 11? However, we said we have 11 ones. We go to the upper section at the date. We can see that at each period of time, there is an addition of one while two or three walls according to the time until we end up with 11 wells. I have also a point that I want to show you. The average production and injection data that the builder tool alone is able to generate. This graph is one of the most important graphs, one coming to the forecasting of the source surface equipment. And this graph shows me that at each year how much liquid I will have. Thus I have to expect or to identify my equipment according to this date, according to the maximum rate, for sure with a safety factor. And here we close. Okay. Please I want to repeat to not limit and then close. By this, we finish our path through a builder and we have now to go to CMG, put it on Imax, generate results. See you then, See you next. 9. From Builder to Results: Now what you have to do is to move the project from builded and get it back to CMG to be run using the imax simulated. So I go to File, Save As, then browse it whenever you want. In my case, I will create a folder called results, dog, kill, share, dot tutorial and then open it up. Okay. Yes. Save it in problems. No big deal. Okay. Yes. Okay. Then okay. Yes. I have to minimize it. Go back to CMG. Recall the project I want to browse, okay, Um, maybe being fast, go to Add project than browse, browse it from wherever you put it, and then name it as a results. Okay. Now it appears the data that were generated from the builder tool, what I have to do now is take the CMG builder 000 dot DAT, whatever you called it. And the builder tool. What is important is the prefix dot DAT and put it in I mix when acts 64. What we have to change here is the number of processors to use according to your laptop, you have to go and check how many processors your computer contain and according to you modify this number. My computer is four. And most commonly, all computers, or the majority of laptops and computers used nowadays are around four to six. However, the majority is four. So we press Okay. Here and the down section, we can see that the priority is Norman. There is no other projects other than this and the state is now is running. You right-click on running and see the view log file. You can see how calculations are being done through there. I mix in notes file. We can see here for the size, the days, the date the old produced, the oil, produced, the gas, produced the water, the gas or ratio, the water cut percentage, etc. A great number of data until we see like the end of simulation, normal termination. However, it's okay. It became complete. What I have to do. Now we see that different files and data have been generated. What to take two results. What we will do is we will take the dot IFF file. It is a very small file and take it into the results graph. 10. Results Tool: Now at this stage, after getting the CMG or the file generated dot IRF and put it, putting it in the results graph. It will automatically open this tool. We enter plot one I did, and the upper section curve then add. And here we got a large number of parameters that we can add it on a graph. And for different origins. For example, for well one for a while, while, while 12, all walls that are present, these parameters are the cumulative gas oil ratio, the cumulative boil, the cumulative water mass, the fluid rate, the oil got percentage, the water got percentage. Let's try with the oil cod percentage for 11 and then okay. This graph of the oil cod percentage from 1993 till 2010. I will add to it the same or the same one, the water cut percentage to see the difference. Okay. Here you can see the indirect relation, the analysis of these graphs and these results would be in the next video. However, now it will stick just to the instruction of the results tune. I can stop this and do a duplication. I want to duplicate the same for Walton. And here we go. I have the same flood, but for a different one. Let's try another thing. I did lot at the plot. Okay. And I want to add a curve at it. Curve a fluid rate. Fluid rate is very important. Let's find it. The fluid rate. Okay, here we go. It's for the same. And by this, we finish using the results tool. Results tool is a very simple and easy to, just to visualize what the Imax is dead and what the builder tool generated from graphs. Now, we will go to the final section of this course, that is the analyze of the results. 11. Results Analysis: Now arriving to the final part of the scores, the results analysis. First, let's stop grid top. According to this simulation, we can see now the shape of the reservoir as it resembles to an anticline. However, from the legend of colors at the right of this figure, we can see that it is spread vertically in depth on its sides more than on its center. Thus, we can assure that it is an anti-clock. Second, permeability. It is clear that this reservoir is not perfectly homogeneous, neither perfectly heterogeneous. However, it tend to be more literary genius, more homogeneous than heterogeneous. And addition, the reservoir tend to be isotropic laterally with respect to the IK. To the next section that we can see it in this slide. As it seems to be the divided into two parts having both almost the same permeability in the horizontal direction, same for the vertical distribution. But all in all, this reservoir is highly permeable and deserves to be named as disappeared K reservoir. Now the porosity with respect to this photo, the IJ to the alien figured it is seen that