Building Structures in French - Structure 4 | Kieran Ball | Skillshare

Building Structures in French - Structure 4

Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

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49 Lessons (2h 44m)
    • 1. French Structure 4 Introduction

      1:48
    • 2. French Structure 4 Chapter 1

      3:49
    • 3. French Structure 4 Chapter 2a

      3:46
    • 4. French Structure 4 Chapter 2b

      3:01
    • 5. French Structure 4 Chapter 2c

      6:11
    • 6. French Structure 4 Chapter 2d

      4:04
    • 7. French Structure 4 Chapter 3

      3:20
    • 8. French Structure 4 Chapter 4

      4:28
    • 9. French Structure 4 Chapter 5a

      3:21
    • 10. French Structure 4 Chapter 5b

      3:16
    • 11. French Structure 4 Chapter 5c

      3:18
    • 12. French Structure 4 Chapter 5d

      3:15
    • 13. French Structure 4 Chapter 5e

      3:24
    • 14. French Structure 4 Chapter 6a

      4:32
    • 15. French Structure 4 Chapter 6b

      2:39
    • 16. French Structure 4 Chapter 7a

      3:13
    • 17. French Structure 4 Chapter 7b

      3:18
    • 18. French Structure 4 Chapter 7c

      3:12
    • 19. French Structure 4 Chapter 7d

      3:18
    • 20. French Structure 4 Chapter 7e

      3:11
    • 21. French Structure 4 Chapter 7f

      3:11
    • 22. French Structure 4 Chapter 7g

      3:17
    • 23. French Structure 4 Chapter 7h

      3:11
    • 24. French Structure 4 Chapter 7i

      2:14
    • 25. French Structure 4 Chapter 8a

      3:22
    • 26. French Structure 4 Chapter 8b

      3:13
    • 27. French Structure 4 Chapter 8c

      3:17
    • 28. French Structure 4 Chapter 8d

      3:08
    • 29. French Structure 4 Chapter 8e

      3:16
    • 30. French Structure 4 Chapter 8f

      3:07
    • 31. French Structure 4 Chapter 8g

      2:42
    • 32. French Structure 4 Chapter 9a

      3:14
    • 33. French Structure 4 Chapter 9b

      3:24
    • 34. French Structure 4 Chapter 9c

      3:23
    • 35. French Structure 4 Chapter 9d

      2:32
    • 36. French Structure 4 Chapter 10a

      3:20
    • 37. French Structure 4 Chapter 10b

      3:00
    • 38. French Structure 4 Chapter 10c

      3:14
    • 39. French Structure 4 Chapter 10d

      3:22
    • 40. French Structure 4 Chapter 10e

      3:10
    • 41. French Structure 4 Chapter 10f

      3:12
    • 42. French Structure 4 Chapter 10g

      3:09
    • 43. French Structure 4 Chapter 10h

      3:17
    • 44. French Structure 4 Chapter 10i

      3:18
    • 45. French Structure 4 Chapter 10j

      4:04
    • 46. French Structure 4 Chapter 11a

      3:06
    • 47. French Structure 4 Chapter 11b

      3:00
    • 48. French Structure 4 Chapter 11c

      3:28
    • 49. French Structure 4 Chapter 11d

      4:02

About This Class

The whole of the French language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any French book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.

I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in French, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.

Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole French language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.

This course introduces you to structure 4. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the French language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.

Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.

This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 4, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.

The Building Structures in French series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute French courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn French, no matter how little time you have.

PROGRESS TO THE NEXT COURSE

Once you have finished this course, you can continue onto the next course where you’ll learn all about structure 2 in French. Here are the links for all the Building Structures courses currently available on SkillShare:

Building Structures in French – Structure 1

Building Structures in French – Structure 2

Building Structures in French – Structure 3

Building Structures in French – Structure 4

 

I have a second series of courses available called “3 Minute French”. This series builds the French language in small chunks and shows you how to put the chunks together to form your own sentences. With the 3 Minute courses, you’ll be speaking lots French from the very start. Here are the links to the 3 Minute French courses on SkillShare:

3 Minute French – Course 1

3 Minute French – Course 2

3 Minute French – Course 3

3 Minute French – Course 4

3 Minute French – Course 5

3 Minute French – Course 6

3 Minute French – Course 7

 

Finally, if you want to explore the French language even further, I have some French grammar courses available. I’ve used the same method in these courses as I have in the other courses, so hopefully you’ll find them fun and interesting

