Building Structures in French - Structure 2 | Kieran Ball | Skillshare

Building Structures in French - Structure 2

Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
37 Lessons (2h 2m)
    • 1. French Structure 2 Introduction

      2:46
    • 2. French Structure 2 Chapter 1a

      3:38
    • 3. French Structure 2 Chapter 2a

      4:37
    • 4. French Structure 2 Chapter 2b

      3:28
    • 5. French Structure 2 Chapter 2c

      3:01
    • 6. French Structure 2 Chapter 2d

      3:35
    • 7. French Structure 2 Chapter 3a

      3:13
    • 8. French Structure 2 Chapter 3b

      3:03
    • 9. French Structure 2 Chapter 3c

      3:15
    • 10. French Structure 2 Chapter 3d

      3:30
    • 11. French Structure 2 Chapter 3e

      2:53
    • 12. French Structure 2 Chapter 3f

      3:01
    • 13. French Structure 2 Chapter 3g

      3:07
    • 14. French Structure 2 Chapter 3h

      3:13
    • 15. French Structure 2 Chapter 4a

      3:13
    • 16. French Structure 2 Chapter 5a

      3:03
    • 17. French Structure 2 Chapter 5b

      3:59
    • 18. French Structure 2 Chapter 6a

      3:25
    • 19. French Structure 2 Chapter 6b

      3:38
    • 20. French Structure 2 Chapter 7a

      3:06
    • 21. French Structure 2 Chapter 7b

      3:14
    • 22. French Structure 2 Chapter 7c

      3:11
    • 23. French Structure 2 Chapter 7d

      3:09
    • 24. French Structure 2 Chapter 7e

      3:03
    • 25. French Structure 2 Chapter 7f

      3:17
    • 26. French Structure 2 Chapter 7g

      3:46
    • 27. French Structure 2 Chapter 8a

      3:21
    • 28. French Structure 2 Chapter 8b

      3:13
    • 29. French Structure 2 Chapter 8c

      3:57
    • 30. French Structure 2 Chapter 8d

      4:16
    • 31. French Structure 2 Chapter 9a

      3:15
    • 32. French Structure 2 Chapter 9b

      3:29
    • 33. French Structure 2 Chapter 9c

      3:55
    • 34. French Structure 2 Chapter 10a

      3:08
    • 35. French Structure 2 Chapter 10b

      3:06
    • 36. French Structure 2 Chapter 10c

      2:53
    • 37. The Happy Linguist

      1:30

About This Class

The whole of the French language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any French book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.

I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in French, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.

Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole French language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.

This course introduces you to structure 2. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the French language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.

Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.

This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 2, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.

The Building Structures in French series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute French courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn French, no matter how little time you have.

If you would like to move on to Building Structures in French: Structure 3, then click here: https://skl.sh/2scSGIL

PROGRESS TO THE NEXT COURSE

Once you have finished this course, you can continue onto the next course where you’ll learn all about structure 2 in French. Here are the links for all the Building Structures courses currently available on SkillShare:

Building Structures in French – Structure 1

Building Structures in French – Structure 2

Building Structures in French – Structure 3

Building Structures in French – Structure 4

 

I have a second series of courses available called “3 Minute French”. This series builds the French language in small chunks and shows you how to put the chunks together to form your own sentences. With the 3 Minute courses, you’ll be speaking lots French from the very start. Here are the links to the 3 Minute French courses on SkillShare:

3 Minute French – Course 1

3 Minute French – Course 2

3 Minute French – Course 3

3 Minute French – Course 4

3 Minute French – Course 5

3 Minute French – Course 6

3 Minute French – Course 7

 

Finally, if you want to explore the French language even further, I have some French grammar courses available. I’ve used the same method in these courses as I have in the other courses, so hopefully you’ll find them fun and interesting

