Building Structures in Italian - Structure 3 | Kieran Ball | Skillshare

Building Structures in Italian - Structure 3

Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

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31 Lessons (1h 55m)
    • 1. Italian Structure 3 Introduction

      2:37
    • 2. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 1

      4:33
    • 3. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2a

      4:12
    • 4. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2b

      3:34
    • 5. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2c

      3:39
    • 6. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2d

      3:53
    • 7. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 3

      3:48
    • 8. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 4a

      3:21
    • 9. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 4b

      2:49
    • 10. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5a

      4:58
    • 11. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5b

      4:49
    • 12. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5c

      3:45
    • 13. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6a

      3:11
    • 14. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6b

      4:27
    • 15. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6c

      3:29
    • 16. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7a

      3:46
    • 17. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7b

      4:28
    • 18. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7c

      4:13
    • 19. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8a

      3:29
    • 20. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8b

      2:50
    • 21. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8c

      3:53
    • 22. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8d

      4:22
    • 23. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8e

      3:56
    • 24. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8f

      3:22
    • 25. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8g

      4:44
    • 26. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8h

      3:54
    • 27. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8i

      3:34
    • 28. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8j

      3:07
    • 29. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8k

      3:24
    • 30. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8l

      3:09
    • 31. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 9

      1:23

About This Class

The whole of the Italian language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any Italian book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.

I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in Italian, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.

Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole Italian language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.

This course introduces you to structure 3. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the Italian language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.

Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.

This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 3, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.

The Building Structures in Italian series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute Italian courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn Italian, no matter how little time you have.

