Building Structures in Italian - Structure 2 | Kieran Ball | Skillshare

Building Structures in Italian - Structure 2

Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
36 Lessons (2h 3m) View My Notes
    • 1. Italian Structure 2 Introduction

    • 2. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 1

    • 3. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2a

    • 4. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2b

    • 5. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2c

    • 6. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2d

    • 7. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2e

    • 8. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2f

    • 9. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2g

    • 10. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2h

    • 11. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2i

    • 12. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2j

    • 13. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2k

    • 14. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2l

    • 15. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 3

    • 16. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4a

    • 17. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4b

    • 18. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4c

    • 19. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5a

    • 20. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5b

    • 21. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5c

    • 22. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5d

    • 23. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5e

    • 24. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5f

    • 25. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6a

    • 26. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6b

    • 27. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6c

    • 28. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6d

    • 29. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6e

    • 30. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6f

    • 31. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7a

    • 32. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7b

    • 33. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7c

    • 34. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 8a

    • 35. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 8b

    • 36. The Happy Linguist


About This Class

The whole of the Italian language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any Italian book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.

I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in Italian, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.

Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole Italian language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.

This course introduces you to structure 2. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the Italian language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.

Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.

This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 2, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.

The Building Structures in Italian series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute Italian courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn Italian, no matter how little time you have.

If you would like to move on to Building Structures in Italian: Structure 3, then click here:


1. Italian Structure 2 Introduction: How am in Venuto? Hello and welcome to building structures and Italian structure to I'm Karen Andi. I'm a language tutor based in the UK On I wrote this course to help me, to learn to speak Italian. The whole of the Italian language is made up of a number of structures. I remember one weekend I was writing some lessons for the week ahead. When I suddenly realized this, I noticed that there are a certain number of structures and Italian and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures and I wrote them all down. Once you know what all the structures are, you can begin to learn them. Every struck to learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than authors, and all the structures together make up the entire Italian language. Once you've learned all this tortures or you have to do with insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence. These structures also helped propel you to fluency. If you could manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to think about how to say it. As I said, each structure enables you to say a huge amount, So I've limited each course to just one structure so as not to overburden you by looking at one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the Italian language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think everything through like it's a math equation. Before you start this course, let me share with you an extremely handy learning tip that helped me to progress quickly and effectively in language learning. When most people start studying for anything, they tend to spend the first day or two studying for hours and hours and get through lows of work. However, very quickly this begins to dwindle. You might feel like spending hours to the Italian, which is great, but you want that feeling of motivation to continue, and it won't continue if you actually spend our studying. Limit your study time to chunks of just three minutes. No more if you limit your studying to just three minute chunks there are three things that will happen. Firstly, you're maintain enthusiasm. If you want to learn anything, you have to maintain enthusiasm or else you won't continue. If you limit your study time to just three minutes, you'll keep Italian fresh and exciting and you'll be eager to learn. If you spend hours studying very quickly, you'll get bored with Italian and it'll turn into a chore. Secondly, is more consistent studying. It's much better to study for just three minutes once a day, then to study for three hours once a week. A spare three minutes is relatively easy to find, even in the most hectic of shuttles. If you make sure you complete at least 13 minute chunk every day, it will quickly become a habit that you'll do without thinking. It's much easier to fit in a daily three minute habit than a weekly one hour. Have it. By doing this, you'll become a much more consistent learner, and consistency is the key to success. Fedley your achieved more effective memorization. This is my favorite reason as to why you should limit your study to just three minute chunks. If you study something for just three minutes every day, you will trick your brain into memorizing the information more quickly than if it were to see the information for hours each day. It will think I see this information every day, so it must be important. But I don't see it for very long, so I better hold on to it and make it into a memory fast. You'll be amazed at how much more easily things tend to stay in your brain if you limit yourself to just three minutes today, so three minutes is the key. Set a timer. Andi. Once you reach three minutes, stop then give yourself at least half an hour before you doing little three minutes. You should aim to do at least 13 minute chunk every day, any more than that is a bonus. But one is fine. Just work through the course and completely exercises, and you'll be amazed at how much you learn 2. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 1: structured to in Italian uses the present tense to form questions and statements in a very similar fashion to structure one structure to It's probably my favorite structure in Italian, or that I do like them all. It consists of just two parts, and here is an example of in use Kit Manja Kim Anja means What are you eating? K Manja. Let's break this structure down into its core components and give each component a name just like I did for the last structure. So get manja means what are you eating gay means what? Andi is a question word. Okay? And Manja means are you eating? And it's the present tense manja game. Anja, what are you eating? Structure to will be easier for you to pick up, mainly because you already know what the question words. But let's go over them quickly just to make sure you remember them we had Don't be meaning way Gaza. Okay, Okay. Khoza Meaning what? Ac aorta. Meaning At what time? Cuando meaning? When go me Which means how quietly meaning which or which one Benkei Which means why cuenta Meaning how much? 20. How many Quanta Temple? How long? Literally how much time and key, which could mean who or whom. So what weaken now do with this second structure is start to build up questions using the two parts the question word. Andi, the present tense. We can change any of the two parts in this structure. For example, instead of saying OK at the start, which means what we could change to Davi, Meaning where? So get manja que manda means. What are you eating whereas door be manja, Dobie Manja means Where are you eating doorway Manja? Or we could change it to Quentin. Which means when Quentin it'll so you'd get Cuando manja Cuando manja Meaning? When are you eating? Just like with structure one, You can change the question word without changing any of the rest of the question. The man Jack part didn't older. It'll just because you changed the question. We're at the start 3. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2a: using structure to there were just two parts to structure to the question would on the present tense, and we already know the question words. But what about the present tense? Well, in order to use structure to, you'll need to know how to use the present tense. I'm not going to too much depth on how to use the present tense in this course, but I will give you a quick recap. So for structure one, we learn lots of infinitives, which was the whole Web, and we can take those infinitives and turned them into the present tense. If you're not sure on how to form the present tense, you can learn all about it in my success with Italian grammar book, the present tense. In this course, however, I'll just congregate all the infinitives we learned in Structure one and put them into the present tense view. I'll just say this. Basically what you do to form the present tense is get the infinitive and take off the last three letters. Then you add these endings, depending on what the verb ended in on what person it is in. Italian verbs will end in either. The letters a r E e r e or I R E adi Airy and eerie. What you have to do to form the present tense is removed. Those three letters and then are different endings, depending on what person it is on. The persons in Italian are your, which means I to meaning you lui and lei, meaning him or her. No oy, meaning we voi, which also means you and Lord Oh, which means they now in Italian. You'll notice that there is more than one way to say you we got to and boy, after there's 1/3 way lay to lay envoy of the three ways to say you in Italian and when you use them depends on who you're talking to you to is used when your friends with a person or they're about the same age as you or younger. It's in informal way off saying you and you use it when you're talking toe one person who you either know quite well. Or, as I said, Are you more than you? Les is a more formal way off saying you and again you use it when you're talking to one person, and it's when you're talking to somebody and you want to show them a little bit of respect . So either they're older than you or you don't know them. So too is the informal, and lay is the formal. If you're talking to more than one person, however, you'd have to use a voi voy is the plural way off saying you in Italian? So we've got to is the informal singular Les is the formal singular and voy is when you're talking to a group of people. So it's the plural. So we've got eel, meaning I to meaning you Lui and Lei meaning he and she on we can call. There is the 1st 2nd and third person. No, oy means we voy is you in the plural on Loro is they? And again we can call those the 1st 2nd and third person because your means I and Noi means we Well, really we is when we have I plus somebody else. So it's proof Voy was the plural form off you and two is the singular form off you and Lui and Lei mean he and she will if you have more than one he and she in English. You call them. They on Italian, you get laurel so e o Do Lui and Lei are the singular annoy. Voy and Loro accord the plural, but that's a bit of grammatical terminology for you. So depending on what person you want on, depending on what the verb ends in, you have to add these endings that's