Transcripts

1. French Structure 2 Introduction: Boozer will be having you. Hello and welcome to building structures in French structure to I'm Karen Andi, I'm a languished. You two, based in the UK, and I wrote this course to help you to learn to speak French. If you've always listened to structure one off building structures in French, then you'll know that the whole of the French language is made up off a number of structures that once learned will help propel you to fluency. Each of the structures in the French language will enable you to say a huge amount. So I have limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you by looking at just one structure at the time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the French language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think through like it's amassed equation. Before you start this course, let me just shave it, share with you an extremely handy learning tip that helped me to progress quickly and effectively in language learning. If you keep your learning to just three minute chunks, then three things will happen. Firstly, you're maintain enthusiasm. Secondly, you're achieved more consistent learning, and thirdly, you'll achieve more effective memorization with just three minute chunks. You'll maintain the enthusiasm that was there when you started learning French. If you spend hours studying very quickly, you'll get bored with friends and it'll turn into a chore. Secondly, if you keep your studying to just three minute chunks, you'll find it's much easier to turn this into a consistent study. Habit from three minutes is relatively easy to find, even the most hectic of schedules. So if you can fit in at least 13 minutes to the session every day, it'll become a habit that you'll do without thinking. And it's much easier Onda more effective to fit in a daily three minute habit than a weekly one hour heart. By doing this, you'll become a much more consistent learner, which is the key to success. Thirdly, by keeping your study sessions to just three minute chunks, your trick your brain into memorizing the information much more quickly than if it were to see the information for hours. Each day. Your brain will think I see this information every day, so it must be important, but I don't see it very long, so I better hold on to it to make it into a memory fast. You'll be amazed at how much more easily things tend to stay in your brain if you limit yourself to just three minutes a day. 2. French Structure 2 Chapter 1a: structure to structure. To use is the present tense to form questions and statements in a very similar fashion to structure. One structure, too, is probably my favorite stock dream, French, although I do like them all. It consists of just two parts, and here is an example of it in use. Could Monge Evil come on TV? This means What are you eating? So let's break the structure down into its core components on give each component and name just like I did for the last structure. So cook Mom gave you cook is a question word that you'll probably recognize if you've done strip to one. It means what? So cook is a question where that's the first part, then Montrevil muj buh means are you eating Andi? This is what we call an inverted present. Tense is the present tense of the verb Muji, which means to eat on we've inverted it. That means we've made into a question in French. So could Montrevil. What are you eating? Structure to will be easier for you to pick up, mainly because you already know or the question words from structure one, but let's just recap them quickly. How do you say in French? Where whom? What Good At what time? A killer when comb. How? Come on which or which one. Ken. Why Pacquiao? How much or how many come? Yah, How long? Literally, Hamilton time, Commander Who? Or Human key. So what we can do now with this second structure is start to build up questions using the two parts. The question word on the invented present tense. We can change any of the two parts in this structure. For example, instead of saying Coco at the start, which means what we could change it to you. Meaning where? So cook Mongie voom means What are you reading? What if we change the cut toe? We get new Monju. Meaning? Where are you eating? Montrevil? Where we could change it to comb. Which means when? So we get calm. More gave you common give. You mean when are you meeting? So just like with structure one, you can change the question word without changing any of the rest off the question. The Monjurul part at the end Didn't OTA just because you change the question with at the start. So come on, Gable. What? You're eating humans even. Were you reading and commenting? When are you meeting? And of course, you can put any of the question words in front of the Montrevil as long as it makes sense. 