Transcripts

1. French Structure 4 Introduction: boys or a B avenue. Hello and welcome to building structures in French structure four. I'm Karen and I'm a language tutor based in the UK On I wrote this course to help me, to learn to speak French. The whole of the French language is made up off a number of structures. I remember one weekend I was writing some lessons for the week ahead. When I suddenly realized this, I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in French on that every sentence follow is one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out that there are 15 structures altogether and I wrote them all down. Once you know what all the structures are, you can begin to learn them. Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, and all 15 structures together make up the whole French language. Once you've learned to structure, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence. These structures helped to propel you to fluency. Because if you commit Pilate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to think about how to say it. In this course, we're going to learn structure four. If you've learned structures 12 and three with the same course Siri's, then you'll recognize the method used in this course. Remember to limit your three time to just chunks of three minutes. If you keep your 30 times short, three amazing things will happen. Firstly, you're maintain enthusiasm. Secondly, you will be more consistent in your studying and thirdly, you'll find that you remember things much more effectively. So let's begin on loan structure for in French. 2. French Structure 4 Chapter 1: the whole of the French language is made up off different structures of words. If you know the words and you know which order to put them in, you can speak the language. In the whole of the French language, there are only 15 different structures, so let's get on and learn. The 4th 1 structure for uses the past tense to form questions and statements. This fourth structure is probably my favorite structure in French, I think after that before, but this one really is. It consists of three small parts, and here is an example of it in use. Cabby Vou McGee Que viva Mosey means what have you eaten? So let's break down this structure into its core components on give each component and name So the first word could I write it as could rather than Qu apostrophe, but really cook, which means what should be written as a qu apostrophe when it's in front of a vow. I leave it as cook for now to show you the different parts of this structure, so cook means what on? That's a question word. Have evil have evil in the middle means. Have you on Dwell? Call this an inverted auxiliary verb, every room and then Mongie Monge e. On the end means eaten. And this is a past participle. So we have a question word. An inverted auxiliary on the past participle. Now let's just refresh ourselves with the question words. We've learned them already, but we'll just have a quick recap. So how do you say in French? Where Oh, what cook at what time I can't when call how common which or which one kill. Why Pacquiao? How much, or how many from young, How long? Which is literally, how much time commander tone come beyond it on. And then who or who key. That's what we can now do with this structure is start to build up questions using the three different parts. We can change the first part, the second part or the third part of this structure. For example, instead of saying cook at the start, which means what we could change it to commune, which means how much so caviar Jumanji means. What have you eaten commune means? How much have you eaten? Or we could change it to do, which means where on we'll get the question who have evil, Margie. Meaning? Where have you eaten? So we have caviar room O. J. Cumbia. Just like with the other structures, You can change the question word without changing any of the rest of the question. The Vermont Jay part doesn't change at all. Just because we change the question word. 3. French Structure 4 Chapter 2a: they were just three parts to structure for the question word. The inverted auxiliary verb Onda, the past participle. Well, we know what the question was already. But let's do a quick recap. How do you say in French? Where? What could at what time? I can, uh, when calm. How come on which or which one, Ken. Why, Fuqua? How much or how many cumbia? How long or literary? How much time come beyond it and who or whom? Keen So that's the question words. But what about the inverted auxiliary verb and the past participle? What even is an auxiliary verb, let alone an inverted one on what is the past participle? Well, if you use an auxiliary verb Onda a past participle together you make hope the past tense for structure one, we learned lots of infinitives or the whole verb. We can take those infinitives and turn them into the past tense. There are actually two past tenses in French. One is called the present Perfect on the other is called the in perfect structure for uses , the present perfect past tense. And yes, the present perfect is a type of past tense, even though it has the word present in its name. So as I've said, the past tense is made up off two parts. An auxiliary verb Onda past participle in the example sentences For this structure, we saw that every rule was the auxiliary verb. Andi Mongie was the past participle. Let's have a look at the past participle. You can change the word more G which is the past participle to any verb you like. And you change the meaning off the sentence. So the example sentence we had was Kabaeva, Mongie, caviar. Muji Meaning? What have you eaten? Kabaeva? You move. But we could change it to caribou. Come Monday. Caribou, come Monday. And this means what have you ordered so more J means eaten. Come one day means ordered caviar. Caviar, Sanjay means what? Have you changed? Caribou too caribou to may. What have you found? So cabbie won't means. What have you on the only bit that changes is the past participle On the end, you've probably noticed that all the past participles in these four examples end in the letter e with an accent on it. That's because the infinitive they come from and in e. R more J means to eat come Monday means to order. Shawn Jay means to change on Tuesday means to find, and you can turn any infinitive that ends in the letters E. R. Into a past participle by changing the ER into an E with an accent. 4. French Structure 4 Chapter 2b: I've just told you that you can turn any infinitive that ends in an e r. Into a past participle by changing the ER to an E with an accent. And so the Web's more G common day Sean J and V mean to eat toe order to change and to find where we can change those into past participles by turning the ER into an E with an accent . And then we get more J meaning eaten come one day, meaning ordered Sean J meaning changed on to have a meaning found the pronunciation off the infinitive on the past. Participle is exactly the same in French, and so in writing, you can tell the difference. But in speaking, you can't. Now. French verbs come in three different forms those that end in e. R. Those that end in our E and those that end in IR. To turn any infinitives into a past participle. You change the ER to an E with an accent. They are e to a U and the i R to an I. For example, the infinitive Palais means to speak. If we change the ER to an E with an accent, we get ballet meaning spoken. So with er, verbs, the infinitive and the past participle are pronounced in exactly the same way. An example are evil is a tom for a Tonda, meaning to wait a Tonda And so to turn, Ari verbs into past participles. We change the r E to re you. And so adonde becomes at on do at on do which means waited. And finally, an example with an ir verb veneer. Veneer means to finish Andi to turn ir verbs into past participles. We change the i r to an eye. So we get Feeney meaning finished. So Palais means to speak. Ballet means spoken Atlanta means to wait at on. You means waited on dfi Near means to finish Phinney means finished and you comport any of these past participles after the phrase available and you get the past tense. For example, of every Feeney have a boo Feeney means Have you finished every full moon Jae means Have you eaten or another example would be of evil Common. See, Have you this means have you started? And so you just use the phrase of evil to mean, have you? And you can put any past participle on the end and you get the past tense in French 5. French Structure 4 Chapter 2c: We've just learned that if you want to turn an infinitive into a past participle, the three rules are If the verb ends in an e r, change it to a new E with an accent. If the verb ends in an ar e, you change it to the letter you. And if a verb ends in IR, you change it to the letter I. Unfortunately, the three rules don't always work. There are a small handful of verbs that are called irregular verbs, and these don't follow the rules. However, what I'll do for you is go through all the infinitives that we've bean using in the building structures. Siri's Andi. I'll turn them all into past participles for you. So we've had more J meaning to eat Bois. Meaning to drink Come one day meeting to order s a a means to try pay a which means to pay fair, which means to do or to make Louis means to hire l. A. Was to go ponder means to take avoir means tohave. Sharji was to change, stay to buy. Come on, say means to start ETA means to be past year was to leave sort here to go out up off they to bring de francais means to spend money on bass say is to spend time wah means to see up early means to call as they is to stay. To have a means to find dear is to tell or to say, achieve a means to arrive. Onda vigna means to come So we look at all these infinitives on turn them into past tenses . Now most of them are normal So you can change er to an e with an accent, Ari to a you or I are to an eye, but you'll notice that a few of them aren't normal on. We call them irregular verbs. So let's start with more G So more j means to eat. And in the past participle we get more J meaning eaten Bois means to drink. And this is a very irregular verb because the past participle is due Do means drunk. Come on, day is to order on Common day is ordered s a gay is to try Andi s A is tried big A means to pay and bait with an accent means paid so so far they're all regular verbs. Fair means to do or to make. And this is another irregular verb. It becomes fe in the past participle. So fe means Don or made Louis is to hire on Louis Means Hired Away is to go and l a means gone ponder. Well, this is an irregular verb. It becomes pre so ponder is to take and pre means taken. Avoir is another irregular It becomes you so avoir is tohave. You means hod. Sean J means to change and charge a means changed Ash Day means to buy on dash State means boat. Come on, say to stop. Come on, say started better When this is an irregular verb Editor means to be on. It becomes a day, which means Bean Mattia is to leave party left. So that's a normal ir veb soft here to go out softy gone