Business Analysis And Process Modeling : A Guide To Business Strategy And Process Improvement | Ahmed Fawzy | Skillshare

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Business Analysis And Process Modeling : A Guide To Business Strategy And Process Improvement

teacher avatar Ahmed Fawzy, IT Transformation Advisor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

71 Lessons (2h 43m)
    • 1. Overview

    • 2. Course Road-map

    • 3. Section One: Introduction Learning Outcomes

    • 4. Business analysis and Project

    • 5. Business Analyst Role

    • 6. Service Transformation

    • 7. How to Improve Business?

    • 8. Common technology Trends

    • 9. Problem Statement

    • 10. Section Two: Strategy Analysis and Benefits Realization Learning outcomes

    • 11. Business benefits

    • 12. Business Strategy

    • 13. Objectives and Goals

    • 14. Benefits Road map & plan

    • 15. Business Impact Analysis

    • 16. Risk Analysis

    • 17. Cost-Benefit Analysis

    • 18. Key Performance Indicator

    • 19. Value Chain Analysis

    • 20. Value Proposition Analysis

    • 21. Responsibility Matrix

    • 22. Section three: From Objectives to Benefits Learning outcomes

    • 23. Business Agility & Waterfall Project

    • 24. Agile Project

    • 25. Portfolio Management

    • 26. Business Case

    • 27. How To Build A Business Case?

    • 28. Project Feasibility, Selection and Prioritization

    • 29. Program Management

    • 30. Project Life-cycle

    • 31. Section Four: Building a Team Learning outcomes

    • 32. Team Building

    • 33. Stages Of Team Development

    • 34. What Is Conflict?

    • 35. How To Handle Conflict: Behaviors types

    • 36. Conflict Handling Styles & Outcomes

    • 37. Section Five: Organization Change Learning outcomes

    • 38. Organization Change

    • 39. Organization Development

    • 40. Resistance To Change

    • 41. Section Six: Requirements And Stakeholders Learning outcomes

    • 42. Collecting Requirements: Define Business Problems

    • 43. Collecting Requirements: Identify Stakeholders

    • 44. Stakeholders

    • 45. Identify Business Requirements

    • 46. Interviews

    • 47. Conducting The Interview

    • 48. Features

    • 49. Requirements Refinement And Verification

    • 50. Managing Expectations

    • 51. Build Requirement Package & Decision Tables

    • 52. Collecting Requirements In Agile Teams

    • 53. Section Seven: Business Process Modeling Learning outcomes

    • 54. Business process modeling

    • 55. Discover The Current Services

    • 56. Activity List

    • 57. Abstract diagrams (Context, PDFD, LDFD)

    • 58. Flow-Chart

    • 59. Drawing A Swimlane Chart

    • 60. Process Modeling

    • 61. Section Eight : Process Assessment Learning outcomes

    • 62. Initial Plan For The Assessment

    • 63. Assemble The Team

    • 64. Executing the Plan

    • 65. Examination

    • 66. Generate Findings

    • 67. Generate Results & Capability Levels

    • 68. Maturity Levels

    • 69. Moving through the levels

    • 70. Final Results

    • 71. Next steps

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About This Class

Learn How to Analyze and Improve Business.

What if small steps will dramatically increase your Business productivity in critical areas? What if the organization have enough time to improve services not only maintain them?

In this course you will learn: 

·        How to avoid projects failures

·        How to become a successful business analyst

·        Understand and document how the organization delivers value

·        How Goals become tactics

·        How to translate Goals into projects

·        How to build a team, change the organization, and overcome resistance.

·        How to create a Business Case

·        How to Model the current processes

·        How to Assess the running processes and determine the Gap


 Learn this and more, enroll in this Course NOW to learn how to analyze business and delivers value.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Ahmed Fawzy

IT Transformation Advisor


Ahmed Fawzy, is an Advisor, Author, and Online Trainer. He has 18 years of experience in the fields of IT transformation. Utilizing a unique approach to achieve a better alignment to the business through solutions and processes. Also, how to transform IT organizations successfully from "Traditional to Digital."

Ahmed holds ITIL Expert certification and ITIL4 MP. He is also a certified Project Management Professional (PMP), TOGAF 9 Certified, and has a Master in Business Administration (MBA).  He has implemented improvement programs for a wide variety of organizations. His approach is unique because it doesn't require new additional software or hardware,  "It's simple few adjustments that yield a high return." Ahmed's goal is to help leaders transform their IT internal o... See full profile

