Business English Class - Principles of Management and Marketing | Benjamin Weinberg | Skillshare

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Business English Class - Principles of Management and Marketing

teacher avatar Benjamin Weinberg, English as a Second Language Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

2 Lessons (37m)
    • 1. Management

      16:00
    • 2. Marketing

      20:57
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About This Class

In this class, you will learn about how to understand Business English when it comes to the important topics of management and marketing, and how exactly do you use both concepts in English to further your career.

You'll understand how to become familiar with both Business English vocabulary as well as the grammar concepts related to these two topics. You will also get to learn about the principles underlying these two fundamental tenets of the business world and how to get a good grasp on the basics for them.

These two videos will help you to develop your business skills in an effort to become more proficient in this part of the English language by mastering basic management and marketing principles and how to apply them in your work. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Benjamin Weinberg

English as a Second Language Teacher

Teacher

Ben is the founder of English from A to Z. He has been an ESL teacher and instructor for the past four years. Ben earned his TEFL / TESOL certification from the International TEFL Academy back in December of 2013. He has a wide variety of experiences in teaching English as a second language to students from around the world. Ben has taught English for companies and organizations such as Berlitz Inc., the Washington English Center, and the Huntington Learning Center. 

In addition, Ben spent a year living in Istanbul, Turkey where he taught English to high school students and also gave private tutoring to Turkish adults.  Continuing his adventures overseas, Ben recently lived in Medellin, Colombia and volunteered at a public high school helping Colombian students to impro... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Management: Hello students and welcome back to our business English course. In this lesson, we're going to cover management, the principles, the vocabulary and kind of the management structures that would make up a business or company. My name's been with English from A to Z, and here we go. So what is management? Will management is the ability to involve weed and we're delegate responsibilities to other people within your business or the company. Management tales, having responsibilities over other people in the business and being able to find how these workers can best be used as an asset for the company rather than a liability. You know, having good management involves both emotional intelligence being receptive to other people's feelings and emotions, but also logical intelligence being able to use their skills as well. So with good management skills, company will be worse off. So it's important to remember that one hired good managers. If you're a manager or CEO yourself and you want to make sure that the people you hire work well with others, that's a key compartment of management to consider. Let's continue so components of engine people well, when you manage people, they have to be willing to adapt to changing circumstances. They have to be flexible. In other words and adaptable. They need to have respect for feedback from others below them, such as employees or above them, such as executives. And they also need to be trustworthy and honest in their decision making. In addition, they want to be you want to have. Managers were good at evaluating count on getting the most out of their employees. That's a crucial key part of having good managers their ability to assess people's potential talents, their skill set, what they bring to the table. I want to make sure you get the most out of your employees, and they have to adhere to deadlines as well, especially under very strict circumstances. If you have a project, it needs to be done by a certain point in time. You want to make sure you hire somebody who can hear to those deadlines who is hard working , and we'll put in the effort to get things done on time. So those are the different components of being a good manager and how to manage people effectively. So here are some of the management actions and responsibilities in for Cappie English vocabulary terms. They need to be able to delegate a task to other people. They have to be able to oversee how others are doing their projects or their tests again. They need to manage, make sure everybody's on task and doing a good job. They need to coordinate, such as for meetings or conferences. They need to coordinate what everybody is doing. They also need to organize meetings. They need to bring people together. They need to organize. You know the offices well, if need be. And they also have the power to hire people, hire employees, miss or fire employees if you're not doing a good job. So bringing people on or letting people go, that's a key trade that managers need to have and they need to be leaders. And part of being a leader is good planning. They need to plan in advance. They need to have a a monthly yearly or even, you know, multiple year goals for the for the business or company. And also recruiting talent, recruiting other managers and recruiting good employees. Another key of being part of a management team they need to decide. Then you can make decisions that will affect the company in a positive way. And they need to authorize purchases, authorize monetary transactions and authorize hiring lows. I mentioned before they need to be encouraging. It would be positive they need to have a sense of responsibility, and they need to encourage best out of people rather than the worst of people. So when you're a manager, we need to encourage people to do a good job and not to just punch the clock and collect a paycheck. For those in some of the management actions and responsibilities that are necessary to being a good manager, the continue. There's a few more they need to