out under the regular verb up off day means to bring a pack a day brought. They won't say to spend money. De Ponce spent money passe to spend time passe, spent time and now we have another irregular verb wire means to see on this becomes vou, which means scene apple, a means to call a plate means called has they to stay a este stayed poor way to find who they found. Then we have another irregular dear, which means to tell or to say, and that becomes D, which means told or said achieve a means to arrive, achieve a arrived and then a final irregular verb Vigna means to come on venue is the past participle. Meaning come So the irregular verbs that we've have in this list include Bois, which becomes booze fair, which becomes, say, ponder becoming pre of while which is you ETA becoming a day. Why? Which becomes view dear becoming d and vigna which becomes venue so you can write all these verbs down along with their past participles on Do you could put little star by all the irregular verbs so you can start to get yourself familiar with them so you can use them with ease. 6. French Structure 4 Chapter 2d: So we've just had look at lots of different past participles, including the irregular ones. But now let's have a look at the auxiliary verb. Auxiliary just means helper, and that's what the ordinary of ab doors. It helps us to use the past tense. If we simply used the past participle to talk about the past, we wouldn't get very far more. J, for example, means eaten. It doesn't tell us anything else like who has eaten. This is where the auxiliary verb comes into play. If you place have a view in front of Muji, then we get an actual question in the past tense. Have a few more J means. Have you eaten? The phrase of Evreux is an auxiliary verb, and it means have you, and it comes from the verb avoir, which means tohave. You can congregate avoir into nine different forms. Let's have a look at them now. J means I have to our means. You have Ella means he has Ella. She has Oh, now one has news of home. Means we have It was a You have his own means. They have Andi is own means they have when they refers to all women. So you'll notice that the avoir congregations are all made up off two words to, for example, ill. They are made up off the subject pronoun, which is the first word. And then the auxiliary verb, which is the second word to invert the author reverb and tear it into a question or you have to do now is swap those two words around. So let's have a quick look at all the opposite reverb as questions. J means I have another question. It becomes Asia. Meaning have I to our means you have, and it becomes at you. Which means have you? He has is Ella, and it becomes a till meaning has he and you'll notice the little T in the middle. I'll talk about that in a moment. Ella means she has. Attell means how she owner means. One has at all means has one news of on means We have have all new have we? It was a means you have and have evil means. Have you his own means they have on TV? Have they? And finally, a zone means they have When it's all women. Andi Until means have they in a question. Notice how When you invert Ella Ella and on our you get to port a little t in the middle. This is purely to make it sound nicer. So Ella means he has. For example, if you were to invert this you get at you Well, the T in the middle makes it flow more nicely. So rather than saying he'll we have a teal So a till a tell on at on mean as he has she and husband. Now we have to do is put a question word at the start and the past participle on the end of all of these auxiliary verbs and you get structure for 7. French Structure 4 Chapter 3: How would you say in French? Where have you eaten? Who have you, Margie, who have a Jumanji? How would you say? What has he ordered? Cattle company cattle common day. Which one have they tried killed on Tuesday? Say yea. Kill on teams, they say, How have you paid? Come on TV Vop. Come on, TV Bouquet. What have they doing? Control Fay, Continue. Fay. So quantity fe. Whenever you see the word Qu apostrophe, it's short for Q u e. Which means what so could in front of a vowel. Like in this sentence is in front of an O. It shortens to q u apostrophe. So until Fay means what have they done? Whom have your scene key? Every Woo hoo key, Every move you There are two words that sound very similar in this sentence rule on do vou key Aviv Ooh ooh So who spelled v o us means you And so it's pronounced voo and then vou spelt v u means seen, So do vu. So it's slightly different if you made a mistake and mix them up or if you said them both the same, you'll still be understood, but it should be key Have a full vou Whom have you seen? How would you say? How much have we spent today? Colombia on Avenue de Ponsero Chaudhry commune of a new different Seo Chaudhry. Why has she hired a car? Roqua, a tell you. Wait in. What you Pacquiao a tell you in what you 8. French Structure 4 Chapter 4: just like with structures 12 and three. Instructor for there is also an optional part that you can put on the end of each sentence . This is the extra information. The extra information are all denounce and adjectives and time words etcetera. We can add the extra information on to the end of the question toe ad. Well, extra information. For example. Caviar buffet toady Have a fatal DUI means. What have you done today? So we have the structure Caviezel fee. And then we add the extra information. Or Jodi, which means today can be fatal to be poke what? Have evaluation Watcher Pacquiao have, Evaluate, invite you means why have you hired a car? You have a real about you. Whoever he will pre love what you means. Where have you taken the car? So here's a list off some extra information Words that you can use in structure for Yeah, yeah. Means yesterday. Yeah, or your degree. Oh, Jodi means today. Last men. Danielle, last amended in year means last week. Learn a damn year. Lonny Delamere means last year. Ilia, do you, Delia, This means two days ago. The phrase at the start Delia means ago. And so in French, you have to say ago, two days, Delia. Usual. And you can change do jour to any time freight so you can say two years ago, Delia do zone or two weeks ago in the at this, um in So Delia means ago and it goes in front of the time. Phrase in French are very a bevy. This can either mean to Paris or in Paris. The word are means to or in when it's followed by a city or a town in French. So a party on four months on phones this means two fronts or in France. So the word on means to or in when it's followed by a country on four months. Oh, esta home. Oh, rest a home. This can either mean at the restaurant or to the restaurant rip away. Lupoli means the chicken Limato, whose Lamont Oahu's this means the red coat. Andi A on B A means a ticket. Poor Pierre. Full Pierre for Pierre, You see, you see means here. So now that you're armed with some extra information words, you can make your questions a little bit more adventurous. How would you say in French. What have you done with my car? Can be fatal. Make more about you caviar buffet to take my But you What have you brought for? Pierre? Caviar is a staple. Pierre cabbage is a staple. Pierre, where have you eaten? In Paris. Who have even more Whoever Bouman, Jhapa he 9. French Structure 4 Chapter 5a: manipulating structure for you can manipulate structure for in many different ways. For example, you can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick a question. Word on the start. Let's see what happens when you don't put the question. Would on. How would you say in French? Have you eaten? Have a new Mongie have people mosey. So this sentence is made up off just the inverted auxiliary on the passport. Izabal, how would you ask? Have they eaten the pizza until more J la pizza until more July pizza? So in this sentence we have the inverted auxiliary until the past participle Muji And then we have extra information. Lapid. Sam Until more J l A pizza. How would you ask? Have you paid the bill every vote for Hillary? Aviva? Payday, Ladies. Have you bought some cheese? Have evil. I stayed the former. I have a bruise. That stadium for Marge. The s on the end of vu in this sentence can liaise with the A at the start of ash D What that means is you can pronounce the s and link it with the next word. Normally in French. If a word ended an s, it's silent. But if the next word starts with a vowel, you can pronounce it like a said. So rather than saying of Evreux, Dashti, you can say Aviva zesty and it seems to flow better. And so that's why they say it in French. It sounds nicer than Aviva Ashby. Every move that state of homage. But it is optional. You haven't got to do it. But you will hear it quite a lot as well. So whenever a word ends in an s and the next word starts with a vowel, you can pronounce the S on the end like a zed. How would you say, Have you finished now? Have Abel Finney. Men's No. Have a bluefin demons? No. Has he paid the bill at Bay Lady? Soon? A till payday. Bloody soon. 10. French Structure 4 Chapter 5b: the past tense in French is also known as the present perfect temps. And it's made up off three words the pronoun, the auxiliary verb on the past participle, for example, vew of a moon jae with a J. So remember that I said, if a word ends in an s on the next word starts with a vowel, you can pronounce the s as a said. So rather than saying Vou ave, you can say Mousavi Mousavi Mongie means you have eaten. So who is the pronoun? RV is the auxiliary verb. Onda Margie is the past participle, and it's the same in English. You is the pro down have is the auxiliary verb, and eaten is the past participle, as we have seen, you can turn this tent into a question pretty easily, or you have to do is swap the pronoun with the auxiliary lib. This is known as inversion, so we can say that we invert the pronoun with the auxiliary verb. And once we've inverted the pronoun with the auxiliary verb, we have to put a hyphen in the middle. So who's a more J means you have eaten. And as a question we get a view more G. And this means have you eaten? So who's ave becomes available on report? A hyphen in the middle. We've also seen that inverting works fine for all persons. Except for one. The third person singular, Which is hell l and home normally. Or you have to do to invert the pronoun with the auxiliary verb is switch them round and put a hyphen in the middle. So, Jamie, Andrzej means I have eaten Asia. Margie, have I eaten two out more? G means you have eaten at you. Margie, have you eaten news ever? McGee means we have eaten. Have a new moon jae. Have we eaten? So we just switch the pronoun new around with the auxiliary verb on news album becomes a phone new report A hyphen in the middle of on new Margie with the same energy means you have eaten. And every blue moon jae means have you eaten is all Mogi means they have eaten. And then, as a question, we get on TV. Margie Until Margie, which means have they eaten? If we're talking about a group off women weaken, say Els on McGee, which means they have eaten in the feminine. And as a question we get on Tate Muji until more J meaning have they eaten in the feminine ? 