Building a High-Performance Culture Using Organizational Archaeology™ | Mark N. Clemente | Skillshare

Building a High-Performance Culture Using Organizational Archaeology™

Mark N. Clemente, Writer & Communication Consultant

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9 Lessons (42m)
    • 1. Optimizing Corporate Culture Through Organizational Archaeology

      5:05
    • 2. A Research-Based Planning Approach

      3:58
    • 3. The 3 Categories of Artifacts: An Overview

      3:37
    • 4. Social Culture and Artifacts

      6:28
    • 5. Material Culture and Artifacts

      5:19
    • 6. Ideological Culture and Artifacts

      5:04
    • 7. The Core Communication Components of Culture

      4:39
    • 8. Applying Organizational Archaeology for Culture Analysis and Management

      4:45
    • 9. Conclusion & Discussion Class Project

      3:19

About This Class

This insightful, practical course is designed for HR leaders and other executives who are tasked with building a high-performance culture for competitive advantage. The course is based on the instructor’s proprietary, research-based methodology―Organizational Archaeology™― which is designed to help optimize corporate culture. An accompanying 80-page (Adobe PDF) workbook contains data-collection strategies and planning grids to apply the skills presented in the course in real-life culture improvement initiatives. The guidance in “Building a High-Performance Culture Using Organizational Archaeology” is intended for culture management―but is also vital knowledge for leaders hoping to avoid “culture clash” in mergers, acquisitions and strategic business alliances.