resolve potential conflicts that we're gonna rise between employees or between employees and managers. They need to plan. As I mentioned before, I think that said that. But they need a plan for the future. They need to run meetings and make sure those meetings are smooth and not too long in terms of length. They need to control their own where they need to control their own pasts. They need to deal with potential problems with marketing, sales or budgeting, and they need to meet their responsibilities to make sure that they're doing a good job and they're holding themselves accountable. And sometimes they have to represent the business where the company, at a conference or to shareholders or to the board, uh, directors. And they might need to be responsible for reporting their schedule or their budget to other managers as well, and probably one of the most important one that's they need to promote the company as well in order to gain your client so they might have to do that as well. And they need to also initiate meetings and initiate conference calls and initiate, initiate, initiate, initiate initiatives or initiate projects that will benefit business. And they need to maintain relationships, maintain business partnerships and maintain that key Accoyer your relationships that keep a firm going so a lot of responsibilities involved with management. It's important to note that they're all different English vocabulary words that we're using here, so just keep that in mind for the future. So some propositions we talked about propositions before, but propositions are an important part of speech in English, and they're often used when discussing business English for management. So we have a few examples here that are in bold and, for example, we have among the management team among the members. Excuse me. Only Jim had a plan to maximize revenue and minimize costs. So among the management team members, only Jim was the one who had a plan to maximize revenue and minimize Boss to have good profits the next one. Our product development division is focusing on delivering a prototype to investors by next week. So our product development kind of focuses on it's possessive form. So you know that it's our division and the board of directors will name a new CEO by the deadline. So by the deadline going into the near future, the board of directors will name a new Setia in the head of sales and marketing, stepped down, meaning resigned or gave up his position because he wasn't able to make the necessary quote in time. I guess I think I met quoted there so necessary. Quote are necessary. Quota. That's what I mean here do quotas kind of the amount of sales that head of sales and marketing would have make so they meet their numbers, in other words, so when you step down, it means to resign from your position that you quit. So that's another proposition. Example and then last less sentence each time that CEO and the CEO oh meet with the CTO CEO being chief executive officers, c o being chief operations officer, chief technological officer so forth they meet with each other. Together, the value of the company's stock goes up due to increase confidence. So those are just a few examples where propositions in English can be used to describe management, such as a board of directors, head of sales and marketing. And you have the CEO Seiko Cto, except a lot of alphabet soup quit. It all goes together. We're talking about management. So what managers do Well, let's think of it on a day to day basis. So each day, managers must do anywhere from one to all the falling test. They have to pay careful attention to new developments that arrives with the business. They have to evaluate the numbers and what's happening. What are the transactions going on between their business and other companies? They must hold team and company meetings on a predetermined basis, sometimes every day or something on a weekly basis. So they're at the forefront head of the business, and they have to be aware of what's going on with the employees. They have to run the numbers and they have to hold meetings, hold people accountable, and they must manage all these different casts on a day to day basis. So that's part of what they do on a daily basis. What managers also do. Probably more on a weekly basis or more as it comes basis not daily basis, but more of a broad basis. Managers have to attract town to the company based on staffing needs, so they have to look at resumes, cover letters and see who's available. They have to improve the company training skills based warning sessions in order for employees to develop their their skill sets and become better or what they do. And they have to provide oversight to make sure that regulations and laws are being followed for taxes for hiring employees and four falling utilities and rental payments as well. And also, as I said before attracting talent, they have to hire or replace employees that necessary with no employees, and sometimes they have to fire employees as well. If they have to. You know they're not met, not making as much money. And if they need to cut people or lay them off, which is another inspection? When you lay off employees, they're no longer going to be part of the company. So where do your fund managers? Well, you know honestly, managers are found in every sector of an economy, with little exception. You need managers for transportation companies or firms you need. Retail managers, banking, finance have have managers, even the manufacturing construction you need managers, services industry. You need managers. Government has managers every single industry, because of the higher of management, to need managers, every sector. So this should apply to you. Either you've been a manager before or you're working with managers for your for your business or your job. Managers are just part of being in adults in the working world nowadays, so here is the structure of a company. So everybody here is a manager. But there's different levels to accompany the president or CEO appear the top level, and then they delegate to different parts of the company of your communication. Vice president, finance vice president, membership, vice