Business English Grammar for Meetings | How to use Conditionals | Jon Williams | Skillshare

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Business English Grammar for Meetings | How to use Conditionals

teacher avatar Jon Williams, To Teach is to Learn Twice

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 29m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      1:49
    • 2. Differences Between the 1st & 2nd Conditionals

      11:03
    • 3. Exercise: 1st & 2nd Conditionals

      7:25
    • 4. Different Aspects of the 1st Conditional

      6:02
    • 5. 1st Conditional: Sequence Aspect

      6:14
    • 6. 1st Conditional: Predicament Aspect & In Case

      3:52
    • 7. 1st Conditional: Negative Conditions & Unless

      5:09
    • 8. 1st Conditional: Requirements & Concessions

      2:25
    • 9. Exercise: All Aspects of 1st Conditional

      13:54
    • 10. The 3rd Conditional Explained

      12:21
    • 11. Exercise: 3rd Conditional

      8:38
    • 12. Full Revision of 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Conditionals

      7:08
    • 13. Project and Outro

      2:46
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About This Class

Conditionals.

 

Let's face it, they are not easy to use accurately in English. But I've got just the thing for you...

 

I've made a comprehensive video course that will teach you everything you need to know about the First, Second, and Third Conditionals of English.

 

Each conditional is taught in a graphic and visual way. There are examples for you to follow. And each conditional is followed by a case study to get speaking practice based on real business situations

What this course will do for you

It will teach you everything you need to know about the English Conditional Clauses so that you will:

  1. Understand them intuitively (what people are really saying when they use them)
  2. Be able to use them accurately without making mistakes
  3. Be able to use them to communicate strategically by getting the right message for each business situation

About me

My name is Jon Williams and I'm a Business English Teacher from California, but I live and have a private teaching business - Native 1 - in a small town in Poland just outside of Katowice. I've been doing this for 14 years now, and in addition to my private teaching business, I also teach at the University of Economics in Katowice; create video English lessons for YouTube; and write for my blog.

 

I'm a man of many talents but teaching English is my passion. I gave up a nice job in a West Los Angeles investment firm to move to Poland and start my own private business teaching English to individuals, business owners, executives in corporations, and at university. I'm living the dream and now I've taken my talents into the digital video course world where I can hopefully help someone like you to achieve your English learning goals.

Take the first step on your journey

All you have to do is press that play button on the first lesson to start down the path towards your better Business English.

 

Before you start, you're going to want to take notes so get yourself organized and see you in the first lesson!

Meet Your Teacher

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Jon Williams

To Teach is to Learn Twice

Teacher

Hi, I'm Jon Williams and in one way or another, I've been teaching my whole life. For the past 10 years, I have been teaching English and Business English as a native speaker in Poland. I have my own private teaching business, and it gives me so much joy and pride to see my students always making progress.

One of my most important values is innovation. I'm always looking for ways to improve on what I'm doing. So several years ago, I started incorporating digital technology in my classroom (private office) and taking it with me on in-company lessons, and at the university where I teach. 