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Transcripts

1. Optimizing Corporate Culture Through Organizational Archaeology: Hi, Omar Clementi and thank you so much for your interest in this course on managing and optimizing corporate culture for competitive advantage. This is, of course, that's based on a research study that I had written several years ago, at a time when I was doing extensive work in organizational communication and typically in the context of mergers and acquisitions and joint venture planning. And in every situation, it became clear that corporate culture was a critical determinant of success in making those large scale corporate initiatives work. The challenge has always been managing corporate culture and understanding it, and that's what this course is all about. Corporate culture is critically important, but it's also a very difficult thing to analyze and manage now a common definition of culture. It has been, well, it's how we do things around here. But to me, the practical question was always well, what are those things? And that's what my research focused on. I wanted to identify the specific traits that appear in just about every organization, whether it's a for profit company or non profit company, a large company or a small one. Every organization has key traits. The finest culture and my research was focused on identifying what those traits were, with the goal of identifying those traits and then being able to manage them for corporate gains. So if you are an HR leader or a senior executive who's charged with improving your culture and enhancing it for competitive advantage, here's what you'll gain from this course. Through this course, you will identify the most significant cultural traits that are present and which define your organization. You'll understand the nature and importance of those traits in order to enhance organizational effectiveness and competitive advantage. And you'll learn how to apply a Siris of diagnostic tools to analyse and manage your culture or that of another company, such as when you are engaging in a merger acquisition, forming a strategic alliance or a joint venture. The goal of my research was toe ultimately develop a usable practical tool for analyzing and managing culture. Let me tell you a little bit about how the research was conducted. First, extensive content analysis research was done, in which I reviewed over 300 articles from business publications, academic journals and websites that spoke about corporate culture. The idea being to identify the traits the defining characteristics that kept appearing over and over again all the things that typically characterized and given organizational culture . Second, I conducted panel research with HR leaders from around the world, where I saw their input on the defining traits of culture and the ones that they felt were most important from the standpoint of affecting competitive advantage through culture. My research ultimately led to the identification of 30 specific cultural traits or artifacts that tend to appear in just about every organization. Identifying those 30 cultural traits then led to the development of a methodology for use in managing and analyzing corporate culture that methodologies called organizational archaeology. Here's what organisational archaeology is all about. Organizational archaeology is a simple framework for identifying key cultural traits in your organization. Secondly, it's a methodology to assess the strategic significance as well as the strengths and weaknesses of those traits. Organizational archaeology is also a comparative gauge of the similarity or dissimilarity of cultural traits for use in corporate combinations, as mentioned when you were forming a merger, acquisition or a joint venture or strategic alliance, I've structured this course to present usable concepts and usable techniques for analysing and managing corporate culture both for day to day management as well as in specific strategic business situations. Here's how the course is set up. First, I'll provide an introduction to the organizational archaeology methodology for enhancing corporate culture. Next will identify the key cultural traits in your company. What we call your social material and ideological artifacts last will learn how to apply organizational archaeology in either general management scenarios or in special strategic initiatives. Through this course, you'll immediately begin to understand your culture in a way that you can actively manage it and enhance it for competitive advantage. So please sign on and let's get started. 2. A Research-Based Planning Approach: in business, they say you can't manage what you can't measure. And that has been the age old challenge with corporate culture, identifying the specific things that you want to look at and identify and understand in order to advance your culture and to optimize it for competitive advantage. Through my research, I've been able to identify 30 cultural traits that appear in companies of all sizes. Let's talk a little bit about why we call these traits artifacts. It was the prominent M. I T. Social psychologist Edgar Schein, who introduced the notion of artifacts. Shine said this about artifacts as cultural traits. Shine wrote that artifacts are all the phenomena that one sees, hears or feels when one encounters an unfamiliar culture. Shine goes on to say that artifacts also include the visible behaviors of the group and the organisational processes into which behaviours are made routine. The key point that shine megs is that artifacts are just starting point in analyzing culture. That means we have to identify the cultural traits that appear in your company and then subject them to rigorous analysis to understand what they mean. Shine said that you could look at an artifact But you really can't understand it until you truly grasp the values, the assumptions and the beliefs that underlie a given artifact. We've talked about the definition of culture is how we do things around here. But when you're looking at a given artifact, you're asking the question, Why do we do that particular activity the way we do it? Importantly, we have to look at artifacts from the standpoint of whether or not they are supporting