president, network vice president, outreach vice president These are just some examples of what the vice president would be responsible for. Sometimes this could be even bigger. There could be more vice presidents. But then you have your digital media director, marketing director, fundraising director, human resources director, conference director, philanthropy director. Could be dozens of director. So really depends how big the company is. If you're a multinational company, you might have 45 levels of engagement here. Small business. It might look more like one or two levels of management. If you're a mid size firm like what I'm showing here, you probably have three levels, so we usually go like CEO president on top or seat CTO CIO than you ever advise presidents , then you of your directors and so on, so forth. So really, this is a good example. When a management structure looks like off of a general company, here's another organizational structure. So business company organizational chart, like I said, the president is up top. Could be the CEO to when you got your VP marketing production sales, and then you got your managers under the director or the BP, so there could be three or four levels. Any organization, especially in businesses or companies could even be five or more. But for the average firm you want to think of, it is you have your CEO, no CEO CTO and the president up top, and you have your vice presidents and then you have your managers and employees. The organizational structure of a business in 2019 is very high article, so keep that in mind when you talk about a minute with your colleagues. Just be aware the structure when you go to business or when you start a company. So assignment. Question number one Qualities of a good manager in two paragraphs with complete sentences. I want you now on your laptop around a separate piece of paper. Please write your answers about the falling questions for this lesson. Tell me what a manager is coming, what a manager does on a daily or weekly or monthly basis that we covered. Then tell me, what do you think are the qualities of a good manager according to your own professional background and personal beliefs? And how do you think a manager should act with his subordinate or his employees? How should they treat them? What are the qualities of a good match To make sure you answer these 45 questions, try to write to complete paragraphs. You can do so on your laptop and have it as a word document. Weaken right on separate piece of paper. But I really want you to try to complete this after watching the full video. Rewatched the video and pause and rewind as well. So don't worry about that. But this is your assignment. Question about the qualities of a good manager, so I encourage you to please do it to practice your English, practice your vocabulary, propositions knowledge and do a good job for your own safety. And I have another assignment for two hierarchical structure. Many businesses today make decisions and carry out their operations, according Toa, a hierarchical structure leadership. That focus focuses on a top down approach. The business. Do you agree with this kind of management structure, or is there a better alternative? Why or why not? So please explain your reasoning with a written essay of 3 to 4 paragraphs, which cites examples from professional background as well as your understanding of how hierarchical structures are set up. Based on my lessons explanation. Remember two years complete sentences. And keep in mind that this is an argumentative essay with an introduction 2 to 3 body paragraphs, most likely and a conclusion to try to do that also on a separate piece of paper or on the word doctor. So again, the question that I'm looking for you to answer if you agree or disagree, many businesses today make decisions carry out their operations according to a hierarchal structure leadership, which focuses on a top down approach to business. Do you agree with this kind of management structure, or is there a better alternative? Tell me why you agree or why you don't agree. And is there a better alternative? So please do a good job making a formal essay, and I'm sure you're not right at English and say bye now and remember to use complete sentences with the introduction. The body paragraphs. So thanks for watching hope you really like this lesson. Publishing on management within businesses and companies and some of the English terminology related to talking about management hope you do the assignments. Please take seriously. Please do the job, and I look forward, hopefully reading them over in the future. So thanks again for taking my business English course, and I'll see you in the next video. But 2. Marketing: although students and welcome back to your business English course in this lesson, we're gonna cover the fundamentals of marketing along with the English vocabulary and grammar. Go need to understand this business concept. My name is Ben, with English from a dizzy and here we go. So what is marketing well in English? Redefined marketing as the act off of promoting your company's products or services and or services through different means for your business? This is a key part of any business, your marketing efforts, and it includes branding, advertising, social media, market research and finding out product market fit. Where exactly is the product or service? Where should it go and toe? Which market and a key component of marketing is being able to study, execute at manage exchange relationships between your company and other companies, or between your company and other customers? So you have to manage relationships. You have to build partnerships and have to be able to promote over and over again your company's products and services and figure out how is it important to the customer? What can they do with what you're offering to continue with marketing? Your efforts should be focused on reaching the client or the customer who would be the right fit for your business is product or service or service. Is Aziz well so you need to figure out where in the market you should go? Which kind of person would be most interested in your product? And