11. French Structure 4 Chapter 5c: Whenever you invert the past tense, you simply swap the pro known on the auxiliary verb around on. Put a hyphen in the middle. However, if you want to invert with hell or L, there's an extra little thing to remember. Ill Muji means he has eaten a Tilman J means has he eaten a till morning? Jay? So when you invert with eel, you have to put a little tea in between the auxiliary verb on the pronoun. This is because the word meaning has is a vow on the word eel starts with a vowel and in French, they don't like to have two vowels together. So at you, Margie doesn't sound nice to French years. So by putting the t in the middle, they get a teal margie, which sounds nicer. And that's the only reason for it. The same happens with l. So l a Fini and ah Feeney means she has finished. Well, if we inverted, we get a tell Feeney. I tell Feeney. Meaning has she finished? So we have that little T in the middle, so it goes a hyphen. T hyphen. L. So that's whenever you have eel or l in a question with the auxiliary verb, we have to put a T in the middle off the inverted bit. So let's see if you can invite the following past tense phrases into questions in a properly l apparently means she has spoken. What would this be? As a question until fairly until Peverley Meaning how she spoken even among G in Amman J. This means he has eaten. What would it be as a question, Attila machine until more j meaning. Has he eaten L. Ashby in Ashby Means she has bought. What would this be? As a question. A tale Ashtray? I tell a stay. And that means Has she bought it is a complete l. A completely means he has understood. How would you say it has a question until complete until complete. And so we just invert Illah and you get a deal and then you put a t in the middle. A teal completely means Has he understood 12. French Structure 4 Chapter 5d: L R V End of his ever of a means she has reserved or she has booked. So how would you change this into a question in French? I tell has ever be until has RV That means Has she reserved or has she booked? You know I've owned you. You have on you Means he has sold. What would this be? As a question infringe, I tell on you, Atilla von you. Which means has he sold a R s A. And I say yea, This means she has tried. How would you ask this in a question? In French. A tale s a Attell s A It means Has she tried l A p a l a p A means he has paid. What would it be as a question? A till payday. A till payday. Meaning has he paid And a common D and a common day means she has ordered How would you ask In French? Other question. Has she ordered I tell common day at Ted Com Monday. He'll away ill away means he has hired. So what would this be? As a question in French Attila way until Louis Meaning has he hired the same little T also makes an appearance when you're using the French word on in an inversion, for example. On that for me are not Feeney means one has finished. And in a question we get at on Feeney at on Feeney, which means has one finished. The French word on means one in the same way as posh people say one in English, however, it is much more commonly used in French than it is in English. It can also be used as a second way off saying we so in French Bonafini can mean either one has finished or we have finished, so the word on is quite useful in French. 13. French Structure 4 Chapter 5e: inverting with a name in the past tense. You can use a name with the he or she version off the auxiliary. For example, Pierre a Muji. Pierre a Muji means Pierre has eaten Omari Feeney, Marry a fini means Marie has finished. If you want to invent these, we have to do is use the normal. He or she inversion with the deal. And El Onda put the name at the start of this. For example, Pierre Armand J means Pierre has eaten on This. Becomes Pierre. Attila McGee. Pierre Attila McGee. Meaning has Pierre eaten literally? It means Pierre. Has he eaten? The same goes with Maria Feeney, which means Marie has finished. So, Maria Feeney, as a question becomes marry a Delfini. Maria, tell Feeney meaning has Marie finished or literally? What it means is Marie. Has she finished? The same goes, if you're using more than one name, you can just use the They forms off the past tense instead. So, Pierre, a marry on Muji means Pierre and Marie have eaten Pierre Marie on Margie. To make this into a question, we keep the names at the start. But we say have they in the Middle Pierre, Eh, Marie on Tim O J. Pierre Marie on Team McGee. And this means have Pierre and Marie eaten or literally. What it means is Pierre and Marie have they eaten? So how would you say in French? Has Pierre finished now? Pierre a Tiffany Mental Pierre Until Feeney matter, how would you say? What have Sophie and Michelle eaten today? Could Sofia Michelle on teen mom Chris Sofia Michelle until Mongiardo so initiated with just one l is actually a man's name in French. And if it has a double l E, that's when it's a woman's name. So we use until because there is a man and a woman. So if there's a month in the group, you have to use until But if it's all women, then you can use on 10. How would you ask? Where has Marie taking the car? Kumari? A. Tell people about you. Who, Maria, tell people about you 14. French Structure 4 Chapter 6a: Let's just have a quick recap off all the question words on then let's have a look at the inverted auxiliary verbs in French and then we can start to make up some questions for structure for How do you say in French? Where you what cook at one time I can air when comb How? Come on which or which one kill? Why Mokwa? How much or how many come young? How long or literary? How much time Comey undertone Who or whom? Keen Have you ask in French? Have I Asia? Have you at you? Or have even has he until has she I tell, Has one atone? Husby a Pierre? Until has Marie Marie tell? Have we have all new? Have they until Until have Pierre and Marie Pierre memory on TV? And now let's have a quick look at some past participles that we can use. How do you say in French? Eaten more G drunk. Okay, ordered. Come on, the tried they say he paid okay, done or made fee hired The way gone away taken P hod in changed Sean G bought after day started. Come on, say bean, a day left party going out softy broad up off day spent when talking about money diplomacy spent when talking about time I see seen if you cooled happily, I stayed fst found to obey, told or said De arrived a TV and come have a new 15. French Structure 4 Chapter 6b: How would you say in French? What has he doing? Cattle fee. Cattle fee. How have you paid the bill? Come on, You pay or comin at you. Which one has she bought? Kill Attila Shtee. Kill a tale Ashtray? Why have we hired a call? Pacquiao of a newly way invite you Barca Have a new way. Invite you? How much have you eaten? Colombia, Aviva Mongie or Communion at you. Margie, where have you taken the call? Who have we will feel about you Or if you're being more informal? Who at you people about you. What have they eaten today? Continue on Jojo. Continue more, Jojo. Which one have you seen? Kill every move you O K. I'll achieve you. 16. French Structure 4 Chapter 7a: now English has more ways of saying the same thing as French does. So sometimes things can get a little confusing When you're asking a question using structure for in English there are two ways to say it. What have you eaten on? And what did you eat in French? About the same cavity. Vou Muji. This is because there is no Did you in French. So because the phrase did you doesn't exist. We can also say that. Did I? Did he Did she accept her Don't exist either. Whenever you see Did you in English you have to translate it, as have you in French, which is a very room. You can apply this to all your theory verbs whenever you see. Did he? You have to say, Has he in French? Which is a teal or whenever you see, Did we in English? You have to say, Have we in French Avenue? Therefore, the French auxiliary verbs can be translated in two ways into English. So Asia can be translated either as have I Or did I at two. Have you? Or did you a Thiel? Has he or did he a tale? Has she or did she at on has won or did one P S A T V can mean either has spear. Or did Pierre Marie a tell has Marie Or did Marie have a new can mean, Have we or did we have a view? Have you or did you on TV? Have they or did they on tail? Have they or did they when it's all women? Pierre, Eh, Mary on TV have Pierre and Marie Oh did Pierre and Marie. So whenever you see did think instead have or has. So here are some examples off the double meanings in English, off some French questions. Caviar, Jumanji, caviar. Margie can mean either. What have you eaten or what did you eat? What do you feel about you who still feel about you? Can mean either. Where has he taken the car or where did he take the car? Kale on till Boo kill until you, this can mean either which one have they drunk or which one did they drink? And so in English, there's always two ways to say the question. One of them has the word have or has, and the other way has the word did so. Which one have they drunk, or which one did they drink? 17. French Structure 4 Chapter 7b: How would you say in French? What have they eaten today? Clinton More, JoJo until more. Jojo, What did they eat today? Continue. Margie Orr continued more. JoJo agree. When did he finish? Quantity. Leafy me. Contact till Feeney. What did she see? Captain View. Cut the interview. How did we pay? Come on. Top of new payday. Come on. Travel. New pay. How have we paid? Come out of a new pay. Come on, Have a new baby. Why did you say that? Quiet. You Lisa! People! Aqua Budisa. Why have you said that? Boca? A true diese. Budisa, What have they done? Continue fee control. Fay, what did they do? Continue! Fee, Quantity Fee! What did they drink? Continue view quantity of you. What have they drunk? Contribute content abuse. What have you eaten? Captain Margie Who got Muji? What did you eat? I got two more G caviar. 