3. French Structure 2 Chapter 2a: using structure to there are just two parts to structure to the question word. Andi, the inverted present tense. We already know the question words, but what about the inverted present? Tense? Well, in order to use the inverted present tense, you'll need to know how to use the present tense. I will not go into too much depth on how to use the present tense in this course, but I will give you a quick recap for structure one. We learnt lots off infinitives. That was the whole verb. And we can take those infinitives and turn them into the present tense. If you're not quite sure on how to form the present tense, you can learn all about it, either in my success with French grammar books or courses or my three minute languages courses. In this course, however, I will congregate all the infinitives that we learned in structure one so that you can use them straight away. I'll just give you a brief overview of how to form the present tense yourself. However, basically what you do to form the present tense is get the infinitive and take off the last two letters, and then you add a set of endings depending on what the verb ended in on what person it is . He are the present tense endings. There are six persons in French is your to either l or on. They can't use one person, even though there are three of them new and he'll and l What they mean. Ah, I you he she or one we, you and they. The reason I've put the person's in this order is because they're spittle into first person , second person on third person. And we have first person singular, which is I told you, on first person plural, which is we or new, then a second person. Singular is, too, Which means you second person plural is vu. I'll explain this in a minute. The third person singular. Is he she or one which is eel, L or R, and the third person plural is ill, or l meaning very now, in English, we only have one word for you, which is you in French. However, there are two words to and room. The one you use depends on whom you're talking to. You used to. If you're talking to one person that you know really well. And so, too, is a really familiar friendly version off you, so you can use this with friends or family, or you can also use it with people who are younger than you. As long as you're only talking to one person, you use vou to mean you when you're talking to more than one person, or if you're talking to one person that you don't know very well. So who is the plural version off you? For example, In America, you'll hear y'all, which is when you're talking to more than one person. If you're talking to one person, you don't know very well. You can also use survival. Is the plural or the singular formal version off you in old English? We used tohave vow as well as you. And if you look at old English literature like Shakespeare, you'll see Vow is used when they're talking to a friend. But you is used when they're talking to somebody who is not a friend or a group of people, and modern French is the same as old English. So, too, is the singular. When you're talking to a friend, vu is the singular. If you're talking to someone you don't know very well or it's the plural. If you're talking to a group of people 4. French Structure 2 Chapter 2b: Il L and home. I mean, he she and one own is used quite allotting French to mean one, meaning I or you or we When you don't refer to anybody in particular, for example, one must speak French when one is in France, then thirdly, hell and l both mean they he'll means they when you're referring to a group of men or a group of men and women mixed together. L means they only when you're referring to a group off women now, not just men and women. It can also be a group of masculine objects that you would use eel with or a group of feminine objects that you reduce l with. For example, Car in French is feminine. What you So if you wanted to talk about a group of cars and say they are all yellow, then you would use L for they. However, the word for Penn in French still oh, is masculine. So if you wanted to say they are all blue and you're referring to the penance, then you would use it. So they're the different persons, and they were called the subject pronouns. So a friend's job to deal on new New Deal and l are the subject programs. Now you're noticed that the infinitives that we learned Instructor one all ended in either e Ah, I, uh o r e and the ending that they have tells you how to form the present tense. So what you have to do is if you have a very that ends in e. R. For example, ballet ballet means to speak ballet. What you have to do is take the e r off and then you add certain letters depending on who you want to refer to. If you want to say I speak, you put an E on the end. So your pal, if you want to say you speak and you're talking to one person who you know quite well you put an e s on the end so to battle If you want to say he speaks or she speaks or one speaks you put an e on the end, people. L Paul on Paul, if you want to say we speak, you put in Oh, and s on the end. New Balham, if you want to say you speak and you're talking to a group of people like you will speak or if you're talking to somebody him you don't know quite well, then you port Easy head on the end Roubaix Lee. And if you want to say they speak, then you putting e n t on the end ill pal or L ball 5. French Structure 2 Chapter 2c: just a note on the pronunciation the Asia to Il l on and he'll l versions off any e over in the present tense. All sound the same Gia pal to pile il l on pal and he'll or l pal. So for they speak the e n t on the end is silent. It'll pile. And that's true throughout all of French. As you learn more structures on mawr tenses, you'll notice that if there is an e n. T on the end of a verb, it's silent. Soja pal. Triple it pal L Paul Ample and ill Paul and help Al all sound the same And then the new well, it's pronounced new pile long So you don't practice the s on the end and the full is pronounced Roubaix