it's an important process of business because you need to create, manage and satisfy the customer or client relationship and to keep doing it again and again . And hopefully for the long term. A key part of being successful in business is to manage your customers and to satisfy their needs or wants. And you'll be able to develop and grow your business or company by doing that successfully and in order for the business or his company, urine to succeed in the long run, you need to be able to run successful marketing campaigns, leading to both good customer relationships as well as consistent sales. Otherwise, you won't be in business very long, so marketing efforts play a key role in making that happen and establishing those kind of relationships. So the four piece of marketing now, if you're not familiar, there was a man named Jerome McCarthy, who came up with four piece of marketing product price place promotion. I'll say again in English product price place promotion. That's how we say it in English. The four piece of marketing and essentially these four piece Explain how marketing interacts which each stage of the business. What is the product you're promoting? What price our prices are you setting? Which place or places will be distributing the product or service, or how well you promote the product to the customer. So you're asking that wh questions what, which and how and also probably why Why do you think the customer should buy your product? But keep in mind when you're using marketing strategies or using marketing channels that you're reaching on these four piece, What is the product? What price are you setting? Which place are you distributing it and how will you promote it to the customer and you gotta answer before peace and we're to be successful. So marketing professionals there's a lot of different roles in English that the market professional professional space is made up of. You have your market research director or the market research manager or the market research supervisor, and they're all part of the management. They all play their roles and being managers and doing research on the market, figuring out where the customers are and how they will respond to your offerings. Market analysts usually works for the director of the manager of the supervisor, and their job is to analyze the market. Is it growing? Where can you fit your product into the market and how best can they reach the market? So the analysts is below the director of the manager in analyzing the market. Then you have your public relations director, someone whose job it is to do branding and PR for your business and to manage the the branding or the reputation of your product or services as well. And lastly, we have your social media coordinator. Excuse me, social media coordinator. It's basically in charge of your social media marketing. How are they getting the message out through Facebook? Twitter Instagram went in there managing your profiles. They're fielding relationships through social media and they're doing product promotion or branding through those avenues. So these are all marketing professionals now. Marketing jobs continued. You have your advertising manager advertising sales director there in charge of handling the advertising campaigns within the marketing department. Then you have your account executive or your account coordinator, those people who manage the account, make sure you're not paying too much out of pocket for the marketing campaigns and making sure you're not spending too much of the budget each month or that you're balancing your kind of account in terms of how much you're spending in marketing. Then you have your media director who is in charged, the media coordinator who could also be in charge of the media campaigns. And the media buyer who uses marketing funds to buy traditional media such as podcast radio TV to get your products out there and the brand manager ISAT responsible for managing your brand. You? How is the company saying, How are they? How was the slogan? How is the logo? What could be better in terms of the branding of the company as well? They managed that, and you have your product manager who was responsible for making sure that product it is good that it works well, that it's appealing and that it has real value and it can be marketed so average you have your advertising people you have your account kind of your budgeting people. You have your media people, and then you have your managers to make sure that everything goes smoothly with the brand and the products you're offering. And how do you develop the product? Well, I'm not gonna get too in the weeds about this, but you want to research potential competitors to the product you're proposing. You want to a brainstorm Ideas for a product, uh, things that haven't been done before, things that you could patent or so and that would be popular. And as Erik Reece talks about in the Wind Star, if you want a prototype a minimum viable product to see if there is customer interest that people would actually buy this product before you go on development, develop it. So you want to make sure you don't spend so much money before you develop an M. V P. As it's called, you want to make sure that you prototype it. You have a few case users. You see if it's popular enough, and then you want to create a demo kind of product to make sure that sells well or that it markets well and then see if you can keep developing it to be better and better. And then you wanted to design the product to the company's specifications, making sure that it actually fits what it's supposed to dio, that it can market well that it's not fraudulent. You know, you want to make sure you're designing part toe work and to be truthful with what it can do and what it also can't do. So researching, brainstorming, prototyping and then designing and then after you're going to start marketing it and selling it. So selling the product some ways to do this, you can give out product samples. Dio interested test buyers to see how they like it. You want to gain feedback from those initial users through a basic survey, which you couldn't do through Google or through doodle or through