the reservoir has almost the same porosity and the majority of the reservoir area, except in the right section of it, porosity was recorded to be a little bit lower than the rest of the reservoir. This results suggests that this reservoir have uniform pore size distribution and sorting. Now, viscosity versus pressure. This graph shows the relation between the oil and gas viscosities and the change in pressure. It is shown that the relation between oil viscosity and pressure is in direct as the viscosity increases with decreasing pressure. However, the relation is direct between God's viscosity and pressure. And this is assured by the accompany decrease of gas viscosity with the pressure decline, it should be noted that at initial reservoir conditions that we put, if you remember in the Builder Tool, PI equal 21, 67 kilopascal, the oil viscosity was around 3.6 centipoise. Guys viscosity was around 0.02 centipoise arriving to k odd versus as w with k odd referring to relative permeability and as W referring to water saturation. This work, this reservoir, as we put in builded it is a Walter What reservoir and in water what systems? Capillary forces help water to enter the pores filled with oil and this reservoir water, water occupy the small pore openings with relatively lower saturation than oil. Although the saturation of the wetting phases smaller at the fact that the permeability of the non wetting phase, since it occupies the bigger pore openings involved in the fluid flow through the reservoir. That's why we see the rapid decline of editing phase, relative permeability with respect to small wedding phase saturation decrease the point at which the relative permeability approaches and reached 0 is referred to the edit useable saturation for the water. We can name it as carbonate water. And this concept of residual saturations is very essential to know the maximum fluid recovery for the simple cause that once reached. Once reached, no fluid may be able to flow. Note that many students or beginners fall and im common mistake is that the residuals that duration, although it is equal to the critical one, but it differs from it. Critical saturation is measured in the increasing saturation direction. Whereas the edit use of a saturation as measured with respect to reducing saturation their direction, they can think of saturation is simply defined as the minimum situation of a fluid to start to flow and presence of another fluid. 12. Suite Results Analysis: Now arriving to the average production and the injection data. I know that I already spoke about this graph. Once we fill the production of injection data in the Builder tool, however, I will repeat it and add to it because it is very important. One of the greatest advantages of assimilation process is that allows the prediction of the liquid rate with time. This parameter is significantly central in managing and developing the well as at highly influenced the volume specification and type of search facilities along whose sum inside Well properties. From this graph, we can see that at the beginning of 1996, the reservoir reaches its maximum liquid rate of production when it starts to decrease with time. And that each around 135 meter cube per day at 1009 thousand. And around this, the increase in liquid rate is for sure because of drilling extra wells at enhancing processes. However, the decrease in liquid rate is caused by manufacturers, which is a decrease in pressure as the dominant one. Arriving to the graphs generated from the results tool. In the left figure we can see the oil and water cuts percentage of old one. The old caught decreases until it reaches its minimum value, 51%. And February idea of 1996, at this point what the reaches its maximum value and this while at 49 percent from the figure at the right. And while seven at the beginning of this, well, the weld was producing just oil with almost 100% boycott was timed. This percentage will decrease to reach its minimum value of 44% in around me 1998, then you start to increase at a relatively low rate. Also, the predicted daughter got an old card percentage with respect to time. But for wild 12, for well 12, this well is producing mainly oil for all its life at a rate of around 93% where water cut percentage will stay in the range between 0 and 11 percent. Now for well 19, this well was drilled relatively late in the lifetime of the reservoir. The initial old cut percentage was at 68%. With time, it started to decrease and settled at a rate of 43%. In general, it is logically that the relation between oil and water Caught percentages is invited because this one is producing oil and water only. In case the boycott is increasing, the water cut will definitely decrease. And it is sure that the summation of oil cut and water cut percentages value at any point will result in 100%. Now arriving to the final result that we will make analysis for. Because if we want to analyze all parameters or results, we don't end up. So the final one is the change in fluid rate with respect to time. I really chose this, this result, this combination of parameters because it is very important. But to analyze this graph, it is important to indicate a base dwell upon which we can analyze its trend. And this graph, we will choose the wild one, which is represented in red. This well started with high fluid rate at 9,700 meter cube per day. The main trend of its curve reflects that it is in continuous decrease. However, if we focus on the details of the curve, we can detect some spots at which the curve increase