I believe that we live in a digital world, where more and more learners appreciate being able to engage in the topics they learn in a visual way. That is why I am a big fan of using Mi... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Hello English learners and welcome to my business English course. Before we get started, I'd just like to take a few minutes to tell you a little bit about the course. And who was for. Basically, anyone who wants to learn English can benefit from this course. However, it is taught from a business English perspective, which means we'll be using business cases to study the first, second, third, conditionals and the context of business meetings and ways you can use them in business meetings. The aim of this course is to help you understand the grammar more intuitively so that you can use these structures both confidently and accurately. My name is John Williams and I'm the owner here of native one English learning. I'm a native speaker from Los Angeles, California, but I've been living in teaching and building my private teaching practice. Hearing me Cove Poland for the past 14 years. Now, I've been teaching people privately and in-company, but I've taken my teaching digitally so that I can help people like you, the viewer, to also help and reach your English learning goals. So before we've set on land for the course, I just wanted you to get yourself organized. Grab a pen and a piece of paper so that you can take notes on everything you learn. And I'll see you in the first lesson. 2. Differences Between the 1st & 2nd Conditionals: When you engage in negotiations, both internally and externally, these usually involve some level of give and take. Now, in English, linguistically, this can be done using the conditional form. And really there are two conditionals that you need to know to communicate this give-and-take, that would be the first conditional and the second conditional. Now, in this lecture, I'm going to show you what you need to know in order to communicate your point, to gather information, make your offers, and better still understand and know what your counterpart expects a view with their conditionals. So let's get straight to it. Let's start with the first conditional by bringing in our first example. If you give me this, I will give you that. Now, this is just a generic example to show how they conditional clause is constructed. Conditional clause has two parts, condition clause and a consequence clause. And the condition clause comes with a title clause or time connected. Those must be attached. And the verb and the condition clause must be in the present tense. The verb in the consequence clause must be in a future tense or modal form. Now, if we have our condition clause with the time connector and the present tense, usually the present simple, but not always. And our consequence clause in a future tense, then we have balance in our sentence. And that means it's a correct sentence. Grammatically. Cannot put the future tense with our time connected. Cannot say, if you will give me something or if you will do this for me. If you do, if you give. Now, let's just adjust the text to show what's going on here. Now, I'm going to give you a bit of color theory here, because gray is the color of uncertainty and blue is the color of the future. Now, notice I put the time connector if in gray. If isn't a certainty, but it's possible. And if you give me this, then that will lead to a likely result that I will give you what you want. Now, what separates the first conditional from the second conditional is we have a higher expectation on the if. So, if you give me this and I expect that you will, then I will give you what you want, that is the likely result. Now what that should tell you is that the promised result of benefit or consequence is actionable. So if you use the first conditional, they can take your words as actionable. They can take action on this. And if someone uses the first condition that with you, you can take action on what they promise you. So now we're doing the second conditional by bringing back our original example. But this time it's changed to reflect the new conditional, the second conditional. If you gave me this, I wouldn't give you that. Notice here. We also have a conditional clause and a consequence clause. But this time, our condition clause attached to the time connector is in the past, simple, and our consequence clause doesn't come in the future, it comes in the future and the past, which is wood. Wood, is the past of will in English. So again, like the first conditional, we must have balance in our sentence. So the condition clause must have a time connector and the past and bool. And our consequence of costs must have a past modal, like would, could, should, or Mike. And if we have those conditions met in our sentence has perfect balance. And you have a correct sentence. What we cannot do is add the past modal onto the time called a cannot say if you would give me what I want or if you would do this for me, that would be incorrect. Time clause past him. If you gave me this. If you did this for me, I would do that for you. I wouldn't give you something in return. Now, again, let's change the text to reflect what's going on with a bit of color theory. Notice the change from the first conditional that if now accompanies the whole condition clause being in the gray. Because second conditional represents a possible but unlikely action. And the consequence is our likely response to an unlikely. Because we have a low expectation that the condition will be met or satisfied. And what we promise is not really a promise, it's not actionable. We cannot use the second conditional to make firm offers. But what we can do is use it to gather information and to probe our counterpart for details, to see what they're thinking, to know the different scenarios, what they would do, what They wouldn't do. And then we can take that information back, make some deliberations, think about it. And then we can come back later with a firm offer using the first. Okay, next we're going to talk about inferences. Now, an Air France is when we can take the information that is presented to us. And we can draw some kind of conclusion or take some, some, some kind of meaning from what we've been presented. Now, let's bring in a real example now. If you give me additional staff, we will get the job done quickly. Now, let's analyze this for inferences. What I'm saying in the condition is I'm expressing a higher level of confidence that we will get the staff that we need. I think you will give me the people I'm asking for. And the result is that I have a high level of certainty that will get the job done quickly. So we can use the first conditional to make promises. We can use it to express confidence. Now, let's look at this from the second conditional point of view. The second conditional is less certain. So if you gave me the additional staff, we would get the job done quickly. So what I'm saying or what you can infer from my condition is that I don't really expect and it's unlikely that I will get the additional staff. And from the result. More importantly, I am expressing that we won't get the job done quickly without the additional stack. Now let's do a quick summary of the intuitive differences between the first, second conditional. The first conditional we use to make a lot of different kinds of conditions. Therefore, we have more time clauses that we can use in the first conditional. And we're not going to get into that in this lecture. In a future lecture, we're going to do a deeper dive into the first conditional and the different time clauses. But for now, just understand that we used the first conditional to make all different kinds of offers. And the second conditional only really uses. Now the first condition, the condition clause, is more likely and we can express our confidence in the likelihood of the condition happening and the promised result. Therefore, we have a high level of certainty that the promise will result will also come off and be actionable. Therefore, we can use it to make firm offers. Now, the second conditional, the action, the dependent action really is very unlikely. So despite this, we make a promised result, but that problems result is not actionable because we don't really believe that the condition will be met in the first place. So the second conditional is not actual. Also, we can't, we can't use it to make firm offers. We use it to gather information, to probe the other side, to see what they're thinking. And really just for information gathering purposes. 