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1. Overview: Hello and welcome to business palaces and the process modelling in this course business analysis, concepts, project management and the necessary business skills are mixed to create a roadmap for anyone interested in requirement analysis and the process. Murdering this course is designed to take you through the critical initial steps through a carefully planned pause that I have found to be very useful. The lectures and the scores are three types. The first type is general ideas that you can use later to ship the flow of the discussions with management and customers as well. The second type is why and how, why things become this way more over how to modify it and adjusted in this part, you will understand how things work beneath the surface, and the lost type is direct skills you require to perform analysis and the modeling. This area is different from one organization to another. I tried to cover most of what I had seen over the past 15 years, sort of summarize the outcomes from the scores how to avoid Project's failure to comment, how the organization delivers value, how gold's become tactics, how to translate goals to requirements and requirements into projects how to build a team, changed organization and overcome resistance. How to create business case. How to model the current processes helped us is the running processes and determines the gap. Feel free to take a look at the course description, and I'm looking forward to see you inside. 2. Course Road-map: hello and welcome toe business analysis and the process modelling. This course is designed to take you through the critical initial steps through a carefully planned path that I have found to be very useful. This course is practical real life experience to jump start your knowledge in a very short time. It also allows you to bland what do you need next in your learning plan? This course is from the point of view off someone trying to perform the analysis and the process modelling task for the first time. Each section in the course is designed independently from the remainder of the course for easy reference later. But I would recommend going through the course in a given order for the maximum value in the first section. You understand what is the relationship between the projects and the business analysis you define? Both rolls off the project manager and the business analyst. You understand the need for the service transformation and the building blocks off the service transformation people process and technology. This is the entire road map of the course. How to deliver value using these three pillars at section to you build the skills required to participate in strategy creation In Section three, you learn how to convert the strategies created earlier in tow tactics, since not all request you will receive will be projects you need to learn how to convert business goals into projects. Once you have your tactics and section four, you will learn how toe build and select the team toe. Help you deliver the value of the project, and this is considered the first item in our roadmap. The people in this section you understand how to create a project team in Section five. You take this one step further on learn how to change the organization and Section six you started the requirement analysis process. This section is the technology part of the service transformation, beginning with identifying stakeholders upto creating the requirements packages for the solution you need. In Section seven, you learn how to model the process. In this section, you focus on the process, mapping off the service transformation, how to draw it and how to create the required diagrams. In Section eight, you learn how to assess your process by understanding the appraisal process and better yet , how toe build your requirement baggage to become more mature. Process. I hope you enjoy the scores. Thank you 3. Section One: Introduction Learning Outcomes: By the end of the section you will be able to define. Why does the project fail? Business analyst. Role service transformation Common technology trends define a problem. Statement 4. Business analysis and Project: both business and else's and projects are part of the same cycle of organizational change. Each plays a specific role. The business analyst does the planning. The project manager does the execution. Both are needed in the entire life cycle of the organization. Change. Let's begin by identifying what is business analysis. Business analysis is the practice of controlling the organization and changes to meet the required goals and objectives by using requirement. Engineering Business analysis is ensuring that any project or initiative in the organization will create value for the organization. Achieve its objectives. So why does a push fail? Projects failed for many reasons, but the most common are lack of a stakeholder engagement and involvement. Changing priorities and how 200 requirement change inaccurate requirements. Uninvolved sponsors change project objective. Inaccurate estimates. The unexpected risk that could not be mitigated. Dependencies, inadequate resources, scope creep. This one especially, is critical scope. Creep is very common projects. It's adding scope without considering the impact on resources and schedules. What this list tells us all expect the estimates is the role of the business analyst. This will give you an idea how political they're all over. B is 5. Business Analyst Role: this will lead us to the definition off business analyst role. The role of business analysts is to take a huge task like a problem or reporting requirements and turn it into a small pieces of requirement and objectives. The address each function in the organization in a way that they can understand. But when old pieces But together it will deliver. The main objective business analyst does this by identifying organization needs through requirement gathering techniques and the create solutions with a subject matter expert to a business problem. This sounds like a project manager, isn't it? In a small project, sometimes the project manager takes a roll over be as well. But originally each has his own responsibilities. The project manager responsible for delivering the work off the project. The primary focus is on budget and are the schedules the business analysts responsible for the project meeting requirement? The primary focus is delivering value from such a responsibilities. We understand that the business analyst is not technique a role. The core business analyst responsibilities are validate organization objective emperors against the proposed project. Many of the requirement process using flow charts, user stories, context diagrams, many any change and make sure both organization and the project are aligned. Many of the testing and make sure it is the same expected outcomes from the project ensures that all project objectives achieved successfully. Each one of the mentioned responsibility maps to a different view, the business analyst sees. The first view is the project view activities and securing the resources to do it value view the end user value at the end of the project functional few the delivering function in each area of the activities. Technical view. It is a technical aspects off the functions within the scope. 6. Service Transformation: any modern business now is focused on services even internally. Almost every organisation is focused on becoming service oriented organization services a value deliver to the end customer without the resulting value. The services useless to create a good service. There is always three main factors people, processes and technology try to focus on a single factor in each project. A focused on more The project will not achieve. The expected results on might even fail if you focus on people how to change the mindset, attitudes and influence organization cultures focus on the process, how to implement the new process or are just the current one or technology how to select the correct the tools that will fit the purpose. Each one will be add rest during the course to enable you to become the change agent for your organization. 7. How to Improve Business?: how to improve business. Business is now very dynamic and competitive organization. Need to continuously are just operations to meet the marketed challenges or to gain an advantage over competitors to improve business. You can reduce cough, but it use risk, improve customer and user satisfaction, improve flexibility or deliver and new services. Three new channels and most businesses are had seen one or more common possible improvement opportunities. Not to probably you will have one or more in your current organization, you can start by one of these. The 1st 1 is the repetitive process. Try to unify any process that exists with a similar activities into one process. Conflict in the process. Any process that conflict with each other. Unneeded processes any process that hasn't been used or updated for a while now. Reduced manual labor by two meeting tasks. This will reduce the risk of human error. Automation will result in more focused teams. Those teams can focus more on critical areas instead of waiting for fires and manual actions. This will allow teams to focus more on the satisfaction off end users cost reduction. Any organization is created for a purpose to generate money or to provide aid and support. Both types are also called profit and nonprofit. When you reduce the cost in the profit seeking organization, this means more profit. But when you reduce the coast off the non profit organization, this means more support for the objective. More provide insights into areas and accidents and problems. Which area takes more time to mark for improvements. Reduce wasted time. Blend the budget properly together. A better understanding off house organization is functioning. 8. Common technology Trends: when gathering requirements. It helps toe have some idea about the areas for improvement, and the information knowledge of the current technology trends will drive more in depth conversation with the stakeholders. This video obviously, is not a comprehensive list, but it will give you some idea what the trends are. Natural language generation, energy ai the automated data into human readable text. In such a solution, the be a need to assess the outcomes. End Cinda clarification on how to enhance it. Further speech recognition. The ability that completes what someone is saying into text, voice systems or toe attendant. The ability to speak in human like interactions. Chad Pops. It's a customer service stools. It's used as a shedding tool inside an application or a website. In this case, the be a knee together scenarios and keep feeding the machine escalating to a human when needed shut. Parts are not limited. Onley to shedding it can respond to emails or make a simple cold process Automation. A series of steps to meaning the interaction off a human machine Learning the computer learned the pattern on its own. No need to feed it scenarios. Human keep correcting any deviation and that is fed into the learning process. Machine learning is beneficial in analyzing a large volume of data and create what if scenarios. 9. Problem Statement: What is a problem? Statement. A problem statement is a clear, precise description off a specific issues that the project, discovering it should be relevant from a business perspective. Almost any type of service needs some requirement analysis as long as organization exists. Some of the most common signs are the Satisfied Stakeholders Project with scope creep, Mr Requirements Business Analysis. By itself, it is not a goal. The goal is to improve business. This is possible by improving customer satisfaction as one example. Always think of the value to the business. If you are trying the concept of a B A M process modelling in the organization, try to focus on one or two topics on Lee and give them your full attention. Don't try to go a big bang and change the whole organization all at once focused on establishing the practice and then expand tomorrow. Areas also avoid analysis. Perilous is it is the state. When gathering requirements and analysis, face is never over. Always define the goals and success criteria before the start. Otherwise, you will get the requirements with endless loops, always considered that lines you have and considered the 80 20 rule in a nutshell. It is 80% of the issues is coming on Lee from 20% of the cause is the same concept applies . You might not have time to interview everyone. Find the critical 20% 1st that will give you 80% of the requirements and proceed as time allows. Final souls always create a file that says Project ideas. This will be the enhancement possibility you discovered during the requirement Discovery phases. This will be very valuable later on. You will have to understand also that over time you will enhance your process further and adjust the framework provided in the scores toe match your personality and your organization. 10. Section Two: Strategy Analysis and Benefits Realization Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define business a strategy, benefits roadmap and plan business impact and relishes risk analysis. Cost benefit analysts is key performance indicators. Value chain analysis, value, proposition analysis, responsibility matrix. 11. Business benefits: business benefits are the ways organization wishes to achieve its objectives. A series of changes to the organization is made by projects. These changes generate outcomes and values. Multiple values from one more project generate business benefits. The reason behind this section is for you to understand on a high level, what is the impact off the project typically will be and how the projects are selected and managed in our organization. So how to understand Benefit management Benefit management begin by identifying the line value off the board to fool you all the projects and programmes running in the organization to achieve its objectives. Bridging the gap between the strategy and implementation. The program a group of projects related to each other and considered a critical part of the world to fool you. The project a single purpose objective, a critical part to realize business objective is a business analyst role with the primary role of identifying the requirements from the current state to the future state. It is critical to understand that in any given organizations, available resources are not enough to satisfy all the proposed projects as election processes needed. The selection process is a part of the portfolio management and the B A contribute significantly to that all business benefit must be miserable to compare it to other objectives. All objectives need to be specific, have ownership, have a process, have a plan and traceable. 12. Business Strategy: the business goal is always the same. It is either profit or nonprofit for profit. It's increased the revenue for non profit. It is a goal of the organization, in many cases. Objective set periodically, you are just the organization to the external environmental challenges and changes. This is why you need to understand the business environment. Analysis. Start by understanding what is organization environment are. You will have two types of environments. Internal environment is environment. That the business have control over the external business environment is every part of the environment that the organization cannot control. There are multiple analysis model to generate business objectives. The most common is a SWAT analysis. It's what objective is to analyze the business engine rate opportunities this analysis tool used for objective analysis, often organization. The German competitive advantages determine liabilities. It's what announces has four building blocks. Internalised rents is something the organization does very well. Example for that is lower court skilled workforce, internal weakness, something not optimal in the organization. Example for that is customer services or lack of customer service is negative brand recognition. External opportunities. Changes to the outside of the organization could be an area off growth. Example. Major competition is shutting down new, relaxed government regulations or new technology. External threats changes to the external environment that could negatively impact the organization. Example. New technology increased the trade barriers to build a SWAT metric start by creating four cell metrics each cell at this one aspect off the swap so you will have four cells, one for strength, one for weaknesses, one for opportunities and one for threats. After that, start placing the organization discovered parameters inside the metrics. Try always to list all the possible parameters. This means you will fill string cells with organization s trenches and weakness cells with organization weaknesses and so on. Until all silver felt multiple points of view contribute in building the SWAT metrics. Each other's a specific point of view. A type of adviser When buildings What? Don't let people easy. Always ask for four, at least in every cell. Once you have all your inputs, you start the analysis process. The process starts by matching every item with another item. Let me give you an example. When you measure strength of lower cost to the weakness off negative brand recognition, you might get an advantage of advertising it as an economy brand. This will change the customer perception off the brand as being cheap rent. You continue doing so until all the possible outcomes come out with this. What? This process typically takes multiple workshops with key decision makers. After you finish mixing and matching all the items, you will have two columns, one called advantage on the other is cold liability. 13. Objectives and Goals: Now you as a decision maker have some advantages, and some liability eliminates extremes. First, things that will be above the budget and things that will have little or no impact. If you will remain after this filtration, select some and start addressing them. How to utilize an advantage and turn it into a profit on how to defend against a liability . Let's assume you selected to from the advantage list and select one out of the liability to be addresses a year. So how this typically works Step one. All line of businesses received their organization goals and strategy where the organization want to be in the next year or the next few years, deciding the objective generated and select from SWAT. And to achieve this objective, a set of modification to the existing systems will be required. Each team leader submit a proposal to achieve their objectives. Step two. A list of potential proposals completed At this stage, it is only a business case, not a project charter. A business analyst can help the leader build the business cases well. Step three. We developed tactics to reach objectives. Tactics are the projects that is running or will be running to achieve a specific objective . The objective is a small building block inside the goal. Let's take example of that for simplicity. I'm using a single gold. The organization goal this year is increased profits by 10 times. This objective is decided by the board of Director based on the commitment to the shareholders and based on the SWAT performed earlier that we have such advantage that qualifies organization to such commitment. Increased profit by 10 times. This is a gold. And to achieve this goal, you create the sub objectives. These objectives are the ones that we build our commitment upon. Typically, most of these are coming from the business analysis we conducted earlier. In addition, toe previous plans, let's assume the objectives are increased customer satisfaction by 10%. Improved staff morale by 5%. Increased market share by 2% reduced coast by 10% increase sales by 10%. Unless you are working in a startup, you already have numbers measuring the current performance off the organization to increase satisfaction by 10%. This is Don based on both data, something like staff morale and customer satisfaction is measured using surveys and feedback. These are not quantitative. Each one of the objectives is killed from 1 to 10 and have measurement associated with it. Example. Increased sales by 1%. Increase sales by 2%. Increase sales by 3% and you keep creating the small steps until you reach your objective. Each one of the objectives is weighted as well. The weight is how much is this objective is contributing to the main goal. This will allow by organization in case of budget restriction. Now we prepare tactics to achieve the selected objectives. This is where we started finding what projects organization need. Each line manager began to think how to achieve part or all of these objectives. Some objectives are shared between multiple business units. On some objectives might be on Lee from one business unit. At this point, all leaders should submit business case explaining what tactics they will use to reach this objective. In some cases, the leader collect ideas in cases from line managers as well 14. Benefits Road map & plan: benefits are a map is a term used to have a full visibility and understanding off which projects contributes to which value this allowed for forward and backward traceability if a specific value was achieved given resource constrains, we start prioritizing projects coming from all plans across all business units to determine the maximum gain for the organization to achieve its goal. This process is called a portfolio analysis project. Benefits are what the organization used to justify starting a new project. To build the benefit map, you will need management support. This is a sponsor of the project, the expected benefits sort of map. I live a picture off the needs off the projects Business Benefit Realization Plan What we need to do to realize the benefits from these programs and projects, measuring the benefits preferable to use the dashboard to show the overall progress off old projects and benefits. What is a blend in the business format summarized and to the point must include the wise. This project is needed What This project will do more over how to achieve these benefits. You start by creating the benefit plan. Benefit Brand is a single document that maps all benefits from all projects. All plans need to be workable, manageable and measurable. If a benefit cannot be measured, how organization will determine if it's achieved or not? Your document should answer the following What benefits are included in the plan? How to measure it? Who is the sponsor of the project? How to monitor benefits All benefits collected from stakeholders should be smart. S m a r t. Know that we are talking about the benefits, not requirements at this point. Specific, miserable, achievable, relevant, timely to build a document. This is the sections required. Program description, scope, brushing division and objectives. Burdick benefits benefit lists. How to measure benefits, assumptions and risks, rules and responsibilities. Monitoring processes. You can create the metrics as a visual aid as well. This plan will help close the projects and validate the value expected are the same as the value delivered. If you think the plan is too complicated, Benefit map is the visual tool to give a quick view off what will deliver which value. It's a matter between the project outcomes programs, requirements and organization goals. As mentioned, it's a visual eight. Understand what's going on fast. You start by the far left from the goal and work your way until you reach what business benefits are because of work projects. 