or lessening the power of your culture. So artifacts are the variables we look at when we use organizational archaeology as a research based approach to understanding corporate culture. Let's look at the organizational, archaeology methodology and the key steps involved as a research methodology. Organizational archaeology involves these activities first, identifying the cultural traits that are prevalent in your organization. Secondly, prioritizing those traits in terms of their strategic significance. Next investigating the meaning and the rationale underlying each artifact and then determining which artifacts require active management in order to optimize your culture. Conducting cultural research using organizational archaeology requires that you be an explorer or an archaeologist because you're going to be identifying specific cultural traits or artifacts as they appear in your organization, and then you're gonna be digging below the surface to understand their meaning. Let's sum up with three key takeaways. Artifacts are the variables or the units of analysis that air studied in organizational archaeology. Culture research. Using this methodology is based on understanding the significance of key artifacts in your company. And ultimately, your goal is to actively manage the most important artifacts that determine whether or not your culture is optimized and truly functioning as a competitive advantage for your organization. Again, If culture is how we do things around here, you're trying to identify the why of why we do things around here the way we dio and that, in essence, is the focus of organizational archaeology. 3. The 3 Categories of Artifacts: An Overview: anthropology is the study of human civilisations and culture. Archaeology is a branch of anthropology Now. Many of the studies on corporate culture that has been done, including the work done by Edgar Schein, use anthropology as the frame of reference. Now. My research was designed to build on shines research by focusing on specific artifacts that he wrote about in his research. When anthropologists study culture, they studied from three perspectives. Social culture, material culture and ideological culture. Now each of our next three lessons will look at these categories in detail. But let's start with a high level overview of social culture. Social culture refers to how a society is structured in terms of its members, roles and responsibilities. Social culture refers to the study of class distinctions and the distribution of power that exists in any human collective. From the sociological standpoint, the next category is material culture. Let's look at how this is defined. Material culture involves examining all the things that people in a society make that is their tools and technologies. Material culture also entails studying patterns of subsistence, which referred to the ways people work together and support one another, and exchanging required goods and services. Now let's look at ideological culture. Here's a definition ideological culture refers to a groups, values, beliefs and ideals. Ideological culture refers to studying the things that people view as important. Additionally, it's about characterizing the emotional and intellectual guidelines that govern their day to day existence and interactions. Shine spoke so much generally about artifacts as the things that you can see and hear and feel when you encounter a new culture. My research was designed to identify specific artifacts or specific cultural traits that appear in just about every organization. Each of the traits that I identified through my research can be grouped into one of the three categories that we're talking about social culture, material culture or ideological culture. And our goal and cultural analysis is to identify the specific artifacts that appear in your organization and then to subject them to rigorous analysis and helping you to determine whether or not a specific cultural trait is working in support of your efforts to create a high performance, truly optimized culture, or whether that artifact is working against you in terms of your efforts to create a culture that is strong and powerful and works is a true competitive differentiator for your company. Let's sum up with three key takeaways. Corporate culture has historically been studied using anthropology as the frame of reference archaeology. A branch of anthropology is based on analysing artifacts, organizational archaeology identifies and groups artifacts into the categories of social, material and ideological culture. In the next lesson will look at the 10 specific artifacts that comprise social culture. 4. Social Culture and Artifacts: it's time to get practical and tactical. Up to now, we've been speaking somewhat abstract lira, little theoretically about cultural traits and cultural artifacts. Now it's time to look at specific cultural artifacts that I've identified through my research, which we're going to subject to analysis as part of your efforts to analyze and manage your culture. Here are a couple of things to keep in mind as we talk about the social cultural artifacts that appear in your organization, as well as the material and ideological artifacts that will be speaking about in the next few lessons. Based on my research, some artifacts are seeing only in large companies, not in small or un established companies. Next, not all artifacts will appear in your organization, but many will. Your company may also demonstrate cultural traits that are unique to your organization, and all cultural traits can be categorized as either social material or ideological artifacts. And there is some overlap between categories. So let's talk about the 10 social cultural artifacts, and they're presented here in no particular order. But as a recap, social culture refers to how an organization establishes roles and responsibilities for its members. But social culture is a little broader than that. It also entails how in organisation is structured and how it makes decisions. Now let's look at the first set of social cultural artifacts. Social cultural artifacts include trades such as centralized or decentralized management, compensation and benefits, and the design of the company's functional