3. Exercise: 1st & 2nd Conditionals: I'm a firm believer in practice, makes perfect. So let's get some good practice in to demonstrate your understanding of the differences between the first second conditionals. Here's the situation. You are a sales manager about to meet your boss, the sales director, you want to request two more members of staff for your team. You have made some notes of the benefits that can be expected. If you're given the new staff. Use conditionals to explain the expected benefits and results. If your team's size is increased. Here are the four notes. You will increase overall sales. You will provide better service to keep clients. You will find new customers, and you will get more repeat business from existing customers. The first you want to make, your intention will be to promise results of increased overall sales. I want you to turn this note into a conditional sentence. Remember, with the condition, you didn't need to add a time clause and put the verb in the appropriate tense. That would be the present simple. If you think this should be in the first conditional or the past simple. If we think this should be in the second conditional with the benefit, it should be in the future form if it's in the first conditional, or with wood, if it's in the second conditional. At this point. Pause the video and say and write down your conditional sentence, will check and explain on the other side. Now our intention was to promise results. So that means this example should be in the first conditional because we use the future will to make offers or to promise things. So your sentence could be, if you give me two additional staff, we will increase our overall sales by, let's say 7%, or vice versa. If we start with the result clause, we will increase our overall sales by 7%. If you give me two additional staff. Notice in the first example, when we start our sentence with a time clause. In writing, we need punctuation a comma, to separate the condition from the result clause. Our verb in the conditional clause is in the present simple and the result is in the future simple. Now let's move on to the next note. Here. Your intention will be to imply that the service could be better. Again, we're going to change this note into a conditional sentence. Should this be in the first conditional or the second conditional? Remember to add a time clause and put the verbs in the right tense. At this point, pause the video, say or write down your conditional sentence, will check and explain. On the other side. Your intention was to imply keyword imply. So that means this example should be in the second conditional. And plie means that there is more meaning that is not stated. And we can use the second conditional to give additional information between the lines. Just remember back to our practice with inferences. Your sentence could be, we would provide better service to key clients if we had the additional staff or vice versa. If we had the additional staff, we would provide better service to key clients. Notice that our verb and this result clause is in the past modal wood, and the condition is in the past simple. The second conditional structure. In the third note. This time your intention will be to express confidence. Once again, you know, the drill turned this note into a conditional sentence. Should this be in the first conditional or the second conditional? Remember to add the time clause and put the verbs in the right tenses. At this point. Pause the video and say or write down, your conditional sentence, will check and explain. On the other side. This time your intention was to express confidence. That meant this example should be in the first conditional. Your sentence could be, we'll find new customers if we have the right amount of staff or vice-versa. Our verb in the result clause is in the future simple will. And the condition is in the present simple. Okay, In the fourth note, the last one, your intention will be to imply that your repeat business could be better. Again, you know, the Drew turned this note into a conditional sentence. Would it be in the first conditional or the second? At this point, pause the video and say or write down your conditional sentence, and we'll check and explain. On the other side. Your intention was to imply that repeat business could be better. So that means this example should be in the second conditional. If sentence could be, if we had more resources, we would get more repeat business or vice versa. And again, our verb in the condition clauses in the past simple and the result clauses in the past modal with wood. That does it for our drove practice for the first second conditional, hopefully that gives you a better idea of how to use these two forms. More intuitively. If you feel like you need more practice, then please make sure that you do the associated exercise. When it comes to the project. For this module. 4. Different Aspects of the 1st Conditional: In this lecture, we're going to do a deep dive into the first conditional. So let's jump straight in. Now. I've been teaching English for quite a long time now, 14 years at the time in the making of this video. And I've rarely come across my language students, at least when they first came to me, who really understood the first conditional. And it doesn't matter if they're upper intermediate, advanced. Oftentimes what they have is just surface knowledge of the first conditional. And it looks something like this. That they know that there's a time clause if and that goes with the present simple to form the condition clause and that we use the future simple. We'll, which goes as the consequence clause. Put them together and we have the first conditional. But see what English textbooks don't teach you, at least not in the beginning, is that there are more time clauses, as you can see on the screen. And that we can use more time tenses than just a present simple in order to form the condition clause. For example, especially we use the present perfect and also sometime the present continuous. Now, to take it one step further, we can use any future form, not just future simple. For example, be going to, or we can use the future perfect or the future continuous. And now you can see the big picture of the first conditional. So now it's showing you how to use it. The conditional works a little something like this. With the time costs, we say what the condition action is and outcomes, the likely result. That is the basic form of the condition. Now, I'm going to show you for other areas where we also can make conditionals. We can do a conditional of sequence whereby we have the first action, then the second action. First action is emphasized, oftentimes using the present perfect. Now, the third area of condition and TA1 clauses is that predicament. We can state what the negative situation is and what we will do in order to limit the impact or to prevent that does it doesn't happen. So that would be a time clause predictable. Now the fourth area of conditional and time clauses is the time clause of exception. We can state that exception or a negative condition and then say what we will do if that happens or what will happen as a