suddenly. In 1994, while one fluids rate increased from 8 thousand meter cube per day to 8,600 meter cube per day. In conjugation with the drilling of well seven. In 1995, the fluid rate was decreasing in high rate as it increased from 6,900 meter cube per day to 5,400 meter cube per day within one month. Well 12 drilled in the same year controlled this decrease in fluid rate and tampered is tartness. The same happened when drilling while 19 there's sudden increase in triggered it. This sudden increase in the fluid rate is triggered by the drill. A new well, as it can be shown from the graph at the time of every newly drilled while the graph increase for a small interval of time. And by this, we finish the analysis part. I will repeat my contacts for you in case you have any question, any elaboration you want me to do it, please do not hesitate. Thank you for your time. I wish I benefitted you from the point of view of CMG and see you on other courses. 13. Project Proposal: Hello everyone. This video is just to speak about the project and introduce it for you. The project description in order for you to ensure that you fully understood the material that we explained in this course, you have to apply what you have learned on a reservoir randomness at one, all data that you need it, you will find it in the description and the physical written description of the website. And you will find some files in attached file called CMG data. The steps for you to finish or do the project first you have to create CMG file and then event that file. Then you have to move on and start and putting v initial data and create the grid. By creating the grid, all specific specifications and details. You may find it also in the description. Then you have to start filling the missing data in the reservoir. Initial condition section, components section. It is that about fluid data, etc. Until all read access in these sections will become green ticks. No worries if you found that wells and recording data will not be given. I will not include this part or this section from this project. Then you have to save your project, run it, run the simulation through I mix. Remember it that you take the dot DAT file and put it in I mix simulator. Results will not be shown in the solution part. That's for you enjoy seeing the results. Put this result with this result, make whatever you want According to what you want to see. As tips. Please don't fall in the number of tricks. For example, if I told you that the reference depth is, the reservoir depth is 10 thousand feet and the water oil contact is below it. By 100 feet, you have to put in the water oil contact 10010100 feet. You have to find these values. Second, you need to improvise to find solutions in case a parameter was not given. Google search may help you for sure. Try search for correlations. I will facilitate it for you. The permeability will not be given as a data. Go find a solution, how to get permeability from the parameters given you and the data. Also, if you find yourself stuck and not able to proceed, tried to search. And the tools section and the reservoir section, you may find any button that may help you. And you think that I may find my solution here. As an and best of luck and please try to improvise in this project, try to try it alone and then find the solution. 14. Project Solution: Hello everyone. I wish you like this project and you are not mad to me. I know it was a little bit challenging. Okay, a lot challenging. However, I wanted you to understand the point that every software, you will never find a tutor or a course that will teach you everything in it, or all buttons, all sub buttons. You have to find what you need by yourself. Just understand how the software is working and where the main sections of each parameters. Let's start with the solution. For sure we'll add project. Then we will browse at the CMG data. I will call it project. Other than press. Okay, I found here the data that we will need an order for this project to be done. We enter builder. Then we go to the simulator according to the reference and the project description. It is on imax and the working unit is Enfield. The porosity is single porosity and the simulation start date will be 1016. Then we press Okay. Okay, Let's move on. I wanted to show you a point or a specification and the software that I didn't show you in the course. We can go to i, o input, output control, then go to simulation results output here where we can change the frequency in order to manage uncertainty. I previously talked about that you will not find the hole students working on the same uncertainty, the same frequency. So here you can change it. Here you can select the output that you want, et cetera. And little bit advanced stuff. However, that's continue. In order for us to start with the project, Let's important import the project from the open my file. However, according to the reference, it is not dot DAG, DAG, it's dot B and a. Thus we have to go to Atlas boundary. I don't have to specify this format type because you can go to the file you have and see that index.php dot JRD, et cetera. Let's input that TO US. However, this is the contour map. We have to import a grid in order for it to be simulated. Let's go to reservoir. Create a grid. You can choose whatever grid type you want. However, I advise to choose orthogonal coordinate point because it is the best type of grid types and it is the easiest one. Let's fill the direction that is 27454. In each block you can choose the number of old, the number of block