18. French Structure 4 Chapter 7c: How would you say in French? Has he understood at you? Complete until complete. Did he understand I to complain? I feel complete. What have they said? Continuity. Quantity. What did they say? Continetti continued. E Did he speak English until Palley. Only until finally only has he spoken with Pierre until patently have appear. Attila! Parallel. Eric Pierre. Did she call yesterday a tail? Happily? Yeah. A tell Apple a year. Has she called today? I tell a pretty Oh, Chaudhry. A teleplay. Or should we? What time did you finish? I killed her at you, Feeney. Oh, a killer. Every Ruffini. How much did we buy? Come beyond avenues. Ashtray. Communism, New dash day How many pizzas have we ordered? Coriander pizza. Have a new common day. Come beyond the pizza. Have a new common day. And so when you want to say how many or how much is a noun after it switches in this sentence? How many pizzas then? You have to say in French Columbia. Do. And then you could say the noun socom beyond do pizza means how many pizzas? How would you ask how many pizzas did be Order commander pizza Have a new common d come beyond the pizza. Have a new Kameni 19. French Structure 4 Chapter 7d: How would you ask? In French. How much wine did he drink? Commander von a TBI come beyond the vanity boot. How much wine has he drunk? Come beyond the vanity of you. Come beyond the vanity Beauty. What did they make? Quantity? Contin fee. What have they made? Contin fee quantity. Have you tried the wine at two U. S. A. You live on or Aviv USA Galavan, Did you try the wine at USC? You live on everybody say you live on. Have you made a reservation at your feet, You know Has of assume every move it in the house of assume. Did you make a reservation at your feet in the house of a stone Every buffet to not assume as there in this sentence, the t on the end of fee you can pronounce because the next word starts with a vowel. So you can either say at you faII in other ASEAN without pronouncing the T. Or you can say that you fail to enough of asean and pronounce the T. How would you ask? What did you have catch you catch you or Gavin? You caviar? Do you so the verb to have is of wire on the past Participle is you. So it's a very irregular passport. Izabal, how would you ask? What have you had? Catch you or a cabby vote you? 20. French Structure 4 Chapter 7e: How would you say in French? Why have you changed the reservation? Why did you change the reservation? When did he call contact? He'll happily Attila happily. Why has he called? What Really? Pacquiao. Attila, Pally, What did you order for us? Can't you common people knew? Oh, Caribou. Common people knew. Has she ordered for me as well? Telecom on diplomacy A tale Common napalm, IOC. Where have you, bean? What? You ity. Oh, activity or you Kenly? Eighth es on the end of vu with the at the start of 80 and you can say who every was a day . How would you ask? Why did they buy that aqua on TV? Pacquiao on tees Ash. Lisa. Well, don't forget that. You can also say Sula for that in French. So Pacquiao on Tees Ashley Sula, How would you ask? What did you do here? Got your fate? You see caviar buffet, See? Or of course, you can liaise the t on the end of Fay with the I at the start off CC on get catch you 50 c caviar buffet TC 21. French Structure 4 Chapter 7f: How would you ask? In French. Which one has she bought? Kill Attila Shtee. Kayla, tell us today Which ones did you have? Kate, is that you? Oh, kids have evolved. You have. I mean, stupid Asia at the stoop either. Is you had a stupid Did they see the film until Villa feeling until you really feel. Have they seen the film on TV? Defeating on TV? You feeling? Have you drunk the wine attribute or do you live on? Did you drink the wine at you? Believe on or every boob you live on? Did you speak French? In France at your palate, forcing informs every Rupali focusing on phones. How did they find the film? Comment until through better fit him. Comment until 12. Elephant Did you find the hotel at YouTube? A low. Tell every vote hotel. How much time did you spend? Inference come beyond. A 20 person forest or community have even passed in France. When did you spend 1000 euros constitute a ponce millio hole? Oh, contact evolved different say Millie. Oh ho! 22. French Structure 4 Chapter 7g: How would you say in French? How much money did he spend? Commando Commando Has Pierre spoken with Marie? You hear a tip? Talovic? My Pierre at a paralytic. My Whom did you cool key at? You happily or key of evil? Happily, What did you take with you yesterday? Can't you play of a 20 year? And in this sentence, the s on the end of pre you can pronounce as a zed sound because the next word starts with a vowel. So you could say, Can't you please avec twice a year or caribou Priselac via so after with you have a victoire, which means with you in the informal Onda avec juke means with you in the formal. So how would you say in French? What have you taken with you? Can't you please uh Victoire? Have evil preserve you? How would you say in French? What did they change? Continue Sharji Clinton. Or of course, you could say it. Comptel. Shunji, if you're talking about a group off women, how would you say why did they make a reservation? Pacquiao until veteran affairs last year polka until victory in the past, where they eat until more G who until more j have you eaten here at two more J. C. Have a new mom J. C. 23. French Structure 4 Chapter 7h: How would you say in French? What did he say? Cataldie. Cataldie. What film did you see? Can a feeding Acuvue or kill film have evolve you? Which one did you take Kale at? You pre or kill Aviva Pre. What did they bring Conte's up off day Conte is a party. When did the film start? Calmly feel batted Community call living Matile, Communist and so literally in French in this intend to say when the film did he start because you have to refer to or rounds as either he or she. And so because film is masculine in French, you say? He called the film a TV common See similarly in this sentence, how would you say, has the film started? Were you feeling at your mercy? Do you feel about incompetency? Why did you bring that to Paris? Aqua at your party? Aqua reviews about a saberi. When did you take that? Continental Pixar, Paul Help Lisa. The letter D at the end of com. It's pronounced almost like a tea when the next word starts with a vowel and so you can ignore the D or together because it's a constant. On the end of a word so you don't have to pronounce it. So you can say call until police, sir. But if you want to pronounce it, pronounce it more like a T rather than a D. So contact eight, please, sir. And obviously instead of sat, you could say Sula. Quanta. Tell pre Sula, Sosa and Sula both mean that in French. 24. French Structure 4 Chapter 7i: How would you say in French? Why has she taken that poca a Tell Theresa Polka. Help Lisa or again? Of course you can say Mokwa until please allow. How would you ask? Whom did he tell Key Agility? K a T e d. Whom did he see? Key at interview. Chiazi view. Whom has he told? Key activity. Key activity. How would you ask him? French. What did they bring quantities up off? Day 20 is a party. Or of course, if you're speaking about a group of women, you could say quantities. A party contains a party. And finally, how would you ask in French Did so If you bring that Sophie added up off the sound Sophie a tail up officer, or in third things that you could say sooner. Sophie, A telepath Isola. 25. French Structure 4 Chapter 8a: as a non question. So far, we've only looked at structure for in a question. Form it. However, you can also use it in a non question. Let's start with a quick recap off this structure in a question form that so structure for in the question format consists of just three parts caviar. Who Mongie, for example, means what have you eaten or what did you eat? And it consists off the question word could, which have shortened here to Qu apostrophe because it's placed in front of a word that starts with a vowel, then the inverted auxiliary verb of evil and then the past participle Mongie. And they also said that you can add the optional extra at the end and get something like caviar room O J. Which means what have you eaten today? So also do we is the extra information to use this structure when you're not asking a question is quite simple. You just take the question we're off and flip the inverted auxiliary verb around. Let me show you what I mean. Let's compare a question on and a non question in the structure four format. Who until more J. Who on Tilman J means. Where did they eat? Who? Until Muji. Well, if we take the question word off the start, so we get rid of the new on. We switch the until it around. We get eels on Margie and is on Margie means they ate. We could say something like is on Monge EEC. They ate here. So the phrase until Margie means did they eat? And if you flip the until bit around and get rid of the hyphen we get is own Mongie, which means they ate so we can use the ears on with any past participle. And we get a non question in the structure. Four format, for example, is on view. Means they drank is on parallel. Eric Pierre, they spoke with Pierre is on Palin. They paid the bill. One thing to note is that, just like with the question format, the non question format can have two meanings too. Every past tense verb in French can be translated in two ways into English, for example, Jame o j can mean Either I ate or I have eaten. So there is one way that has the word have in it and another way that doesn't have the would have news. Even Polly means we spoke or we have spoken. Is on payday. Can mean they paid or they have paid. It was a Vaca Monday. Well, this could mean either you ordered or you have ordered. So how would you say in French? She has bought something here for Pierre and elastic it to show the CPA appear l ST Kilda shows the sea propia. 26. French Structure 4 Chapter 8b: How would you say in French they bought the wine yesterday is on the state of our year is on national divine year. I saw Marie J Vu Matty gv Malhi. I've brought something with me. J A Partagas shows a victim or J taken more. We found that at the supermarket news. Irvan to Visa Supermax. She news? I want a visa or supermodel. She I tried some cheese j I say you do for Marge J s a do for Marge. I bought something for my mom here. J r steak J R Steak ago shows for my marriage. He has bean very tired, a light, a crime fatigue A You like they have a TV. I have seen this film J views of film j view. So film He's brought everything for Pierre in app Off date to appear l A pate to pop here. I took some food to Paris Regime people I know here to a party j pre 27. French Structure 4 Chapter 8c: How would you say in French? I said something. J D k. Cashews J D. Keiko shows they brought some wine for Jen is on top of you. Vamp version is on top off Do Van portion. She started last week in a common See Lastman. Danielle, we ate at the restaurant. News of a more J O esta home news even more. Joo esta home. You finished yesterday? Do you have any year? Would have a 15 year. He bought something in Paris. Slash Take ago shows apathy. The last take You change the reservation. Josh on ji. Life is over. They ordered a pizza is on common day in pizza is on commandeering pizza. They ate out mind. Yesterday is on more j Shame. Y yeah, is on more j shame, right? Yeah, I saw Michelle. Inference. I gave you Michelle on phones. Gave you Michelle on forms 28. French Structure 4 Chapter 8d: How would you say in French you found something? Do you have to take into shores? Oh, was a to make it to shows. We brought everything wills. News of on a potato affect you loser falls apart. A tow. The wreck New. I did something j faking Kershaw's Jay Fai. Keiko shows you have spent too much money. Do you have that? Ponsi told Al or was a state? I found the hotel terrible. Jetro velo Telltale Ebola J Hotel. I change the reservation you bought too much. Do you have tobashi, the or with a top ashtray? And so I put the word tall in front off the word ash day in this sentence. And that's because whenever you have the word tall or two in a sentence that's in the past tense. Generally, your place it in front of the past participle. You could say, though, to ash date tall or was a a shaped hole on is perfectly fine, but it's more grammatically correct to place the tall in front of the past participle so to a total cash day. Or was that a toll ash day? And because the letter p on the end off toe is in front of a word that starts with a vowel . You can pronounce the P so to at hope Ash Day or was a pastie. 