result. So this could be an indirect warning, or we can use these to make direct threats of action that we will take if, unless the person does what we say. And then the fifth area is that requirement. This is where we can set a strong condition and then explain that what we must have, what our priority is in a negotiation. And then we can say, as a result, what we will concede or give up, give back to the other side in negotiation. So we use this for bargaining and negotiating back and forth. So let's take a closer look at these five different areas, will bring back our time clauses and categorize them according to these five areas. Right now we can see our list of time clauses categorized by section. And the first section is just the basic conditional deaths with if, that's the one we all know and love. Now, the second area is that of sequence. And you can see some of the sequencing time clauses like when someone has after, before, until, and by the time. These are time clauses of sequence. And then our third area is that a predicament that would be in case. I'll show you how to use that in a moment. Then the fourth area is that of exception. That is unless. And now the final areas that requirement and this is where we can set really strong conditions and use it to bargain back and forth. We can use uncondition that as long as and also provided. We can use these titled clauses to set really strong conditions and communicate our priorities to our counterparts in the negotiation. 5. 1st Conditional: Sequence Aspect: Now, let's study some examples of conditional sentences with different time clauses, starting with sequence. Our first example is when. When I get back from my trip, we'll go over the details of the deal. When is the time conjunction? And it represents the sequence? When we're thinking in terms of sequence, we want to think first, then first, I get back from my trip, then we'll go over the details of the deal. The condition clause comes in the present simple tense, and the result clause comes in the future. All right, Now let's move on to the second example in our sequence category. As soon as as soon as everyone has taken their seats, will start the meeting. As soon as is our time conjunction. And what it basically means is just after or just then. So what we're doing is we are emphasizing the separation between the first action and the second action. Now, another way we do that is by making that action in the present. Perfect. Perfect also emphasizes the first action, a time actual sequence. It means basically before. So the time clause plus the present perfect as soon as plus the present priority. This is very common with time clauses or sequence like as soon as. So first, everyone, as soon as everyone has taken their seats. Just then, just after we will start the meeting. And our condition clause comes with the present perfect and our result clause comes in the future. Simple. Now, let's bring in our third time clause from the sequence category. After. Please send me the presentation notes. After you have updated all the sides, notice how our conditional now starts with the result clause, but that doesn't really matter. What I'd love you to focus on is the result clause is not in a future tense. This time it's in the imperative. Please send me the presentation notes. We use the imperative to give instructions, a conditional, It's the instructions that you are to do after the condition is met. So after you have updated all the slides, after, again, like as soon as emphasizes the separation of the first action from the second. And we also can use it with the present perfect. So after you have updated all the slides, now, the result clause, please send me the presentation notes. So our condition clause is in the present perfect and our result clause is end up future tense. Now, let's bring in our fourth time clause of sequence until we will be limiting our expenses until we have paid off the normal. Now, our result clause, this time is in the future, continuous or future progressive. Because the progressive or continuous nature of the action, this is a sustained action. Now, we will limit we will be limiting our expenses over time until a future time or a future action stops. So until isn't time cause of sequence, and they work backwards from the other time clauses. The other time clauses, you have the time clause plus the first action with until. It's the condition clause is rarely the second act is the action that stops the result. So we will be we will be limiting our expenses until we have paid off the loan. Now, notice our conditional or our condition clause was in the present perfect. Even though the present perfect means first. In this case, we're using it because it emphasized the Finnish nature of the action. So until we have paid off the loan, we can use the present perfect to represent this finished action and the result psi. We often have a future continuous tense. 6. 1st Conditional: Predicament Aspect & In Case: Now let's transition to the next category where we express prevention of problems, predicament. And we use incase to express this. So let's bring in our sentence. We will hire an interpreter in case there are communication issues. Now, this this sentence describes a situation where you have some delegation who's coming to visit you from another country, or you are going to visit them. And not everybody in their group might speak your language or, or even English. So the action that you will take is in the future form, but it's a prevention action. Prevention actions happen first, but you're using a future tense to express it. Now, in case is the time expression and its signals. There's a possible problem. The possible problem in case there are communication issues. Now, while this would happen, second in this time action sequence, it's still the possible future action comes connected with our time clause. And for that reason, if we are following the rules of the first conditional, then we have to use the present tense, in this case, the present simple. To go with that actually. Now with, in case, I just want to add a few different example sentences to show you some other ways that we might use it that are not exactly first conditional. So let's start with a suggestion. Right? Now. If we want to make a suggestion, we often use a kind of expression like why don't we reassured we could Or how about we so why don't we hire an interpreter in case there are communication issues. So if you're in a meeting and you're more brainstorming, coming up with suggestions. You're not using the first conditional in this case to say what you will do, your suggesting what you could or should do. So why don't we hire an interpreter in case there are communication issues. Now, what about the situation where you have already taken national? Right? We have hired an interpreter in case there are communication issues. So this isn't really, of course conditional because one of these actions isn't future. We have already done this, really, something that's already happened in the past. So it doesn't exactly qualify as a first conditional sentence, but within case, it's still a time cause. And there are communication issues that have to be in the present tense because it's attached to a time clause or time conjunction. 7. 