15. Business Impact Analysis: how much it will cost if operations were interrupted. This is the purpose off business impact analysis, but is the one off the most challenging areas to calculate? In many cases, be a does not have access to the actual numbers and caused you confidentiality in pre hourly salaries. Exact the profit generated for more upside customer loyalty, information, etcetera. In this case, we assist the impact off how broad the impact will be. Remember, the idea from the business impact analysis is to get business financial impact in case of interruption. No, the department impact. This is why it should be financial information, not technical. You will need to associate a price tag on every component and dependency. This will lead us to the first topic in the business. Impact analysis is a concept off coast of Philly. If the cost of failure is a business impacted by Phil Transaction to calculate the cost of failure, use tangible and intangible courts. Here are some examples These are some typical cough costar divided to tangible coughed the cause that can be associate ID and discovered directly. Intangible coast courses off typically harder to measure due to its nature. This is an example of tangible and intangible coast. Both the video and try to understand why each coast is in this category. 16. Risk Analysis: the project is a change to the organization, and in any change you need to understand two things. The probability and impact of any intentional event. This is what typically called risk. So what is probability? The chance off this happening? So what is impact? The losses or gains because of the risk materialized, though rarely I see someone commendable the risk to build the RiskMetrics. Based on the probability and the impact of a change, it can be categorized by using the X Y axis. You will end up with four risk categories. Each. Calculate Risk a mitigation budget. Use impact multiplied by probability. Always assume there is an unknown risk and arrange a budget for it. This will lead us to answer. What are the risk types You will have four types. High probability. High impact, high probability, low impact, low probability, high impact, low probability, low impact toe understand more. Let's Buddhist into an example. Let's assume probability of a machine breaking down and the machine most maintained three months ago. The maintenance report stated that the machine need the replacement port in the next maintenance cycle, which will be in eight months. This is considered initial risk. So what is the probability? This is a bit subjective to the person risk tolerance, but in this case as well. Rank it as low, since we still have eight months, maybe near the end of the eight months is it can be increased medium. Now what's the impact? If the machine stops, the production line will stop this mean loss of productivity. Blas Getting emergency replacement parts Now you have the risk impact improbability. The mitigation for this is to purchase a spare parts and keep them close by to minimize downtime. This is the only if management decide the impact and the cough. A failure is too high. Maybe it's cheaper toe have such impact. The expecting downtime after we get the spare parts is called a residual risk. 17. Cost-Benefit Analysis: cost benefit analysis is a comparison between the gain on losses. Create a list of all possible projects with the possible gains and losses tangible and intangible. By using this information, decide which projects will generate more value for the business. Since value is something in the future and is an estimate, I always like to focus on the losses part. This kind of information is relatively available based on historical information. The problem is calculating the unknown cough. Honestly. Rarely this information is found in any organization. We make an educated guess by first working with management to give us a waiting system for that. And what is the relation between each of the losses? We look every item toe a tangible coast, and we fell out based on this re shoes. Step one big one tangible known costs to become your ex cost contact management and get their estimate on the losses until you have a table that look like that, Get X. In this case, it is lost revenue. You can get this information easily from the finance team. The total annual revenue, divided by 365 multiplied by 24 will equal your hourly revenue lost. Once you have your ex, let's assume in our case, in our example, it's 100 U. S. Dollars fill out the table. Lost revenue will not apply if the organization have a seasonal. Sales in this case work with two rates during the season and off season. Those this analysis is not 100% accurate, but this analysis will result in something tangible to compare. If the new system will cost organization more than the losses, then the losses is cheaper than the actual value that will be achieved from the project based on the location and the percentage of the risk you can take this project or not. 18. Key Performance Indicator: key performance indicator, or K p. I is a type of performance measurement. Keep your eyes evaluates the success off a particular activity. It is not some nice gadget on a dashboard. Keep your eyes something management is wearing toe Act on, so to understand, more less. Take KP I apart. First, the indicators. You will need some tools together. Facts. Monitoring religion read the indicators like the incident escalated into Level two in the last week. We're 100 instant. This is factual. The indicator is based on monitoring and available tools. It is a role data. If you don't have the correct data, you cannot create a valid Gibby I second the performance. You take this against the capacity and the capability off the organization to see how it would be improved or how to monitor anything unusual. Every indicator should have some small paragraph explaining. What if it's reduced or increased? Meaning this is a progress off the changes in the organization. In other words, this is the project currently running, is it on time? And it's still on track, generating the required value or not. Also the current running operation. Is it matching the expectation example if the production in lines getting slower than usual or customer calls started to come in faster. This is a cause for alarm that something is going wrong. Third key. It's up to the management to decide if they want to take action on this indicator or not. In other words, do management care about this to take action? My recommendation regarding keeping I don't buy up on keep your eye to generate a nice dashboard? If no one willing to take action on KP I, then this is a needed effort that can be directed elsewhere. 19. Value Chain Analysis: the term value changed used in business for years. There are three major blocks in any value chain. The supplier upstream, the service provider, the final customer downstream. There are some areas in every block. It's quite tricky to calculate the added value in each action taken in the service, but in today's world it is a must. Sometimes one weak area will natural eyes the strengths off another area, even when analyzing some complementary functions that might not create a value. Add by itself, however, it impacts other areas positively. Think of an air conditioning. A C does not create value for the business, but think if it does not exist, the blood activity will drop significantly. So always analyze the process upstream and downstream because you might have a perfect operation but your suppliers giving you a bad support or bad products and materials and your service. The reverie to your end customer might be impacting you as well, like product delivery, end user experience and customer services. When considering the Value Chain considered the entire system no, the individual activities not a longer goes. The only customer to the I T services wasn't internal business users, but now the customer are much more than that, I think. 80 m with stores the point of sales. Such change indicate an increase, the level of sophistication in the value and more expectations as well. Most businesses now is expected. Toe have some outline from that is reachable from anywhere. This means potential organization customers and future revenue are now dependent on I T systems. This is one of the reasons multiple books refer to the ICTY organization as a service provider. 20. Value Proposition Analysis: What value are you proposing out of this? This is entire purpose. Off the value proposition. Analysis. Realizing value happens when the return on assets is positive. Example of a positive Ritter better utilized people, a specific resources that has a constrained. If an outcome will not present a positive return, then this is not a value that can be measured. This will require to understand more about what service assets are. So what? Issa Service Asset the organization need assets create value as its have two types. Capabilities like wisdom People management resource is like data and application capabilities by themselves cannot produce value. Without adequate resources, you will need a specific mix between capabilities and resources to reach a specific positive return. At this point, you have the requirement for creating the value, but next you need to understand how we perceive the value. How we sense is the value. Once you have the required assets, you will need to understand utility and warranty. The value depended significantly on the fit for use, which cold utility and how it's backed up by warranty. Assuming no variation performance under specific condition. No customer want to have a certainty in Khost. But uncertainty in quality off services received both utility and warranty are necessary to achieve value. In some of the cases, a standard service utility is the same. But offering warranty play a more critical role and becomes a competitive advantage. Almost every customer would prefer a good customer services. In many cases, this is a competitive age. Think of how many times you purchased something or get a service because the customer service off this vendor is better. Once you are sure from both utility and warranty and the product will fit your needs and someone will support it, you're start focusing more on the details. In the next value creation step. The next step has to measure ports. The first is customer perception. The second is business outcomes. Let's start with business outcomes. It's much simpler compared to measuring perception. It's mainly relies on the actual need of the customer. Let me give you an example. The outcomes needs to be answering 150 calls per hour instead of 90 calls per hour, or reduce the response time from 50 seconds toe five seconds. For a service to be considered valuable, it should supply a positive impact on performance off the organization, or remove and relaxation off a specific constrain. The customer don't need services. They need a fulfillment of a specific need to realize the value. The second part is customer perception. It is difficult to understand because it's varies from one customer to another. But generally, any customer perception has two main factors that drives it. Attributes and preferences. Most are dependent on the present or past experiences. Let me give you an example. Let's assume our product is a shirt. The size of the shirt is an attribute. Some like it loose on some like a tight, but the color and the design of the shirt is a preference, so anything related to functionality is an attribute. But anything related to the taste is a preference. Another factors that may influence the value of the service provider, especially in a business environment, is the reference value for the customer. For example, the in house value how much it will cost us versus an outside supplier 21. Responsibility Matrix: responsibility. Metrics is a tool that assigns the boundaries off the responsibilities for the team working in the project. There are many responsibility. Metrics is available with many variations. The most common is R A C I. To create R A C I metrics or any of its variation. You need two things. First, a column. Build it by labeling a column head, which will be the team member or the job function. Some rose on the roads list activity services or whatever necessary in each of the cross cells filled the responsibility as the best Obrecht issues people names, not job function. This will enforce accountability. Responsible the one executing the action accountable. The final approval, typically a team leader. Consult subject matter expert informed. Keep informed support will provide import to the task and support the responsible Very fire valid IDs Outcomes and provide Q A out of loo not included in this task. Edward Have a responsibility necessary for the team or the project. The two critical one that must exist in every metrics is responsible and accountable when filling the metric, there can be only one accountable but item, and one responsible have as many support and consult as needed, but always want accountable and one responsible, preferably not the same person. For separation of duties, avoid having a single person as responsible for all or accountable for all. Use blanks if the team's large and lots of people will not contribute to the item. Let's have an example. After you build your metrics, you will end up with a metric similar to this. Once you build your rescue metrics, perform role analysis to determine if the metrics is valid or not. To perform the analysis, you search for too many days on a single person in this case, segregates. This rules too many. Ours. Is this too much responsibility for one person? No. Empty. Is it required for this person to be involved in all of these items? 22. Section three: From Objectives to Benefits Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define business agility. I want to feel your management program management project management. 23. Business Agility & Waterfall Project: in the organization have two sets of activities. The operations and how to change and enhance these operations. Business agility is responding to developing and operating environment and market dynamics effectively and efficiently. Change is completed in the form of projects. One project might have an out boat off a new system or a new product. From the business perspective, this tangible output is not the objective. The objective of the project is outcome of this product or system. The new system will enhance productivity and productivity will enhance revenue. This is why, in the previous sections we focused on the value and course in this section. We will understand how organization might realize such goals interactions, how we deliver the project matter to the business. The faster project can deliver the outcome the faster the business can achieve the required results. So what's stopping the business Delivering the fastest project possible? Well, in any project, three constrains exists scope schedule coast changing one will change the other two as well . The business analyst role is to ensure that the changes made toe one constrain will empower the other two in a controlled manner. The idea of her project delivery is how to get from one state to another and help money. The project to move from the current to the future estate to Mrs are the most common waterfall and agile, so let's start with water. Full project. It is a project with a single direction flow. The project only moved to the next step. One finished the current step. This is the traditional way off delivering the project, and it's around for ages. The first step in waterfall is plan, then design than implement, verify and finally maintain. It's a very successful in many cases. An example for that are the constructions by the nature of constructions. You cannot build the fifth floor before the first. We have been building things a much longer time than having information technology lack off such agility will lead US toe agile project 24. Agile Project: the A joint project concept. It's iterative. Project it to deliver the fastest value to the business as soon as possible and going in circles until the entire requirements are finished. Let me give you an example. Building software. You can have the beast function off the software, and over time you keep adding features to that software. If you try to build this software using motor fel, the technology will change before you deliver all the requirements. But in agile, you can do the planning and closing on Lee once, but the remaining will go in circles until finishing the project. Sprints are the loop the project goes into to produce value. The shorter the better. A typical sprint duration is two weeks with a maximum. Four weeks are just these values to fit the project need. So why we still using waterfall projects until now? Aside from the obvious need example for that is construction. Waterfall is older technique, and most people are familiar with it. It had a much more control than agile project. A joint project. Phases are envision, speculate, explore, adapt close in envisioning phase what the project is trying to build shorter. The project and build the team in Speculate Phase the first phase of the Sprint. What features requirements to satisfy the business need You will include this in the Sprint . The feature based delivery plan is to meet risks. Maintain Features Board showing the progress and issue. Look off the Sprint and the overall project. Explore phase the second phase of the Sprint Actual blend work review Developed features. Build the issue management Once finished, the team pyro ties the feature built and task estimates a depth face third and final phase of the Sprint Fix things Final Review. Listen learned the project will loop until finishing all sprints and collect feedback. Close face deliverable completed and make listen learned from the project. Another concept and Angela is the backlog. It is a list of what the team will deliver. It is a view of all items that are in the queue. You start with 30 features or activities, and with each sprint, the number will go down until all the backlog is finished. 