29. French Structure 4 Chapter 8e: How would you say in French? I called Pierre J a pretty Pierre J A play Pierre. We hired a car. No. The only way in Watcher News have only weight in what? You He drank something? Ebuka shows the lab ukqa shows. I spent a week there. J passe in Semenya J Passe in Semenya. She drank my coffee. L A Butte, Mont Coffee. A lab Yuman Coffee. We spoke news. Really? News of unfairly. We started last year. News of uncommon. See Lonnie down here. News of Uncommon State. Lanny down here. I've ordered a bottle of water for the table. G Common day in boot. A dope J Common Day Input A dope I've ordered for you. Jake Almond. A pocket watch. Oh, Jacob. Monday. Provo. She called Michelle. Elaborate. Michelle L. Apple in Michelle. And I'll just point out that the name Michelle in French is a man's name. If it has one l but if it ends in a double l e, it's a woman's name 30. French Structure 4 Chapter 8f: How do you say in French? I called Michelle this morning. J happily Michelle j happily Michele Matin. We spent three weeks there. Newsom Embassy twice Mila news of embassy twice. Mendola I ordered the chicken for Pierre J Common Daily. Pull a propia J common data pool A propia We changed Sanjay news ever. I saw that J Busta J Busta. He tried something. Well, I say eight Kilcher shows. Well, I say kill Kershaw's. We ate here yesterday. News even more J C Yeah. News ever more J c e Yeah, I did everything today, Jay Fai Toto Jay Fai to Or should we? I've bean in X and problems J a X on problems g eight They Iike some problems They started today is uncommon. Seo Chaudhry He's on common. Say, Oh, should we? 31. French Structure 4 Chapter 8g: How would you say in French you found the hotel? Do you have to have a low tell with of a travail hotel? I bought something for David J. R. Steak and shows poor David Josh taken cash. She's changed everything. Either you can say that Astrology too or a lack to Shinji. They've called Marie is on a plane. Marie isn't happily Muffy. We've bean in Calais today. News Avant de Canio Chaudhry No, that was a carriage over three. She's been here today l I se see ordered me l i t e c or degree We've drunk three bottles of wine News of abuse 12 News of Ambu 12 Potato So there you have it The fourth French structure in a non question form is on more J C is on more j c means they have eaten here and it's made off an auxiliary verb The past participle Andi extra information 32. French Structure 4 Chapter 9a: Here's a quick recap off all the question words the inverted auxiliary verbs, some past participles and some extra information. How do you say in French? Where Oh, what could at what time I killed her? When come How? Come on which or which one kill. Why polka? How much or how many commune How long come beyond the town? Who or whom key Have I or did I Asia Have you? Or did you at you or do Has he or did he a till has he or did she? A 10 has one. Did one at on Has Pierre Or did Pierre Pierre a tear? Has Marie? Or did Marie Maria tell? Have we or did we have a new Have they or did they? Until, have they or did they? If you're speaking about all women on 10 have Pierre and Marie or did Pierre and Marie Pierre memory until how would you say eaten? Margie drunk. Do you ordered come one day? Tried. They say, Hey, paid okay. Done or made Faith hired Louis gone. Ali taken. Okay. Had in changed Shaun T boat Ash Day started common. See bean, a D left Patty going out Softy 33. French Structure 4 Chapter 9b: How would you say in French? Brought a pack a day. Spent money. The posse spent time Passy seen if you cooled happily I stayed. I stay found movie told or said De arrived Ivy, come If a new How would you say yesterday? Yeah, today So should we. Last week Last Mendon year last year. Lonny Down here two days ago, Ilia did you to Paris or in Paris? Apetit Two friends So inference off homes at the restaurant or to the restaurant Orquesta home. The chicken Lupoli, the red coat. Lamont. Oahu's a ticket. I'm be a for Pierre. Oh, Pierre, here you see. Now let's do a few practice sentences. How do you say in French? What did you bring? Can't you a party or kabaeva up off day? What did he eat? Cattle. Margie got to Margie. You've spent much too much money to add ippon. Say Bo kowtowed or was every dip on state? Boco told Al. So the word for much in French is the same as the word for a lot, which is broken on. The word for too much is tall, and if you put a noun after too much or much you have to use the word dirt. So Baku told Darryl, John means much too much money to add upon state bow, kowtow down John or was every DePante Boco told our John, you spent much too much money. 34. French Structure 4 Chapter 9c: How would you ask? In French. What did you see? Catch you view or cab Evolve you. When did they Cool Content is up. Really? Come on, Tees up early. I brought some wine for Pierre J A party. Do vamp appear j a party? Do van propia Did we eat at the hotel last week? Have on new Moon Jae ho, tell us Men down here have a new moon. Jae a lot Lastman Dona, Did you call Maria Court last fall at you. Happily Maria Cantwell Eureka or everyone? Happily Maria Cattle. Erica, Did she pay the bill? I will pay a lot. I tell pay very soon. How did you find the film comin at you? Tubular film or comment of evil Tavelli film. What time did you start? I tell you what you commerce a or a Kayla have even clemency. Which one is? Have they tried kids on T? That's a cases on TV to say Hey, what did you do yesterday? Cut your fate year or caviar buffet year on the word e air in French starts with a hey judge on the letter Hate is silent. So if the haters followed by a vowel. Then you can cross the word of starting with a vowel, which means you can liaise the T on the end off fee with year so you can say catch you fit year and pronounce the T or caribou fifth year. 35. French Structure 4 Chapter 9d: How would you say in French? He bought the food this morning. Alas, still a no hitter of Samantha Lashley. Leno hit your stomach. I said jg J d. What did you say? Capture the Oh everybody. Do they see the restaurant on TV? There s the home on TV View. Left home. How she tried the wine until they say you live on until they say you live on Which car did he hire? Killed? Watch your until we killed Watcher Attila Way. Whom did you see in Marseille? Kiev To view a matter. See key Every move You on. Whom did you see in Paris? Get your view of value or key of a boo Boo Aparri? Whom did you call in Cali Key at two. Apple A actually. Okay? Every views a political e. 36. French Structure 4 Chapter 10a: verbs of movement. Now, this may well be my favorite of all the French structures. However, it does have a little bit of an annoying feature. The trouble arrives when we look at the past tense in a little more depth. I've already said that the past tenants in French consists of an auxiliary verb on the past participle, we learned all the different auxiliary verbs on We learned how to form the past participle , and it was all fine and dandy. Even with those irregular past participles, However, it isn't all plain sailing. The reason for this is because in French there is more than one type of auxiliary verb. So far, we've seen these auxiliary verbs J to our Ella. Ella going on Pierre, Huh? Marie, Uh, news of all with a his own is, um Pierre Marie own meaning I have. You have? He has. She has one. Has Pierre Has Marie has we have You have They have. They have. And Pierre and Marie have. And so it's clear that all these auxiliary verbs come from the have in English and in French. They all come from the verb of wear. And we've also learned that we can turn the auxiliary verbs into a question simply by inverting them. And then we get Asia at you. He a teal attell atone. Pierre Patil, Maria. Tell Avenue Avenue until until on pfm area Until so. As I said, all these auxiliary verbs come from the verb of wire, which means tohave, and you can use this auxiliary verb. Most of the time on door you have to do is put a past participle on the end. For example, a nice verb is more G. Moon jae means to eat on the past. Participle is Margie with an E with an accent meaning eaten, and we have to do is put more J on the end of any organ reverb that comes from Abwehr, for example, J. Moore J. Means I have eaten two AM Andrzej means you have eaten. However, let's look at a different verb. Ali Ali means to go, and you might not have noticed. But in this course so far we haven't had any examples with the verb Ali, and there is a reason for this. The verb L. A has a normal past participle, or you have to do is change. The ER to uneven accent and you get away. Meaning gone. However, you cannot say Jay Ali in French. If you ever say Jay Ali in France, thinking it means I have gone, you'll be left and marked out of the country. So what do we say? If you want to say I've gone when? Instead you say just we, Ali, just we away means I have gone or I went. 37. French Structure 4 Chapter 10b: So we've just learned that is your swe l a means I have gone or I went and you can pronounce it just we l a Or you can liaise the s on the end of sweet with the A at the start of a way and you get your sweet early So just so easily I have gone or I went the first bit is your sweet literally means I, um But when you put it with al a, its meaning changes toe I have It's the only other time that just we means I have rather than I am the just sweep. It comes from the verb ETA, which means to be, and just like we did with everywhere, into lots of different forms. What I'm going to do is show you all the forms off the verb eta. But just like when I said just we l A means I have gone, even though the sweet bit really means I am. All these auxiliary verb using better have two meanings to, and so I'll put what they literally mean first on. Then I'll put what they mean when you have a past participle on the end in brackets. So firstly, we have just we which we've already seen. Meaning I am. But if you put a past participle on the end, its meaning changes to I have to a means you are or you have l. A He is, or he has l A means she is or she has Pierre, eh means Pierre is Or Pierre has Marie a Marie is armory has on a one is or one has newsome . We are or we have was. It means you are or you have its own means. They are. All they have is some also means they are or they have. When you're talking about a group of women and marry a PF song means Marie and Pierre are or Marie and Pierre have. And so you comport Ali on the end of any of these on get things like just three al a meaning I have gone or I went do a Ali, which means you have gone Oh, you went or a layaway. Meaning he has gone or he went. And don't forget that in speaking, you can liaise the s on the end of sweet the s on the end of a on the T on the end of a with the A at the start of Ali, and so you'll get rather than just three l. A. You're here just to easily or too easily Italy. 