1st Conditional: Negative Conditions & Unless: Now let's move over to our fourth category that exceptions and negative consequences. Unless your delivery times improve, we'll have to look for a more reliable partner. Now. We can read or understand unless as not. So not CMS will go attach to the auxiliary verb. So improve. Don't improve. If your delivery times don't improve, we will have to look for a more reliable partner. So unless basically means, if not or if you don't, or if this doesn't happen. All right? So unless your delivery times improved, now this is a priority for us. This is this condition or this action is something important to us and it doesn't improve. That will be consequences. We use unless to make threats or warnings or promise of negative axis. So in negotiation, you can bargain back and forth and you can set a strong condition. Say unless we get this thing here, then this, there's not going to be a deal or this won't happen, or we will walk away from the deal. So you can use it to make strong bargaining positions to say that this is a priority and unless we get this, you won't get what you want. So what is the threat? We will to look for a more reliable partner. This is the future action. It is the threat or warning that we are giving the other side. Now, let's just do some further reflections on unless. Basically a less just takes the negative out. If or it can be the opposite of the verb that we use with if. So, if you don't, if you don't lower the price, unless you lower the price, we just removed a negative from the verb and change if not to, unless. So let's try this with a different verb. Can't. If you can't deliver on time. Well, we can take the negative out of cans and say, unless you can deliver on time. But of course there are other ways to say can, we can say, are able to or managed to? So unless you are able to deliver on time, or unless you manage to deliver on time. Now, let's do another example. This time a verb that is negative in nature, but doesn't have a negative form like NADH. So if we fail to extend the contract, so fail to, this is a verb that's negative in nature. So if we wanted to use a less than, we need to use a verb with the opposite meaning or the positive meaning, a fail. So if we fail to extend the contract, unless we manage to extend the contract. So managed to can also mean the opposite of failed to. Now, one more vertex that I want to show you. This is also negative in nature. So if you refuse to accept our conditions, well, refused to, that's negative. So what's the opposite? And positive form of refuse. Agree. So unless you agree to accept our conditions. So with unless we're just using the opposite of positive form that we would use with it. If we're using a verb that has a negative construction at it and like not, then we just take the negative out and say, unless without the negative. 8. 1st Conditional: Requirements & Concessions: Now the final category is that of requirements, priorities and the concessions were willing to give up in a negotiation to get the thing that we require. So for our leaves time conjunctions, we can use all three of them interchangeably. We'll use as long as for this example. But you could also replace it as long as with provided or uncondition that it doesn't matter which one we use. So we're going to stick with as long as so as long as the agreement is signed today, we will prioritize your order. Now as long as this is our time conjunction and it means the agreement is signed today, that is our priority. That's our requirement. It's an all or nothing situation. Right. As long as the agreement is signed today, we will prioritize your order. So what we are willing to concede or to give you is a prominence that we will prioritize your order. We will move up your order up to Q to the first position, and we will do your order before anyone else's so that you get your product time. Now, if you want this prioritization, then you have to give us this signature and agreement. Today. It's time sensitive so we can use it to apply a bit of time pressure. And we are, in this case, making a strong negotiation ploy to get what we want by linking it to a benefit that we know that they want. So this is how we use these kind of titled conjunctions. 9. Exercise: All Aspects of 1st Conditional: Now let's do a case study along with some practice exercises to get you using the various forms of the first conditional. George works for saucy, a sauce maker who specializes in ethnic sauces. He and his development team are charged with launching a new ethnic barbecue sauce for the upcoming spring and summer grilling seasons. George is presenting the development stages to his team. Let's do an exercise. Based on his presentation to his team. Your job will be to complete his speech to that team. George. As of now, we're in the first stage of the development process. You're going to complete George's presentation in the first conditional by putting the verbs in the correct tense forms. After you have read the speech excerpt, pause the video, and choose the correct prompt for the first answer. Then choose from the second round of answers. To complete the sentence with a, B, or C, You can pause now. All right, now, let me go over the first round of answers with you. Let's identify the structure first. Our time clause is here before. So that means our sentence starts with the result clause and should be a future tense. Therefore, C doesn't fit. The second clause. After the time connected before is a condition that should be a present tense. Therefore, B doesn't fit the second space. In the first base. A or B, our future tenses. Now while a is okay, B is the most natural fit here, because this action will be studying is an ongoing process. So naturally, a continuous or progressive tense works best. Now, let's look at the condition clause. Remember a present tense belongs, so we can eliminate b, and that leaves us with a or C. Now, if you remember in a previous lecture, I said that the President Perfect often goes with after in a time-based conditional. Well, before is the opposite of after. So the present simple workspace. Before means that the first action in the sequence is really the result clause. So the condition clause action is not a perfect action because it's not the first action in the sequence. Now, let's continue with the speech. Again. After you have read the speech excerpt, pause the video, and choose the correct answers to complete this section of George's speech. You can pause again now. Right? Now let's go over the answers as always, starting with the structure. Our sentence starts with the result clause, meaning it should be a future tense. Well, all three of the choices are actually future tenses, with B also being a future form going to the time clause until means that the result clause usually continues until a certain point. So the tense there should naturally be a future continuous tense. Our second clause is the condition clause, so it should be a present tense. And all three are present tenses. So let's look deeper into the context. Present perfect signals, a completed action as the signal for the result clause to stop. The perfect then is more about the sequence of action. So it works best here. Right? Now Let's continue with the next part of the speech. Again. After you have read the speech excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct answers to complete section 3 of Georgia speech. You can pause again. Now. Right? Now, let's go over the answers as always, starting with destructure. This time, our sentence starts with the condition clause, meaning it should be a present tense. Well, all three of the choices are present tenses. So let's look at the context. Our time connector after is all about emphasizing the sequence of actions. Also is signals that the condition clause is the first action of that sequence. So on both fronts, it is a perfect action. Our second clause is the result clause. So it should be a future tense. Therefore, a doesn't fit. Now, let's look deeper into the context. Our action again is an ongoing process. We will be carrying out some taste tests and local supermarkets over a period of time. So naturally, a continuous tense fits best here. Right? Now Let's continue with the next part of the speech. Once more. After you have read the speech, excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct answers to complete section 4 of Georgia speech. You can pause again. Now. Right? Now let's go over the