25. Portfolio Management: but it's better for your management. The portfolio is not a roll up off projects and programmes. It's much more than that. It is the sum of resources and the assets to achieve the business objectives and minimize the risk. But for you linked with organization goals. Unlike the project and programs, gold changed you dynamic market condition. It could be months or years, which means about awfully will last as long as it takes to achieve the gold. Typically, his organization does not have multiple border for use on the same level serving the same function. The portfolio manager is not a project manager. The beautiful your manager is a business person with some project management capabilities. His bribery objective is aligning the board to follow you to the business goals. All other project management methods water for or agile focus on how to deliver the project , not the outcome of the project Important for you management, the outcome is the critical part. Neither coast scheduled or resources matter on Lee the outcome to the business. So what is beautiful? Your life cycle? You start with idea, collection, business case and and this is project visibility selection and prioritization project delivery validating outcome, not outputs, benefits management. So let's understand the first phase. You have three main message to collect ideas, top down approach, bottom up approach and hyper approach. First top down approach this in your management. Create objectives and these gold sent to the line of business is each line of business. Submit to the senior members asking for a project ideas, bottom up approach each of frontline customer facing employee submit an idea and the general organization objective. Formally Based on that hybrid approach and this approach, all employees of the organization contribute to the final objectives and goals of the organisation, including the management themselves. The department role in this case is to aggregate similar ideas and pyro ties, ideas that might be more successful. 26. Business Case: with links to step number two full. Your life cycle is the business case. We start by defining what is a business case. The business case is a demonstration off a business need to the management that justifies the investment in time, effort and capital. To achieve the specific reward, the business cases half marketing and have technical its purpose to get the management support around the specific problem or a requirement always focused on the resources people , technology, money time example. Improvement will speed up performance, and increased productivity will allow us to utilize the technology better and reduce coast will save us money or increase the revenue. Remember, you are trying to get management support for investment expenditure. You should avoid responses like it is the right thing to do, or it makes sense or its industry best practices also avoid maximizing the outcome. Toe. Get the buy in fast. This will be one of the many business cases you will present to the management. If your credibility lost in the first business case, it will block any future project. So how long toe build a proper business case to create a broker business case you were require lots of information. It involves many departments to work on it. It required financial information from a financial department to get an estimate. Porsches ING department to get a quotation for additional software or hardware and estimation of an effort and finally someone from the business side managerial position. Typically, Business Case would require 3 to 5% of the total project time. If the plan to finish the project in 90 days, the business case should not exceed one week, the more time spent on a business case, this will give you an indicator of the expected project duration. 27. How To Build A Business Case?: how to build a business case. Management expects a fix it sections In any business case, the following is the fix It mean topics. Feel free to adding additional sections. Step one executive summary a paragraph explaining the purpose off the business case. Typically, this is written by a business person as the last piece of the document Steptoe Problem definition. Analysis of the situation. What the issue does the business face? All issues related to the quick wins Step three goals. What are the desired outcomes? Step for solutions. What are the options to solve the given problem? The proposed A solution to the problem in each solution. Define assumptions Since you are committing to something in the future, you cannot be aware of all information all the time. It is good to play some assumptions to make sure the project will proceed as expected. Example often assumption the cooperation off the finance team to supply information on time outcomes and benefits. What is the benefit off this a specific option? Coast. How much it will cost for that option. Timeline. How long it will take for that option to be implemented. Risk assessment. What are the risks deploying this option. Try to offer several options for management with different levels off Coast brisk and outcomes still. Five. Recommendations. After listing all options, add one section for recommendation and why you want the erection recommended over the others. Step six Appendixes. This one is optional and EP indexes at financial analysis Though this is the most challenging part off the business case, it would be very positive. Support the case with numbers like revenue. Total cost Break even Boeing Fixed calls Bay Back Period. NPV. Internal Rate of return. Some of the business case based breakfast is our always try to be the point. Make this short so that management can quickly read. Do not exceed a few pages long. Two or three pages. Max. You can expend later if management requested, so the business case will be negotiable. Management may even suggest some areas instead of the suggested one. Maybe they were require cut coast reevaluation off options is necessary in most cases 28. Project Feasibility, Selection and Prioritization: the next phase. Number two for your management is project visibility. You assess the feasibility by assessing three main parts. Resource is, are there enough resources available for this project like facilities, funds, time, people, operations? When the prayer goes life, can our operation team support it capability? Do we have experience doing it? Do we have the skills to deliver this? I always ask five questions in each one of those. Those questions always begin with why and how. If you cannot drill down toe answer five Wise and five house, then this part is not done properly. The next faith is perfect selection and prior authorization. In this phase, the selection is based on what the combination off projects will deliver. The maximum value to the organization. We use the highest return calculating using i. R R End. Our OI studies, typically in this phase coast of this benefit, will show up imprudent delivery phase. You validate outcomes, not output. Typically, project management focused on requirement, budget and schedule worth for your management. Focus on the benefit realized from the project. The benefit that because of it management approved the project. The last phase of portfolio management is benefit management benefits management is the practice off. Comparing the benefits achieved versus the benefits off the business case and address any Gap benefits plan would be a tool used in this phase as well. We already covered it in previous section. 29. Program Management: program management is the practice of grouping tour more projects that deliver similar deliverable. The program is a special kind of a project. It's deliverable is a livable off the running projects within. It follows the same steps as a Project Z stars a significant differences between the program and the project. So why run a program, not the projects directly? The main reason drone programs, instead off several separated projects are dependencies between projects inside the program . Manage costs, coordinate activities between projects, solve conflicts. So what's the program manager role? The role of the program manager is to manage the project managers running projects on this program, the outcome of the program and the project running within is the responsibility off the program manager. So what is the programme? Life cycle. You have three main phases program definition benefit delivery program, closure in program definition phase defined the value and the benefits of the program. Start on boarding projects. Start this faced by program business case. Why the program is required. What is the expected benefits and assumptions? The second most a crucial step in this face is to define the program Governance board. It's a virtual board consists of a sponsor and the critical stakeholders. They are responsible for changes to the program. Projects and benefits. Define what the programs would accomplish. How to keep the program on track, how the organization support the program in benefit delivery. Phase one of the projects are initiated. The programme. Ensure the value is continuously delivered even after the project closure. In this face, create the benefit. Register the benefit register collect on list all the plan benefits you need to make sure that the portfolio and stakeholder needs are aligned with the register. In the last phase program closure, all projects delivered the expected benefits successfully. If not adult, the project is created under the program to close any gap. 30. Project Life-cycle: brisket. Management typically has its own books and dumb enough knowledge. I will only provide the high level overview about the project management practice. The project is a change to the organization operation that should have a positive impact. Remove risk or constraint on the organization operations base. Don't be in my project. Life cycle is initiation. The project, the charter planning, the different plans are created and the requirements collected. Executing the team was simple. Monitoring and controlling benefit to the organization and deliverable are managed to maintain quality. Requirements are monitored for any change closing perfect cruise deliver benefits and deliverables to the organization. 31. Section Four: Building a Team Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define what is a team team development, conflict management. 32. Team Building: any kind of project is impossible to be done by a single person. I'm assuming you will have someone under your supervision or a small team as a team is critical to the success off the project. In this section of the course, you will learn about the team and how to build a lead. One. Let's start by identifying what is a team. A team is a unit of tour more people to communicate and coordinate their work. To reach a specific goal in the initial team building, you have to decide on three factors team type, team size and team rules. Think of them as three Dimension that govern each team. So let's start by the type of the team. You will have three types formal, created by the organization to fulfill a neat vertical manager and subordinates. Horizontal occurs department, sometimes called Project Team any off. The previous types can be also local. Team a team in the same location. Virtual team. The virtual team must use the technology to facilitate communication like WebEx or Skype. Call global team teams from the front part of the world. The challenge is bridging time, distance, culture and language, so you will end up with a metric that looks like this. The common practice is toe. Have one off each type, and the more types you add to the team, the more complex it will be. Let me give you an example. Your team could be formal local team or virtual global. This is a usual breakfast, but I had seen formal, horizontal virtual global teams as well. Managing thes is much harder in reality. The second thing you need to decide is the team size. The team need to be large enough to incorporate multiple skill sets that can benefit the project, but at the same time, it needs to be small enough to make the member feel connected to the team. Try to diversify the team. It re genius team reform Better than homogeneous, though they will have more conflict. Smaller team reform faster, however, The exact number to get the maximum success is different. Based on many factors from 3 to 6 members, this is a golden number. If more members are needed, go with multiple teams, each assigned its objectives. The next step is deciding on the members road mix. There are two main categories for members rolls, the right mix is required to reach a balance. The task of specialist is the role that helps the team reaches gold. The socio emotional is the role that buying the team together and prevent the team from falling apart. What if the entire team is only one role? If the team entirely from the task of specialist role, more tasks will be done? But the conflict will increase to the point the team will not be functional. If the team is also emotional. Expect the slow progress was almost no conflict. If you notice this has nothing to do with the team members qualification, he or she can be very qualified person and one of the to mention types. The idea here is to highlight the non obvious aspects off the team because electing qualifying team members is a very straightforward 33. Stages Of Team Development: any new team go through stages to reach harmony. This is why the all team usually much more productive than the new teams. The stages for the team development are stage one. Forming at this stage is a team formed and the team members are getting to know each other . The authority typically is taken without challenge from others. Goals are set. The stage is critical to the team commitment to the team gold. Sometimes this is refer toa by team cohesiveness with the correct approach, team will agree on purpose and direction. Stage two Storming Now the personalities emerge. Everyone speak their mind. Members start to be assertive in clarifying roles and expectation from them. This stage will have lots of conflicts and disagreements, and this stage socio emotional role is very critical. Most team do not get past the stage. If conflict in this a stage are not solved correctly, team cohesiveness will be impacted. Morale and productivity will be impacted either positive in case of successful conflict resolution or negative in case off not handling the conflict correctly. As the team leader focused on conflict management and resolution, Stage three nor Ming conflict resolved the team member accept and understand one another. Team norms are what to expect and what is acceptable at informal standard shared by the team. You know this faces happened when they start using their own references that no one else can understand stage for reforming focus on the team tasks and have to achieve the team goal disagreement handled in mature way and for the benefit of the team. Stage five. Enduring the team achieved its goal and getting down. Some teams don't get to his face and stay a team because they are used so many times in smaller projects. So no point going through the same stages in every project. But if you have to one thing, I discovered it that reusing old, successful teams move through the same levels, but at much faster pace. Now you have the team how to perform effective team leadership to be effective. Team leader. There are three main pillars. Find the purpose and really people around it always make sure people know the project purpose. Better yet, believe in it. Do not micromanage trust the team. They will get the job done, even if there is some variation to the expectation there is always more than one way to reach a goal. Do not be afraid to ask for help. The project owner is not expected to be expert in all areas. It's OK to ask for help from an expert for assistance. The last one learn how to handle conflict. 34. What Is Conflict?: conflict is when a member of the team tries to block the goal or ideas of another person to get more resources. One of the most common a challenging roles off the team leader is to solve the conflict effectively. Not all conflicts are wrong. A mild conflict between team members might be beneficial and will prevent group thinking going with the flow without a contrary opinion. Conflict is not something negative or positive. It's something critical in any team. How the conflict is handled is what's makes it positive or negative. Any conflict need to be discussed and not avoided. Let's start by defining the conflict. Conflict is opposing thoughts and feeling working against each other. The common reasons for conflict are resource is work style, perception, ghouls, pressure, short term objective rules. It's someone else job or it's my job. Personal value, what's right and wrong. One of the most common sources off conflict is poor communication. Sometimes you have to explain what the other parties communicating and make sure that him communicating correctly. So what if you ignored conflict and what will be the consequences? The first consequences is miscommunication. People will not bother to get their point of view to the other listeners quality reduction . The team would reform the minimum required missed deadlines. The team will like the motivation to keep the deadlines reduction in cooperation because increased level of stress. 35. How To Handle Conflict: Behaviors types: so how to handle conflict? The following general steps for any conflict resolution First recognize there is a problem . Second, except there is an issue. Third express the issue fourth clarify and simplified to the point. Fifth, Choose how to move forward on finally resolution. Every situation is unique, but the up off six steps are common across all conflicts. The next step is to understand people, personalities and behavior types. This will give you an indication where this person will move next in the conflict. So what are the general behaviour types? Understanding Behavior types is a critical requirement for conflict handling behavior full in three categories. Assertive. Know what they want but willing to listen and acknowledge others. When win solutions, Direct, Aggressive will seek to win at any cost. It will be win lose or when when indirect, aggressive will try to win in indirect ways will block others from winning. Win, lose or lose Lose. The last one is passive. This is not a category, but sometimes it's an attitude. Will not try to win, will avoid conflict at all costs. Now you know the parties in your conflict and expected behaviour types 36. Conflict Handling Styles & Outcomes: So what are the ways to handle conflict? There are two direction for handling conflict. Negotiation is searching for an agreement that satisfies both parties. Mediation at them. Toe help parties in this agreement to hear one another before starting an appreciation. Understand first, what is the goal of each party and expectation after that plan, style and steps. At this point, you know the types and the direction. The only thing the meaning is to understand what is the option. You have to act accordingly. This will lead us to conflict handling styles. The first style is forcing style over forcing the other to accept. Their point of view should be used on Lee if a quick, decisive action is required. Used window issue is urgent, like disaster recovery or unpopular decision need to be made like layers the avoiding withdrawing style when the issue is trivial or no chance of winning the conflict. The relationship is important. Gold will not be met in either way, the compromising when the goal on each side is equally important and both sides having equal power, find the middle ground by sacrificing part of the gold and ask other person to sacrifice part as well. The committee eating, smoothing the style conflict avoided for the sake of harmony. Value of the relationship is the higher than goals also used. If losing the conflict or outmatched, this style will guide you on how to solve the conflict. Let me give you an example. If you are a conflict between two team members, both are in direct aggressive. In this case, you have limited options because you will have to negotiate and reach a compromise. But if the conflict is between two assertive types, you can mediate, end, accommodate. This will lead us to the end of the conflict. The conflict will end up with one of the following outcomes when lose. This is to get the max possible outcome regardless off the other party's losses lose lose both sides, lose something or everything compromise. Both parties will win, but not all needs. That's fight win win. This is the best case. Both are happy and sets fight. So how to reach a win win solution? One. Separate the people from the issue. Don't let it Toby personal or let people attack each other to focus on interest, not demands what they want and why they need it may be their actual requirement are much less from what they are saying aren't requesting. Three. Propose many ways to solve the issue that would satisfy both parties. Four. Set a standard objective for each party and stick with it. No letter to the personal judgment that the solution is the best block dynamic objectives objective being changed based on the situation. 