practiced with parla, which means to speak. Parla ends in a are to congregate paddle ari into the present tense. We start by removing the A R E and we get what's called the stem and we add on to the end off the p a r l part the appropriate ending, depending on what person you're talking about. So e o. Farrell means I speak. So we added O to the end. To parley means you speak. So we added I on the end. Louis or lay parla means he or she speaks and Italian. You add a on the end. No, oy, petroleum means we speak. And so it's having you add i a m o e m o On the end. Voy parla di means you speak in the plural and in Italian you add a T E to the end of the Web. Loro parallel means they speak, and in Italian you add a n o to the end. So the endings that you add to anywhere but ends in a r e r o I A I am oh 80 and a n O so we can put them into the table for e r E verbs survives a and an e r e. We take off the e r E and then we add these endings Well, let's practice with the verb vendor, which means to sell so we get e o Wendell means I sell So it ends in o to Vendee means you sell which ends in an I Louis on lay vendor means he or she sells and that ends in an e No , oy, vin de m o means we sell Which ends in I am Sam Voy vendetta means you sell in the pool and that ends in e t e on Loro vendor. No, which means they sell and that ends in o and O. So the endings for an e r e verb are toe Adam. Oh, for I you hadn't I If you want to say you, you hadn't e for he and she. Then you add I am oh, for we e t e for you in the parole and o n o for they so their endings are very similar to the Eyrie verbs. And now finally, let's do the I. R E verbs. So for IRA verbs will use the Web party to practice with which means to leave. We take off the I R E and we get parador so you add in. Oh, that means I leave tarty you Adan I and that means you leave party. You add an E, and that means he or she leaves Louis or Labour Party about the ammo means we leave on you , Adam. I am O to the end. About a deep day means you leave in the plural. You add I t e and part owner means they leave and you add in o n o. So the endings for I R E verbs are extremely similar to the endings for E. R E verbs. The only difference is the voi says at those endings to the table. Oh, I e yam eat they and on no into their the endings for the present tense verbs in Italian. What I do now is go through all the infinitive that we learned in the building structures in Italian first course, and I put them into the present tense. See if you can start to spot the pattern. 4. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2b: man, Jari Man Jari means to eat. Manjural is I eat or I'm eating Manji. You eat or your eating manja is he eats. So he's eating and again, man Jack, you mean she eats or she's eating on Manja can mean you eat or your eating man jam means we eat or were eating. Man jot means you eat or your eating When you're talking to a group of people, man, Geno means they eat or they're eating. Now you might notice there are no words in this congregation for I or you or he or she. And that's because the Italian, the endings off the verb tell you who's doing the speaking. So Manjural ends in an O. So it must be I eat because in Italian, the majority of verbs which ended and oh, you are talking about I So Mandel I eat. If it ends in an A like manja that it must mean he she or you are eating. So you haven't got to use the words for I or you or he. They're called subject pronouns, and you don't have to use them. They are optional, however, so you can use them if you want to. So Mandel means I eat. But you can also say your Mandel to mean I eat to Manji. You eat Louis Manja. He eats Les Manja. She eats Les Manja again. Cano's I mean, you eat with the formal. The difference in writing is that lay when it means she has a lower case. L whereas lay when it means you has an uppercase l No Oy, man. JEMB you mean we eat Voy Mongia? You mean you eat and low man Geno means they eat all that eating. So the subject pronouns your toe Louis lay noi, voy and Lord oh are optional. You don't have to use them some man Joe Manji, Manja, Manda, Manda Those three of the same man John More man jot man In general, the stress in the present tense tends to be in the same place for your to and Lui and Lei and Loro. So those six tend to have the same stress. So Manjural Manji munge Amanda Manja Munn Geno You stress the A after the M, whereas for the other to the wheat and the U In the plural, the stress moves to the next syllable man jam man, John. And that's going to be the same throughout all of these verbs in the present tense. The I you informal and he and she and you formal on the way all have the same stress that you pushed down on the same part of the word Monjo, Manji, Manninger, Munn General. Whereas the we and the U the stress will move to the next little man Jack Man jam. 5. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2c: Now this next Web berry berry means to drink, and we call it an irregular verb because it doesn't follow the pattern off. Taking off the last three letters and adding the letters Oh, I e etcetera. This one does its own thing on your notice in Italian. There it's a small handful of verbs that do do this, and we call them the irregular verbs. And it's best just to get used to these verbs and to learn them as you come across them. But baddie is to drink. Bavel is I drink while I'm drinking. Baby, you drink or your drinking baby he drinks or he's drinking baby again. Camion she drink So she's drinking Baby can also mean you drink or your drinking baby, am we drink or were drinking? Bet they you drink or your drinking, and they ever know they drink all their drinking. And again you can put the optional subject pronouns the your bearable to bury Louis baby lay baby Les Berry noise baby ammo. Voy better, I think Loro Babineaux, but they are optional. You haven't got to put them in. And just to point out again that the stress for the i you, he, she and you. And they is always the same on the we and the you pull their stress moves to the next syllable So bearable. Baby, baby, baby, baby, baby The stresses on the E after the B whereas in the U in the plural on the we it straight move to the next syllable. So, baby m baby, the next verb is ordinary ordinary which means to order or denarii. So again we take off the last three letters the A R E and that's called the stem with for the stem is the or dean part on. We add the present tense endings to the stem so we get or g no means I order or I'm ordering or Deeney means you order or your ordering Ordina he orders or he's ordering Ordina cannot. I mean, she orders or she's ordering Ordina again can mean you order or your ordering in the formal or Deeney ammo we order or were ordering or did he not? Is you order or your ordering in the Pearl and Ordina is they order or they're ordering So again the stress in this one is on the I after the D for the i you, he, she and they visions or Dino or Deeney, Ordina, Ordina, Ordina, Ordina and for the we and the U In the plural, it moved to the next syllable, or Denham or maybe not. 6. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2d: part of our E. Nobody means to try provided we get the word probe from this word. If you probe something that you're taking a sample over to try, it's a provider. So we take off the last three letters on we're left with the stem, which is the problem when we get probable, which means I try or I'm trying prov e you try or you're trying. Moreover, he tries Oh, he's trying, Petrova, she tries or she's trying for all that again means you try or you're trying pro BMO is we Try and provide the is you try or you're trying in the paternal and Provo No, is they try or they're trying the he she on the u formal forms of the verb are always the same. So we can really group these together and say he she or you tried. In fact, there are six congregations rather than eight. If we do this because we get probable is I've trial. I'm trying. Ravi is you try or you're trying in the informal Padova can mean he tries. She tries or you try. Program is we try. Provide is you try in the pool and Provo no. Is they try or that trying? So we can shorten the list to six congregations if we joined together the he she and you because they're always the same Andi in that we call the person is the Italian. And in English, 1st 2nd and third, the first person is the i form of the verb you and also the we form of the verb noi e o annoy our classes, the first person in Italian and English. And so I and we or your annoy are the first person you it fasted the second person on in Italian, we have to Les and boy due to their classes. The second person in Italian And then the third person is the he or the she or the vein. So Louis Lay and Noro and in Italian, we have singular and plural persons. So the first person singular is your the first person. Plural is noisy. The second person singular is either two or lay the second person. Plural is a voi because that's when you're talking to more than one person and then the third person singular is he or she, Lui and Lei and the third person plural is they Laurel. So we have six different persons that you can congregate the very into 7. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2e: this next part, Gari, my God means to pay Peguy Paige. Oh, is I pay. I'm paying Paige E. Is you pay or your paying in the informal On your notice. There's a hate that has appeared after the G, and that's a pronunciation thing in Italian. In Italian, the letter G can be pronounced in two ways. If a G is followed by an O and A or you, it's cusses a harsh G, a good sound Paige guy or by go if a GS followed by the Letter E or the Letter I, it's crust as a soft G, and it becomes a J sound with Paige Ari. If you take off the last three letters you left with P A. G, which is the stem of the Web, however, for two, which is the U informal to form the present tense of this, we put an eye on the end of the verb, in which case would get P A G I, and that would have to be pronounced pah jee. But to keep the harsh G sound from pagar, we can put a hate after the G. A hate isn't pronounced in Italian, but it does make the G Ah harsh sound. So we get baggy rather than patchy. So it goes pargo for I pay baggy for you pay I got what that could mean. He pays, she pays or you pay in the formal baggie am And the hate has arrived again because there's an I Paige Yam means we pay or we're paying. I got is you pay for your pain and bargain is they pay or they're paying So the stress in this verb is the A after the p for the i you he she and they Chicago baggie Baga by God And then the stress moves to the next suitable for the we in the u pool Bagram by God they this next verb fiery, fiery is to do or to make. Now, this one is a very irregular verb. It doesn't follow the rules at all and it doesn't look quite strange so far e we don't take the three letters off or do anything to it. In fact, it just does its own thing. So we get factual is I do or I make factual five years. It means you do or you make fi far. I mean he does, she does or you do. Or he makes. She makes or you make fat. Gemma is we do what we make fat thing is, you do or you make in the plural and fun. No, they do, or they make. So this very, very irregular on this stress rules. Well, they don't appear in this in this world because the congregations are so different. So we have factual five far fat Jamel fact they and funnel, So just learn how to say those words. 8. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2f: knowledge, Ari know Ledge Ari means to higher knowledge. Ari, this is a regular verb. So we can get the last three letters and take them off. And then we get no, let Joe is I hire or I'm hiring. No, let g you hire or your hiring Nolan Gia is he hires, she hires or you hire no Lee Jam we hire or we're hiring. No, Lo Jack, you hire or your hiring and no, let General they hire or they're hiring. So no ledger know Ledge no ledger. Nala Jam. No, Jack, no. Let General. Then we have another very irregular verb on die undoubtedly means to go on this very changes completely in Italian when you form the present tense. So on Dari is to go. Vatel means I go where I'm going. Vai is You go or you're going va is he goes, she goes or you go on. The m is we go or we're going. And that they is. You go in the plural and van No is they go or they're going. So we have Vatel, Vai, va and the AM on that they and van No, this very is very strange because Some of the congregation starts with that of E, and some of the congregation starts with the letter A. The reason for this is because Italian comes from Latin and in Latin there was more than one way to say to go in Latin. They had amble Ari, which was to go to go for a walk and wolrd. We get the word amble from it. So to go for an amble is to go for a walk. Ambulatory. And then they also hadn't in Latin Valerie, which was another word for to go well when they form the Italian language, they combined the two words for to go, and they got on Dari When you congregate on Dolly, the Valerie, which was the for the word for to go in Latin comes out, too. That's where the vehicle miss room, volatile vie va and yam, and that they and van no pretend any friend Mary means to take rendering. This one is a normal verb. It follows the pattern So you take off the E. R E to get the stem friend, and then you add the endings Riendeau his. I take Apprendi. You take friend A. He or she or you take poor indie ammo. We take Brendan. They Brendan is they take so Brendel Trendy, trendy, but in the animal. Brendan. Brendan. So the stress for the 1st 3 in the last one is in the e after the are Brendel trendy friend , A friend? No, no. Whereas the stress jumps to the next syllable for the we and the U in the pool. But in the amel Brenda. 9. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2g: this next verb is another irregular verb are very ah, very means toe have a very And when you conjugated it changes quite a lot. Oh, is I have what? I'm having the hate in Italian when it appeared that the start of a word is silent So Oh, I have I you have or you're having, uh she has she has or you have IBM we have. I bet they you have in the pool on. No, they have all their having. So we have a very is to have Oh, I, uh a b m o of a day. I know. Come BRT come b r e. This is a regular verb, Camby, Ari. We take off the a r e from the end and then we add the endings Cambio I change. Camby, you change. We don't add an extra eye to this can be, you know have come be with two eyes on the end. Just the one the We have got to add anything to the stem for the U form in this web. Kambia is he changes, she changes. Are you change? Cam bmo, We change or with changing Kambia, you change or your changing Kambia. No, they change or they're changing. So the stresses on the A after the city cambio Camby, Kambia, Kambia No. And then it changes to the next suitable for the we and the U. N. Approval. Camby M. Kambia, another regular verb is complying. Company means to buy. We get comparable Is I buy or I'm buying company. You buy or you're buying compra He buys, she buys you buy com pre em is we buy compra is you buy in the plural and compound is they buy what they're buying Another regular verb is common Charlie coming Jari which means to start It's a little like to commence common Jari There we take off the a r e and we add an O for the eye. So we get commune Sure is I start I'm starting. Carmine Key is you start or your starting in the informal Kaminska he starts So he's starting Kaminska again. Cammy, she starts or she's starting and commensurate can also be you start or your starting in the formal. Coming, Jamel, we start or we're starting. Coming, John, you start or your starting in the plural and come in channel they start or they're starting 10. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2h: this next verb is very irregular s city necessary means to be s city means to be We get so no is I am where I'm being saying you are or you're being in the informal A was coming He is she is or you are Cmm is we are or were being siete day You are or your being son they are or they're being see Lotus That son no can actually mean I am or they are so yesterday is to be so no se a c m c a day So no para ti iti a part of Tedy means to leave and this is a normal regular Web character. Is I leave or I'm leaving. Party is you leave or you're leaving in the informal part of the can be he leaves, she leaves or you leave in the formal part of the animal is we leave or we're leaving party day you leave or you're leaving And Paris tonight means they leave or they're leaving. And so the stress is in the a After the p para party battered they bad Donna And then for the we and the U In the plural it moves to the next syllable party. Um Bharati who she day? Well, she is another irregular verb. Roshini, This becomes s school, is I go out. Well, I'm going out. Is she is you go out or you're going out. Is she? He goes out, She goes out or you go out. You Sham is we go out or we're going out. Or she they is. You go out or you're going out in the plural and s gonna is they go out or they're going out. So will she. Today is to go out and then they get s school. Is she Is she Khushi? Am who? She They s Connell. 11. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2i: Port Ari Port Ari means to bring port Ari, This is a regular verb. So you just take the a r e off and you can have a normal present Tense endings. Porto I bring Go. I'm bringing 40. You bring all your bringing in the informal porta Could be he brings she brings or you bring in the formal 40 am is we bring or we're bringing port of that thing you bring or your bringing in the Proedl and Porteno is they bring or they're bringing support Daddy and the stresses on the O After the Pisa Bordeaux board, the Borda Porteno and then for the we and the EU, it moves to the next level 40 a. M port that they spend very spend their A means to spend money and it's a regular verb. Spend early. So we get spend or is I spend or I'm spending spend. You spend all your spending Spender is he spends she spends or you spend spend down more is we spend always spending spend that day is you spend all your spending in the plural and spend owner is they spend all their spending and the stresses on the e after the p. So spend the spend the spend a spender and for the we in the U in the parental stress moves to the next syllable. Spend GMO. Spend it they And again, don't forget you can if you want at the optional subject programs. So instead of saying spend all you could say your spending and too spendy. Louis Spending Les Spending Les Spending with a capital l is you spend noise spendy ammo voy spend eight. They low spend. Oh, no, But their option we haven't got to put them on Vasari is to spend time, so spend a was to spend money. Vasari is to spend time, and it's another regular fib. So we take off the A R E and we get Bastard is I spend on spending past you Spend or you're spending in the informal Bessa is he spends Oh, he's spending. Pasa can also be she spends or she's spending on past. That can also be your spending or you spend in the formal past CMO. We spend always spending pasa. You spend all your spending in the plural and passed center. They spend all their spending. So the stresses on the A after the P Basso Bassi Bassa best center and then for the we and the U and the plural, it moves to the next syllable potassium best that they 12. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2j: very daily video Any means to see vendor Every this is an irregular verb. So we just take off the e r e Let me get vandal is I see what I'm seeing Verdi, you see or you're seeing van Day is he sees or she sees or you see radium is we see always seeing very eight they is. You see your your seeing in the plural and very donna is they see or they're seeing. And so the stresses on the E after the V vandal verity, Vandy radium they that they very dinner on. Don't forget the stress moves for the noi Onda void the wheat and the U in the pro cam Adi camera means to cool cam body a C H in Italian. It's pronounced like a key. That's why it's key. Um, Ali and it's a regular verbs. So we just take the a r e off on at the normal endings. Keum Key Ami Akiyama, Cam Yom came out. They can't model and that means I call you Call he or she calls you call, we call you call and they call, and the stress is on the A After the I Keum Ki ami Key Yama and Cheon Mono. But for the we and the U in the plural, it moves to the next syllable. So we get Cam. Um can my to come out is to call. The rest are the rest are means to stay arrest Ari and it's a regular verbs. So we just take of the A R E and we get arrested is I stay? I'm staying Rest e you stay or you're staying arrest. He stays or he's staying. A restaurant can also be she stays or she's staying on arrest. That can thirdly mean you stay or your staying in the formal STM is we stay or were staying . The rest are they is you stay on your staying in the plural and rest on is they stay for their staying in the stresses on the E after the are so restaurant arrestee rest rest on a And for the we and the lay forms of the verb, it moves to the next syllable distress. So we get arrestee ammo and restaurant 13. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2k: true body trove. Ari means to find Travade, and it's a regular verb. So we just take the a r e off and we can have the normal endings. Travel is I find I'm finding Iraqi is you find or your finding in the informal Turova he finds or she finds or you find Roe v. M. O is we find Travade is you find in the plural and drove a no is they find or they're finding So the stresses in the O after the are so we get grovel. Ravi Turova drove, I know. And for the we and the EU and the Plourde again, it moves to the next syllables. Then we get through Of'em Hrovat. And these stresses are really important to remember, because if you stress the wrong part of a word that can lead to a misunderstanding. Sometimes in Italian, for example, travel is I find with you mispronounced that and stressed the end instead and said trouble that actually means something else. It means, he found. And so the stress rule in Italian is quite important. So try and remember there is a grovel Ravi Turova, Donald. I know. And then for the we in the U Trophy M and Travade. And then finally we have the D Day, which means to say or to tell D Day. It's slightly irregular, this mood. There's no different lessons. Start. It's a D all the way through. But the endings are quite unusual, and so dearly becomes. Deco is I say, your I tell or I'm saying, and I'm telling, Did she is, you say or you tell in the informal de chair is he says. Or she says, Or you say De Jamel is we say or we tell, Did they is you say, Oh, you tell in the parole and D Corner is they say, Or Vato Deco Dhe did Chair de Jam, Did they? D'Cunha. So that's a lot off infinitives in the present tense in structure to the second part of the present tense so that see if we can now put these into questions 14. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 2l: How do you say in Italian? Where are we going? Does A and e m o dove e on the ammo? Well, how would you say, How are you paying? Call me Maggie. Call me Maggie. That's what you'll say if you're talking to one person informally, whereas if he wants to be more formal because they call me by God. So if you're talking to a group of people, you would say it. Call me bag rt. How would you say, when are we going out? Cuando yo she um Cuando yo, she um What are you trying que pro v get bro v And remember that an Italian there are three ways to say what you could say kept Roe v causa pro v. Okay, goes a pro V. How would you say what is eating que manja que manda, or how would you say? What are you doing? If I If I How would you say How is he paying? Call me Praga Comey Baga. Well, how would you say What are they trying? Because I probe I know cause that pro bono, just like with structure one in structure to there is also an optional part that you couldn't add on the end The extra information 15. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 3: extra information. The extra information are all the noun, adjective, time wears, etcetera that you can put onto the end off the question for example cause if I stuffed Data Causa Feist Data What are you doing tonight? Davi Manji Domani Darby Manji Domani Were you reading tomorrow? Davi by aura w by order. Where you going? Now here's a list of extra information that you could use. Domani is tomorrow. Org is today staff Sierra means tonight Order is now Pew. Charity means later aroma means to Rome or in Rome in Italia means to Italy or in Italy. I'll restaurant at the restaurant or to the restaurant you born. No means the chicken Eka Porto Ross So means the red coat. One billion means a ticket. Better medical means for market and queen is here. So how would you say in Italian? What are you doing now? Get Go, Zafira, it goes off. I order. What do you buying for power? It goes a complete Pierpaolo que cosa calm. Prepare Paolo. What time are eating? Later? A K order man John Mop you Charlie a k or a man? Jama pewter. Really 16. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4a: manipulating structure to you can manipulate structure to in May different ways. For example, you can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick a question word in the start. Let's see what happens when you take the question. Would off. How do you say in Italian? Are you eating Manji Manji? Or how would you say, Are they eating here, man? Janaki Manzano qui How would you say, Are you paying the Bill Paige E Il canto baggie Ikhwan toe? Or How would you ask, Are you buying some cheese company format? Joe Company for Maja. Are you going now? By order by order? Um, I paying the bill bag with Toronto Pago el canto. Now, with he and she in Italian, you'll notice that there's no difference between the verbs. So Manja means he eats on Monday. Also means she eats. So if you use it in a question, it can be a little tricky toe workout. Which one you're talking about? So if you get a question like K far, well, that could mean what is he doing or what is she doing? So it's hard to know which one is which there is an extra word that you can add to the he or she versions off the verb to help you to differentiate. I've mentioned them already. The subject pronouns and so you can add Louis, which means he or lay which means she to the end of the question came Angelucci Kate Manja Louis means what is he eating? Came on Jele que manda lay means. What is she eating? You haven't got to add these, however, they are optional, but they do make it clear as to who you're talking about. So came Manja. It's fine for both of these. But if you want to differentiate, you comport Louis or lay on the end. Another example is Doriva. Louis Dove. Eva Louis, Where is he going? Or does the valet don't be that way. Where is she going per k party? We per K party. Louis, Why is he leaving para que party we and then perky part daily perk A party lay means Why is she leaving? So using the subject programs Lui and Lei how would you say in Italian? Is he buying some G's com proforma? Joe Louis compra Formaggio Louis Well, how would you say? Is she buying some Jeez compra for Majoli compact format. Julie 17. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4b: How would you ask In Italian. Is he going now? VAT or Louis? That water, will we? Is she going now? That what? Ali? That orderly. Is he paying the bill? Paige, you control Louis Praga in control. Louis? Is she paying the bill? Praga in control, eh, Parker? You can tote lay now. Let's have a quick recap of all the question words Onda. A few of the more common present tense verbs. How do you say in Italian? Where Davi? What? Cause that at what time? A K order? When Cuando how? Call me which or which one. Quietly. Why? Okay, How much cuenta? How many? 20. How long Cuenta temple? Who or whom? Key. How do you say? Are you eating Mongie? Is he drinking baby or baby? Louis? Are you ordering or Deeney? Are we trying? Robbie Amell? Are you paying baggie? Is she doing Farley? Or just far, Are we hiring knowledge on more? Is he going vat or value? We? Are you taking brandy? Does she have uh oh away? Are we changing? Cam BMO Um I buying Komproe. Are you starting Kaminsky? Are they son? No. Are we going out? Shamel, Are they leaving path Tunnel. Are you bringing 40? Is he spending as in money spending or spending? Louis? Is he spending time pastor or pass a Louis? Are we seeing very m o video? Are you calling key on me? Are they staying? Rest on. Oh, do you find Ravi? 18. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 4c: So how would you say in Italian? What is he doing? Because I found or because I felt we Because I follow me. How are you paying the bill Comey? Baggy contour. Call me back eu Conta. Which one is she buying? Quietly, Comparably, Quietly. Comparably. Why are we hiring a call? Hurricane Ali Jama when a maquina barricade Knowledge Amona Makina How much are you eating ? Quantum Angie Quantum Angie, Where you hiring the car? Does he know Laid una maquina? Does he know lead una maquina when they eating Cuando man General Cuando Altman. General, What time you're going? Okay. What have I Okay. What have I 19. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5a: do versus ing. Now English has more ways of saying the same thing as Italian does. So sometimes things can get a little confusing. When you're asking a question using structure to in English there are two ways to say it. What are you eating or what do you eat in Italian? These about the same causa manji course I'm Angie. This is because, firstly, there is no ing in Italian. And secondly, the question would do Doesn't exist. Italian either. If neither of those words exist, all you have left is what you eat. What do you eat cause that Manji. So because the thing doesn't exist, we can say that in Italian there is no um, ing or is being or are in. So, for example, where am I going? Where is he going? Where are you going? Therefore, whenever you see that, just look at what the baby is. Where are you going? Well, the are on the inning can disappear. So you're left with where you go, dove Vai? No, by means. Where you going? Similarly, that little question would do that often appears in English. Questions doesn't exist in Italian, so just ignore it When do you leave? Well, the do doesn't exist. So we're left with when you leave Cuando party Cuando parity means When do you leave? So there's no ing or do in Italian And there are two ways to ask question in English. Whereas there is just one way in Italian. So cause I'm manji can mean What do you eat or what are you eating? Cuando parity? When do you leave or when are you leaving? Cuando venga? No. When do they come? When are they coming? So how would you say in Italian? Where you eating? Dobie Mongie. Norby Manji. Where do you eat Darby? Manage E dove eight manji. So it's the same. When does he finish Cuando Phoenicia or Cuando finish a Louis? When is he finishing? Cuando finish a or Cuando finish eight Louis So it's the same again. When do we arrive? Cuando trivia quandary v m o When are we arriving? Cuando revie m o quandary bmo Why do you say that? Parquet Dhe cuello barricade each equal. Why are you saying that? Park a DJ Cuello park a DJ cuello 20. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5b: How do you say in Italian? What are they doing? Que fun? No, Kate. Fun? No. What do they do? Que funnel, Kate! Fun new. How would you say? What do they drink? Okay, babe. Oh, no. Okay. Bag. Oh, no. Or what are they drinking? Came babe. Oh, no. Kate Babel. What are you eating? Cause I'm Angie cause that Mungiki what do you eat? Course I'm Angie. Because I'm hungy. Where is he going? No. Viva. Or does the value we? Where does he go? Don't be that way, Davi. Value we What are they saying? Kiddie corner. Get in the corner. What do they say here? KD coqui que de Conakry? Does he speak English? Caroline Glazer or parla? English Resolute Parla England's Louis. Is he speaking English? Caroline Glazer Louis Parallax Anglaise Louis Does she arrive tomorrow? Are even Omani Who are river? The money lay. Is she arriving tomorrow? Are evil Domani again? Areva Domani lay so the lay and the Louis don't forget are always optional. What time do they leave tonight? Que? What a part of the most. A seder. A K order part. Oh, no stuff. What time are they leaving? Tonight? a K or a parent? Almost a sierra, a K or a parrot Almost as data. How many pizzas are you ordering? Quanta pizza or Deeney? Quanta pizza or Deeney? Or how would you say, How many pizzas do you order? Usually on the word for usually an Italian is D So little This or Lito? So how many pizzas do you order? Usually Quanta Pizza or Deeney? The Sollitto, Quanta Pizza, ordinary Sollitto? 21. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5c: How much wine does he drink? Quanta Vino, baby Louis Cuando vi No, baby, we How much wine is he drinking? Quantum vino, baby. Louis cuenta Vino baby. Louis, What are they making? Get funnel Que funnel? What do they make? Que fun? No! Que funnel! Are you trying the wine bra? Ve vino pro v E v? No. Do you try the wine? Probably even know Ravi even know. Are you making a reservation? If I were not printed, Etzioni Fi una print Etzioni. Do you make a reservation? Usually 51 a printed Theo nitty Sollitto five. When I print at sea on it is a little What do you having? Okay, I Okay, I What do you have? Okay, I Okay, I where the eating tomorrow Does the man Geno Domani Davi Man General Omani Are you eating with me today? Magic on biology. Magic on me or G? When is he calling? Cuando camel Louis Cuando Akiyama Louis. When does he call? Cuando Akiyama. Louis Cuando Akiyama Louis, what are you ordering for us? Geordi Independently Que? Or the paranoia. If she ordering for me as well or Deeney lay Permatang ordinary labour. May Yankee, the Anke can go anywhere in this sentence So you could say or Deeney lay on keeper me. So is she ordering as well for me? Why are you here? Better case A queen para que Steak queen Why are they here? Better guest on a qui bear case on Acri. What are you doing here? Que Fikri If I quit 22. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5d: Which one is she buying? Quietly, Comparably, Quietly Comparably. Which ones do you have? Quietly, I quietly I Are you being stupid? Se stupido se Stupido! Are we leaving soon? Party A most rubato party Ammo Subito, Do we leave student? But I am also Beato Party Ammo. Subito, are you drinking the wine? Baby? You know Baby, you vino! Do you drink mine, baby? You know Baby Veena, the word the is used in Italian here. And that's because whenever you talk about food and drink in general terms then you have to say the in Italian. We don't do it in English. So do you drink wine in general? In Italian, you should say, Do you drink the wine? So if you said do you like cheese in general? Will entail you Say, do you like ver cheese? So whenever you're talking about food and drink in general rather than a specific food and drink, then you can use the word the we have to use the word the in Italian. That's why it's baby Il vino for Do you drink wine in general? How are you going to Italy? Call me by genitalia. Call me via genitalia. When are they going out? Cuando s gonna Cuando s gonna When do they go out? Corn? The way school Cuando s gonna Are you going out later as sheep? You charity a sheep? You charity? Is he leaving today Party or Jean Louis Party orgy? Louis, is he here? I agree. Equity or equity? Louis, I was speaking with Maria Powderly, Amoco Maria Barley. Amoco. Maria. Who are you calling Kiki on me. Kiki Ami. 23. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5e: How do you say in Italian? What do you taking with you tomorrow? Capering the content Omani cape Trendy contain Omani What do you take with you Caper and the content Capering Deke ARNDT What are they changing? Que cambiar? No cake Damn! You know why are they changing the reservation? Forget campeonato print Etzioni per k Kambia No apparent Etzioni, Where are we staying tonight? Norway rest. Yeah, Most Acerra. No of arrest? Yeah, most US data. Are you staying here? Arrested qui rest equi. Does he stay here very often. The word for often in Italian is special espresso. Spe e s s so special. So how do you say? Does he stay here Very often. Rest a quick motor space. So Or you could put Louis on the end and say arrest a queen. Motives pesto. Louis, What time are you eating? A que Where? Manji. Okay. What? I'm Angie. Which one are you taking quietly? Brandy. Quietly trendy. Why are you going with them? Better cave icon Loro Barricade. Vikan. Loro, Why do you go with them? Perking Vikan. Laura Perry gave icon Loro. Why are they going to Milan? Perk even know Emiliano per k run Noah Milano. Why did they go to room Perk? Even more aroma per k. Vanua Roma, Why are you taking that parakeet? Brandy quero para que prenda cuello. Why do you take that barricade? Brenda Cuello Perfect. Brenda Cuello. 24. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 5f: Who is he telling? Key chain Louis Keedy Cello. We? Whom are you seeing? Keep baby Keeve. Addy, What are they bringing? Keep Wharton que porter. Donna, Where is she going tonight? Dobie Vaster Said Ali No se Ali, Why are you going now? Picking Biota? Better give iota. So just remember that when you get a question in English that contains are and then ing or the word do in front of another verb. Then you ignore the are Ingo. You ignore the do and just say the verb in Italian. So where are you going? Well, an Italian. You just say, where Go you or when do you leave? While the do doesn't exist in Italian when it's used in front of another verb? So you just say when you leave 25. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6a: as a non question. So far, we've only looked at structure to in a question format. However, you can also use it in a non question. Let's start this lesson with a quick recap off the structure in the question form. So structure to in the question form consists of just two parts. Okay, Manji Meaning? What are you eating or what do you eat? So OK is a question would And then Manji is the present tense. And remember, we said you could add the optional third part, the extra information so you can get something like get manji stuff. Steira! What are you eating tonight? To use this structure when you're not asking a question is quite simple. You just take the question word off. Let me show you what I mean. Let's compare a question and a non question in the structure to format came on, General came in general means what are they eating? Capeman General, To make this into a non question the man general part doesn't change it all. You just take the question would off. So, man general means they are eating. So you could say man journal polo means meaning they are eating the Chicken Man Journal in Poland. So the phrase man journal means, Are they eating Andi? They are eating Babineaux. Well, that could mean they are drinking. Or are they drinking parallel? No con Paolo can be. They are speaking with Paolo if it's a non question, but it could be a question. Are they speaking with Paolo? Van Domani means they are going tomorrow. But it can also mean Are they going tomorrow to get around the problem of whether you are talking about a question or just a sentence? Then in Italian, you use your voice. Vinyl domani means they are going tomorrow to make this into a question. You can raise your voice at the end Van or the money Are they going tomorrow? So to make any question in Italian into a non question, you just take the question word off, and then don't raise your voice at the end. So vinyl domani they are going to marry Babineaux means they are drinking. But then the question you would say Babineaux, are they drinking? Carolina? Gianpaolo, they are speaking with Paolo. But in a question Carolina controller. Are they speaking with Paolo 26. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6b: double meaning. One thing to note is that, just like with the question former, the known question format can have two meanings, too. Every present tense verb in Italian can be translated in two ways. In English, for example, Manjural can mean I eat or I'm eating. There's one way with an ng and another way, without a thing. Parley ammo can mean we speak or were speaking character. No, they leave or they're leaving. Or Deeney you order or you're ordering when you say the he or she versions off the village . You don't have to say Louis or Lay, but if you do, you tend to put them before the verb. In another question, for example, Louis Manja means he eats or he's eating Les Parla. She speaks or she's speaking. You have to put the lui and lei in front of the verb. You can put it at the end, and you can also miss it off completely. So the Lui and Lei are optional, and they're only used really to clarify as to whether you're talking about he or she. So all the verbs in the present tenants have one way with an inning and another way without being in English. How do you say in Italian? She is buying something here for Paolo. Compact will cause a quick Pierpaolo Compra qualcosa Quit Pierpaolo! They're buying the wine later. Compra No il vino pew! Tardy compra! No TV! No Pew Charity I see Maria Vedo Maria Vedo Maria, I'm buying something here. Compro qualcosa qui compro quite cause a qui We're buying something at the supermarket. Compare Obama Qualcosa Super Mercato Com Preemie qualcosa I'll soup Mercato I'm buying some cheese Compro del formaggio compra del formaggio 27. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6c: I'm buying something for my mom here. Compra qualcosa quip Perry Mia Madre compro choir Because I quit for me a matter He's very tired. Louis. A multi Stanko! Louis a mortar! Stanko, I'm there tomorrow. So no Lado Manny So no lot Domani He's bringing everything for power. Porta Toto! Pierpaolo, Porta Toto! Pierpaolo I'm bringing some through tomorrow Porto Tchibo Domani Puerto del Chivo Domani I'm saying something Deco Qualcosa Deco qualcosa They're bringing some wine for Joe Porteno There'll be no para Joe Porteno del Vino Pirjo She's starting soon. Come in Just a veto Coming Jaso! Bitto! We're eating at the restaurant Man Jamo Restaurant Man Jamal Al Restaurante, You're leaving tomorrow Party Domani Parity Domani He's buying something in Rome Compact Qualcosa Aroma Comply Qualcosa aroma You're going to Italy Student by in Italia Subito by genitalia Subito, They're leaving tonight. Bad of Donald Stasi una part of Donald Stasi era. They're eating at mind tomorrow, Man! General! Damn! A domani man! General Dmitri Domani 28. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6d: How would you say in Italian? I'm seeing Makelele later. Verno! Mikhail! A pew Tardy Vero! Michaela! Pure authority! You're eating something Managing Qualcosa! Mongie Qualcosa We're bringing everything with us tomorrow 40 ammo to talk Annoyed Omani 40 ammo Toto con Noi Domani I'm doing something factual Qualcosa Factual Qualcosa You're spending too much money Spend it! Drop it solely Spend The drop is only I find the hotel terrible travel Albergo Terry Billy Travel Albergo Terry Millie I'm changing the reservation now Cambio lack printer That's the only order Cambio Lapetina That's the only order you're buying too much Complete drop Complete drop I'm buying something here Compro qualcosa Quick Compro qualcosa qui We're going to Milan and the ammo Milan and the ammo Emiliano, He's drinking something. Baby Qualcosa baby Qualcosa and bringing Paolo Tomorrow Porto Paolo Manny Porto Paolo Domani I'm buying something for Maria Compro qualcosa Pair Maria Compro Qualcosa There Maria 29. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6e: How do you say in Italian? We're speaking. I really am Para Leon More. We're starting now. Coming, Jamel! Order! Coming, Jamel! Order! I'm ordering a bottle of water for the table. Or Dino when a bacteria Darkwa, Barre, Cavallo or D No one about Elliot. Aqua pair. Cavallo. I'm ordering for you or D No party or Dino Birthday. She's calling me Caylee Lake Yamamah Caylee Les Yamamah Caylee I'm calling Michaela tomorrow. Key Yamamah Canada Mani Yamamah Kelly Domani I'm spending three weeks there. Pastor Recipe Manila Pass Electricity Manila I'm ordering the chicken for power. Already know import low Pierpaolo or Dino? Ill Polo Pierpaolo, I'm changing the reservation. Cambio lack parental Cioni Cambio lack printed See only I'm going now By the order Volatile Order! He's eating something Manja Qualcosa or Louis Manja Qualcosa We're eating here today, man John McQueary ology man John McQueary Orgy! I'm doing everything later factor to top you tardy factor Toto Pew Tardy 30. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 6f: How would you say in Italian? You're in Verona tomorrow? Se Verona Domani Say I don't want to remind me they're starting soon. Come in Channel. So veto come in China. So veto. You're going to the hotel by a lot of their ago. By a little bit ago. I'm buying something for divey. They compro qualcosa period avid a compro car cause a pair of gravity. She's changing everything. Kambia too. Gambia to toe. They're calling Maria Gamma. No, Maria Akiyama. No, Maria. I mean big amount tomorrow. So no a berekum. Oh, Damani! So no. A very grandma Damani, She's here today. Les qui ology lay a cree ology. We're drinking the wine baby ammo even know maybe I am a even know. So they have the second Italian structure in a non question form. For example, man gentle queen They're eating here. So it's made up off a present tense man in general, meaning they're eating, and then extra information queen, which is optional 31. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7a: Here's a quick recap off all the question words. Some present tense verbs. Andi, from extra information Words. How do you say in Italian where no movie walked causa or gay? Who kicked Gaza At what time? A k order When Cuando how? Call me which or which one Quietly. Why better game? How much quantum? How many? 20. How long or how much time? Quanta Temple. Who or whom key are you eating? Mongie? Is he drinking? Maybe. Or maybe Louis. Are you ordering or Deeney? Are we trying program? Are you paying baggie? Is she doing for fallaway? Are we hiring knowledge? Ammo? Is he going va or value We? Are you taking Apprendi? Does she have? Uh Oh, Ali, Are we changing? Kambia, Um I buying. Comparable. Are you starting community? Are they son? Are we going out? Oh, Sham. Are they leaving part of China? Are you bringing 40? Is he spending money? Spend? They will spend a Louis. Is he spending time? Bessa Oh, pasa Louis, Are we seeing video? Are you calling Que ami? Are they staying? Rest on them. Do you find trophy tomorrow? No, Manny today. Orgy Tonight Staffs, Data now. Order later Pew charity in Rome or to Rome, Aroma in Italy or to Italy, in Italia, at the restaurant or to the restaurant I'll restaurant the chicken El Pollo, the red coat E capito, Rasta a ticket, Julieto for Market Better Medical and here, Queen. 32. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7b: How do you say in Italian? What are you bringing? Que por earthy? Que party? What is he eating? Que Mongia? Or came Angela, We You're spending much too much money Spend the Malta trapeze totally spend the multi trapeze only what do you see? Give it okay. Very When are they going out? Cuando s gonna Cuando s gonna I'm bringing some wine for power tomorrow. Porto del Vino Pierpaolo the money Porta del vino Pierpaolo The money Are we eating at the hotel tonight? Man Jamo, Albert Costa Man Jamo Albert Costa. Are you calling Maria at court? Past four Kiani Maria Ali Quattro acquired Key Ami Maria at a quadrille. A quarto? Is she paying the Bill Bagai Goingto or Baga? Yukon? Totally. How are you finding the film? Comey Travel film Call me Pro ve film. What? Tommy is starting a K or a community, A K or a community. Which ones are they trying? Quietly Pro bono, Quietly pro bono. What do you doing tomorrow? Cause I find Armani cause I find Omani. He's buying the food later. Comprise cheap. You 30 compra de chivo. Pure charity. I'm going out later. Esko Pew Charity s Corp. You tardy 33. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 7c: How would you say in Italian? Are you going out later? A sheep. You, Charlie? A sheep? You tardy. Do you see the restaurant? Ready? Eel restaurant? Very your restaurant. Are you trying the wine Pro ve Wien Ravi Alino. Which curry? Hiring quality back in technology. Quietly. Mackin. All known edgy. Whom are you seeing in Rome? Keeve 80 aroma key. Very aroma. Whom are you seeing in Milan? Kiev? A. The Milano key. Very Emiliano. Whom are you calling in Italy. Ki Ki ami. Genitalia. Kiki Army in Italia. Now let's do a quick outline off this structure On the screen, you'll see a table with the question words the president tents on DSA Extra information. Where you can do with this is copy it down and then use it as a plan or an outline to practice. Making questions one way off. Becoming more fluent in this structure is to pick one question and say it over and over to yourself a few times. And then without stopping, try and change one part of it. For example, Dobie Manji, Domani Domani, Domani, Davi, Manju, Domani. And as you're saying it over and over without stopping, try and change one part on in your mind. Try and work out what it means. Davi Manjit, Amani Dove Imagine Omani Doraemon, Geology, Davi Man Geology, Davi Man Geology came and geology came and geology a k what a man. Geology. And so, by changing one part of the time, it helps to get your tongue around this structure and helps it t flow out naturally. 34. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 8a: turning it all negative. There's one more youthful thing you can do to this structure quite easily. Make it negative. You can change the present tense questions from positive to negative quite easily in English, for example, we get why are you going to Rome? Becomes Why aren't you going to Rome? Or is he staying here? Becomes? Isn't he staying here? Or are they leaving tomorrow? Are they leaving today in English? It's simply a matter of putting a little n apostrophe t after the is or are. Well, it's even more simple in Italian or you have to do to turn the present tense questions negative is put non in front of the Web. For example, Vai means are you going non vie means Aren't you going? You can do this with any present tense in the question form non manji means Aren't you eating? Or don't you eat non baby means? Isn't he drinking or doesn't he drink non ordinary means? Aren't you ordering or don't you order? None. Program. Aren't we trying or don't we try Nonfarm. Isn't she doing or doesn't she do non baggy? Aren't you paying or don't you pay? Let's have a quick practice with these. How do you say in Italian? Why don't you try the wine barricade? Non pro V il vino hurricane on. Probably you know, Isn't he making a reservation? Non fat When I plant at Cioni non fat went uptown to see only on their buying something for Maria Nonconference Qualcosa per Maria Non comparable Qualcosa per Maria Why don't we call Luca Per k Naan Kamiyama Luca Birkett known Kamiyama Luca Why aren't you doing it now? Per k normal If I order hurricane on low fi aura When you use the present tense verbs in Italian, you comport it in front off the web so that the word for it is law. And you put that in front of the soap, Eric. Eight non lo fi or a Why aren't you doing it now? So if you put law in front of a very Italian, it means it. No, man egy Are you eating it? No, baby, Are you drinking it? And if you want to make it negative, you put none even in front of the law. So nor low manji. Aren't you eating it or No, No, baby, Aren't you drinking it 35. Italian Structure 2 Chapter 8b: you can also turn the non question present tense Negative. You do it in exactly the same way you simply put non in front of the verb. One thing to know is that if you want to put Louis or lay in front of the verb, you have to put non after this. For example, Lui va means he's going Louis non va means he isn't going, so the non goes in front of the Web via But after the Louis, you can do this with any of the present tense verbs in the non question form. So non manager means I'm not eating or I don't eat non fi means you're not doing or you don't do Louis non baby means he isn't drinking or he doesn't drink. Lay non parla means she isn't speaking. Go. She doesn't speak. Non compete means we aren't buying or we don't buy. Nonparty means you're not leaving or you don't leave. No one s gonna means they aren't going out or they don't go out. Known provenance means they're not trying or they don't try, just like in the positive present tense. There are always two ways in English to translate something from Italian in the negative, you can either say in English Don't or um are is not being, for example, non Mandel can either mean I'm not eating or I don't eat Louis Nonpareil I'm crazy means he is not speaking English or he doesn't speak English. So let's have a quick practice with these. How do you say in Italian? I'm not doing that today. Non factual quail orgy, non factual quail. Org. He's not eating the chocolate non. Manjula took a lot non manja Chocolat. They're not spending too much money, no spending proposal, really no spend on our trouble so early. She's not calling parallel non Akiyama Paolo Non Chiana Paolo. You're not leaving until later. Nonparty Fino up you terribly Non parity. Fino up. You tardy Sophie. Noah means until in Italian I'm not hiring it. I'm buying it. No, no, no ledger low Komproe normal on a ledger low Komproe. I remember when you put law in front of a very it means it in Italian. So non Lana Ledger low Komproe 36. The Happy Linguist: If you would like some hints and tips on how to make the most out of these courses on how to accelerate your language learning, you can read through my articles on my blawg called The Happy Linguist. I have written almost 400 articles on their full of ideas to keep learning a language fresh and exciting, and I'm constantly updating it with new articles. For example, you can listen to some foreign language songs that I have translated into English. For you, this is always a great way of learning new vocabulary. You can find lots of foreign language films and books that I recommend, or you can find extra language and grammar points that reinforce the content you've been learning in my three minute languages courses. So if you want to read all my articles for free, just head to my blawg at www 0.3 minute dot club forward slash bloke. As well as being able to read hundreds of articles on my block, you can sign up to my mailing list. Andi. You'll get a message sent straight to your inbox to let you know whenever I publish new articles or publish new courses so w w w 0.3 minute dot club forward slash blawg is where you can find the happy linguist. I hope you enjoy unhappy learning.