other websites. And then after that, after you get good, sir, good feedback, positive feedback. You maybe make some changes. You can begin mass distribution of the product after that feedback and start to really sell it and Matt market it at scale. Remember, you can also adapt or change the product to maximize sales and customer satisfaction, and then to protect your product or service. You want to make sure to copyright trademark or patent it to protect it from, you know, competition. Make sure you have a steak on the technology or the intellectual property behind it. And then, lastly, you want to manufacture, distribute and then ship the product out if it's a physical one to the buying customers for with long term sales and growth of the of the of the business. So that's the process of selling the product, and I also talked about a little bit, but you want to scale it so you that's a part of the mass distribution of the product here . But you want to scale the product after you get that initial feedback. That's hopefully very positive and rewarding for your development. So some vocabulary related to customers support. Obviously, troubleshooting is kind of making sure that people something goes wrong. They can ask you, ah, about it. They can produce questions to you if they have an issue with the product, you want to make sure your policies reflect that, that they can ask questions, or they can maybe get their money back. If something goes wrong or they can have contact your customer service F It cues that stands for frequently asked questions. So you should have a F A Q section so that you have answers ready to go in terms of customer questions, you know? And sometimes if they really don't like the product on, there are only a few people you should offer. Refund. Maybe after seven days. You don't offer refund, but a lot of companies have a seven day refund policy or 30 day policy. So depending on what you think is best for your business, you wanna have a refund policy of some sort. Then, if they want to exchange it for another item or just exchange it for credit store credit, you should allow them to do that as well. And then, obviously you want to offer receipts to your customers so that they can return the item to get their refund. So receipts are a very important part of business and then replacement parts, making sure that something goes wrong. They can mail it back to you, and then you can give them a replacement part if it's a physical product so that it can work. So having replacement parts available is very important to being good with customer support . Sometimes we'll have a complaints. Somebody will complain about your product and give you suggestions. You should take them into consideration on and hear those complaints. Even though you may disagree with him, it's good to get that kind of feedback and feedback, meaning comments or questions or concerns. You want that to happen from your customers, and then it's gonna have a warranty policy. So maybe after a year, there's you can get a refund or you can get full credit back. So a warranty policies establishing some kind of safety net that they can get the product fixed or work done without its without spending money that your company or business will cover the warranty for a year. If there's any damage or, um, malfunctions to it, you can provide a warranty of a year to the customer toe. Keep them happy to make sure that they're buying a product that will be insured of for always the year. That's kind of Ah, another word for a warranty here. Customer support to continue. You have customer service that is the branch of your business that's responsible for responding to customer complaints or feedback. It could come in the form of a call center where you have a team, maybe contractors, maybe people in the business who respond to these questions and they can answer them or refer you to management or the demarcating department. Sometimes, if you're dealing with physical products, you need a repair center so that you can carry out the repairs and then give it back to the customer and make sure that they're satisfied with the product. So repair centers for physical products are very important. Then you have to help desk making sure people can come to a physical office, maybe, or, ah, fulfillment center task questions. So you have a help desk or an information desk so customers can come by and get question to get answers to their questions and get feedback in person. And technical support is your team that's designed to actually fix the products or maybe managed the issue and get them solved. And people want to talk to an actual person, so it's gonna have technical support on hand to answer questions. And then the person within customer service is called the representative, so they represent the business with the company, and their job is to satisfy the customers questions and their complaints and Teoh be patient and flexible and to understand where the customers coming from. And then you have your sales associate who's often tied to the marketing team, and they will work closely with marketing to sell to the customer to keep their business. Then we talked about this, but discounts vouchers if something does go wrong, but they still like your company or your business, you can offer them a discount in the future. Or you can offer them about your if something does go wrong and they don't feel like they've been handled well in terms of customer service. So it's important to use a discount or voucher if they have had a negative experience with the business. The discount or the voucher kind of fills in that gap there where they feel like Okay, they do care about me there. Give me a discount on the next product or voucher because this went wrong. So customers sports in key part of marketing to keep the custom around, keep them happy because you don't the last thing you want when you're working for businesses to have the reputation ruined because the customer service wasn't there, where the marketing team really dropped the ball on that in terms of providing a non option for feedback. So some negotiation verbs suggest urge, you know, kind of give customers want to give