answers. As always, starting with destructure. Our sentence starts with the condition clause, meaning it should be a present tense, so that would eliminate a. Now let's look at the contexts. When is more of a point in time? When something occurs. Meet is a short, quick action. So the present simple works. Our second clause is the result clause. So it should be a future tense, leaving us with only one option. But if you wanted, you could also use the Future continuous here will be presenting because it would represent a future intention. Also, a presentation takes longer to do so. We could also make it continuous for that reason as well. Right? Now, let's continue on with the speech. Once more. After you have read the speech excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct answers to this section of Georgia speech. This time, there are two parts. You can pause the video now. Right? Now let's go over the answers as always, starting with destructure. Our sentence this time starts with the condition clause, meaning it should be a present tense. Well, all three of the choices this time are present tenses. So let's look at the time connector and see what the contexts dictates the time clause. As soon as means that just after the condition clause action, the result clause will occur. Expression of the sequence means we should use a perfect tense. So as soon as the board has chosen our winner is the correct way to start the sentence. Our second clause is the result clause, so it should be in the future tense. Therefore, only one option works here. As an action. Begin is short and quick, making it a simple action. Therefore, we use the future simple. Continuing. Let's bring in the next part of the speech. After you have read the excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct prompts. You can pause the video now. Right? Now, let's go over the answers as always, starting with the structure. Our sentence starts with the result clause, meaning it should be a future tense. Well, only one of your choices is a future form. The action expresses a future intention, so we use a future continuous. The time clause in case means that the intention of the result clause action is to prevent a possible future problem. With that time clause comes a present tense. The context of the problem is simple in nature, meaning not finished, not ongoing. So the present simple is used. Right? Now let's continue to the last part of the speech. Last time. After you've read the speech excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct answers to complete the last section of Georgia speech. Again, there are two parts. You can pause the video now. Right? Now, let's go over the answers as always, starting with destructure. Our sentence starts with the result clause, meaning it should be in a future tense. That leaves us with only one choice. The context of the action is simple in nature. You receive something future. So future simple. The time clause on condition that means that we will receive the benefit, in this case, a performance bonus only if the terms of the conditions are also satisfied. The context of the condition is that we have a deadline by the time, or in this case, by April 30th. The perfect tenses are deadline tenses. As an action should be completed. Keyword before the deadline. There are two perfect tenses as our choices. But the framework of the condition clause means that we need a present tense. So the present perfect tense fits here. Continuing. Let's bring in the last part of the speech. Again after you've read the excerpt, pause the video and choose the correct answers to complete ga speech. You can pause now. Right? Now, let's go over the answers as always, starting with the structure. Our sentence starts with the condition clause, so it should be a present tense. And the nature of the verb phrase there is or there are, are simple in nature. However, the subject of the verb questions is plural, so we need answers. See, this time the result clause is an imperative form. So you should answer the correct form of the imperative. The plural imperative is let's, so let's separate into the designated teams and get to work. 10. The 3rd Conditional Explained: The third conditional is all about the past. We use it to talk about past actions or past decisions. For example, I had chosen one thing, but if I had chosen another course of action, how would the outcome have changed? So that is the third conditional. Now, we use this third conditional to express, for example, satisfaction or relief about the past, about a past situation where we had a positive outcome or we took some writings steps so we made a good decision. And we want to work backwards from that positive outcome and see what we can learn from that situation so that we can recreate that kind of success or those positive results. Or on the flip side, we can take a negative situation and something that we have regret. Where when we feel bad about the negative outcome, an action that we had taken or a poor decision that we made. Or, for example, some missteps, or simply just a negative outcome. And what you can, for example, work backwards from that negative outcome and see if we can find out what happened so that we can prevent it from happening again. So definitely in business English, there is a place for the third conditional when you meet together, oftentimes to look at the outcome and say, what can we learn from what happened? And how we can implement these changes for the future so that we can either a, recreate the success or be prevented some negative outcomes from resurfacing in the future. In English, we have an idiom that hindsight is 2020. Basically, when you go to the eye doctor, they're going to test your vision with an eye chart. And I looked something like this. And they're going to give you a score depending on how many rows you can see clearly, sharply. And if your score is 2020, that means that you can see perfectly both near and far away. So hindsight, as I'm looking behind or looking back, is 2020 means that I can see clearly RC perfectly the situation from the past where we took some action or we made some decision. We didn't have all of the unknown factors or unknown variables at the time. But now we know what we didn't know then. So this idiom fits perfectly with the third conditional because the third condition is about studying the past. We want to know that if we had known what we didn't know and if we had done what we didn't do or if we did when we hadn't done what the outcome would have been and how it could have been different. So hindsight is 2020 perfectly with the third conditional. So now let's get into the third conditional by bringing in our first example. If they have notified us earlier, we wouldn't have missed the deadline. Now, like all conditionals, the third conditional has a condition clause and the consequence clause. There is a time clause that comes attached to the condition clause. The verb in that condition clause must be in the past perfect, and the verb in the consequence clause must be in the modal perfect. Now, if our condition clause and our consequence clause are into past perfect and the modal perfect. Then we have perfect balance in our sentence. Now, the past perfect and the modal perfect R2, rather advanced verb tenses in English tend structure. So I think it's telling me right? And that I give you a bit of practice so that I do know how to use them properly. When you're building your third conditional sentences. So let's study them a little bit more right after the jump. The perfect tenses start with an auxiliary verb, a calf, and the main verb, and the past participle. Every English verb has three forms that have the infinitive and the present conjugations. Then we have the past simple, and we have the past participle. Now, in order to form the past perfect, we just take the auxiliary verb have and push it to