37. Section Five: Organization Change Learning outcomes: By the end of this section, you will be able to define organization, development, change resistance. 38. Organization Change: change implementation require much behavioral modification. The information provided in this section off the course will be enough to change a small pieces. Unless you're trying to change something major, then it will take some additional effort to research more into this topic. This part is not a court requirement for a business analyst, but I found it's helpful for a business analyst to assist the project achieving its objective. This is why the B A is required to understand the resistance and the process the organization goes through during a project. Let's start by defining the organization change organization Change is adoption off a new idea by the organisation. Successful organization Change required that the organization can create and implement a new ideas and the breach change face during the initial phase of the project. The change team or the Project Team mission is to reduce fear and reuse negative rumors, usually in any organization change team there several roles. Inventor. The technical member of the team understands the technical aspect of the solution but really know how to get support for the idea. Champion Support the idea. Overcome obstacles, obtain financial and political support. Sponsor Ah, high level manager that protect the idea and help remove organization barriers. Critic. Look for shortcomings and ensure that the idea must meet the expectation. Once the team is ready for all four roles, you start the change by changing the mindset of people around you using training. The idea is to include everyone who has a stake in the change, usually called a project stakeholders, and start educating them. This will help them improve the quality of the final product. 39. Organization Development: organization. Culture is the personality of the organization. Each organization has a unique culture that emerges from the beliefs and behaviours off its employees. It is difficult to change since this is not something tangible and everyone's organization is contributing with a part of it. However, with the correct motivation, it can be a just bit by bit to move in the different direction. This is typically called organization development. There are three stages off changing the mindsets and organization culture. Stage one unfreezing all people throughout the organization made aware there is a problem and the need for fixing this can also be in the form of presenting the current state and the desire the state to achieve the optimal results always highlight the performance gap between the current and desire. The performance example for that use the dashboard was the target and the current status of something this is required to create the unfreezing state. This dashboard should not be technical. It should be off interest the business. The current incident with the expected instance to be solved is Onley, often interest to support team, not the entire users, but the productivity loss end of financial loss do you to delay in the incident may spark interest. Stage two. Changing. After people are made aware of the problem, intervene with the new process or technology and conduct training for people. Make sure the most users are aware of the issue To avoid resistance. The visits off the dashboard will indicate interest. You can know this from the server admin and the server log. You can also use regular emir identification. The recount on the emails will indicate the interest and the awareness off the issue. Stage three Refreezing refreezing happens when the user start accepting the new systems. As the new normal and their attitude change thes three stages you go through over and over . The objective is to make sure that the changes completely adapted and is now the new normal . 40. Resistance To Change: now you had your team and started the change to the organization. How to others? Resistance to the change. But first critical warning. Some people resist change regardless of what the project is trying to reach. The idea is try to win over as much as possible off this group. At the end, there will be some left. They will never support the project. These are the people whom refused to you the touch phone until they could not get a phone with a key Bad anymore. My recommendation in such a situation is to ignore them and proceed with whatever changes planned. So why people resist change? Well, people resist changes for many reasons. The most common reasons are conflict with self interest. Like a lot of power, prestige benefits. You counter this by finding what interest each one and emphasize on it. This project will give you this specific benefit, lack of understanding and trust them. Please often distrust reason behind any change. Think what if intended. The reason for change counter this point by training and workshops maintains a set of school uncertainty. Some people are risk averse and would like to maintain everything as is this can be countered by demonstrating the performance gap and conducting workshops. The last one is different goals, and this one manager of each department had their own goals. Directing resources away from that goal may impact their support for the project. This one is a problem because it will show a discrepancy in the gold creation in any organization. So how to minimize the resistance? There are some tactics to minimize the resistance or even overcome it. Training and communication don't try to hide anything and always communicate. Reduce fear. Participation. Involvement in setting the goal will reduce the resistance negotiation. We talked about this in conflict resolution. Coercion. The top down approach manager forcing employees to change to the new system. Top management support. Now you're change has happened how people would react to such change. This is called emotional cycle off change. This happened if the change is significant enough changing the way things been done for long time. Let's take an example if the improvement project is deploying service disc tool for ticketing system and instead of dropping by or calling the I T. Now the users have to follow the new system or the new set of tools. Phase one avoidance customers or users will avoid the new system and keep calling and dropping by to fix issues. In this case, either ignore any request not coming through the portal. But this will increase the user the satisfaction or fix the issue on off the user gently to create the ticket. After some time, use the first mistletoe cut off calling and dropping in face to reforms. Customer or users will blame the new system not being able to fix issues and time for them to perform their shops. They will blame the service team. They will try to push back to the old system. The only solution is to ignore this place will take months to finish phase three acceptance customers. Users will accept the new system as a new default and will start asking more question on how to use it properly. 41. Section Six: Requirements And Stakeholders Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define stakeholder management business requirements, how to conduct interviews, get the great features, requirements, refinement and verification managed customer expectations. Build requirement back egx collecting requirements in agile team 42. Collecting Requirements: Define Business Problems: The first thing you need to know is informing management. This needed steps were require talking to many decision Maker. A phone decision maker dropped out of the project. They might get offended. Remember the bottom line for every business is people working with people. Don't forget the human factor. Treat everyone as critical to the project. Regardless, always go through the proper channel to arrange a meeting. And lots of cases could be the person manager before talking to his or her team. You don't have to say a lot example off a conversation opener that you are working on something to improve or simplify the way they do business. But you will need the support off other departments to create a full picture. Try always to think from the listener point of view how this project me appeal to them. Once he or she notes off approval, you can proceed now. You move to the core of the course, collecting business requirements. You collect requirements because of the change or a plan for a change. In some cases, you will discover areas for future projects and propose a project yourself. But in most organization, your starting point is the project. The majority of business analyst effort is in the first few faces off the project, so to summarize the first step is to create scope statement. What will be the accomplishment on wants the prerequisites and assumptions. This is the high level to get the general idea on the boundaries of the project, then identify key stakeholders after that, create business requirement by determining and documenting business requirement in an easy to understand manner. Identify the completion criteria in business terms and evaluate any change during the project to ensure you are delivering the same value. So let's start by defining business problem. Either you are in the project or thinking there might be a possibility for a project. You're always the start by defining a business problem. The problem definition does not mean necessary for an area that have something seriously wrong with it. A problem could indicate an interest in an issue we're finding The right answer might help improve the existing situation. This will be a huge added value to you to define business problems and potential opportunities. The first item on how to the find business problem is use multiple collection techniques, individual and group interviews Job Observation Literature Review To avoid wasting time on previously research topics. This includes all the required written information. The literature review includes discourses searching the Internet reports conferences. This is to get a deeper understanding off the subject at hand system review. Collect the same information for multiple sources. The country data like Web site, Internet, annual reports, organization, Objective business plan, operation plans and primary data like people in different locations find overlapping areas for improvement. 43. Collecting Requirements: Identify Stakeholders: The second step is collecting requirements. You need to understand the project scope from the project manager and the project to sponsor. So how to collect requirement? You can gather requirement using interviews but in storming sessions or focus groups observing a job or a process, get permission first and give notice to the employees. Surveying requirement Governing Workshop Co. Creating a big picture during the workshop. Make sure there is a shared understanding off the vision off the solution. Why build it golden objectives and the high level school? The worst situation in the middle of the project is that someone discover missing requirement from the project. Sometimes it can be added and other times rework, and the project modification required in either case is correct. Business requirement analysis will save Ma Cherie work, and there are steps to follow to identify the requirement as accurate as possible. It is a process off discovery, analyze, summarize and comment the requirements before moving to the next steps. Your first step is to identify stakeholders. A stakeholder is a crucial person in the project. They have something to gain or lose from the project impacted by the work or can influence the project, it is essential to know what is the requirement and interests are. In some cases, the entire users are stakeholders. But since it is impossible to list all users, we use a sample to represent the entire user group. The first step is knowing who the project stakeholders are. Ist sit down and bring storm with the sponsor and project manager who might be involved. It can be people or other organizations as well mentioned them all by person, department or organisation name. Avoid generic terms. I always like to use simple table to identify the internal and external stakeholders. Don't be afraid of going around explaining the project. Collect feedback on get some ideas. Who's the stakeholders might be. The entire project team should create this list, not a single person opinion. This will lead us to identify the project. To sponsor your first most important stakeholder is your project sponsor. It might be one person or group of people and most of projects you know the owner from day zero. But the owner is not only the sponsor to identify the sponsor. We have two main roles. The champion is the one who benefits the most from this project. The owner is the one who will allocate the budget for it. As mentioned, the owner is a bit easier to find simply full of the money. Next, they will identify the champion for you. The main question with the project response of the are to find the project, establish expectations out of this project. Identify organization Objective. Why this project is needed and expected outcome. Once a sponsor answered the mentioned questions and you identified the business problem, you move to the next set of questions. But in this set off questions, both the sponsor and the project manager need to answer the following How to identify stakeholders. How large is a stakeholder group? Where are they located? Were they request the same thing or are very different things? 44. Stakeholders: Now we know who the stakeholders are For each stick holder, you should ask yourself some initial questions. What do they value in this project? Are they with or against the objective of this project? How to measure the commitment to the project? Do they have the authority to change the outcomes? Did we collect their requirement? What areas of the project might be a conflict with which the colder. Now we know the stakeholders, and you answer the questions to understand from where they are coming from. We move to categorize the stakeholders. Two factor determines the stakeholder level. How much power or influence they got on the project and the level of interest with or against the project. Now place each stakeholder into a group based on the influence and interest. Please know that the interest can be positive. They want the project to succeed or negative. They want the project to fail. We discussed this in why people resist change and how to overcome it. Now you know the influence and interest in the project. The next step is to classify based on the liver of information they might require. Stakeholder have four primary groups. The 1st 1 is keep informed. These are the people that have low influence and low interest in the project. Usually, the clear majority of users will be in this group. Consult anyone was input that can benefit the project is our positive ideas or by criticizing the current ideas. They're interested but have minimum influence. Usually they are your peers and interested users involved. This group is critical because they have influence, but they are not interested. The objective year is to involve them and find out their interests that may be achieved by the project. What information they need to hear helped win them around and finally mean player. These are the most critical stick holders. They need to be managed very carefully, maintained their positive interest, alternatively in case of negative interest. How to make it positive once you know which is which. Mab, the key stakeholders. This is because since not all stakeholders at the same level of influence or the same level of interest, we draw a map toe mab stakeholders to the nearest point to the actual in any given square divided to different sections. 123 ABC To make it simpler to identify the stakeholders without going back to the diagram from the metrics, build it able to identify the stakeholders. Now we know your stakeholders. You move toe how on what to communicate with them. And to do that, we use communication plan communication plans about how to communicate the right message to the right people at the right time. Usually the communication playing created on Lee for the key stakeholders, a typical communication plan contains stakeholder name, title, project role, key interests and issues. Refer the communication approach like email, phone or in person messages needed example. Presentation project updates how often they need the message channels, e mail, phone numbers or anything similar delivered by who's responsible for sending this. Now these tables are alive. It does not build once or forget. People change interest, keep a close eye on them and keep updating both tables. 45. Identify Business Requirements: in this step identified business requirement collected from the mention stakeholders. The requirement needed each one of the stakeholder considered the project on Lee. From their point of view, they may identify requirement far beyond the project. Scope Expectation Management is very critical in this stage. You will need to parts your ings identifying requirements. The 1st 1 is requirement solicitation. It's asking the question. The right question. What question needs to be asked? Is the results off the defined problem statement step During the problem definition, you will create a list of questions, and the second concept is the requirement analysis. It is understanding answers and discover new questions, leading toe how the pieces fit together. Now we move to collection techniques. There are two main techniques. Interviews. Talk to each one of the stakeholders, peripheral guided in the view. Create a few questions in advance to guide the interview properly. Focus Group. This will provide input while showing the integration points between departments in the real creases. A previous attempt on this improvement might exist. Reviewing the previous documentation or discussions with involved people might be helpful. As mentioned previously, all businesses challenges boiled down to three items revenue increase, Khost decrees and risk management. You need to understand which requirement fit into these categories. Never assume anything. Always ask for everything, even if it seems obvious, and keep digging for the pain. Any business problem is often referred to as pain during the collection process. You need to focus on this because you might miss a huge business requirement because it's simply a latent pain. So what are the types of pain? The first time we have is late in pain. A problem existed for so long and the customer systems to the point that they are living with this problem day today. Or they found a way to live around it. Current pain, a problem the customer recently discovered and trying to find the solution for possible pain, a problem the customer will have in the future if they did not act on it in the present 46. Interviews: the topic for this video is a preparation for the meeting. Before each meeting, you have to create a meeting agenda. The meeting agenda must contain the purpose of the meeting, the outcome of the meeting and topics that will be discussed. This to ensure the meeting will generate the expected outcomes. The most important kind of meeting is the interview. Interviews help uncover the needs from the interview we bought into view. Conducting the interview is based on a schedule availability off each stakeholder started from management levels to understand the core requirements and the front line levels to understand how to conduct the business. Typically for most of the users, a single interviews enough but in some cases have a follow up interview to clarify some items. Your primary objective off the interview are. Gather information, understand needs, build the positive relationship and gain trust tohave the interviewee opinion without peer pressure. Always remember to try to make the interview at two way conversation and with a positive attitude. If it's a one way you keep asking question, it will turn into a form of interview gold interrogation typically used by security agencies, and it's not very positive in any project they expected. Focus in each of the interviews should be, in the case of a sponsor interviewing. Explain the project. From a business perspective, the focus off the interview should be on the issues and the business goal in case of a function leader. They will explain the project from their point of view on Lee in case of an end user, the system and the process, limitations and inconsistencies two areas Watch out for during the interview during the conversation with a stakeholder. Watch out for areas out of the scope for this project. Sometimes the stakeholders will not be able to take a decision in this case off our