organization. Let's look at each one. Centralized or decentralized management refers to the nature of the organization structure from the standpoint of managerial decision making and operational planning in the area of compensation and benefits. This refers to the general nature and specific policies related to have the organization compensates its employees. In other words, is the organization known as generous with salaries, raises and perks, And the design of the functional organization refers to the extent to which management establishes either a flat or hierarchical organizational structure with regard to employee management, interactions, operations and management reporting. Now let's talk about the next set of social cultural artifacts that you should be considering as part of your cultural analysis. Social cultural artifacts include trade, such as the dissemination of corporate strategic and financial information to stakeholders , the area of employee evaluations and the area of employee empowerment and ownership again, let's look at each one. The dissemination of corporate, strategic and or financial information to stakeholders relates to the issue of transparency . This means the extent to which management regularly shares information of a strategic or financial nature with employees so called open book management and the way it communicates with stakeholders to maintain transparency of its operations and business performance in the area of employee evaluations. This refers to the nature and scope of formal procedures and guidelines related to assessing employee performance, for example, for salary reviews, promotions or disciplinary purposes. Next, employee empowerment and ownership. This refers to the degree to which employees were given authority for various types of managerial decision making. Think about the ability of a shop floor worker to quote Stop. The assembly line was also relates to the area of employees having a sense of ownership in the business. Now let's look at the final set of social cultural artifacts that should be evaluated as part of your analysis. Social cultural artifacts include trades such as interpersonal relations and conflict resolution, leadership and management development policies, the level of bureaucracy in an organization and what may be known as physical manifestations power. Let's look at each one in the area of interpersonal relations and conflict resolution. This refers to the degree to which the organization has systems in place to address issues involving employee interactions and to deal with conflicts between an individual employees , departments or business units in terms of leadership and management development. This refers to the importance placed by management on leadership and management development at all employees levels and the comprehensiveness of such programs. The level of bureaucracy refers to how major operational and strategic decisions are made, for example, in terms of the number of layers of approval of the involvement of multiple committees in making decisions and physical manifestations of power relates to the presence of special office accommodations or personnel areas, for example, the executive Jim that indicate managers or employees different levels of rank and influence in the organization. Remember, all these artifacts are simply activities that businesses undertake. It's how they do things around here now in the accompanying workbook. For this course, you will find questions to ask about every artifact, and these are designed to help you ask the right questions and probe the right areas to determine whether or not each artifact is a cultural issue, concern or opportunity in your efforts to establish ah, high performance optimized culture, let's sum up with three key takeaways. First, social cultural traits relate to people's rolls of responsibilities in an organization, but they also relate to how the organisation is structured and how it makes decisions. Second, in general, social cultural traits appear in all organizations, but to greater or less of degrees. And third, all organizations are different and exhibit social cultural traits in very specific ways, and the next lesson will look at material culture and artifacts. 5. Material Culture and Artifacts: in this lesson will be speaking about material cultural artifacts, which refer to the activities and the ways that the members of a given culture work together to produce goods and services. There are 10 material cultural artifacts. Let's start by looking at the 1st 3 material. Artifacts include cultural traits such as these customer orientation, employee communications and employee risk taking. Let's look at each one in the area of customer orientation. This refers to the degree to which there exists formal policies, procedures and programs aim to continually maintaining and improving an organization wide focus on customers and, more broadly, engaging in an active dialogue with customers, such as for product development purposes in employee communications. This refers to the nature, scope and importance that management places on communications aimed at the employee base in support of the company's overall operations and growth in the area of employees risk taking . This refers to the degree to which senior management encourages and rewards employees when they take chances in devising untreated managerial techniques or approaches, and this includes fostering an entrepreneurial mindset. Now let's talk about the next three material cultural artifacts as areas of analysis for your culture Management program material artifacts include cultural traits such as these inclination to innovation and continuous improvement, inter departmental coordination and knowledge sharing in the area of inclination to innovation and continuous improvement. This refers to the extent to which the organization fosters and rewards employees efforts to devise new and improved ways of doing business from an administrative, operational or strategic standpoint in the area of interdepartmental coordination. This refers to the extent to which there is close interaction between the organization's functional units, for example, sales, marketing and product development. And that means coordination