the path. Had. So we had done, for example, do, DID, done, path and participant done. If we look back at our original example. If they have notified us earlier. Well, had notified, notified also in past participle form is irregular verb. With regular verbs, we just add D or E, D to the end of the main verb, and we have our past participle form. But for irregular verbs, we have to learn those by heart because each verb is different than a verb has a different spelling to the ending, so we just need to learn them. Now in this lecture doesn't really focus on learning the irregular verbs. But I do have a free resource for you that you can find in the download section for this module. That's the projects and resources. You can find my irregular verbs study guide. And that should help you to drill and practice those paths participants so you can form the past perfect easily. After the jump, I'll show you how to perform the modal perfect. The modal perfect is an extension of the perfect, right? Like a perfect, we have our auxiliary verb, have and our main verb in past participle form. And now we're just going to take a modal verb and add it to the beginning of our perfect structure, and we have the modal perfect. Now, here are a list of three modal verbs that we can use to find a consequence side of the third conditional. The modal perfect would have, might have, could have, could have is for somebody that is was possible in the past. We did this, but we could have done that. It was possible in the past. Now, my half means that it was more likely than quota and would have, is more certain than my path. So could have, might have, would have. Alright, now let's talk about the inferences of the third conditional. Like the second conditional is important to understand inferences of the third conditional. So let's look back at our original example. If they have notified us earlier, well, if they had notify this earlier, that is the alternative condition. That's not what happened. The inference is the opposite of this, that they didn't notify us earlier. So the inference is that the real action is the opposite of the condition. So if they have notified us, but they didn't. Now, let's look at the consequence clause. We wouldn't have missed the deadline, but we did. The alternative outcome we wouldn't have missed is the opposite of the real outcome. We did miss the deadline. So those are the inferences of the third conditional that the real action is different and usually opposite from what you've proposed as the alternative condition and outcome. Okay, finally, what can we learn from this situation? We don't just use the third conditional, especially in business to complain about the past, but also to study the past and see what it is we can do about or learned from the past. So what we can do in the future to either recreate success or to encourage it and prevent mishaps from happening in the future. So we look back at this example. If to have notified us earlier, well, they didn't notify us solar enough for us to do something about the deadline that our clients had. Well, moving forward, we could, for example, push our clients to notify us earlier. Or perhaps we might even incentivize them to notify us earlier by giving early bird discount. If you place your order with us two weeks in advance, a month in advance, then you get some kind of urban bird discount. Now, another thing we might do is start building a database of knowledge about our clients that we know what they need and when this client typically places this order at this time of year. So we can catalogue that and then start being proactive. We can reach out to them and say, Hey, last year you order this from us. This is something you'll need again. And we can get a head start on your order. And then we might build some notifications based on our database. So these are just some things that might occur in a business meeting whereby you have a problem and you start analyzing it and look for some problem-solving solutions and ideas to fix the situation for the future. That is the real point of the third conditional, especially in businesses. 11. Exercise: 3rd Conditional: In this lecture, we're going to do a case study in order to practice the third conditional. Here's the situation. You've just arrived an hour late for an appointment meeting with a prospective new client. They had already left by the time you arrived to prospective clients, aren't happy and don't think you're serious as a business partner. Now, there were circumstances beyond your control. You are discussing the situation with your assistant. Follow the prompts and make third conditional sentences for both you and your assistance discussion. We're going to simulate the complete dialogue between the boss and his assistant. In the graphic, you can see the construction of the third conditional in the puzzle pieces. These will be present throughout to help you focus on the grammatical accuracy of your third conditional drove practice. Have a look at the past condition, an alternate outcome prompts and put them into the right tenses to make accurate third, conditional sentences. The assistant begins a dialogue explaining that the guests had left and were very unhappy being stood up for the meeting. She continues in the third conditional. At this point, you're going to pause the video and write down your third conditional sentence. Convert the prompts, the path condition, and the alternate outcome into the correct tenses. To complete the third conditional. You can pause the video. Now. The past condition, you call a head. We start with the time clause. If then we put the verb in the past perfect, you had called the head. The ultimate outcome. We need to put the verb into the modal perfect. This case with cooled. Hence, I could have explained the situation. That leaves us with the full sentence. If you had called the head, I could have explained the situation. Now we turn to the boss. He says, I couldn't step away to use the phone. At this point, you're going to pause the video again and write down your third conditional sentence. Convert the prompts, the past condition, and the alternate outcome into the right tenses. To complete the third conditional, you can pause the video. Now. The past condition, we'd need to put the main verb in the past perfect. In this case, the past perfect negative form. So not run, goes to hadn't run. So the condition clause is, if my earlier meeting hadn't run along. Now, the ultimate outcome, we need to, again put the verb in the modal perfect, this time with wood. Hence, call goes to would have call. So I would have called. And that leaves us with the full sentence. If my earlier meeting hadn't run long, I would have called. And now we turn back to the system. She says, I didn't know what to tell them because I didn't know how long you were going to take. And she continues in the third conditional. Now, pause the video and write down your third conditional sentence. Converting the past condition and alternate outcome prompts into the right tensors. You can pause the video. Now. By now, you know the drill. The verb goes to the past perfect for the condition clause. So the negative of b in the past perfect is hadn't been. So the full condition clause. If you hadn't been so late. The alternate outcome, again in the modal perfect, this time with could. So stall goes to could have stalled. Therefore, the full result clause. I could have stalled them. The full sentence. If you hadn't been so late, I could have stalled them. And now we turn back to the boss. He says, didn't you know, I had another meeting scheduled across town. He continues in the third conditional. At this point, you're going to pause the video and write down your next conditional sentence. Convert the prompts of the past condition and alternate outcome into the correct tenses. To complete the third conditional, you can pause