alternatives, and they can select one. 47. Conducting The Interview: so how to prepare for the interview? Since most of the stakeholders have their jobs, you need the interview to be as short as possible. Be prepared and ready for whatever question you have. Start the preparation by defining topics for the interview meeting agenda and get the necessary approvals from the interview. You manager all of the start with the sponsor of the project and generate a list of people . These people will ask you to talk to another list of people. You continue to do so until you finalize all the needed requirements. Working with a project manager to determine the Stakeholders list is critical. Sometimes the lists provided is the best guess, and they may not have the required information to validate this. Whenever a name is offered, make sure you know why this name is offered and what should you learn from them. Now you have a list on some suggestions about what you should know when planning the interview. Blend two types of questions open ended questions like describe what? How etcetera, close ended questions. These are the yes, no questions or a specific value. Always the start with an open ended discovery question and get information validated using close ended questions. Sometimes interviewee may not be the right person and unable to answer Discovery question in this case. Make sure you end the meeting while maintaining the relationship with the stakeholders. So how to conduct the interview? We need to understand the big picture from a stakeholder buoyant of you. Otherwise, you will be missing a lot of essential requirements. Start with preparing questions to make sure you are with the correct person. Typically group the questions into four areas. What is your vision of this project? What is the current situation? What is considered a success? What are the risks off this project before the interview? Always understand the interviewee toe build report. Example. A project you worked together on previously personal interests outside of the work, etcetera, Just in case you have none of them mentioned. Use the current project report like what is the current project will achieve and house. It's important to both of you. Focus on the human side, said expectation of the meeting. Sometimes interviewees unaware of the project in this case, give a brief about the gold project vision and what's needed from him. Always let the information flow from the interviewee to the interviewer. It's always from him or her to you never faced the questions with information or assumptions, because it's much easier for him or her to agree with you. Let him give all the possible information. Don't get the technical requirement. This typically happened when you design the solution. What you care about is the business value, not the technical value. Always understand the problem or the challenge to the business before discussing how the problem could be solved. How the problem will be solved is another phase done by the subject matter experts. Once you finish the interview, always make sure to follow up on the interview. Always send a thank you email appreciating the interviewee diamond effort with you. Since a typical interview can be 30 to 60 minutes long. Thin the meeting minutes off what's been said when sending the notes. Send your understanding, not the row information ward by world. This will allow the stakeholders to come back. If there is any misunderstanding, don't forget to mention the top actions and decisions that had been made. Also, the next steps 48. Features: At this point, you have a list of requirements from the stakeholder. Before he closed the meeting with them, you need to group them in what's known as features. You categorize the future based on many aspects, the most common to our importance and type. Let's start with the importance of the future after the core information is collected. The last question in the interview is. Why do we need this feature? Is that the must or should or Nice toe have features? Almost feature is a core feature that the business depend on it should feature. It's a core feature that will speed the cycle of the software. Example. Like a simple reporting functionality. Nice toe have is a feature used for user comfort and ease of access. Now, for the second time, once all requirements collected from all the stakeholders begin categorizing them into the following groups functional. This is what the solution should do. Example. The solution should respond to orders and less than five seconds nonfunctional the situation and environment. A solution. Operating example. The up time of the solution. 99.99% of the time technical requirement. These requirements are related to how the system is built, like the S type, what the server configuration should be. Transition requirement. These are Tim Berry in nature. Example. If you have an old systems that serve the specific function on migration of its old data into the new system, the main idea is to create a metrics. Each requirement must reside in a single cell. You don't have to build the actual metrics. I'm only using it to administrate how the categorization is done. You actually track the functions and requirements in one sheet called the traceability metrics. The objective of sheet is to understand who's asking for what features you stated the requirement importance and the stakeholder requesting this requirement. You may add additional fields like deliverable, satisfying the requirements, requirements, risks, etcetera. 49. Requirements Refinement And Verification: Now you have all your requirement arranged in a traceability metrics. It's time to refine and verify each of the requirements to ensure that the collected requirements reflect the current business strategies. Always ask stakeholders to categorize requirements in tow. Must group should group and nice tohave group. This was discussed earlier, but what if the stakeholder did not know how to buy? Advertise the requirement in this case used Moscow prioritization m on S C O W. Take every requirement available and assume we will not deliver any of the requirements. The impact of not doing the requirement will determine is it? I must have. I should have. Could have or want tohave. Now it's time for requirement. Quality checklist requirement. Got a checklist Is a filtering technique to ensure the quality and the consistency off the requirement for every requirement. Ask, Is this requirement necessary in scope, specific, measurable, achievable Once you have all the previous questions as yes, proceed to understand more about the requirements in each requirement, you should have pulls the most impacted by this project. People organization equipment, etcetera. What is the original scope of the system? Where is this system? Local remote? Multiple cities or countries when this need first appeared. How many customers and users are impacted? Which location has the worst issue? Why this project is needed For every requirement you have its own file or section on a file that state all the relevant information. Now the requirements pause the first filter, and it's time for the verification. Verification has multiple techniques. The easiest and the most common are berry view. Find someone not a stakeholder, to identify any big areas or worlds. You have a project manager users, customer sponsors who will bridge the gap to make sure everyone understanding off the requirements is the same former reviewer legal team to review the requirements. Word by word always validated the requirement against business truth. Business rules are the rules enforced by the business itself. For example, the Max Limit on 80 m withdrawal birthday. Now we move to acceptance criteria. It is how the stakeholder considered this requirement delivered. This typically happens at the end of the project, or at the end of this print Acceptance criteria are the deliverable off the high level business requirements. This means that the requirements must be measurable. Unclear if you cannot set acceptance criteria for this requirement. This means it's broadly defined and need further details. All acceptance criteria must be created before the requirement or functions created. Tow. Avoid endless loops of requirements. The final step in every project is testing, and the previous a step. We mentioned acceptance criteria. How to test this acceptance criteria if the project fulfills it or not. Typically, it comes through the form of a test, a plan document, a document that described what and how it will be tested and by who and when. It includes scoping objectives, distinct rules, tools and documents. Entry and exit criteria. Get into this two cases that map to the requirements. This is the final step to ensure the requirements met the specification requested from the stakeholders. 50. Managing Expectations: I have to stop here on highlight managing customer expectations. Many, many customers have a tendency to dump every requirement they need on you, regardless, if the project will fulfill it or not. This need to be collected and felt are the out as previously mentioned and the most importantly, managed? The only measure here is if the project me the customer expectation or do it fall short of it. If the customer expect too much of the project beyond the scope, it will be a failure from a customer point of view. So from where the expectation are coming from, typically, expectation comes from our communication past and similar experiences. Word of mouth. Unless this is your first interview, other running projects always make sure that the clear majority off the stakeholder knows exact out. But from the project to avoid any potential negative impact, it would be an unpleasant surprise if a part of the requirement dropped from one of the stakeholders to avoid this. Once you collect all the requirements from all the stakeholders, some requirements will be shared some of specific on some extreme and cannot be accommodated into the in scope. To fix that contact the stakeholder in question. Explain why removing the requirement example it will take too long to implement. It will be in the next phase or it's too expensive. Offer the list of alternatives. Maybe another requirement from another stakeholder will satisfy the removed. The requirement. Agree on a solution. Example. Yes, stakeholder will support another requirement or refreeze the requirement so it can be accommodated or the stakeholder will provide funding for this requirement. 51. Build Requirement Package & Decision Tables: At this point, you have all the requirements ready. It's time to build the requirement package. The project charter is the first item in your requirement package. What is the improvement expected off this project? For the requirement document itself? Use the following sections. Who provided the requirement data and what did they required? Constrains, assumptions and dependencies. What if your project is building a new software or adjust the current one? You follow the same steps, but one additional piece will be added. It's called Decision Tables. Decision Table is used when you have manufacturers that will dictate a decision. You create them in a decision table. This will identify all the scenarios. This especially helpful if you design an application for machine learning algorithm as a base to practice use on Lee. Yes or no questions, not value. Keep it limited toe four or five factors, but if you need more, make a new table. Since this is a basic probability, the more columns you have, the more option you will get. If you had one calm toe three by three table. The probability will jump from nine scenarios to 16 scenarios. See how a single column added increases scenario significantly 52. Collecting Requirements In Agile Teams: So what if you work an agile team? What differences are there? We knew collecting requirement and agile teams. One of the main differences is the documentation. In agile teams, it's lightweight and much more straight forward. As you see from the agile phases, the focus is on producing results for the business. Unlike the water full message, you can spend as much time as you like documenting the requirements and agile the focus on sparking the conversation to deliver value. Continuous illustration allow for refinements off requirement. With each release, the stakeholder redefined the requirement. By redefining, I mean find Hyun to reach the exact spot, not changing the requirement entirely for the backlog, item or feature. Your role is to prioritize essential feature that will be in the next release. You and the owner will make sure most of the backlog will be removed in the refinement process. Eliminate work that will not provide value. This will follow the same process mentioned in the requirement, verification and the quality checklist mentioned earlier. Your primary objective is to keep the sprints going and focus on estimating, analyzing, prioritizing and breakdown stories for the next sprint to keep the team going. Several meetings, workshops and sessions will be conducted to refine the next sprint end of OCLOCK two concept you need to understand when governing requirement and agile teen. The first concept is splitting the user story. You divide the user story into smaller pieces. The broken pieces are not technical functions. Instead, it is a customer value that can be presented and tested. The 2nd 1 is built a story map for each user story. Use it in the logical order of the process. This means you will end up with a grid that looks like this. 53. Section Seven: Business Process Modeling Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define what is the process discover current services. What is organization capability? The commend. The current service. 54. Business process modeling: any business is a subtle process is connected to deliver value toe on in the customer. The committing. These processes are critical for any organization to stay in the market competitively. So what is business process? Monitoring Business process. Modelling is a visual way the organization keep track off its processes. Moreover, make sure it's matching its goals and objectives. The main benefits is to understand house organization runs and reform activities. This will identify any vague or missing process in the organization. The first step is to identify the steps included in the process. The following tools are the most common in business process. Murdering the first Tulis context diagram. It's a high level understanding off interactions, functional flow diagrams the process between actors swim Linda Grahame's The process Across all involved entities flow, charting the process for someone specifically, the idea behind all of these diagrams is toe have a reference point to get back toe once needed. Typically, hundreds of processes exist in any given organization toe upgrade or modify some component . It's required, understand who's dealing with this component and that I used a deeper understanding off entities activities and that a flow required to decide Now we have to start building as his model. This is the current situation in the organization. No improvement or adjustment, just documenting the current process. Organization performing a project are functional now. It is rare to think of improvement or state of art system when you still building the business. When the organization is a start of you worry about survival and getting the product to the market, it is Better Chance organization already have some process in place to provide users with services. But if the process is new in this case, you can gather the requirements using interviews and decision tables and then move on directly to diagrams. So let's start by clearing out couple of definitions. What is a process? The process is a transformation action toward one or more goals. It is measurable. Have a specific results, have a specific trigger to start it. So in order to have a process, you will need something transforming specific outcome can be measured. The result is a specific or in a specific range. Something that triggered the whole thing could be a certain action or even time trigger. Now he knows the process. The other term, you need to learn about his organization capability. Organizational capability is a specialized, the multi process system, trying to achieve a specific goal to benefit the whole organization. And it is not limited Onley toe information technology. Example. Capacity management is an organization capability, not a process. Capabilities are like process. Usually it's experienced the ribbon and knowledge intensive resources like financial capital infrastructure applications. It's considered the resources it is easier to obtain the resources and capabilities capabilities developed over time from solving problems, finding solutions, dealing with risk and analyzed failure. In other words, the smallest item in an organization is the process, but what deliver value to the organization is organisational capabilities. 55. Discover The Current Services: how to discover the current services. The first step is to know where the organization is before thinking off improvement or adjusting the current settle any uncalculated move or try to enforce a process or developer capability that contradicts with the current business were result in project failure. Your starting point is requirement gathering techniques. Same as mentioned earlier. You start by creating a work show. Was lots of people each saying his or her daily routines and what tools and systems they use. You cannot ask them for a process. The easiest way is to ask for the tools, the use on a daily basis and start digging deeper in the next phase. You don't have together extensive list at this point. Just cover five or six systems and start the deep analysis phase. I always recommended setting was one person from each department in an informal way for 15 to 30 minutes. These systems will point to other systems, is a receiving data or delivering data to then you will build diagrams of for the newly discovered systems and so on until you met the entire organization. Another message is to go as high if you can in the organization and get ah, high level House organization is actually working. Then start going down on build another view until you reach the process and tools level. So this Mr This better But I found it's much harder to do in real life. Whatever method you choose, you will end up with the list of systems, and you can move on to the next step. How to the commit the current systems. At this point, you should have a list of systems. There is a high chance that the organization department documentation is out of date, and you will need to the comment an existing system to the commend. The existing system utilizes the existing knowledge you acquired in the past sections. In addition to two new knowledge areas, the 1st 1 is how to create an activity list. The second is how to build diagrams 56. Activity List: So how to create an activity list? Go to the owner in case no honor available, Go to the frequent users and ask how to do the process with all the variation. This is like playing what if scenario. Whenever a new branch comes off, one of the activities carried out a new table for it. The commits the narrative and start building the activity table. Don't use a recorder. People get on eased if recorded. Instead, take notes and confirmed that the general understanding you need to understand is this will be a workshop, not a one hour interview. You could spend the whole day with a single owner, just the commending all the process. Variation. Any activity require entities that triggers it someone or something as an input or output of an activity. Example. Sit down with support representative asking about the process off printers. Hi to support. There are many cases related tobe renters. In some cases, we need to start order for a new printer. Another case. Just a driver installed on the system sometime. Just a minor issue in the printer, it that can be easily fixed by the user like a bigger jam. Other case require I t like to know replacement or sent to manufacture for maintenance and the sentence. The entities in our activity are bold. Start with the first scenario mentioned from the I t. To get a new printer for the user. This is the first branch. Ask them what is the process for that? To get details with more clear steps, the user contacts I t using phone or email to request for a branch of the request is sent to the users manager. Why Email for approval Once approved, the approval sent for purchasing department for the printer acquisition. The printer delivered by the supplier I t engineer collects it from the warehouse and move it to the end user location. Users were granted access to work on their laptops. We install Amiga than necessary configuration. Once done, the user test the printer and provide us with the sign off for simplicity. I'm trying to limit the activities toe on Lee. The I T. Bo interview from the detailed description mentioned, we can extract on activity list. The first activity is the user contacting the i T support. Then I do support, picks up the phone or read the email, understand the request and right the request to the user managers. You will continue following each entity activity until you build your entire activity list . The most important thing is to make sure that the activity is a complete chain with no gaps from the list. Decides the entities, Are they internal controlled by I T or external I t cannot control and the activities is data processing changes. The state of the information, or is is just movement of data in the table that are persisting, marked as bold and external entities as underlined. 