Lee So you don't pronounce the said. But that doesn't mean that the e is pronounced more eight sounds So Rupali So that's for er verbs. You take off the er to get what's called the stem off the verb and then you add e Yes, O N s is it e n t for ir verbs, for example, Finn ear veneer, which means to finish what you have to do is again. You take off the I all and you add these endings I s for sure. I s for two. I t for it. L own I s i o n s for new i s s e zed for vou and I s S e n t for eel or l And hopefully you will already know now that the e nt on that part will be silent. Sophie near you Take off the i r and you get the stem, which is Finn. And then you add on the end. I s so Joe Feeney, the S isn't pronounced in French. If it's on the end off a word, there's your Feeney to Finney, Ill Finney or Elfin E or on Finney New finish song Rufin is say, And if Innis or L Phineas so you can pronounce the double s in. They finish if Penis just don't pass the NT. So that's for IR verbs. 6. French Structure 2 Chapter 2d: then for R E verbs, for example, act owned Atoned which means to wait in French at dawn. Where you have to do is you take the r E off the end to get this stem and then you add s for sure s for two. But there's essence you don't pronounce for ill l or home. You don't have anything you add O N s for new is ed for you and then a silent e nt for deal or l So you'll get I wait is jacked on the azure in French shortens to J apostrophe If you place it in front of a word that starts with a vowel or a hate a jet tone I'm waiting to atone Means you wait or you're waiting ill aton l a tone Only a tone means he's waiting. She's waiting. One is waiting. New atoned on means we wait or we're waiting. Vu at on day means you wait or you're waiting if you're talking to a group of people or somebody whom you don't know very well and he'll atoned or l atoned means they wait or they're waiting so you can pronounce the d there because it's followed by an E. But then you don't plants the anti. So what I'll do now is get all the infinitive that we've learned in structure one and put them into the present tense view along with their meanings and see if you can spot the patterns. Now, the the rule is to remove the last two letters and at the appropriate ending boot in French . There are quite a lot of verbs that don't follow the room and we call these irregular verbs . And so the rule for er verbs is removed the er and put on the end. E e S E o N s is ed e N t for ir verbs. You remove the i r on port on the end. I s I s i t If some is, say and if either bless anti for our e verbs, you remove the R E and then you add onto the end S s. Nothing O n s is ed e nt, except for the irregular verbs which do their own thing. But it's an irregular verb, I shall tell you, and you'll see how it's different. So I put all these congregations that's where it's called conjugation means when you place an infinitive into a different tense, and so were conjugating the infinitives into the present tense in this structure. And what I'll do is I'll put all the congregations onto another chapter so that you can find them easily when you want to review them. 7. French Structure 2 Chapter 3a: present tense. What I do now is congregate all the infinitives that we lent in structure one into the present tense. You congest listen to them or repeat them and use this lesson as a reference. So if you haven't, if you ever need to come back to it in the future, then come back to this lesson. Andi, listen to the verbs Conjugated mosey is your moans Two moms. It moans in moments on moans Nouman, John room R J in Mom's and moans Now the only irregular part in this verb is with new. If you look the Nouman, John, Well, there's an E in the middle that isn't there Normally. Normally what you do is you take the ER off the verb and just add o n s for we. But when you have a G if you had the m a n g o N s, that would be pronounced Nouman gone, But you want to keep the just sound. So what you do is you put a E after the G in this verb to keep these your sounds their new morning. John Black is your boy to Bois eating boy El Guapo omoi new Provan, the movie et blab aided glove, so this verb is very irregular. It's best with these verbs just to learn the congregations and get used to them. You can learn them by saying them out loud to yourself, and also by using a cue card. If you get a cue card and right watch on the top and down the center of one side, put the French congregations Jaguar to Brian White, etcetera. Then tell it over on. Right. The English I drink where I'm drinking, you drink or your drinking etcetera. What you can do is practice. The congregation is by using the English side only and trying to work out what the French is. And so use the English side. You'll see to drink and then try. Remember bar and then see if you can remember the congregations job what to what. What you can also do is write them down and then double check for spelling and things like that. So if you write down the congregations on a white board or on a scratch piece of paper, and then check that you got them right, what you can do then is work on any areas that your weakest at common D as you command to command you command Air Command on command. New commando vocal Monday you command l command. So this visit is a regular er veb. That means it follows the rules off taking the ER off and putting the endings on. 8. French