you suggestions. Oh, kind of give you advice so they might urge you to do something, and they'll have to convince you that it's worth it. They'll try to insist or assure you that there their concerns are valid and they questions are important and the customer or the client will challenge you to come up with a good solution. So it's important to react positively and not get too stressed out and to not reject their suggestions when it is true. But you have to deal with it, even if they urge you or insist upon something that they want the company to do. You can't rejected outright. You have to be very fair and patient, And maybe you could counter, give a counter argument that supports your business and defends your business, even though they may have a good point. They are talking very badly about the business. You have to counter with good things about the business, and sometimes you got to commit to helping them out. To show that you care that you want to fix the product, it product or service that you're working, your team is working on it. And it's important to compromise with Klein or customer. And you know, the customer is may not always be right, but you should listen to them and you want to compromise with them. So you do keep their business, and they may withdraw their complaint or their question if they find that you've answered it very well. Or maybe they're question wasn't valid in the first place. So suggestions urging convincing these air always that the customer negotiates with the business. So it's important to keep that in mind that these are verbs that are likely to come up between the customer and you if you work in that in marketing. And these are also verbs that if you're a marketer for business, you'll use you try to convince the customer that your product is for is for them. You insist. You'll assure them that's the best product out there. They will react. Maybe they'll reject you. Maybe will counter with another product or company, but you want to get them to commit to the business, and sometimes you have to compromise. So these are all great English verbs that are not only used in customer service but are used in marketing as well. So some marketing sentence examples and look at the verb tense that we're using for each sentence. So, for example, we have How do you make the logo bigger? Every business has a logo. So this questions, how do you make the local bigger? So here we're using a simple present tense. I'm going to present the product prototype to our focus group tomorrow that you that's using President progressive tense. I'm going. We will need more money each day to run our advertising campaign on Facebook. So that's the simple future tense, for we will and then our competitors made it difficult to do market research because they did not trust our intentions Simple past tense with made instead of make. Having given our discount offered to potential customers on the website, our business will have to wait for the results. So that's past progressive tense with having I N G and then given. So these air good ways that, you know we talk about marking logo product, prototype advertising market research. There's a lot of good vocabulary words associate with marketing, including discount, and we're using English verb tenses to do that. So we need a wide variety of knowledge about the simple present tense about President. Progressive, tense, simple, future, tense and simple, past tense and all that. So you could see how important is too noble for grammar and vocabulary in marketing for this purpose. So now I want to give you a marketing assignment, create a marketing plan. Now, don't be too overwhelmed, but this will be a good chance for you to use the vocabulary and grammar that we just covered in this video lesson and put it to good use. So your instructions are create a written plan of a paragraph or two. I'm not asking for a full report but create a written plan of a paragraph or two for the marketing director, which could be used for marketing purposes regarding a new and unique physical product that will have a variety of uses for the customer. Now I want you to write a couple of sentences about what the product is, What does it do? How does it benefit customer and what the price of it is? And don't be afraid to use a visual of the products, such as a drawing or an image. You could do that yourself. Doesn't be very fancy, but maybe do that after the first couple of sentences and then you want, indicate which business or company you're working for and what industry you're focusing on . So it could be your real company, or it could be just, ah, a fake company as well. You could make up a name, but I want you to tell me which vocabulary of words and verbs would you use to appeal to the customer that were covered in this lesson. So you're written plan should include a couple sentences about the product. What does it do? How does that benefit the customer? What the price of it is? He was a visual. You know your own visual, or you can use an image prop, perhaps from the Internet and indicate which business or company you were working for. What industry you're focusing on and remember, it's two paragraphs or so, so not too long and you want the visual to be a good one. And then which vocabulary words and verbs will you use to appeal the customer that were covered in the lesson. So keep that in mind as well. So this is your assignment for this lesson. I want to create a marketing plan to the director of your marketing director in the business that you're thinking of and how this new and unique physical product could be used by the customer. Think about the ways that could be used. So thank you for watching. Please rewind and rewatch the video of Need Bay. Remember to write down the vocabulary and about the grammar topic we covered and feel free to complete the assignment. I think it will really help you to create your own marketing plan for, ah, for your own business or for fictional business to get some English practice with writing and for understanding. The visual is behind marketing. So thanks again for watching, and I appreciate you again taking my business English course. Thank you, but by