in the context of planning and executing specific management initiatives in the area of knowledge sharing. This refers to the degree to which the organization actively amasses and distributes institutional knowledge and market intelligence to employees from managerial decision making and to support employees professional growth. Now here are the final four material cultural artifacts that you want to look at as part of your research material. Artifacts include cultural trades such as these metrics and measures, orientation to planning patterns of external communication and a tendency toward clarity or ambiguity. Let's look at each one in the area of metrics and measures. This refers to the extent to which organizational planning and performance are based on rigorous quantitative factors in terms of orientation to planning. This refers to the extent to which the organization engages in formal and detailed departmental, operational and strategic planning and the frequency with which it does so in terms of patterns of external communication. This refers to the degree to which the organization actively disseminates communications, the advertising, public relations, direct marketing, etcetera and these would be communications aimed at external stakeholders, including customers, suppliers and business partners. Lastly, in the area of a company's tendency toward clarity or ambiguity, this refers to the degree to which the organization issues explicit guidelines to managers in order for them to carry out tasks. The opposite of this would be management providing very little direction, very little input, and managers would be required to proceed as they see fit. As you can tell from these descriptions material cultural artifacts, they refer to a wide range of activities that the members of a given culture engage in to produce goods and services. And again, it's how they work together from a functional standpoint to produce their specific market offerings. Remember not all these artifacts will unnecessarily appear in your company and you may have very specific material cultural artifacts that are unique to your organization. Let's sum up with three key takeaways. First, material culture and artifacts relate to the processes and activities involved in producing and delivering goods and services. Secondly, material. Cultural artifacts reveal how are organisations People work together from a functional standpoint, and third, all companies may exhibit unique material cultural artifacts based on their particular market offerings. In the next lesson will be looking at ideological cultural artifacts which relate to a company's fundamental set of beliefs and the things that they hold to be important as they do business on a day to day basis. 6. Ideological Culture and Artifacts: in previous lessons, you've heard me talk about culture as activities in specific ways of doing business. Certainly, culture could be characterized by looking at those types of things. But perhaps most importantly, culture can be defined by looking at the things that a company holds to be important. Its ideals. It's guidelines for behaviour, its norms from management decision making and employee conduct on a day to day basis. Here's where ideological culture comes into play. Now there are 10 ideological cultural artifacts in the context of organizational archaeology. Let's look at the 1st 3 ideological cultural traits include these artifacts, articulation and promotion of corporate mission and goals, corporate citizenship and diversity policies. Let's look at each one in terms of articulation and promotion of the corporate mission and goals. This refers to the degree to which management regularly promotes the organization's mission and goals and insurers that employees truly understand the mission and corporate objectives in terms of corporate citizenship. This relates to the degree to which the organization places importance on serving its community. For example, the company regularly engages in charitable, philanthropic or public service programs in terms of diversity policies. This relates to the existence and scope. Formal organizational policies, not government mandated ones, but policies that are aimed at developing and maintaining a diverse and inclusive work force. Now let's discuss the next three ideological cultural artifacts that you'll want to consider is part of your research. Ideological Cultural artifacts include employee awards and recognition, employee feedback, an employee support programs in terms of employee awards and recognition. This refers to the existence, nature and frequency of awards given to employees for strong performance and other accomplishments in terms of employee feedback. This is the extent to which their specific communication channels between senior management employees that allow employees to recommend administrative organisational and our strategic changes in terms of employees to port programs. This relates to the degree to which senior management exhibits concerns for employees, welfare by virtue of having employee assistance programmes and other similar provisions here the next four ideological cultural artifacts that you want to look at as part of your research and analysis. Ideological cultural traits include ethics, external partnering, pre employment personnel evaluations and work life balance in the area of ethics. This relates to the extent to which management establishes and promotes formal guidelines related to corporate ethics and the enforcement thereof an external partnering. This relates to the extent to which the organization establishes alliances and other formal relationships with outside non competitor organizations in order to advance its strategic growth objectives in terms of pre employment personnel evaluations, this cultural trade relates to the importance that management places on policies related to pre employment assessments. These include personality tests, drug tests, technical proficiency test and lastly in terms of work life balance. This relates to the degree to which the organization places importance on and institutes measures to help employees maintain a balance between their professional and personal commitments. These descriptions of ideological culture