57. Abstract diagrams (Context, PDFD, LDFD): understanding. Abstract diagrams and then export diagrams will be created based on the activity list. Feel free to both. The video toe grasp House of the Grams are built on how the Connections army, as mentioned earlier, the idea behind all of these diagrams is to have a reference point to get back to once needed. Hundreds of processes exist in any given organization to upgrade or modify some component. It's required to understand who's is dealing with this component and that that I used a deeper understanding off entities activities and that a flow require to decide. First, let's have an overview off shapes, meaning these are the primary shapes used in the following diagrams. Now we move to our first diagram. The contact diagram. The contacts diagram provide a visual view are high level at a glance. It's a view from internal to external. The internal entity can be the organization and external is the suppliers and banks etcetera or it can be department team system or process within an organisation interacting with external entities. Think of it as us or them diagram the external entities, not the focus off the context diagram. However, it can be analysed later, each arrow represent a process or support. Start by drawing the first context. Diagram with the organization and external entities to the organization. For each of the relationship, find its internal entity and draw its context. Diagram. Keep doing this until all entities have a contact a gram. This will show you the connection between area that will guide the business profits creation. This approach is a top down approach. Another approach is to select a specific system and start eventually you will get to the same point. The context diagram is meant to defines the system boundaries. It is a logical abstracted diagram. This means it's a high level. To build the contact diagram, follow three steps. Step one. Start by writing the process name. This shape will include all the internal entity Steptoe. Write the names off all external entities, each one in a separate box. Step three. Adding arrows, each with an abstract activities now runs on Lee summarizing multiple processes into a single arrow. Once you finish your context diagram, move toe Physical data flow diagram. Physical DFD is following the exact steps from the activity left. The simple way of doing it is to take the context that Graham and remove the internal process, replacing it with all the internal activities. To avoid confusion, the diagram should follow the top down activity list data flow. And instead of having a single shape with physical printer request like the context diagram their physical d. If D will have three email system I t support and record system, the last one in's abstract diagrams is a logical dfd. Logical de of the is conceptual diagram focusing on the activities and who is doing them. And this diagram We group activities based on the location and time off execution. Step one. Extend activity list with two columns, one column for the group, on the other for the group name. Now you have a B C D E F groups, all divided by time. The next step. Start from the contact diagram to maintain the connections drove from the table, each group with its circle. At this point for any given system, he will understand the system boundaries in case upgrade or replace project proposed the system flow of information in both physical or logical 58. Flow-Chart: At this point, you understand your system well, it's time to drove the actual process, so help draw a flow chart before we begin. What is a flow chart and how it works? A flow chart is a representation or start and end of a process that contains some logic inside it. It gives the picture off steps necessary for a specific action. So what are the flow chart? Simple. These are the primary simple is used in the most common flow chart, start or end of the chart. There Simple is the first on the Lost Simple in any flow chart. It represents the start off entire flow Example. Accord received from an end user that can be start an incident solved the camp either end decision. This is a yes or no question or true or force this question. Answers can be anything but in the true or false logic. This will ensure that all decision is simple. Example for that. Did the previous steps solve the user problem? Yes, it will lead to the end pulse. No, it will direct or different pulse process or action. This is usually processing done toe on input from another shape it can be adding, subtracting, dividing, creating building. Example. Building activity list. Subtracting the price from the customer account arrow. This represent the connection direction between any two shapes. Usually this is top down. A document. A paper at that. A bizarre file on a computer used to store data or retrieve data output data used after some activity that produced data manual actions. Calling someone or writing down something. It's a process. A branching process on page off page connective. When drawing a complicated process, arrows end up going in all directions. This helps to clean things a bit. The circle is a reference on the same page. Usually have a number in it to identify the other shape reference toe on off page in the case of a chart spanning multiple bages, have a number on it as well to identify which reference 59. Drawing A Swimlane Chart: Now you have the shapes for the flow chart. Same shapes also used in linear flow. Chart swim lane flow chart, cross functional flow chart we basis on internal blouse, external entities from the physical dfd and the connections from the logical DFD. The entities can be vertical or horizontal. Vertical is preferred because it's easier to read. There's a simple principle I always like to perform before I can use my drawing tools to draw the final flow chart, get a flip chart and cut down Bages. Stick them on the wall and each one of them will be a process page. Next, get a sticky notes on right on them. Some activities and arrows play with people. Ask people to move them to the correct place if you use a tool. Instead, people will try to find the shortest path or not even try to modify. Because opening a tool and modify it is much harder than moving a sticky note. Here are general flow charts, Mr Practice one. Try to keep it simple as much as possible thing that a 10 year old can understand the floor . If not, simplify too. Keep the details consistent throughout the entire map. Three. And this is very important. No loops. If a problem is not fixed, don't go pointing the Arabs to start and follow the entire flow chart. This is considered unnecessary. Rework. The action should be trying several solution. Alternatively, shifting the issue to a different process to avoid loops at a decision was count. How many time did you receive this ticket or a problem? For example, try to make the flow in one direction. Top down, left right. Don't point arrows in all directions. It will be very confusing at any shape. But added diagram key to identify with shapes will represent what once reached a valid process that all teams agrees on. Proceed with the actual chart growing using the drawing tools. So now, drawing a swim lane charts. Typically, a swim lane chart is a high level with lots of Sapporo's is. Each is a process has its own flow chart. As a rule, if the entire process is reformed by a single actor entity, you stop down traditional flow chart. If it has many actors, you swim lane. If it's complicated with so many steps, you swim lane to demonstrate the interactions between actors or entities and for each actor useful chart. Since our example a simple process, we will you swim lane to cover all activities. Some drawing applications. I have attractive shapes more than others that will make it much easier to read and interpret. In this example, I'm only using basic shapes, so start from the activity list, placing each activity in the entity lane. Try to make the flow in one direction tow. Avoid confusion through interviews with user. Additional small issues and systems limitation will service. This may be a symptom of a broader issue for this. Use Fish Bone diagram. It is fast and straight forward. Q A n Problem Analysis Tool Fishbone Diagram drawn in three steps. One. Draw a line to start branching out, and this will be your primary issue. Third draws a country issue branching from the primary issue. After finishing all the issues, it will be a better view of where the core problem it will be. It will look like a fish bone. It can lead to many other improvement projects 60. Process Modeling: and this practice, we will learn how to process model on organization. But first we need to understand what is an organization. How the business functions. First, you will have the Brymer is dream off any organization. This is the core function of the organization. For example, if you have a riddle organization, the Green bar will be considered the ideal business, and every other biller is a supporting function. It could be I th our finance. Or if it's a financial organization, then the finance will be the primary pillar. So the green bar is identifying factor off the organization why the organization exists. So this is the core, and any other pillar is a support. Any organization have an input and output, the input could be materials. If it's a manufacturer, organization or skills and some other materials as well and few other materials. In this case, it could be a service organization. In all cases, most organization, the revenue seeking organization, will have an output over revenue okay and a profit. So this is the high level off what an organization is. Let's take an example in our example here you have the procurement process. This is the first process in your organization. Orderto generate a product at the end. You have warehousing, you have online Web store and you have delivery. You could have multiple other, but this is only for the administration for supporting function. You could have email file storage that Abby's recruitment at the HR accounting and finance . All of this is to drive and to generate and to convert the input, materials and skills in tow on out. But which is a revenue? So let's take an example how to do this forced. The real problem with process modelling is that you can take years to build all of these building parts. Your first step is to start to cover the entire organization by creating the simplest way off modeling the process. The easiest way to model a process and a practical terms is to create a service blocks, which is the steps that any service and process go through in order to generate embodied in tow. Albert, this mean all you have to do is to create take one step toe, step three and step for you're using. Get this for simplicity because you will have hundreds off processes inside than any given organization, you could if you model it with the deep technical details, you can take months, maybe a year, and during this year, the process could be easily changed or modified. So the easiest way for you to do it is to start building at using steps, and you keep rolling up Bates inside the process document so you will release in a week or two or a month. The entire process is off the entire organization, and later you keep building the flow charts and the swim lanes and the context and the abstract diagrams, which leaders toe the next step. You add logic to your process. The logic to the process is building a simple flow chart as mentioned before the flow chart is on Lee. For a single actor, this mean a single team or a single entity or a single person doing a specific flow off mosques. These are the most common flow chart symbols. You have the start and the end, and you have yes and no. You have the process. You're processing something in the square or rectangle, and you have the sub process. It's a tangle with a couple of lines and you have the data the most common that you will be using in any given flow chart and in 90% of the cases are the first Onley four. This shape is next page shape. You use it on Lee if your process is so complex and has so many steps that you need to create multiple bages. So this is used to clean things a bit and to redirect instead of having multiple arrows going through all over the place and confusing people who reading it. Because flow charts should be either top down or right left, it should have a single direction flow to make it easier for someone to read it. So the next step is to add logic is yes, no decisions, and you keep going until you reach the stop, which is a condition at the end. Your next step is toe. Add relationship between each flow chart on each other by adding multiple functions and multiple actors, for example, you really have a single team reforming an entire process or performing on entire service. In this case, you need to see some interactions between the processes and the multiple teams. In this case, we introduce the shared the profits that swim lane. Basically, you will have multiple lanes. Okay, Each of them You will have multiple processes, so each block off these should be a complete flow chart off these and this is Onley. Demonstrate that interaction between functions. This is the primary purpose off the share the process end swim lane diagram. Next you add a little bit information. You add a little bit off information to the share of the processes you add for each process , the input and the output, and you can list the owners as well. This is all in a single diagrams. This is the most advanced and sophisticated level off the swim lane diagram. Your input could be a forum. Okay, and you're out, but could be a process female or a processed function and the owners off this out. But who will process and who will do the flow chart off the input and the processing to generate the expected out? This is the most advanced stage, and this is typically handled in a very mature process. So let's take an example. We have here a part of a process that a user need to create an email. Okay, so let's go through your first build. The process details. This is you have to get right from the beginning of the process and you build the steps or the main factors and the main blocks off the process. So let's read it together instead of his disk. Receive a request from HR that the user joined our company. So first, the owner of this process is clearly the service desk received a request from HR. That user joined our company. We send the detail, the form or the reactivation form. If the user was working with a company before, so the first step is to collect information. This is the first step. So the process objective in this case is to provide user with the means off productivity and timely manner for the HR request toe. Very activation or the creation for the user required the resources. Next, you have the collect user information and requirement. This is the second step Collect user requirement. We contact the user manager to get approval for the hardware required and the software required. They use their manager get back to us. With hardware and software required. We could eat two forums. One first asset management team toe Acquire the new laptop and another one for the licensing team toe. Approve the license usage for that specific user. So this is our acquisition stage. Once approved both the hardware and software received. We we worked with the security team to create the user identity and access to our system. This is the fourth step. The identity. Once he created, we create an email and stole the software packages on user laptop and hand over to the end user to get the USAR sign off. This is the email, laptop and the handover process. So now, after reading the entire process, is script The Interviews service desk. You generate the details, the main details, the process objective to provide user with the means of productive ITI and timely manner and governance of user creation. User asset provided in accurate and timely manner. The processes scope is to provide user with a laptop and identity and access on finally email account. The process. Constrain a lot off manual actions using paper forms because we cede multiple times a year that there is multiple forms keep going back and forth between multiple people in the organization process Assumption Noah Soleil in this process. But soon it should be implemented. This need to be highlighted because something like manual paper form will impact the process else. L A significantly last part is involvement apartment. Clearly, this is the involved department will be the i. T. This is the mean actor of this process. So let's translate the steps in tow. A flow chart. This is the next step. So following the same script you have the HR request is this is a new or old user. We added a little bit of logic in this. If a new user and you user form will be sent If on old user every activation formed will be sent, both of them will collect user information. Then we contact the manager for his approval. If the manager disapproved, then we send it to HR. The manager disapproved the user. In this case, it will be an end for us. If yes, we get the hardware and software requirement, we send the hardware forum and we send the software forum. We have the licensing team process and we have the asset team process. Each of them are our sub process that outside the scope off this flow chart we see here a custom diagram. This is oclock. This is not a standard flow chart. You can add whatever diagrams you think will deliver the meaning and will deliver the ideas that you are trying to communicate. But the really important thing is to add a key to your diagram. This is will translate what the simple will mean, but tried to avoid having too much custom symbols because this will confuse people a lot. So now back to our flow chart. When I say we have the acid team process and we have the licensing team process, each of them deliver the hardware and the software. So once delivered, it would be moved to another beach because now we run out of space. So now we have this diagram covering toe another page because otherwise the process will be very long. So we need to segment it in order to make it more logical. So now we continue our process. Now we send to security team the security team, create identity and access. If not, then you had the clock once more, which is a cell a escalation. And finally, you have the sub process off email creation, the Sapporo's off laptop preparation and hand over to end user on. Finally, you will get the sign off. This is, if you see will map toe each step we mentioned earlier. So we have Step one collecting information. It will end with manager approval. Step two. Requirement. It will end with hardware and software requirement. Step three. Acquisition. It will end with hardware and software received and stiff for identity. It will end up with identity and access created Stay five email. It will end up with a male creation step Sex Laptop was lacto preparation Step seven handover. It will end up with the handover to the end user and receiving the sign off. Thank you for your time and see you in the next lecture. 61. Section Eight : Process Assessment Learning outcomes: By the end of the section, you will be able to define initial plan falls assessment, executing the plan, assembles theme and generate results. 