38. French Structure 4 Chapter 10c: So we've just seen the second auxiliary verb in French. Andi, it comes from the verb, eh, Tai, which means to be on We've seen all these different forms. Is your sweet to a l A l A. Etcetera. And then I said that you can put any of these auxiliary verbs in front of the past participle Ali, and you get things like Is your store easily? Meaning I have gone or I went to easily. You have gone. Oh, you went it literally. He has gone or he went. But is Ali the only verb that needs this new auxiliary verb? Well, the answer is no. Let me introduce you to somebody who will help you to remember the different verbs that need to use better rather than avoir with their past participles. And that person is Mrs Vander Trump. Now, who is Mrs Vander Trump? Well, Mrs Vander Trump is actually an acronym that will have you to remember all 14 verbs that require better in the past tense rather than of wear. We already know Ali, which accounts for the first A in Mrs Vander Trump. So let's now have a look at the other 13 verbs. So here are all 14 French verbs that need to use ETA in the past tense rather than avoir as their auxiliary verb. They are Monday haunt a soft tear. Vinje Ah, you ve net, huh? This song on Trey. Oh, Tony, Tom B este away more here and party here. Now let's have a look at what all these verbs mean And then we'll also have a look at their past participles. Now I like to call these verbs verbs off movement, and that's because most of them involve some sort of a movement. So you could say that the verbs off movement need to use ETA as their auxiliary verb in the past tense. So here's what they all mean. Monday means to go hope haunt A To go back so tear means to go out Veneer means to come a TV to arrive Netta to be born the Santa. But you descend on Trey means to enter, huh, Tony To return Tom B means to fall, has they to stay. I lI means to go more here means to die Onda Paktia means to leave. So that's ALS. The 14 verbs that use editor as their auxiliary verb in the next lesson will turn these verbs into their past participles 39. French Structure 4 Chapter 10d: So we've just seen this list off 14 verbs of movement which have to use enter as their auxiliary verb in the past tense. And most of the verbs of movement are normal in how they form their past participles. So e. R becomes an e with an accent, IR becomes an eye and Ari becomes a you. However, there are a few that are irregular, so just be aware of those. So Monday means to go hope. Andi, if we change the ER to an E with an accent, we get one day meaning gone up or went up. I want a means to go back and on tray with an accident means gone back or went back. Sathiah means to go out on the past. Participle is salty, meaning gone out or went out. Now veneer means to come, and it is an irregular one in that it has an irregular past participle. We've already seen it with me to the list of verbs. In one of the earlier lessons, it becomes the new revenue, and that means come or came. Vanunu have a means to arrive. Onda have a with an E with an accent on the end means arrived. Netta means to be born, and this is a very strange verb. It becomes knee nay means was born. This Sondra means to descend on the ari becomes a you, so it's a normal verb. This on do means descended on fe means to enter, and in the past we get on tape with an accent, meaning entered hot on a means to return, and a tornado with an accent means returned. Tom Bay means to fall, and the past participle is Bombay with an accent, and that means either fallen or fail. Este means to stay on the past Participle is este meaning Stayed away means to go on. We've already seen the past participle, which is L. A meaning gone or went. Another irregular one is more here, meaning to die and more means died, Ma. So that's in a regular one. On finally, partier means to leave on party is left, so there are three irregular verbs. Veneer, which is to come becomes Vanunu. Netta, meaning to be born becomes nay, which is was born and then more here, meaning to die becomes more, which is died. So all these verbs are the verbs of movement. Or you can also call them the Missus Vander Trump Verbs and they all use enter as their auxiliary verb. So you comport. We just we in front of all of these and you form the past tense. Just three Monday I went up. Just We even knew I came Just Ripatti. I left, for example. 40. French Structure 4 Chapter 10e: How would you say in French? Pierre left this morning. Pierre. A party Samata Pierre Patti Sue Mathon. I arrived in front yesterday. Just squeeze out of a on frosty air. Just reserve a on for a year. Davy died last year. David M. O Lunney. Devin Year. David M. O Lunney, Down here. You stayed at a hotel. You a este hotel? Oh, visit. Stay at hotel. I fell over. Will it re you to say I fell? Just let Tom be. Is your sweet Bombay And so this is a good example of a sentence because it shows you how in English we tend to add more words than necessary. In French Is your sweet on may literally just means I fell. But in English we add the word over so rather saying I fell your often here. I fell over in French. You don't need to add extra. Where you just say is your sweet Dombe. How would you say the train left early? Little a party toe Return a path, Tito. And so you use the he or she version off the auxiliary verb ETA, which is a The train has left because the train is classed as a muscular in Things are Really It's He left Luton a part. Ito, How would you say I went to Calais with Marie? Just with Julia Kelly Avik Marie, you so easily? Actually Avik Marie David came with me. David, even you have a more David. Every new Avik more. 41. French Structure 4 Chapter 10f: How would you say in French? I was born here. Is your screen a C? Just three Macy. I went out with Sophie and Pierre last night. Just three softie avec Sophie a pr. He s wife. Just re softy epic. Sophie A PFCs. You can invert this new auxiliary verb in the same way as we inverted of. Well, we have to do is switch the subject pronoun with the verb on. Do you put the hyphen in the middle? However, one good thing is that you don't need to put the extra t in the middle for hell. L or arm like we had to with a teal a tell a town because the word a e s t already end in the letter t. And just like with the other auxiliary verb, it can mean two things in English. And so we have swisher means have I or did I A To have you Or did you 18 Has he or did he it in? Has she or did she Pierre a till has Pierre Or did Pierre Maria tell? Has Marie or did Marie 80 has won or did one some new have we or did we? It's true. Have you or did you? Santi will have very Or did they? So until have they or did they? If they're all female on pfm ahi 17 means have Marie and Pierre or did Marie Ampere. And so you can put the past participle off any off the verbs of movement or Mrs Vander Trump verbs on the end of any of these auxiliary verbs. Andi, make a question in French. So how would you say, When did you arrive a TV or conduct vote TV? What time did the train leave? Akello Little 18 patty I can literally turn 18 patty. And so the train is a masculine noun in French. So you use the he form off the also reverb, and it's just the same as forming a question with the name Pierre. But instead of saying Pierre, you say litem Keller Luton, A tea party 42. French Structure 4 Chapter 10g: How would you ask? In French. Was Pierre born in Paris? Pierre 18 a apari pierre it in the artery. Why did he come with us? Parkway Children. You have Agnew polka. It'll venue a big new. Whom did you go out with last night? On this question, you would literally say, With whom did you go out last night of a key? H I saw t s well. Oh, have a key at Russoti s watch when you're dealing with the verbs of movement or the missus Vander Trump Verbs. You have to be careful when the subject is feminine or plural. Firstly, if the subject is el or any feminine name or noun, then you have to add an extra E to the end off the past participle. Secondly, if the subject is eel, meaning they new meaning we or any plural name or noun, you have to add an s to the end of the past participle. Finally, if the subject is l e l l E s or any feminine plural name or noun, you have to add an E s to the end of the past participle. For example, if a party toe means he left early. But if we change the subject to she, then we have to add an easy the end off the past participle. And so you get a path T toe meaning she left early l a party toe and l a pack Tito. Similarly, if you want to say they left, you have to add an s to the end off the past participle. Here's some Petitto is on part Ito, but you don't pronounce the S because it's a constant on the end of a word. And we know that you can't pronounce continents in French if they appear on the end of the word. And so in speaking and can't retail, it's only in writing that we have to add these extra letters or if you want to say Marie and Sophie left early well, that's now a feminine plural subject. So we have to add an e and an s to the end of the past participle. Marry a Sophie some party toe, marry a Sophie. Some Paquito Marie and Sophie left early 43. French Structure 4 Chapter 10h: So just remember that when you're using a verb off movement or a Mrs Vander Trump verb, then if the subject of the sentence or the question is feminine, you have to add an extra E to the end of the past participle. If the subject is plural, you add an s to the end of the past participle. And if the subject is feminine unp laurel, then you add an E s to the end of the passport. Izabal the subject new, for example, which means we will always be plural. But it could also be feminine plural. So either you, Adam, s or es Similarly, the subject vou meaning you could be plural or singular. And so if it's plural, you had an s. But it could also be feminine plural, which means you have to add an E s. Or if it's singular, there is a chance it could be feminine, in which case you have to add an E. Now, in speaking, this doesn't matter too much because they all sound the same. Put in writing. Just be aware that you have to add these extra letters, the subjects your meaning I onda to meaning you could also be feminine. So you have to use an E on the end of the past participle, If that is so. So how would you say in French When did he arrive? Khan, Attila, TV call Hillary v. Did Pierre fall over P s till Tom B. Pierre A tilt on May Marie has left Marry a party, Marie. A party. So we had an extra e to the end. Because Marie is a feminine subject. She went to the cinema l a l a or cinema Italy or cinema. Marie and Pierre went up Maria Pierre some Monday mahi a Pierre. So, Monty And so in this sentence because the subject, Murray a Pierre, is plural. Then we have to add an s to the end off the past participles and Monty gets an s. But remember that you don't pronounce continents on the end of words in French. So even though we had an s in speaking Monday without an s sounds the same as Monday with anus. So Mary a Pierre some Monte 44. French Structure 4 Chapter 10i: How would you say in French? Why did you leave early? Aqua. A tea party toe. Oh, polka at Bhupati toe. And don't forget that too. Meaning you could be feminine. In which case you would have to add an E to the end of party. Andi vou could be feminine or it could be plural or feminine. Plural. And so you do need to be aware in French off whom you're speaking to. How would you ask? Have Marie and Pierre going to Paris? Marie Pierre ST easily Apari marry a Pierre Santi easily Apari. And so we have to add the extra s on the end of Ali here. Because Murray a Pierre is plural and you can liaise the s on the end of this world with the A ever started the next word. So you could say Santi is always a Paki. How would you ask? Did Marie stay here? Murray has stay a C Murray Hill estate, you see? Have they left? So until party 17. 