Transcripts

1. Italian Structure 3 Introduction: Tao. Amen. Venuto Hello and welcome to building structures in Italian structure. Three. I'm Karen Andi. I'm a language tutor based in the UK Andi I wrote this course to help me to learn to speak Italian. This course follows on from structures one and two in building structures in the Italian Andi. It follows the same methodology, so just remember to limit your studying to three minute chunks. Andi. If you do that, then three things will happen. Firstly, your maintain enthusiasm. So don't forget that if you want to learn anything, you have to maintain enthusiasm or else you won't want to continue. If you limit your story time to just three minutes. Your keep Italian fresh and exciting. Andi, it'll be eager to learn. If you spend hours studying very quickly, you'll get bored with Italian Andi. It will turn into a chore. Secondly, you'll achieve more consistent studying. It's much better to study for just three minutes once a day, then study for three hours once a week. A spare three minutes is relatively easy to find, even in the most hectic of schedules. If you make sure you complete at least 13 minutes to recession every day, it will quickly become a habit that you'll do without thinking. It's much easier to fit in a daily three minute habit than a weekly one hour have it. By doing this, you will become a much more consistent loner. Andi consistency is the key to success. Thirdly, your achieve more effective memorization. This is my favorite reason as to why you should limit your study just three minute chunks. If you study something for just three minutes every day, you'll trick your brain into memorizing the information more quickly than if it were to see the information for hours each day. It will think I see this information every day, so it must be important. But I don't see it for very long, so I better hold on to it and make it into a memory fast. You will be amazed at how much more easily things tend to stay in your brain if you limit yourself to just three minutes a day, so three minutes is the key. When do you reach three minutes? Stop. You should aim to do at least 13 minute chunk every day, any more than that is a bonus If you do want to do more than one chunk per day, give yourself a good break in between each time. So work through this course and complete all the exercises and you'll be amazed at how much you learn. 2. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 1: structure three is very similar to structure one in Italian. The only difference is the infinitive carrier is in the past tense instead of the present tense like structure one. It consists of just three parts. And here's an example of it in use Causa via Leberman, Jari Cause of Leberman. Jari means What did you want to eat? Cause of 11 man Jari. So let's break this structure down into its three components. Andi give each component a name so causa means what? And it's a question. Would Gaza, Va leva we've all ever is an infinitive carrier in the past tense on this means Did you want vole ever, man Jari Manja is an infinitive on that means to eat man Jari. So those are the three components A question Would an infinitive carrier in the past tense ? Andi, an infinitive? You will hopefully remember what an inventive carrier is from structure one. But if not, here's a quick reminder. An infinitive carrier is any word. You comport an infinitive on the end off the infinitive carriers we learned in structure one. But all in the present tense we had fossil bosso, which means can I poor pull meaning? Can you Boiling boiling meant Do you want Stop there! Stop Bear. I meant Are you about to or are you going to devil means? Do I have to? Or most I Andi, Davey was Do you have to Almost you. Well, Instructor three the infinitive carriers we're going to learn will all be in the past tense . We've already seen one volley ever bully ever. Which means did you want volley? Ever? We've also seen all the question was in Italian. Let's have a quick recap. How do you say in Italian? Where No VI What causa? Okay. Okay. Goes up. At what time? I k order when Wendell How? Call me which or which one. Quietly. Why para que How much, Quintal? How many? 20. How long or how much time? Quanta Temple. And who or whom Key. Now, just like with the other two structures, we can change any off the three parts in structure three. For example, instead of saying causa at the start, which means what we could change that to another question Would so causa via Leberman Jari , Cause of Leberman. Johnny means what did you want to eat? Causa bull ever man Jari. Well, we could change that to Dharavi, which means where? And we get door we will ever man Jari Door Babel Ever man Jari means, Where did you want to eat Dove e vil? Ever Mandiri? Or we could change it to Crandall, which means when? And you get Cuando will ever manjarrez Cuando over Leberman Jari, when did you want to eat? So notice how none of the rest of the sentence changes at all When we change the question word the ball Ever man Jari part stays the same on means Did you want to eat in all three sentences? 3. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2a: now, I've already said that there are three parts to structure three. The question word. The inventive carrier in the past tense on the infinitive. Now we already know the question was Andi, we've already got a good collection off infinitives. So let's have a quick recap off the infinitives that we learned in the other courses. How do you say in Italian to eat, Monge Adi To drink barely to order ordinary to try through a body to pay I got e to do or to make Fathi toe higher knowledge. Ari to go on Daddy to take Brenda Lee tohave a very to change come body to buy comprise to start coming Jari to be, yes city to leave part of Tedy to go out Well, she a to bring fourth i e to spend money. Spend every to spend time Passat E to see, very to call. Yeah, Mahdi to stay wrist Ari to find Robotti and to say or to tell D Day. So that's the infinitives. But what about the infinitive carriers in the past tense? Well, let's start with the U forms off these Italian. You'll notice that they all end in the letters V a on most of them end in letters E v a ever so we've already seen volley ever of Ole Va. Which means Did you want Vaal ever put Eva whatever means put you or were you able to? Whatever, dove, Eva, don't wave. Huh? Means did you have to dove? Ever? And so these three all end in Eva and your letters that they all start with the same letters as the invented of carriers in the present tense. So vile ever means Did you want? Well, worley meant Do you want whatever was Could you and poor meant? Can you similarly dove? Eva means did you have to on D day? They meant, Do you have to? The last one is starve a pair, starve a pair means were you going to stabber Pair? So that's four infinitive carriers in the past tense that we can now use to practice with vole ever means Did you want whatever is Could you or were you able to dove ever means Did you have to Onda starve a pair means were you going to 4. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2b: How would you say in Italian? What did you want to bring? Cause of 11 Port Ari Causa bull ever port Ari. When did you have to leave? Cuando dove era partida Cuando dove apart? Eerie. What did you want to do? Because our vote labour fiery cause I belabor fiery. Where did you have to go? Dove E dove Ever on Dari, Dobi, Dobi, even Dari. Whom did you want to call De Voll ever Camera. Keep a camera by building questions Using structure three You're not only get yourself more familiarized with the vocabulary on the structure, but you'll also without even trying reduced the time it takes for you to string a sentence together. Italian. So let's do a few more. How do you say in Italian? Where were you going to stay door. They stop appear Restart! No waste of a pair of history. When did you want to eat? Cuando will ever manjarrez Cuando vi Leberman Jari What could you see? Cause a potato of a daily cause? A supportive of a daily How much did you have to pay? Quinto Quinto Dover Pagar! What were you going to say? Because I stop a pair Geary Causa Stop appear dearie Why did you want to leave Behrke? A bull ever partier bear Cave 11 partier 5. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2c: How would you say in Italian? What did you have to do? Gaza November Fiery closer Dove Ever fiery. What were you going to do? Because a stab appear firing causa Stop! Appear fiery. Where could you eat? No Vape. Whatever, man. Jari Dove E Whatever, man. Johnny, when were you going to go out? Cuando stop Cuando stab apparel? How much? We're going to bring Cuantos. Stab appear Porta Quinto Staff up Airport are which one we're going to buy quietly Staff appear, Comply Quietly Stab Appear comparable. How are you going to pay? Call me. Stop! Appear Bugatti. Call me. Stop! Appear Pagar, What could you buy? Causa potato Comprise Goes up Whatever complexity Where did you want to go? Does a bull ever and Dari dove able? Even Dari? Why did you want to go? Per k Velev and Dari Bear Cave 11 Dari. What could you do? Cause I put a by fiery Gaza Port Afari 6. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 2d: How would you say in Italian? Which one did you want to buy Quietly? Valero Comprise quietly will ever come Priority Why did you have to go Behrke A dove Avon Daddy Perk A dove Evan Body How much did you want to spend Quandt? Over 11 Spindly quinto you'll ever spend. Where could you go? Dove Report Even Dari though they put ever on Dari Where were you going to go? No way! Stop it on body Gov Stop up it on darling, Whom did you have to call? Key Dove ever Camera key Develop Kamani What did you have to take Causa dove ever Prenda Causa doorway of Apprendi. Where did you want to eat? Dobie? Believe a man. Jari No vi va Leberman. Jari Whom we going to call Key staff? Appear Camera key staff A Pitkamaki. Where did you want to stay? Does a boulevard Starry? Does a vole Everest are Where could you stay? Does he put about a study? Dove a pot! A very starry. What did you want to say? Causa Bolivia Delay cause a whole ever delay 7. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 3: you can manipulate structure three in many different ways. Just like you called with structures one and two, for example. You can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick or three parts together. Let's see what happens when you don't port. A question word at the start. How do you say in Italian? Did you want to eat? Va Leberman? Jari Va Leberman. Jari, Did you want to eat here? Voiceover Mandaric, We voil ever Mandaric, We did. You have to pay. Does have a point guard. Don't live up by Gatti. Did you want to pay the bill for me? Velev Oppa! Gorilla can't appear. Me Velev Oppegard, You can't stop me now Let's see what happens if you don't port an infinitive on the end. How would you say in Italian? What did you want? Cause of your liver causa full ever. So there are lots of different ways that you can play around with and manipulate structure three. Additionally, what you can do is add new words that we haven't learned yet. And so if you want to say sentences where the infinitives are words that we've not learnt. Yet what you can do is look them up on a good website, which is www dot word reference dot com. If you type in any infinitive and correct English to Italian, then you'll find the Italian words on the screen. For example, if you wanted to say, what were you going to write? And you type in word reference the word right. It will tell you that right? Is scree very. And then you can say, What were you going to write? Is Gaza staff appear Slavery causa, stab, appear scree Very. You can do this with any infinitive or you have to do is typed into word reference in English. Click translate on Do you will find it in Italian at the minute word reference is a better online dictionary to use than Google translate. And this is because word reference gives you multiple options for every word, depending on what sort of world you want to use. For example, if you type in the word book well in English, book can be a noun or a verb as a noun, it means the book as and I'm going to read the book and you will say that in Italian as a liberal, whereas if you wanted to say something like, I'm going to book a table. Well, in this case, book is a verb. And so it's to book or to reserve in Italian, you'd get putting Atari. Well, sometimes you'll translate gets this wrong, whereas word reference will give you the multiple different meanings off the word book. Onda, what you're looking for is the one that says verb because all infinitives are a type off verb. 8. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 4a: So far, we've only looked at Structure three in a question format. However, you can also use it in a non question. Let's just start this lesson with a quick recap off the structure in the question for so structure three in the question form consists of three parts. A question word, a past infinitive carrier and an infinitive. For example. Causa voil Ever Marjorie. What did you want to eat? Just like with the other structures, you could add the optional fourth part, the extra information, and you'll get something like cause I believe a man. Jari Yeti cause up Bull Ever manage R E e ery, Which means What did you want to eat yesterday? So e Eddie in Italian means yesterday. We look a bit more of that in a bit. However, to use this structure when you're not asking, your question is quite simple. You just take the question marks away on get rid of the question with the infinitive. Carriers change in English, but they stayed the same in Italian. Let's compare a question Onda a non question in the structure three format, so cause up will ever fired a means. What did you want to do cause I will ever fiery. Well, if we take the question mark away and take the question would off we're left with Val ever body, which in an unquestioned means you wanted to do so. The infinitive carrier for Leyva means Did you want in a question? But it means you wanted in a non question So you could add things to the end and say Velev Afari, Quello e ery. Which means you wanted to do that yesterday where you could change the infinitive and get things like Val ever Mandaric, we you wanted to eat here. Well, ever very Paolo. You wanted to see Paolo Va lever on Dari aroma. You wanted to go to Rome. So let's compare the past tense infinitive carriers that we've learned so far in the question format with the same inventive carriers with their English meanings in the non question former. So whatever, whatever in the question format means could you or were you able to? But if we make it into a non question, then it means you could or you were able to, but they ever Voglia in a question means did you want in a non question it means you wanted Vaal Eva Dove. Eva in a question means did you have to? In a non question, it means you have to stop a pair stuff. A pair in a question format means where you're going to, whereas in a non question, the phrase stab a pair simply means you were going to. 9. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 4b: How would you say in Italian you wanted to buy something here for palate vole? Ever compare equal cause A quick Pierpaolo vole ever compare article called a quick Pierpaolo, you're going to buy it tomorrow Starve a bear Compare low domani Stop appear Compare Low Domani You could see it Whatever Very low whatever their No you have to pay the bill November Baccari content Dove Eva Pagar you canto You were going to buy something at the supermarket staff up there Come practical cause up All super mercato staff appear comparative qualcosa of Superman cattle You're going to buy some cheese staff? Appear Comprise Therefore Manju staff appear Comprise Del Formaggio You were going to be here early. Start up There s very quick prima staff up there s a very quick prima So there you have it . The third Italian structure in a non question form. So you just take the infinitive carrier on. Then put an inventive on the end and you can add extra information if you like, and you'll get something like Val ever manjarrez qui e every Which means you wanted to eat here yesterday 10. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5a: infinitive carriers in the past. So far, we've only looked at the infinitive carriers in the past for you. You'll notice that they all end in the letters V A. And most of them end in the letters E v. A. We've had whatever. Which means could you or were you able to Bolivia? Which means Did you want no waiver? Meaning? Did you have to and starve a pair? Which means were you going to so we'll ever means Did you want? But where does it come from? Well, let's take the verb Valerie, which is where Bolivar comes from. Valerie means to want in Italian. Valerie. So let's have a look at this verb in the past tense so we can use it in this structure. Va level of or level means I wanted var levy of Ole V. You wanted volley ever volley ever means he she or you wanted goalabama means we wanted bolivar volume are they means you wanted and volley avenue Volley Avenue means they wanted or you wanted. So that's the verb Valerie, which means to want in the past tense for Level four levy leva Velev ammo, Bolivar, Bolivia. No, you might have noticed that the he she and you wanted form, which is viral Eva, are all the same. Well, this can cause the occasional bit of confusion. So what you can do is add an optional extra to make it clear as to whether you're referring to he she or you wanted. The extra little words are Louis Louis, which means he Les Lay, meaning she or lay with a capital L, which means you. And so instead of just saying Bolivia, you can say Louisville Eva, which means he wanted lay va lever means she wanted or lay whatever. If you have a capital l means you wanted, these are only really used. If it's unclear as to whom you're referring to when you use Vaal, ever since Valetta can mean multiple things. Additionally, you might have noticed that there are three ways to say you wanted in Italian. Var Levy, Vallee Va. And Bolivar. Well, va Levy Volume V is used when you're talking to one person whom you know very well. It's classed as the singular, informal way off. Saying you wanted informal means friendly. So for Levy is the singular, informal way of saying you want it. It's used when you're speaking to one person, you know quite well Bolivia or lay va leva. If you are, the optional extra lay is used when you're talking to somebody you don't know very well. It's classed as the singular, formal way of saying you wanted, So you use it when you're speaking to one person you don't know very well. I tend to use this way more than the informal way, just so I don't offend anybody by trying to assume to be informal. Then we have more live at volume, aren't they? Which is used when you're talking to a group of people, it's classed as the plural volleyball. In fact, there is one more way to say you wanted. You'll see at the bottom. You've got volley even know which could mean they wanted or so you wanted. This one is used very occasionally as a plural, formal way of speaking. So if you're speaking to a group off very formal people, so Royals, for example, then you can refer to them as a volley of I know volume, I know, but this one is used very rarely. So really, we have voy Levy means you wanted when you're speaking to one person, you know very well, vole ever, which is used when you're speaking to one person. You don't know very well. I use this one most often. And bolivar they Which means you wanted when you're speaking to a group of people. 11. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5b: So we've just seen Valerie, which means toe want in the past tense. Valjevo, Valet v Bolivia, Mullah Obama Boulevard and Volley Avenue. Now, if you've learned how to form the past tense in Italian before you'll notice that this past tense is quite different to the normal persons. You'll notice that the beginning of each word is the same. In fact, the 1st 5 letters of the same in each of these of Orlev. And then you get the voluble valet VI vel Eva throughout. Well, if you look at the end part of each word, this is used for all the infinitive carriers in the past tense in Italian. So the Evel Evie ever ev ammo Evan Bayh and ever know parts are the same for all the infinitive carriers in the past tense. So, knowing this, let's look at another infinitive carrier. We've already seen Dove ever, Which means did you have to when it comes from the verb dough? Very dull, very, which means to have to. So let's look at door very in the past tense in Italian dove Evo Dove able means I have to . No, baby, no baby means you have to. When you're speaking to one person you know very well, dove, Eva, or again, you can put the optional extra words Louis November late November or lay with a capital L dove Ever means he had to. She had to or you had to. If you're speaking to one person, you don't know very well. No ive ammo means we had to. Davi vat Davi vat. They means you had to in the plural. So when you're speaking to more than one person and dove ever I know Does he even know Means they had to No way. I know. Dove Evo da, very dove ever Does Obama know Behave. I know. And if you look at the last letters off this verb, then you'll notice that the same as the previous verb. So, Dorval, you've got e v O which is the same as when we had of or level dove every you've got e v I which rhymes with Vogue Levy Dove Eva, you've got e V a again, which is the same as Vaal ever does. Obama, you've got the Obama part which is the same as volley Obama. No way that I think we've got the vat they part which is the same as the bolivar and Dove ever know is the same as a volley of I know you've got the ever know part on the end And so the endings for all the infinitive carriers in the past tense in Italian are the same. Now, to turn the infinitive carriers in the past tense into a question or you have to do is put a question mark at the end. Onda a question word at start, for example, Volatile ever can mean you wanted. And also did you want So overall Ever So here the two verbs Valerie and Dough Very in the question forms in the past ins So what level means did I want var Levy Did you want of all ? Ever And did he want that she want? Or did you want I believe I am? Did we want va Levante? Did you want and Volley ever know? I mean, did they want similarly, if we look at the web, know very we get in the past tense in the question forms Dove Evel Meaning? Did I have to dove? Evie? Meaning? Did you have to dove? Eva can mean Did he have to. Did he she have to? Or did you have to? Does Obama means? Did we have to? No, Everybody means Did you have to? If you're talking to a group of people, Andi Dove ever no means. Did they have to? So just a recap. All the infinitive carriers in the past tense and Italian can be used in questions or in non questions. It's just in a question or you have to remember to do is put a question mark on the end. 12. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 5c: So let's have a look. If we can practice with these two lives that we've been so far, how do you say in Italian? How did he want to pay Comey Bolivia pagar or Comibol level Louis Pagar. So the Louis is an optional extra that you comport really anywhere in the question. So call me Bolivar Louis bag, Ari, you only at the Louis if it's not clear as to whom you're referring to, so you can just say call me Bolivia bag Ari, how would you say, Where did they have to go? Dove, Dove Evan, one Dari Does he dove even know? And Dari, How would you say, What did we have to do? Cause I don't even more far e because I don't even more far Why did you have to see Paolo Pear cake? The wave of a dairy? Paolo Turkey a dove l A very Paolo. What did you have to do yesterday? Closer Dove ever fiery e 80 Because I don't valet fiery Vieri. And also don't forget that the word for what is Italian can be causer que causa or just K. And so you can say Hey, w f R e e ery Okay. Koza, November Farley Vieri What did they want to do? Yesterday? Goes up 11 0 far e ery cause of 11 or fiery Jerry, What time did you have to leave? A que aura November party A que aura doorway. Valet part eerie. So just to recap, then in the past tense, the infinitive carrier Valerie is very level Vore Levy Vaal ever Obama volley of are they and volley even know And then the door very in the past is dove Evo the baby dove Eva and Obama does that And don't behave. I know. 13. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6a: more infinitive carriers in the past. So here are some more infinitive carriers in past tense in Italian. See if you can have a go at conjugating them before you look using these endings, you already know how to say the U form in each of the infinitive carriers. All you have to do is remove the E v a from the end on ad E v o E v i e v a e v a m o e v a t e and e v a n o to form the past tense. Of all the infinitive carriers, for example, we already knew that vole ever meant Did you want? What we did was take the E V a off the end of vel Eva and we were left with the ball. We then put the different endings unto the end of that on Got for Llevo valet VI vel Eva Volume ammo, Bolivar Day and 11 Well, in a similar way, we've already seen that whatever means could you Well, this comes from the very poor theory, which means to be able to so see if you can have a go before we have a look at conjugating this verb in the past tense for all the different people in Italian. So take off the E V A and you're left with pot, and then you add the normal endings. And so pause the video. See if you can have a go working out what the infinitive carriers in the past tense for this bird, would be members played. Steve, you got it right. So for today means can. And in the past we get bored. Devil meaning? Could I for TV meaning Could you port? Eva means Could he could she or could you? On again, you comport Louis or lay or lay with a capital l A. To start to make it clear as to whom you're referring to. But they've am means could we both of apathy means could you and what they ever know means ? Could they in a non question the meetings would change slightly in English. But the Italian words of the same but devil can mean I could in a non question, but they ve means you could whatever can mean he could she could or you could, but they've Amel means we could, but they that they means you could on board devono means they could in a non question Italian. So you can see how the endings are the same as Valiani and door Very. You've got eval, Evie ever a bamboo, a bad day and avenue. 14. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6b: How would you say in Italian? I could see Marco for table. Very Marco for travel The dairy. Marco, What could you see there? Causa Put Ava a gorilla cause up. Put a valet video gorilla. Could they help? And the verb to help in Italian is Are you sorry? Are you sorry? But they ever know. Are you, Tahri? But they ever know. Are you, Terry? What could he do? Closer Dave Afari, Cause I put their fiery. Or if it's not clear, you're referring to he, then you could say Gaza, but they have a Louis fiery. The little word Louis can actually go anywhere in the sentence. So you could say Louis goes up whatever fiery where you could say cause ahlu people, they've afari where you could take it at the end Say goes up. Whatever. Farley. Louis, what could he do? So the Louis is optional, and you can place it anywhere. But usually it goes straight up to the infinitive carrier. See, most of the time you will say cause up, but they have a Louis fiery. What could he do? And also don't forget that the word what in Italian can either Because er Okay, you can say where you can also say Keiko the concern is that of course, a potato fiery. You could say cape whatever fiery who get Gaza Botev Afari So we've seen four theory which is can in the past tense Now the next phrase Starmer bear starve a pair means were you going? Well, this one is the only exception to the rule where you add E v o E v i e v a etcetera. And that's because this one doesn't end in the letters e v a. But it ends in a V a instead. But except for the E, the rest of it's the same. It comes from the verb starting. So if you pause the video, take off the ABA part and see if you can work out how you would put this into the past tense in Italian. Then press play and see Got it right. So start a pair means going to and the past tense we get star vel Bear Stoffel pair Means was I going to star V pair star V pair Means were you going to starve a pair staff a pair Means was he going to was she going to or were you going to stab? Um, appear? Staff? Um, a pair means where we going to staff. Got a pair? Staff got a pair. Were you going to? And the staff are not fair. Starving. Opare means were they going to in a non question the English version off? This will change, but the Italian stays the same. So in a non question star will bear means I was going to star. V Bear means you were going to starve a pair. Or again. You can put Louis lay or lay at the start in an unquestioned means. He was going to She was going to or you were going to Statham Appear. Means we were going to start a pair. Means you were going to and stabbed on a pier. Means they were going to in a non question Italian 15. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 6c: How would you say in Italian? What was she going to do? Causa starve! Appear far e oh, Gaza Stubble! A pair! Ferrari! Who was he going to call? Key Startup Camera. Oh, Key staff! Louis Camera. They were going to stay here. Stefano Bear Restarick. We starvin Opare Restarick. We I was going to speak. Stoffel! Bearup Artillery! Starve a perp! Artillery! So let's have a quick recap off the four infinitive carriers in all their versions in the past tense. So valuable means Did I want var Levy? Did you want Vaal ever? Did he want? Did she want or did you want volume ammo? Did we want volley? Varty Did you want and Volley Avenue? Did they want Dove able? Did I have to? No, baby, Did you have to dove Ever means Did he have to? Did she have to? Or did you have to? Does Obama? Did we have to? Did you have to? And nobody ever know. Did they have to for table means? Could I port Davey? Could you port Eva? Could he could she or could you? But the family could we 40 Avanti Could you on DPA Tavano Could they And don't forget that the But they're V is, Could you? When you're talking to one person, you know very well what they ever is. Cause you when you're talking to one person, you don't know very well on both of art. They means, could you? When you're talking to more than one person, it could just be two people. But you're still used. But they've, aren't they? And then finally, startle pair means, was I going to star V pair? Were you going to stop a pair? Was he going to? Was she going Teoh? Or were you going to step Mom appear? Were we going to Stabat repair? Were you going to you and stabbed on a pier? Were they going to 16. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7a: turning his own negative. There's one more useful thing that you can do to this structure quite easily. Make it negative. You can change the infinitive carriers from positive to negative quite easily in Italian, in English, for example, Why were you going to Rome would become Why weren't you going to room? Could I go with you? Would become Why couldn't I go with you? When did you want to do it? Could become when didn't you want to do it in English? It's simply a matter off putting a little n apostrophe t after part of the infinitive carrier. Well, it's even easier in Italian. All you have to do to turn the infinitive carriers negative is port a non in front of them . For example, Vaal Eva Vil ever means. Did you want nonbeliever? Nonbeliever means Didn't you want? You can do this with any of the infinitive carriers in the question form, So let's have a look at the verb or lady in the negative non valuable means. Didn't I want non verbal? A V means didn't you want nonverbal ever means? Didn't he want or didn't she want or didn't you want? If you're speaking to one person. You don't know very well. Non volume ammo. Didn't we want non volley? Bartee? Didn't you want when you're talking to more than one person? Nonverbal, even know? Didn't they want the web dough? Very in the negative in the past becomes non dove able. Which means didn't I have to? Nonda, baby, Didn't you have to non dove? Eva? Didn't he have to? Didn't she have to? Or didn't you have to known the live ammo? Didn't we have to? Non derivative? Didn't you have to? Non dove Haven? Didn't they have to The Web parterre e, Which means can in the negative in the past, in questions in Italian is non poor table meaning Couldn't die Nonparty, couldn't you? Non port Eva, Couldn't he or couldn't she? Or couldn't you nonparty Obama? Couldn't we known porta potty, couldn't you? If you're speaking to more than one person known Potdevin, couldn't they? And then finally the verb start a pair, which means going to in the past in the negative Italian is non starve a pair. Wasn't I going to non starving bear? When do you going to non staff? A pair can mean Wasn't he going too. Wasn't she going to or weren't you going to non staff? Um, appear when we going to knowns the vat a pair. When are you going to? And non staff are not fair. Were they going to? So all you have to do to turn an infinitive carrier negative in Italian is put a little word non in front of it. 17. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7b: How would you say in Italian? Why couldn't I go with you? Per K naan potato and Derek only bear K naan Put everyone Barican Lee What? Couldn't you bring causa non potato port? Ari Who causa non potable a porta or again the word What Italian could because our Okay Okay Khoza Andi Similarly, the word for couldn't you can either be part ever Where of you being more informally with a port Davey? Or if you're speaking to more than one person you were safe part of our causa non porta porta How would you say, Weren't you going to buy something for Maria Non Stop a pair Comm practical cause Upper Maria non stop for their comm Practical cause Upper Maria or again instead of stabber You could say non stab or non stabat him. Couldn't I call key non portable Kiomarie keen on potato camera. Why didn't he have to do it? Bear que No November Farlow barricade Non Dove Errol. Louis Farlow. So when you want to say it in Italian, you can hook law ello unto the end off. Any verb so far, e means to do Farlow to do it. So park a non dove ever Louis Farlow. Why didn't they have to go to Verona? Barricade Known over heaven When Daddy, a Verona Barricade Non Dove Evan. Quandary of a loner. Which one? Didn't you want to buy quietly? Novel. Ever comply, Ari. Quietly nonbeliever comprise. Now you can also turn the non question infinitive carriers. Negative Italian in the exact same way we have to do is put a non in front of them. So put devil as a non question means I could, whereas non portable, non poor table means I couldn't. And again, you can do this with any off the infinitive carriers in the non question form. So let's look at the validity non valuable, non valuable. I didn't want non voluntary. You didn't want nonverbal Eva he didn't want or she didn't want or you didn't want. If you're being formal known volume ammo, we didn't want non volley Varty you didn't want and nonverbal Eva. No, they didn't want 18. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 7c: Let's look at the verb door very in the non question negative in Italian, non dove Able means I didn't have to No, no, baby, you didn't have to. Non dove, Eva. He didn't have to. She didn't have to. Or you didn't have to. No, no more. We didn't have to Non delivered. You didn't have to. And non devono they didn't have to. The poor Terry in the negative non question past in Italian is known for table. I couldn't nonparty V. You couldn't known potato. He couldn't when she couldn't or you couldn't. If you're being formal, non part of ammo we couldn't known in part of our day, you couldn't and non party ever know they couldn't start a pair in the negative non question past is non starve a pair. I wasn't going to non star v pair. You weren't going to non staff. A pair can mean either he wasn't going to. She wasn't going to or you weren't going to and again, just like with the other forms off the he she or you form off anywhere you can add, Louis lay or lay with a capital l anywhere in the sentence to make it clear as to whom you're referring to. Non stop! Obama pair. We weren't going to nonstop got a pair. You weren't going to If you're speaking to a group of people and non staff on a pair they weren't going to So how would you say in Italian? I couldn't do it yesterday. None portable far Lui Eri Non Potable Farlow e ery I didn't want to eat the chocolate Non Valjevo man Jari Jokela toe Non valuable man. Jari Jokela I wasn't going to spend too much money. Nonstop appear. Spend. The rate drop is only non stop Overspending trumpets only You didn't have to call Paulo Nonda. Very camera, Paolo. No, No! Baby camera Paolo, They didn't want to eat here. Non of 11 0 man! Jaric, We non of 11 0 man! Jaric! We I wasn't going to hire it. I was going to buy it nonstop. Appear knowledge. Arlo Stavro pair comprado nonstop. Appear Knowledge are low. Startle pair comprado 19. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8a: Now let's do a quick recap off all the question words. All the infinitive carriers in the past tense. All the infinitives, Andi, The extra information that we've learned in this course How do you say in Italian where no VI walked causer? Okay. Oh, get goes on. At what time? Que order? When Cuando how? Call me which or which one Quietly Why perking? How much cuenta? How many? 20. How long or how much time Quinto tempo? Who or whom? Key. How do you say in Italian? I wanted valuable You wanted when you're speaking to one person informally for Levy he wanted or she wanted or you wanted full ever. We wanted volley of ammo you wanted. When you're speaking to more than one person, I worry that they they wanted volume. I know I had to dove able You had to when you're speaking to one person informally. No, baby. He had two more. She had two or you had to. No Eva. Under get you can you can add Louis lay or lay with a capital l to make it clearer after which one you're referring to. We had to no live ammo. You had to in the plural. No way that they they had to. No way. I know I could for table. You could in the singular informal for 30. He she or you could port Eva. We could part of ammo. You called in the plural party of are they? And they could for Dave. I know. 20. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8b: How would you say in Italian? I was going to Stoffel pair you were going to in the singular informal star V pair he was going to She was going to or you were going to stop a pair. We were going to Statham appear you were going to in the plural start a pair and they were going to starving Opare how would you say in Italian to eat, man Jari To drink Barre to order ordinary to try pro body To pay Gary to do or to make Fathi to hire knowledge Ari to go undoubted e to take surrendering to have a very to change Come b adi to buy comparably to start coming Johnny to be s city to leave about a steely to go out Well, she they to bring poor Daddy to spend as in to spend money, spend any to spend as in to spend time basanti to see Bet any to call Cam Adi to stay rest , Ari to find Robotti and to say or to tell delay 21. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8c: now a look at some extra information word that you can use in the past tense in Italian. The first word is e ery e every which means Yesterday, he added, the next one last city Mana scores Lhasa de Manha scores means last week. Lhasa de Manha means the week and scores up means last selection. You're saying the week last lasted a manner scores land off score. So land no score. So we've got the word score. So here, which looked very similar to score, sir, in the last word and this phrase Lund off course. Oh means last year. So scores hadn't a on the end in Lhasa. Team Anna score, sir, which meant last week. And that's because the word for week in Italian is feminine. Where is here, Lana? Score. So the word score so ends in an O. And that's because the word land no. Which means a year is masculine land. No score. So last year Yeah, he said, uh, yeah, he said, uh means last night literally. It means yesterday evening, Jerry said, uh, do a journey far do a journey fam means two days ago. So the word far in Italian means ago. On Do a Journey means two days. So do with your knee for two days ago, so far means ago. So let's have a look at some other phrases that include the word fat una city my Neffa. Well, NASA demand afar means a week ago or one week ago in an alpha means. A year ago, you nano fa said the manner was feminine and it ended in the letter A. So don't forget that when you change anything that ends in the letter A to the plural, you change the A to an E so this phrase do way. City Mani far do a city man if er means two weeks ago, So city Mana becomes city Monday in the plural ends in an e Do a City man if for two weeks ago words which end in O in Italian generally on masculine, and to make masculine words plural, you change the 02 an eye. So this phrase Dewey Anni fa the way any farm means two years ago, So Anil meant Year Anne means years do an IFA. Two years ago, the word quality, a quality okay can mean either some or a few. So Quale, cage or no far means a few days ago, after the word Quite okay in Italian, you always use a singular noun. And that's why Giordano here is in the singular. And it's not Giordani. So quiet. Okay, Jordan, not far a few days ago, so in English to say a few days in Italian, you say day instead, quality gate Jornal fat a few days ago or some days ago, so you can put far from the end of any phrase in Italian to mean something ago. 22. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8d: So how would you say in Italian? What were you going to bring yesterday? Causa stuff up Airport rd E 80 goes a step Airport are very You can use K instead of causer or you can use kick Garza because all those three phrases mean what Similarly, instead of starve a pair which is the singular formal way of saying you you could say Star V Bear if you're being informal or Stabat they bear if you're speaking to more than one person So is that of course a staff appear Porta Vieri, you could say cause a star V purported Guerrieri who causa stuff a tip airport R E s How would you say? What could you eat at the hotel? Cause up whatever man Jari A lot of hair ago causa Whatever man Jari, A little bit ago how would you say you were going to spend too much money last week? Staff upper Spend the rate drop Isolde Velocity Manus Forsa staff appear Spender Tropics Old velocity monusco RSA What could you see last night? Close up. Whatever. Very very Sarah goes up. Whatever. Valeri? Yuri. Sarah, When did he want to go out? Cuando Cuando level she day. Or you can put Louis somewhere in there and say Cuando level Louis sushi. I was going to bring some wine for Marco yesterday. Stoffel Bear, Porta del vino per Marco Bieri, Stoffel, Fairport are in Del Vino. Per Marco Bieri. Could they eat at the hotel? But they have a new managerial. Amerco. Whatever. No, man Jari. A little bit ago, what time was going to call Maria A que Aura? Stop! Appear Kiomarie! Maria O K Aura, Stop! Louis! Perky Merry Maria. The Louis can go anywhere so you can say a K aura. Luis Tava. Perky Merry Maria. How would you say, Did you want to pay the bill? Valero magaria goingto vil ever pagar Yukon toe for instead of 11 equals stable Lavy if you're speaking informally Valet, veep, a gorilla cornetto. Or, if you're speaking to more than one person or group people, you can say volley. Vas a pagar el convento 23. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8e: How would you say in Italian? Where did you have to go? Does a dove ever and Dari dove? It'll live on body or instead of November. He said, Oh baby, Who will be that? Depending on who you're speaking to? What time did you want to start last week? AKI Aura, Bolivia Come Injury! Last demand scores Act a order vole Ever coming, Jon Lester Demand a score, sir. On again instead of full ever You can save a Levy or Bolivar. Which ones did you want to try quietly will ever provide quietly evil ever provided. What were you going to do last week? Cause us to have a pair far less in demand scores. Causa staff appear fiery Velocity minus coarser And again is it? Of course are you can say kick Gaza or just K Andi instead of staff a pair, you could say star V pair if you're speaking informally or stabat repair If you're speaking to more than one person, how would you say you could buy it yesterday? But they have a comprar low Vieri whatever comprado Vieri So don't forget that when you want to say it in Italian, you can put the word law on the end of any verb socom, Ferrari or you have to do is take the e off and then you add ello and it becomes comparable . Oh, so comparing means to buy comprar low means to buy it. Did you want to go out later, Vaal Ever Khushi repute Arnie will ever be rape you. I wanted to go out later. Va level Moshiri Pewter Valjevo, Khushi repute. And did you want to see it, Vole? Ever there Low Vil Ever very low. Did you want to try it? Va Liver probe are no volley of a pro Barlow. 24. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8f: How would you say in Italian which one we're going to hire? Quietly Study para knowledge. Ari. Quietly study parent knowledge Ari Instead of Star V pair, which is the informal way of saying where you're going to, you could say Starve a pair, which is more formal or stabat repair if you're speaking to more than one person, whom did you want to see in Milan? Keep 11. Bavaria Milano Key Vivid Area Milano Whom did you have to see in Bergamo? Key dough. Very, very a Barrett M. O ke drove a very a Bergamo or again instead of dough. Baby, which is informing you could say dove Eva, which is more formal or w that they which is, if you're speaking to model in person whom we going to see in Rome? Key staff appear very aroma key, stab appear very aroma. Instead of stab a pair, which is formal, you can say star V pair, which is informal or stabat repair. If you're speaking to more than one person, how would you say in Italian? I had to be there really no vevo SRL, a prima no vevo Sevilla prima. You could bring it for Paolo Puteri Port Arlo Pierpaolo. But every port Arlo Pierpaolo. Or is there a poor TV port? Eva, if you're being more formal or part of our day, if you're speaking to a group of people, I couldn't see it there. Non portable over there. Lola known Potato Valliere Lola. 25. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8g: How would you say in Italian? I had to say something. No Vevo, dearie Qualcosa the vevo dealing qualcosa. I wanted to bring it for Maria Valjevo, Port Arlo Pear. Maria Valjevo. Port Arlo Per Maria. So don't forget. If you want to say it then you can put the little word Law l o on the end off any infinitive by taking the e off first. So Port Ari is to bring port our in law to bring it. How would you say in Italian I had to start late. No vevo commensurate! Tardy dove ever commensurate Tardy! You're going to eat something at the restaurant Star V pair Manjarrez Qualcosa Allah Restaurant Stop repairman Jerry Qualcosa Restaurant Instead of star V pair you could say staff a pair which is more formal Or if you're speaking to a group people the plural is stuff. Got a pair? I had to leave yesterday. No vevo Part era Vieri November part eerie e every you wanted to buy something in Verona Valeri Comparative qualcosa Verona Valeri Comprado qualcosa Verona Instead of levy which is the informal, you can use Vaal ever which is more formal or bolivar if you are speaking to a group of people. You were going to be there yesterday. Starving Perez Gorilla e ery star v. Perez Gorilla e ery or, instead of star V pair, weakens a staff a pair, which is more formal or stabat repair, which is the plural. You had to go to Italy and the baby and Dari genitalia Dove Evie andare in Italia. Don't forget that when you're speaking about going to a country, then the word for two is in. So here to go to Italy in Italia. But when it's going to a town or a city such as Rome or Milan, then instead of in you use the word to mean to. So are Milano, means to Milan or aroma means to room and again, dove. A V in this sentence could be dove Eva in the formal or deliver that they in the plural. How would you say, Why did you have to leave yesterday? Barricade know very partida e every Burkett and O'Berry partida e l e. We reserve the baby Use a dove ever who know Viva 26. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8h: How would you say in Italian in the informal, you couldn't buy it here last year. Nonparty comprado Quillen of scores Nonparty heavy combat. Look, we learn of score. So she wanted to say something. Vole Ever dearie Qualcosa Bullivant, Dearie Qualcosa. Or you can put lay in there somewhere and say lay voluntary Qualcosa over level a dealer Qualcosa How would you say in the informal you were going to bring it with you? Stobbe Fairport Arlo Content star v Purport Arlo Dante Corn is the informal way of saying with you. If you're speaking formally, you would say staff up airport Arlo corn lay so lay spelled l e I is the formal way off saying you after Khan Conley Or if you're speaking to a group of people you could say stab today, Fairport Arlo convoy. So voy spelt v o I is the plural version off you. So convoy is with you in the floor. How would you say I wanted to eat something? Valero Manjarrez Qualcosa Valero Manjarrez Qualcosa How would you say in the informal you were going to spend too much money Star v purse Pendry Drop disorderly star v purse Pendry Trapeze holy. I had to find the hotel. The vein Ultra very little Bourgault The Wave Ultra Very little bear ago I was going to change it later. Startle pair Camby are no pewter And the starve Opare Camby Arlo Puteh. Really? How would you say in the informal, you were going to buy too much star V pair Comprise troppo star v Bear comprise troppo 27. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8i: How would you say in Italian? I wanted to buy something here. Valjevo, compare equal Kozak. We Valjevo comprise qualcosa qui You could buy it in Bergamo in the informal port Davey comprado a Bergamo puteri comprado abery demo. So I said recently that the word for two when you're going to a place can either be in or in is used. When you're going to a country such as in Italia, where is, uh is used when you're going to a town or city, So a room or are Verona Similarly, the word for in is the same. So in If you're saying that you're in a country in Italian is in. If you're saying that you're in a town or a city, then you will use the word instead. So in or are can mean to or in in Italian, depending on whether you're speaking about a country or a town or city. So here Bergamo is a city. So that's why we say about Davey compatible up Bergamo in Bergamo. How would you say in Italian I had to drink something though they have a very quiet Khoza November Berry qualcosa I couldn't bring it yesterday Non portable porter know Jerry Non portable port Are Lui Eri How would you say in the informal you wanted to buy something for Maria Valeri comprar equal cause appear Maria Bolivia Compare equal cause appear Maria, how would you say using the formal way off saying you I was going to buy it for you? Stoffel pair comprar Lopez Starve. Appear comparable. Apparently I wanted to buy it for Sofia Volvo Compare Arlo Pear, Sophia Valjevo. Compare Arlo pear Sophia 28. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8j: How would you say in Italian? He was going to buy it for me tomorrow. Starve! Appear comprado permit Domani Oh Louis Stab appear Cobreloa Permit Domani I wanted to see Milan tomorrow. Valjevo. Very Milano. Domani Valjevo. Very Milano Domani. You had to call Anna in the informal way of saying you in the very camera on No baby Cam. Arianna, I was going to call Carla tomorrow. Stop Appear Kiomarie Carla Domani Stubble Perky Merry Carla Domani I wanted to spend three weeks there. Voluble Passaro Teresa de Manila. Voluble pus Sorry, Trey City Manila. I was going to order the chicken for Marco. Stab a pair. Ordinary will pull no pair. Marco. Stab all pair or venereal polo per Marco. I had to change the reservation. No Vevo Camby. Ari Lapetina Etzioni Dove A vocabulary Lapetina that Cioni 29. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8k: How would you say in Italian? I have to go November when Daddy dove Evo and Dari How would you say informally, you had to eat something. The very man. Jari Qualcosa No baby mongering Qualcosa. Well, how would you say? Informally, We're going to buy something here. Star v pair comm Practical cause a qui star v pair comprar equal Kozak We he was going to do it later. Stop a bear, Farlow, pewter and the Or you can put Louis in there if you want and say Louis staff appear. Farlow. Plutarch, How would you say informally, you have to be in Rome yesterday. The VVS, every aroma. Very no baby yesterday aroma, yeti And this phrase dove Evie can also mean you're supposed to. And so in this race and a bevy yesterday aroma Vieri it could mean you were supposed to be in Rome yesterday. How would you say they were going to start soon? Starving Opare Commentary Presto, starvin All better come injury. Presto! You could buy something at the hotel port. A decomp radical causa A little bear ago for TV comparative qualcosa albergo Or if you want to say it formally, you would say whatever instead of Port Davey. Or if you're speaking to more than one person, you would say part of our but the Vatican practical cause Alberich Oh, how would you say informally you were going to bring it for Marco Star v Fairport Arlo Pear Marco Savvy purport Arlo pear Marco 30. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 8l: How would you say informally in Italian? Why did you have to change it, Eric? It does. Very Kambia. Arlo, barricade the baby. Kambia! Arlo! I had to call Maria. No Vevo camera Mariya No vevo camera Maria, I had to be in Verona last week. No Vevo s Terry have their own elastic demand scores. Dove Evo SRE Verona A city man A score. So how would you say informally? Why couldn't you come with us on the word for us in Italian is noi n o. I know. Oy behrke A non party even Eric annoy barricade nonparty. Even Eric annoy. I wasn't gonna buy it today. Non staff appear comparable. Org nonstop appear comparable. Org So here is structured threes outline. You've got all the question words on the left, then the past inventive carriers in the middle, along with the infinitives after that. And then on the end, you've got some extra information. And just like with the other structures, what you can do to practice is build random sentences on, say them to yourself over and over and over again, and then try and change one thing at a time. Miss helps to get your tongue around the structure and to get you more familiarized with the different imprint of carriers. What you can also do is write this down on a piece of paper and see if you remember how to change each of those infinitive carriers into the different persons. And so you've got, for example, Port Davey is could you? But think about how would you say, could I What could he or could she or could we? Or could they? This will help you to get used to the different endings off the past infinitive carriers in Italian. 31. Italian Structure 3 Chapter 9: So just to recap quickly, don't forget that you can use this structure in four different ways. We can have a positive question. A positive non question, a negative question. Onda a negative non question. So, for example, a positive question would be. What time did they want to finish act aorta, viola, Bonafini re a k or of 11 off. Anyway, In a non question, you could say they wanted to finish at three o'clock, which would be verbal Evan, often near a tree of 11 offi near a tree to make them negative or you have to do is put non in front of the infinitive carrier. So an example of this would be why didn't they want to go para que non Valvano and Dari hurricane on 11? Oh, and Dari as a non question in the negative, you could say something like they didn't want to go non of 11 0 and Dari. None of 11 0 and Dari. So there you have a positive question, a positive non question and negative question. Onda a negative non question instructor. Three in Italian