with. I will choose a 300. I wanted a finer grid, not enforceable, 27 times 300. And the direction is 45 times the 100. Let's press Okay. Oh no, it is not in there. It does not appropriately on the contour map. Let's try and change it in order for us to move it, we have to press on any layer on this grid and press shift, not control. If you press control, you will rotate the grid. And this, now this is done. Let's start specifying the properties and see the whole radix into read access and to your green ticks. We will start with the specified property. If you see it is not allowable to press the specifier property. The cause is very simple. We have to click the problem, then refresh specify property, and let's fill the data. The grid tip at the top, who will not put it for the whole grid? It's not logic. We have to go to Layer 1, geological map, values and file. Okay, Atlas the same and press depth to T or S. No need to put it for the other three layers because it will make an arrow. I am telling the software, I have, for example, 8 thousand feet above my reservoir. No need to tell him that I have 8000 speed plus layer one. For layer 2, it is not logical. We have to go to grid thickness now. Same geological map values and file, browser it and gross thickness. Okay. Or as a geological map, values and file. And velocity. Let's go. I have to copy the same way for the whole three layers, the whole four layers on coming to the thickness and the porosity. Ok. Now it's okay. Press okay. Let's see what we would have. Ok. Now it's done. That's nice. However, the reservoir is not yet a green tick. Let's see what's missing. The array properties. We have the permeability in the three directions. Let's make an assumption. What do you want to make if you want to upscale it? We don't have a rescue molded and I have no data concerning the permeability. That's why I wanted you to go and search how we assume the permeability from the porosity. We know that different scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry made some correlations between porosity and permeability. If we go to tools, we can get the formula manager and create a formula according to which the permeability will be taken from the porosity. I go press New and I will present as permeability and the ability to porosity and putting it explicitly because in case anyone else wants to work on the same project, understand what the meaning of this formula, what this formula lead to. I will add an independent variable and that would be the porosity. I will tell that permeability from porosity. Then let's put a formula. There is different formulas because we have different correlations are chosen one, all of them will lead almost to the same place. That's an assumption. So we can go for it six times EXP, 20 times z. How to add 0? We have to insert selected into formula, then close the parenthesis and press Apply. Okay, and Okay. Now let's go to specify property and see their permeability. For the permeability, we can put it to the whole grid. So I won't specify it to each layer alone. So I'll go to whole grid at its specification. From formula. Go to formula. I have only one formula and press Okay. And then Okay, I have now, but mobility in the I direction. Same for the permeability in the j direction. However, if I want to go to the permeability and the k direction, I have no no formula. I cannot make the same assumption indicate and the I direction to the k direction. So as we assumed in the course and the exercise that we did in the course, the probability in the vertical direction, which means the permeability and the k direction, is equal to 10 percent of the permeability in the horizontal direction, which means the permeability and the i and j directions. So equals I times 0.1. Now we'll press OK and OK. Please unclick the stuff in case you saw ticks on the grid top, thickness, the porosity that we previously added, remove them. It will make the software it to not make an error, however, it will tie him. So let's press Okay and go, okay, Also, okay, let's go. Now we are seeing the probability in the I direction. Let's go to porosity. We can see the velocity and the I j to D, ALL such. The reservoir section is not yet a green tick. Let's go see what's missing. The yellow attention Mark does not prevent the project from running. It. Just telling me there is something illogical. I have something missing, please. Can you check me simply? Let's go to rock compressibility. After compressibility that I put it in the reference to E minus six according to a reference pressure of 4904,900. And press Okay, now the reservoir section is done. Let's continue with the components section. We've got two components. This section is simple. We just have to add the reference that the data that we have in the reference. In order to create a quick model, we have the quick black hole, the gas, water, and the detailed dialogue, the tape, the detailed dialogue, even advanced, don't use it because it is really complex. So we have to go to lunch dialogue to create a quick black or in model using correlations and press, Okay, we have to fill the data. The reservoir temperature are 150 Fahrenheit that generate data up to max pressure off vita 5,100. The bubble point pressure calculation will not be generated from gas oil ratio value. It will be just from the value. It will be evalue provided 4,900. Then we go to oil density at STC, stuck down conditions. It will not be the stock tank oil density, it will be according to API and it will be 35. Now the gas density as Stockton