62. Initial Plan For The Assessment: The idea behind this assessment is to discover any gaps in any of the process provided in the organization as well as understands of the communication required. This assessment process is to make sure the prophet documentation and implementation exists with evidence. With each level, additional ballsy actions and documentation must exist to move to the next level. In this section of the course, I shall introduce you to the concept of from a high level by interview and provide guidance on how such a process should flow. This can be conducted as a stand alone project or as a tool to assist you. During both process. Modelling and requirement gathering toe find the gaps and included in the requirements notes as an added value to the overall project and organization, said the maturity we follow a process called appraisal. This process is to measure the maturity off the current process and decide what's missing. Service assessment is subjective through the person taking the assessment and their point of view. However, it will give you an indication off where the process falls and the process shortcomings in any given case. Some expect a simple number out of the process assessment In many cases, this is a high level representation off the process maturity, but it should have associated the communication explaining why this process is to and this process is poor. This assessment is inspired by CMM I appraisal, though it's greatly simplified and modified to fit the objective of this course, I would recommend going through the actual CMA my appraisal process. Let's start the assessment by Step one initial blend for the assessment. I understand that in depth assessment would consume lots of time a for and it will cost so much. This is a high level bland to make sure management know precisely the requirements of the assessment. First, the fine scope, what process and how far you will find objects related to this process. Example. You will trace the part of the process inside the I T or other areas as well, like HR or finance to What's the objective example of the objectives are reduced costs, improved brothers quality, speed the process, what that I will be collected and how it will be collected. Interviews question near both of typing, presentation, roundtable or surveys. The identification of team members roll identify the participants and the team members performing the data collection identification off the script Questions take care of this because this is one of the most too time consuming parts. If the data gathered incorrectly, this would impact all other areas in the assessment. What is the constrain? Identify the required resources like team member availability facilities, most access and availability. Etcetera determine coast and schedule is to meet coast for the people participating in the assessment and for the used equipment. Estimate any additional cold for the duration of the assessment. Give the availability off the resources and the facility schedule risk analysis and management Identify risks. Personal logistics, technical schedule, developed mitigation plan for critical risks. What are the expected output Rating? Report recommendations, Finding strengths or weaknesses. Once initial assessment plan created, proceed to approve the plan to secure the needed resources formally. 63. Assemble The Team: Steptoe, assemble the team and this video, we will talk about the roles required. The first role is a team leader. The first step is to pick the assessment team leader Experienced knows the business have multiple a skill set across the process in question. Must have knowledge, off process frameworks, project management or any similar knowledge. So the team leader core requirements are maintain. The management commitment for the assessment of process ensures that the team members know their roles and responsibilities should not be the owner off any process. The next role is that remember, the team members will scale up based on the requirement of the assessment. Usually it's three people bluff. The team leader must know the framework in questions, or at least have the core knowledge almost experience and knows. A processing question must have excellent communication skills. Part of the team should be outside from the i t. Must not be the stuff who were the original process or even part of it. One of the team must be a project coordinator to arrange access facilities, interviews and manages schedules. Request documents. The project coordinator will be handling the filling off the documents as Well, once you have your team leaders, anti members, you can proceed. Team preparation, conducting building. Refer back to the team building section. The team leader should ensure that all team members are aware of the objectives. Workshops need to be conducted to make sure everything member. No, the roles without any gaps, explain the purpose off maturity and the process workshop. Multi members must learn how to interview. Role playing will provide a significant advantage assessment Dickov. 64. Executing the Plan: Step three. Executing the plan. The first step in executing the plan is collecting evidence once the initial plan authorized and all the availability and the constraints information. It's time to refine the plan by collecting evidence that describe such a process or objective inventory all the findings and determined the gaps. This will assist in determining what's additional information need to be collected. Sometimes the evidence can be verbal confirmation, though I don't like this method. Once you get all the evidence, it's time for you to inventory off the collected evidence. Whatever you have before you start digging deep Idiot everything. Tracing sheet to maintain a list of all evidence found example of evidence. Sign off sheets and voices. Course. Let's at Demoff. A person going through the process is considered evidence off the process. After building the evidence, cheat categorized the evidence. Everything categorized into several groups. Strong evidence, something that points strongly that there is a process in place, like finding a process chart with the relevant documents. Weak evidence. A document concerning a process like a change request of a process knowledge article over service not relevant, conflicting or inconsistent. Once built, the categorize the evidence sheet. Start building service to evidence mapping sheet. Build four sheets for each service. One bear everything's category and now for the initial finding. Review. Now the final review before the actual start of the assessment and this phase, you review team readiness that our readiness logistics risk blend re plan that a collection to update what's needed to be collected to get a full picture. Now we have planned it. It's time we start conducting the assessment process. The kickoff meeting is the way bringing all the participant attention that the assessment will start. The kickoff meeting can be face to face meeting, video or telephone conference, or even an email telling them what is The expectation of the assessment is as well as confirms every ability. 65. Examination: the next phases examination. In this phase, examine the data collected during the planning phase up. There's the questions. Accordingly. Once the examination faces starts, a freeze process begins. This means no change to the process. It is critical that the assessment finish as early as possible. During the examination, it's up to the team to determine if the data collected is useful or not, and to what degree? Start the truth and that a collection methods selected in the planning phase and examination phase the team never finished until the sufficient data is collected to judge the state of the process, the amount of data required is determined in the planning phase. Since you now will collect lots of data, you need to understand maintaining collecting data. Whatever the team collects or take notes off must be maintained and very fight. It's recommended for someone in the team to maintain the flow charts and collecting all the data as the team gets it. This is called death a process. It involves the views and tags a data correctly to group it now from previous Steps Reform Gap analysis. It would be updated with the new evidence. If it's presents and satisfy the assessor. Use a tool like tracking table or things will be out of control. Once the team updates a tracking table, a new gap report will be created. The Gap report will recommend both approved the maturity level and the desire the end expected level. Each process has three options. Fully implemented practice partially implemented. Practice with notes of what's missing. Needed practice. At this point, the team should have collected all the information facts, evidence required and no areas is still missing. Evidence started the verification process to make sure that all collected data are sufficient and no data is missing. 66. Generate Findings: the next phase a generate finding. It's time for the team to agree on each process. Reviews the reference model. Summarize the strengths of the process. Strengths is above and beyond the expectation of the practice. Summarize the weakness off the process. Weakness is lack of implementation in one or more areas of the practice. In the finding, the process area should be one of the following, with the gap description fully implemented. No witnesses. Evidence found off the process adequate to the requirements and the reference model largely implemented. It's the Samos fully, but with some weakness partially implemented. Some death is missing or contradicting data and some weakness found not implemented. Lots of death is missing and weakness has found not yet. The Earth's too small or too simple toe have a complicated process. The process is only few steps. The loss of Stebbins assessment is death of validation. The loss of step is to really did the data collected from the members off the organization Onley. People who participated in death, a governing may participate in the validation, so to validate findings, you can do one of two things. Presentation or groups always use the same seniority in the same meeting so that people will speak their mind, surveys the issue with surveys. It's one way communication use it in addition to the other methods. 67. Generate Results & Capability Levels: now to move to the final phase of the assessment, which is generate results. At this point, all facts available. It's time to understand the rating process so you can judge the process. Let's start by understanding levels. Levels are the way organization understand the boss toe the improvement for a set of processes. These are the number representing the maturity typically scale from 0 to 5, but it's completely based on the reference model. You will be using this assessment. There are two improvement passes capability level one or more process incremental improve process corresponding to the individual or group of process maturity level. The monster process is incrementally addressing a set off process areas. Those level corresponds toe approaches to the process improvement representations called continues using continuous were reach capability levels by developing one or more process toe higher level without the need to develop the other processes. Stage ID using stage it to achieve maturity level. This mean you cannot jump from one level to another without upgrading all the processes to that level. Think of it this way. Capability levels the focus on one specific process area while the maturity levels are focusing on multi process areas. The levels in each is one toe. Five. There is level Veeru, which is no level for level zero. There is no point of trying top the minds of mustard process as the capabilities off the building process is a still incomplete ones. A process reached level three in each process area. The focus will be on how the process working with each other to provide value. This is why level four and five are only on the overall process. Grouping. Stage it in the diagram capability levels applied to process one or two or three and the process A, B and C. But the maturity level on the master process which have lots off sub processes, which is a process 123 and the process a BNC. Now lots of start. How the capability levels work capability level zero incomplete. This process is not performed process or not fully implemented capability. Level one reformed reformed process is a process which will result in something. This process may be lost over time or abandoned during stress time capability. Level two managed. It's a performed process, but with the policy attach, the policy would make sure that there is skilled employees. Resources are available. Stakeholder involved monitoring available process control factors is available, reviewed and evaluated the existence off the bullets. He will make sure that the existing process or practice will remain the same during the time of crisis capability. Level three. The find. It is a managed process that is tailored to the needs of the work level. Three processes are typically described more rigorously than level to the purpose imports, entry criteria, activities, rolls, measures, verification steps out boats exit criterias All are required in the level three defined and level three processes are managed more proactively. So how to move between capability levels the levels achieved by meeting the requirements mentioned earlier in each level. Later, in the section, we will discuss more clearly what requirements will be for each of specific level. 68. Maturity Levels: next, let's understand how maturity level worlds maturity level one initial usually dependent on the people who work in the organization off the process, not a stable environment usually go over budget and or schedule in the time of crisis. They abandoned the process maturity level to managed the foundation of the organization as a service provider. Work groups defined services delivery as bland, monitor to control quality control agreement established with customers and contracts are made like S L. A. And all A. Configuration management and quality assurance processes are rooted in the organization. Core capabilities to measure performance the process work activities services are managed, executed with enough resources. Assigned the responsibility have a trained people configuration management stakeholders are involved. Empire radically monitor and control the process. The performance reports shared with a higher management. The existing practices will be retained during times of stress maturity. Level three Defined use defined the process for managing work. Apply pistol practices, service continue T incident resolution and the prevention to the monster process. The requirements are very dated to make sure it meets customer expectation. The process is well understood and characterized processes are typically described more. The following included the purpose inputs, entry criteria, activities, rolls, measures, verification steps, outward exit criteria. Typically, it's managed more proactively as well. Maturity level for quantitative managed. The primary focus is understanding and controlling the performance off a process and the process a critical distinction between maturity level three and four is the predictability . Off a process performs how close your forecast is to real life. K B. I set for objective for quality and the process performers. Kibby eyes are based on the needs of the customer end users organization Maturity level five. Optimizing a liver. Five. The primary focus is organization and how we can improve the overall performance off the organization. How we can innovate, how we can fill the gaps and shortfalls off our performers. So how to move between maturity levels? First, the organization need tohave control off their systems. Any organization wish to move forward cannot escape levels or cut corners. If your maturity is not stable off, it may be ripped apart in the first test. Focus on mastering every level processes without the proper foundation can fail at the point they are needed the most 69. Moving through the levels: At this point, you understand the basic concepts off capability and maturity levels. Each level will have a very specific requirements to be able to move through the levels. This applies to a specific process in case of capability levels and applies to the master process group. In the case of maturity levels to reach a high maturity level, all the process in this area should be at the same level. Always remember, don't move to the next level until the current level is well established. With every level move. Try to give it a six months to a year for the process to be stable and dependable. Remember this apply to both capability levels and maturity levers. You will end up with two levels for each one for the group and one for the single process. A single process can not bows to liver for, but the process group can to move to a higher maturity level Developed. Also processes exists in this group was the reference to the service reference model. The next section is each level requirements. This applies to both credibility and maturity levels. I am only listing the first on the second level if you think you have a process mature enough for the level three then I would highly recommend going through the c M. I process. So to start level one incomplete end reform process or initial process in the initial process, it should be achieve a specific goal. The process off transforming identifiable input into output reform A specific practice. This process can be informal without any document. The process earns the level once it finishes all the sub level gold and practices. Level two. Managed process. The process is presented as managed to process. I had broken each of the gold off the level toe a sub level for either measurement level. 2.1. Establish and maintain a policy for blending and reforming the process. The Find expectation of higher management level 2.2. Plan the process. Have a process plans that includes process description, requirements for the service of the process, specific objectives of the process and its results Dependencies. Among the activities. Work products and services off the process. Resources training requirements, activities for monitoring and controlling the process. Evaluation off the process, Review activities for the process and sub components. Review the bland with relevant stakeholders angered their agreement. Level 2.3 provide resources, provide enough resources for performing the process and the final services level 2.4. Assign responsibilities. Ensure there is an accountability for performing the process. End achieving the specific results Service teams understand and accept the responsibility level. 2.5 Training training for user performing or supporting the process as needed. Level two. Wine six. Control outward monitor and control to maintain consistent out but end the quality levels. Level 2.7 involves stakeholders identify process Stakeholders involved The relevant to ST holders Level 2.8. Monitoring the process monitoring and controls the process against the plan. Reforming corrective action in case of any deviation. The following list should be done day today. Evaluate actual results versus planned reviews. A process in boots and Alberts with the process owners identify and evaluate any deviation from the plan. Identify mismatch in the plan for performing versus the execution of the process. Take corrective action when requirements and objectives are not being sets fight. It's worth mentioning also that most of the monitoring software's can perform all of these activities by sitting the benchmark for the process and generate report daily shared with management and the owner of the process. This will simplify much of this level level 2.9 every with the profits. The idea is to ensure that the implemented process is functioning as planned. Process description, standards, procedures actual versus the planned and correct any deviation level to Boynton Review Status reviews, a process, inputs and outputs whose management and resolve any issue and secure resources. 70. Final Results: assessment the final results. At this point, you have all the needed information and the criteria for scoring. How to calculate processes, score each process. Have evidence covering each block off the service reference model. Otherwise, it's weak service and the development of this area is required. It is time for the final revert. The river typically contains assessment data. Final findings with Context, Data Assessment plan and the items are collected or artefacts. Recommendations and improvement report recommendations taking from the weaknesses, the improvement, the action plan. This final report, as well as the recommendation report, should be delivered to the sponsor and the presentation session. Toe the executives, top management and the key stakeholders. A rehearsal can be made private session before delivering decision toe all stakeholders. This will help to avoid any surprises or a just decision flow. 71. Next steps: Congratulations. You finish the course. Leave comments and feedback. I love to hear from you one final thought from the previous feedback I got. If you still don't know from where to begin, start by understanding nd committing the organization current processes. During that, you will discover the obvious things that can be easily adjusted. But we'll have a large impact on the business. Things mentioned earlier, like the repetitive profits conflict in the process are needed process. Reduce manual labor by automatic tasks. Doing one of these would be a huge cost saving for the organization and will drive the organization to be more agile and lean business. Thank you for watching, and I hope to see you again.