50. Or if you referring to a group of women than you would say Staunton Patty. So, until cacti, where was she born? Who it'll may who went to the knee. When did Marie and Pierre leave? Camaraderie ps until Patty Call Marie a PS until party. He stayed at the hotel L A has stay hotel either arrest a hotel. Why did they go together? Paraquat? Santi easily. Ensemble for Quest Aunt Easily Ensemble 45. French Structure 4 Chapter 10j: How would you ask? Have Marie and Safety come with you? Marry a Sophie s until we knew a Victoire or marry a so he can tell when you have a room. You returned last year to a hotel on a Lenny down here. Was it, huh? Tony? Lanie. Dania! When did I go to Spain? Const. Usually my spaniel, Const. Usually on the span. You. Why have you comment to Paris? Poke? Watch it! You Andrea Puffy or poke. Watch it. Did Sophie Anne Marie come together? So if he marries until venue Ensemble. So female. He s until venue. Ensemble. Has he died? 18 more. It's a limo. They went back to London. Is some country alone? Or as some hunting alone. I went toe. Just be Monday. Just Fremont. They Pierre has gone. Pierre Italy. Pierre, Italy. Marie Anne Sophie went back to France by train. Mahi a So he somehow anti informs on time. Maria. So he some country on forms on time has begun out. Pierre, 18 Saltine Pierre 18. Saw team. Has she returned? It'll ho Tony. A telco. Tony Has Marie gone out? Marry? It'll thought e marry a salty 46. French Structure 4 Chapter 11a: there's one more useful thing that you can do to this structure quite easily, and that is make it negative. You can change this structure from positive to negative quite easily in English, for example, Why did you do that? Becomes, Why didn't you do that? Or did he stay here? Becomes Didn't he stay here? Or have they finished becomes? Haven't they finished in English? It's simply a matter of putting a little n apostrophe t after the did have or has well, it's almost a simple in French, too. We have to do to turn the inverted auxiliary verb negative is put no in front of it on a par after it. Just note that the word no become shortened to end apostrophe when it's placed in front of a vow. For example, at you, Feeney means have you finished, whereas naturopath Feeney means, haven't you finished? So the inverted auxiliary verb is at you on. Report a note in front of it on a path after it, and we get the negative, and you can do this with any past tense verbs in the question form, be it with normal verbs or the missus. Vander Trump lives for example, at you, Moon Jae means have you eaten or did you eat? And in the negative it becomes natural. Pamela G. Haven't you eaten or didn't you eat ATI View Means Has he drunk? Or did he drink Natalie Pub? You means, Hasn't he drunk or didn't he drink? I've evoke a Monday means Have you ordered or did you order Never go back on Monday having you ordered? Or didn't you order suntan Patty Have a left? Or did they leave? Not until property. Haven't they left? Or didn't they leave Telvin you? Has she come Or did she come? Methods Avenue? Hasn't she come or didn't she come Avenue pay a Have we paid or did we pay? Never knew. Poppy. Haven't we paid or didn't we pay? Just like in the positive past tense. There are also two ways in English to translate something from the negative. Past tense in French. In the negative, you can either say in English. Didn't or haven't. For example Natche, Pamela G. What? This can mean either. Haven't you eaten or didn't you eat this until property? Well, this could mean Haven't they left or didn't they leave and so in English, there are always two ways to say it, whereas in French there's only one. So how would you say in French? Why didn't you try the wine polka? Not to possess a elevon or, if you're being more formal poke wannabe who possess the live on. 47. French Structure 4 Chapter 11b: How would you ask in French? Didn't he make a reservation? Not till buffet in the heart of assume. Not perfect, you know, has a costume. Haven't they bought something for Marie? No. Until Potash take a crucial primary. No, Until possessed a kill Kershaw's primary. Why didn't we call Lucy Poke What? Never knew Possibly Lucy. Oakland Avenue Past Play bluesy. Why didn't she do that yesterday? Broke What nodded. Buffy's a year. Brooke. What? Nuttall buffets a year. Didn't they come with you? No. Sun Tip Avenue A Victoire? Oh, no. Sun Tip Avenue. A big room. Didn't he go to Paris last year? Knitted Pozzuoli. A party landed in year Nittel Basil a Aparri London year. Where were you born? In Marseille? No, no. Through Panay Marseille. You can also turn the non question past tense. Negative. You do it a little differently, though. You'll notice that in the non question format, the past tense. Start with a pronoun that means you're or two or he'll or l meaning I or you or he or she etcetera. Well, to make this negative, you should put the no after the pronoun. But before the auxiliary verb and then you should put the path on the end of the auxiliary verb, and then the past participle goes after that. For example, J. Feeney means I have finished June a path Feeney means I haven't finished. So the note goes in front of the auxiliary verb, which is a Andi. The pack goes on the end of the altar reverb, and the pronoun goes at the start. So juniper Feeney. 48. French Structure 4 Chapter 11c: I've just said that if you want to turn the non question past tense, negative in French or you have to do is partner in front of the auxiliary verb. But after the pronoun on DPA comes after the Aussie reverb. So, for example, J. Feeney means I have finished on June 8. Caffeine e means I haven't finished, and you can do this with any of the past tense verbs. In the non question form, for example, J. Mongie means I have eaten or I ate. You need Pamela G. I haven't eaten or I didn't eat. Jaffe means you have done or you did. Gina Puffy you haven't done or you didn't do you locally means he has gone or he went in a puzzle. E he hasn't gone or he didn't go. L a. Properly she has spoken or she spoke is not properly. She hasn't spoken or she didn't speak NeuLevel. Last day means we have bought or we bought new Navin Potash day we haven't bought. When we didn't buy was that party you have left or you left unit property. You haven't left or you didn't leave. It's also t. They have gone out where they went out. It's on past 30. They haven't gone out. Well, I didn't go out Is on this 80? They have tried or they tried in Mombasa. See, they haven't tried where? I didn't try. Just like in the positive past tense. There are always two ways in English to translate something from French. So in the negative you can either say didn't or haven't In English, for example, Junie, Pamela G can be translated into English as I haven't eaten or I didn't eat Nunan Poppy can be translated as we haven't paid or we didn't pay. So how would you say in French? I didn't do that. Today, June 8 Cafe Sandra Dee Jin, a professor. He didn't eat the chocolate in a cola in a They didn't spend too much money in non pad upon se toda in Nam Pat dep on ST Holder. And so just to recap, the past participle only gets the S or the extra e or the E s when the auxiliary verb comes from ETA. And so it's only when you use one of the Mrs Vander Trump verbs. And so otherwise the past participle just has the EU with the accent on the end or the U or the I. And so in this sentence, dip on C isn't to Mrs Vander Trump verb. And so just because the subject is they you don't have to put an s on the end in the bad upon state, told our John. It's just a normal Web. 49. French Structure 4 Chapter 11d: How would you say in French? She didn't call Pierre in the past. Couple a peer in the other play. Pierre, you didn't leave at three o'clock Geneva party. It was it. Oh, unit property. It was there. I didn't hire it. I bought it. Generally people away. Julie Ashton, General Ape Alleyway Julie Rash. And so this is an interesting sentence for working out. Where to put the word it in French when you use this tense So the word it is look which is shortened to an l apostrophe in front of a vowel. Andi, it always goes directly in front off the auxiliary verb. And so whether it's negative or positive or in a question or a non question, the word it look go straight in front of the auxiliary verb. And so in this sentence, the older reverb is a meaning. Have so Jonah lay value A said the Ehlert goes in front of the A jungle A pal Louie. I didn't hire it. And then again, in the second part, Julie Rash D I bought it. And so they it goes even after the negative. No, it goes straight in front of the older reverb General ape alleyway. Julia Dashti. I didn't hire it. I'm bought it. How would you say we didn't go to friends? No news on pass away on forms, No news on pass away on forms. So L A is a Mrs Vander Trump verb or a web of movement. And so the past participle here gets an S on the end because new is a plural subject. How would you say they didn't leave early in this On the vato in the Sun Plaza, Vato? And so again, TV is a verb of movement or Mrs Vander Trump web. So in the past, because it's a plural subject in this sentence, we have to put an extra s on the end off TV, so he'll means they in this on TV. How would you say she wasn't born in fronts in a pan in France in a panic conference, So to be born is Netta Andi. It's classed as a verb of movement even though there's no movement involved or within to say, it's a Mrs Vander Trump for And that means that in the past tense, we have to add an E to the end of the past participle in this sentence because l, which means she is a feminine subject. So, Ellen, a panini on France. So we have the extra e on the end of knee on that little word knee. Actually, we do use in English when women give their maiden names. So if somebody gets married and they change their maiden name, then you will sometimes hear women say I'm Mrs Smith Nee Thompson. And that means I'm Mrs Smith now. But I was born with the same name. Thompson and its other word Nay, he at means born.