the video now. All right, You know the drill. The verb from the condition clubs goes into the past perfect, so check, goes to had checked. So the full condition clause. If you had checked my calendar, the ultimate outcome should be in the modal perfect with wooden, the negative of wood. So schedule goes to wouldn't have scheduled. And the full result clause is you wouldn't have scheduled, they're meeting so early. Now, the full sentence. If you had checked my calendar, you wouldn't have scheduled their meanings so early. And lastly, we turn back to the assistant. She says, I think they were ready to close the deal to continues. And the third conditional. At this point, pause the video and write down your third conditional sentence, converting both the past condition and alternate outcome prompts and to the right tenses. You can pause the video. Now. You know the drill. The verb goes to the past perfect in the condition clause, so make it goes to had made it. Therefore, if you had made it to the meeting and the alternate outcome should be in the modal perfect this time with wood. So sine goes to, would have signed. Therefore, you would have signed the deal. And the full sentence. If you have made it to the meeting, you would have signed the deal. Now, let's just bring in the whole dialogue into view between the assistant and the boss. So hopefully that gives you some good practice using the third conditional. It is one of the more advanced tenses in English. But we've got some good practice here. And you should be ready to use this form in your business English meetings. See you in the next video. 12. Full Revision of 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Conditionals: Now you've stayed with me throughout this whole course on the three conditionals and how you can use them to communicate effectively in your business English meetings. Now, let's just do a quick revision to round up those three forms before we move on to your project slash homework. So there are three conditionals. First, second, third. But in truth, there are really five conditionals if you count the 0 and the mixed condition. But in this course we've only really focus on the base 3. Let's start with the first condition. The first is all about the future. Or more accurately, the likely future. You have a possible future action and unlikely results. Now, the condition consists of two parts. The condition clause comes with a time clause or time connector, time expression, of which there are many time expressions in the first conditional shown you how to use them if you need some practice and revision, just go back to that lecture on big time clauses and you can get more practice with that. Now, those time clauses come attached to a present tense. Not just the present simple, but oftentimes, it can be present perfect as well. So just time clause plus the present tense. If you remember one thing, remember that the result clause comes in a future tense or with the modal verb, or in the imperative. And to maintain balance and accuracy in our sentence. Then our condition clause with the time expression cannot come paired with the future tense. And I'll say if you will, or after you will, or as soon as you will, use the time expression plus a future. Now, the second conditional can also represent the future. I'll be it a less certain, less likely future. It consists of a time clause. Usually, if we don't use many more time clauses, then if with the second conditional and that time costs comes paired with the past simple, it's a lot simpler structure than the first conditional less parts for you to consider. Now, the result clause comes with the past modal, or another way we call it the future and the past. Meaning that will goes to wood, may, goes to might, can, goes to could, or shout those two should. And to maintain balance and our sentence, we need to pair this time clause. If with the past simple we cannot use the modal with if we can have say, if you would, if you went, if you did, if you were, not, if you would. And finally, the third conditional doesn't represent the future, but it studies the past. Now, we generally use this to look at past decisions, past actions, past situations. And we can study and think and wonder what would have been different if the condition or circumstances had changed. Now, like with second conditional, the third conditional also uses if as a time connector. And rather than using the past simple, we paired that with the past perfect. So if you have been, if I had done, if we had gone, et cetera. Now. And the result clause, we use what's called the modal perfect form. So basically you take the present perfect and you add a modal verb to it. Like wood would have done, could, could have done, should have done, might, might have done. So we use the modal perfect. And like all conditionals, we have to have balanced and accuracy in our sentence. Which means that we cannot pair the modal perfect form with if we cannot say, if you would have done, we would say if you had done, not if you would have done. So. Now, I want you to remember that with the first two conditionals, we use them to negotiate. The first conditional because there's more certainly we use it to make firm offers. Whereas the second conditional, we use it to gather information, but not to men for actionable offers. And what the third conditional, because we're looking at in the past, we can use it to study past situations, to analyze or even criticize past actions so that we can learn lessons from them. So oftentimes there will be a place in business English meetings because we have to learn from past situations in order to affect future outcomes. So that's what you need to know about conditionals. 123, if you feel like you need additional practice or you're not so sure about any of these, feel free to go back and rewatch any of the previous lectures on whatever topic you need. And of course, you can always start a dialogue and discussion with me right here in the course module. And I'd be happy to engage with you and help if I can answer any of your questions. So that means the last one is coming up next onto your project. 13. Project and Outro: And now it's time for your project. Your mission. Should you choose to accept it? And you will, is to prepare a short monologue based on the case study we practiced together when you were learning the differences between the first second conditionals. Back in Lecture 3. You are the sales director and your manager has requested two more additional sales staff for his team. Use conditional sentences to explain how you expect to performance to increase. If you agreed to his request. Your intention is to be non-committal throughout the monologue. Meaning your conditionals should not convey the certainty of your accepting his requests, but only that you are considering it. So which conditional will you be using to turn those prompts into sentences? The first or the second. You can find the assignment in the Projects and Resources folder. Make your sentences, then take a photo or make a screenshot of the completed activity. Then return that to the class project page and find the large green button that says Create Project. Give it a title, posts the picture, image, and also any comments on what you've learned in the course. Now before you leave, I just want to take a moment to give you my sincere thanks for taking time and participating in this class. I really do hope that this topic helps you to solve some of your English learning needs. I just want to restate that. I really do want to see what you come up with, your projects. Slash homework, and look forward to seeing your work. If you have any comments or feedback, I'd welcome a review. Or you can start a discussion if you have any questions on some of the topics that we've covered here in this course. So with all that said for me to you, I'll see you in the next course.