condition will be with respect to area or equal to one. And then it will be 0.7, the reference pressure for water properties, as we said before, in the description of the project or reference will be 4,900 PSI. The pressure dependence of water viscosity is 0. I'm not making the water viscosity independent of pressure. And the water centrality. We'll keep it as the standard ten thousands ppm particle per million. Here we go. The components section is now done. Let's go to the rock fluid section. We have to create, as we said before, we have to create a new rock type. Let's go to new rock type. And I have to ignore including capillary brush. And the course example, I gave you a little bit something advanced generate tables using correlations, et cetera. No. Now it is simple. We can go to C and G Data, go to real permeability. It is an Excel sheet. We can see that it is corresponding of water or relative permeability and the liquid gas relative permeability. Let's go back to Builder. We can see here the water table. Let's go water oil table. Copy the values. Builder and put it here. After finishing, I want to go to Tools smooth table. It's not something mandatory according to the power-law. Just I want to make it in order to see like smooth layers. What's going on. That's cool. Beat it According to the power law. Okay, Apply. And Okay, here we go. We can see smooth curves. Let's go back to rock flew types and add the liquid gas table. I'm also ignoring capillary pressure and capillary pressure high statuses. It's also advanced, not always used. I have to copy and then move on to Builder and paste them. I also going to apply and make it smooth table according to the power law. Apply and Aki, here we are done with Iraq field section. We are nearly finished. Let's go to the initial conditions. Initial conditions. Initial conditions. Here you have to analyze from the description, what are the initial conditions? I know it's a little bit confusing and it is hard. I noticed heart, however, we have to know it if you want to repeat the project all on your own after seeing the solution, in case you didn't find by yourself the solution and tried to do it alone. You will see it is very interesting and very nice. The performing gravity capillary equilibrium of a reservoir initial containing water, oil. Now, let's got the reference pressure and depth. As we said before, the reference pressure will be 45, 100, and that pressure will be the thousands feet, the water oil contact. In the description we saw that it is 100 feet below the water. The depth, thus you have to put 110 thousand that 1100. I know. I want to repeat it. I know the data are not explicitly and directly given, but this is life. You will not find a customer that tells you here I have a waterfall contact at this depth. And this is at this depth here will give you what data you know and you should analyze from it. What are the missing data? You have? The data in depth for output pressure. This time, this item is optional. He's giving me know, however, for to be specific. The data is 10,400 and the bubble point input format will be the reservoir initially saturated. Let's press, Apply and press. Okay, he is showing me the wobble point pressure also that we saw it before. It will be homogeneous. And let's put the grid bottle. Let's see the porosity. I like the porosity to be honest. And let's press the 3D view. Oh, that's nice. This is the reservoir. All in all like an angel. The contour maps, if you want to fit the contour maps, we go to reservoir and then no, no to one. Then we go to excuse me. I have to find it. We go to tools. Well, and here we see the reservoir, what seems like an angel. The contour maps, they're going to line, this is the reservoir. It's very explicit, very nice. Let's see other properties. Grid button. Here we can see this is the last point. Reservoir. It is a dome shape. A diverse dome shape. It's very nice. Now we've finished what we have. I know in the course we put the walls and recording data. However, in the project I didn't want to give you this advanced, this swells and recurrent is not something essential. You can go and find different wells, defendant sections according to the project and in your life according to what customer wants. You put it. Now we have to save it. I want to save it in there. I see EMG data and name it as basked simulation. I don't confident, however, it's nice. Okay, save and press. Okay. If we go to our finished done with us, Let's go to the CMG data file that contained only the reference data. We can find that there is a lot of data that was generated. Let's go to CNG. We can find this data already done. I want to repeat what I previously said in the wells and recording their yellow attention Mark does not prevent the tool from generating project unless there is an x, nothing will be saved, nothing will be generated. Okay, now let's go to 80 by simulation over the DAT. What do we have? The other step is, the next step is to take it and put it in italics. The number of processors to use is what we change. Usually, go check your laptop and put the number of processors minus 4. Let's press Okay. The state is still waiting. Then let's see the view log file. It's being run. That's nice. Okay, and Okay. By this, we finished this project. I know, I wish you liked it and I wish you enjoyed this course. I'm really happy. If you have any question or any elaboration. Please do not hesitate. Go back to where I put my contact, my email, my phone number, and also my LinkedIn profile. See you in other courses.