clearly show how an organisation's culture can be defined by looking at the ideals that it holds to be important, and the guidelines for behaviour that it establishes for employee conduct and for managerial decision making. A perfect example is the Corporate Mission Statement of Corporate Gold statement, which is designed to articulate an organization's fundamental reason for being, while establishing parameters for employees, behavior and management decision making. So let's sum up with three key takeaways. Ideological culture focuses on a company's fundamental beliefs and ideals, ideological culture highlights and organization's rules or guidelines for employees, behavior and ideological artifacts, perhaps more than social or material artifacts strongly characterized an organisation's culture in the next lesson will be looking at several key communication components that you'll want to look at as part of the process of analyzing culture with an eye toward optimizing it for competitive advantage. 7. The Core Communication Components of Culture: there could be no discussion of cultural analysis without a discussion of human communication. That's because the members of a given culture need to share a common language in order to be able to focus on what's important for business success and for day to day business activity. When we talk about cultural analysis, we have to focus on two key components from communications standpoint, and those are language and symbols. Let's look at the issue of language first. Studying language as part of cultural analysis involves three basic activities. First, we have to identify the specific words, phrases or concepts that are unique to the company of being studied. Next, we have to determine the reasons those terms exist from the standpoint of their purpose and function. And, most importantly, we need to decipher their meaning. Analysing language in the context of cultural analysis requires that we identify the specific words phrases acronyms that a business uses on a day to day basis. But then we need to unearth their significance. What of those terms mean, is a specific language used to communicate the way this particular organization does business? Is it to maintain an element of confidentiality this is our role is culture analyst to identify specific terms and linguistic techniques, using a given culture and then to unearth their meaning. It is essential to understand the underlying significance of those terms and to ask questions about how they came to be and what do they mean? And how did they define the culture in terms of its operations or its social material and ideological artifacts? We always want to identify the connection between language and the artifacts that we have been discussing, which are used in the context of cultural analysis. Now let's turn our attention to the study of symbols that appear in a given culture. Let's look at the things we need to examine as part of the analysis of symbols similar to analysing language in the context of cultural analysis. Analyzing symbols involves thes three activities number one, identifying the presence of physical symbols. Number two determining the reason these symbols exist and again, most importantly, deciphering their meaning. What do these symbols say about the culture understudy? Studying symbols in the context of cultural analysis is critical activity. In fact, many anthropologists believe that all cultures could be studied based on their symbols Now , when we talk about symbols in the context of corporate culture, we're talking about the things that you could visibly see when you look around the workspace in the lesson on social culture and artifacts, we talked about physical manifestations of power, like the executive Jim or the executive lunchroom. Those air symbols. Another example would be the layout of a given workspace. Is it one that's characterized by cubicle after cubicle with minimal employees interaction ? Or is it an open floor plan that is designed for maximum collaboration of maximum communication between co workers? Again? These are just two examples of the symbols that you might see when you look around to given organization and begin to study its culture. From a symbolic standpoint, let's sum up with three key takeaways. Language and symbols are the essential communication components involved in studying culture. The research task involves first identifying unique patterns of language and symbols as they appear as they're used in the organization being studied, and the analytical task is unearthing the meaning of those patterns of language and those symbols and their relationship to specific social material and ideological artifacts. In the next lesson, we go on our archaeological dig, which is where we begin to actually apply the research that we've identified through our study of social material and ideological artifacts. We begin to apply that information in the context of ongoing culture management or a special situations like merges and acquisitions, where we hope to avoid the proverbial culture clash that can work against those types of corporate combinations and other strategic initiatives. 8. Applying Organizational Archaeology for Culture Analysis and Management: Now let's go on our archaeological dig to apply organizational archaeology for culture, management and culture analysis purposes. When I worked with companies to apply this methodology, I typically recommend four into related activities. Let's look at the 1st 1 First. Activity involves establishing your culture management team. This would include representatives from key functions or departments, as well as employees at different levels of the organization and a different levels of their tenure. It's important to note that organizational archaeology requires a team approach. That's because you need objective input in different perspectives to analyze culture effectively. Now. This course and the accompanying workbook were designed for the leader or the facilitator of that process, but it was also designed for the participants of the culture management team. Now let's look at the next tactical activity in implementing organisational archaeology for culture management purposes. The next phase is identifying the artifacts that appear in your organization, the social material and ideological artifacts that are identified in organizational archaeology, as well as the artifacts that are unique to your organization. Clearly, the majority of this course has been about the process of identifying artifacts, but again it's necessary to take a team approach to identify and gain agreement on the artifacts that appear in your organization and the strategic significance. At this point, let's discuss the key exploratory process involved in applying organizational archaeology. The next activity involves formally analyzing your artifacts, and this means studying the values, the assumptions and the beliefs that underlie each artifact Here. We're trying to understand the reasons why your company performs a particular business activity in a particular way, and it's key to examine the company's past when you're analyzing your artifacts. And this includes how the founders of the company established key business systems, key business processes and cultural ideals here. Your goal is to determine whether old ways of doing business or outdated ideas on business success are working for or against the company in terms of developing a high performance culture. Lastly, let's discuss the development of your formal Culture Management action plan. Developing your culture management action plan again involves working as a team to specify the most important artifacts that define your culture, ranking them in terms of their relevance and strategic significance, and then developing company wide initiatives to bolster cultural strengths and to mitigate cultural weaknesses. These programs typically involve formal internal employee communication programs, as well as instituting new management policies and procedures to address specific cultural development objectives. The diagnostic tools included in the course workbook will help you in a variety of ways. First, they will help you to identify and prioritise cultural artifacts that appear in your organization. The diagnosis tools will also help you to develop your formal culture management action plan, and lastly, they will help me to compare cultures in special business situations like mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures, where we hope to bring to companies together, two cultures together While avoiding culture clash. Let's sum up with three key takeaways. Applying organizational archaeology involves four into related activities that require a team approach in organizational archaeology. The goal is to examine your culture's past in order to understand how key cultural traits came into existence. Importantly, many of those trades will go back to the company's founders and many of the beliefs and ideals that those people instituted on the company's formation. Lastly, using the diagnostic tools in the course workbook will help from the standpoint of cultural analysis and management, but also in cultural comparison situations in the next and final lesson. I'll some of all the guidance I've provided in this course, and we'll discuss a class project that you can undertake to better understand organizational archaeology as a precursor to actually applying it in your organization. 9. Conclusion & Discussion Class Project: in this course, I've tried to communicate the importance of ongoing culture management to build a high performance culture that represents a true competitive differentiator for your company. I've presented a methodology called Organizational Archaeology, which I believe takes the mystery out of culture analysis and management. It's based on studying specific artifacts that are either social material or ideological in nature. Here's some things to keep in mind as you begin to apply organizational archaeology in a formal culture improvement program when implementing organisational archaeology. Remember, the culture change does not happen quickly. Doesn't happen overnight. It requires senior management support employees by in and formal culture change communication programs and new management policies and procedures to advance your specific cultural objectives. Stated simply, Cultural analysis and management require an organization wide commitment to change. Organizational archaeology can be used in studying an existing culture, of course, but it could also be applied in start up companies situations where the founders of the organization seek to instill certain cultural ideals as a starting point for building the cultures, character, personality and to help it to become ultimately, a high performance culture. Take, for example, the artifact of corporate citizenship which we discussed in the context of ideological artifacts. If the founders of the organization feel that that is a desirable trait, they can institute it and then begin to build formal programs, policies and procedures around it to instill it as part of the company's culture and to use it as the basis for developing a high performance culture. Now let's talk about a class project that you can undertake to begin to immediately apply organizational, archaeology, informal culture improvement initiatives. I mentioned in the course introduction that my research for organizational archaeology involved feedback from senior HR decision makers from around the world. When asked which artifacts were most important to building a high performance culture, HR leaders cited these five artifacts ethics, employee communication policies and programmes, knowledge sharing, employee evaluation policies and corporate mission in goals in the class project. Study your organization's culture by examining two or more of these traits. Determine how strongly these trades to find the culture and try to understand how they came into existence. Above all, try to determine whether the artifacts represent cultural strengths or weaknesses. Examine these cultural traits is a starting point for a more expansive team based approach to a formal cultural analysis program. Thank you again protecting this course on optimizing culture for competitive advantage. I look forward to interacting with students online into fielding your comments, questions and ideas. I wish you the best of luck in all your culture improvement initiatives.