Structure 2 Chapter 3b: s a G. Just say to essay. It s a l s A on a c new s a young U S A U S A in s a with this verb. If you notice the azure has shortened to Ajay apostrophe, That's because when a verb starts with a vowel the J e in your shortens to j apostrophe just to make it easier to say so. Just see is I try. I'm trying, baby, Did you pay to pay you pay ill pay on pay New Paone you pay a you pay i m pei fair now this burb is quite a regular. So is your faith to fade If a everything um Fay new phase on Rufete in phone Inform Louis is you to do Lou Lou on Lou New Lou voor away in Lieu l Blue. So that verb is just a normal regular Very that follows the pattern, Ali. Now this verb is really irregular, Andi, it changes a lot. So with this verb, it's best to learn this one as it's quite a useful there anyway, so it's best to learn it by rote and just make sure you know all the congregations so L. A Means to go Juve, Tuva, Ilva, Elva on Va New Alone, Vu Away Ive Own and Evan Pond Is your poem a poem? A poem, a poem on poem? New point? No Rupeni u Penn A prin. So with this babe, it's normal for je tu il Ellen own. But then, for new one vu your lettuce, the deeds appears. And for eel and L, it gets a double end. It's a pontell. What you can do is also pause thes videos when all the congregations around the strict screen on write them down on a cue card to help you to learn them. 9. French Structure 2 Chapter 3c: of what? This is another highly irregular verb. So everywhere means to have j to, uh, it, uh, in, uh or now new Avalon. Who are they ET on? And a when you have a verb that starts with a vowel like everywhere. Where you can do is liaise the SS on the end of new on vou and eel and l and bring them together with the vowel at the start of the next word. So rather than saying New Avalon, you can say, if you want, do you haven't got to news at home? Mousavi each zone in his own When you bring them together, the s sound is more like his end. So News Avenue is we have always having rather than new album. You can say new album, and that's fine, But you'll hear more often news of, um, and what you should try and do is use that little bit as well. Shunji. Now this web is similar to Muji because it's got a G in the middle. This means when you get to the new conjugation, the E after the G will remain is your schoen's To Schoen's, it's Schoen's in Schoen's own Schoen's new showing John Rochon J. In short. And is Sean as they This verb ash day means to buy Andi in the present tense. Your noticed the e gets an accident when you congregate it. This accident disappears for the new and rule, but it's therefore the rest of the congregations. So it becomes just shit to a shit. It's a shit. A lash it on a shit. New Ashton, Rue Ash They It's a shit and l a shit and again with this one because it starts with a vowel. You can liaise the s at the end of new Andrew and eel and l and make is that sound So it'll sound like rather than New Ashton. It will become news, Ashton. And who's Ash Day? You? That shit is a shit. And this is an optional pronunciation tip. You haven't got to do it. You can to say new Ashton. So new Ashton in Watcher would be were buying a car. Oh news Ashton in virtual so you can use either way 10. French Structure 2 Chapter 3d: Comerci. Now this verb has a C in the middle common see which is similar to the G in Mongie and Shunji in that when you get to new if you had a C followed by an O. N s, it would be a cursed sound, Common calm, but it's not. It's common song for new comments on, and what you get is a little Sindelar That's a little hook under the sea, and it makes the sea sound like an s rather than a K. So we'll see it when we get to the new you Commerce to commerce, e commerce, air commerce in Communist new common song. So that's the Sedalia there under the sea Viacom say e commerce and a commenced. So in new comments on the Sedalia, just makes sure that the sea in the middle sounds like an s it for now, this verb ETA, meaning to be, is extremely irregular, just like Ali. So this one is another one that you should try and just let just three to a Elaine in a honey new song Do it is so is son. And so with this web with the vou, you can liaise the s with the e. So it become one rather than do it. Was it Pat year, Battier? Now, this one shortens a lot when you conjugated into the present tense. So patio becomes Juba two bath it bath, bath, homeopath, New pattern Bhupati If bat and l bat So tear. This one is similar to Pata in that it shortens quite a lot before you at the endings. So you just saw to So you so is so and so new. Soft tone voice A day you felt and assault AP off day jackpot Do you apart? He'll apart apart on a boat. New Appleton A pack a day he'll apart in a part. And again this is one Where because it starts with an A you can liaise the S Unlu, inborn eel and l news. Appleton, It was a day even that boat is that part. 11. French Structure 2 Chapter 3e: de Ponsi. You didn't bones to the bones in the post ID eight points and departments No de pon sir, would they won't say Lippo's independence. Bessie is your pass to best's you Best it bus on a bus New pasan passe it best in the past Hopefully by now you're starting to see at least with the regular verbs The pattern emerging The e e s e o N s Is it nt on the end of the congregations Why this one is slightly irregular too. Is your wife Tuva Ivoire End of watch on va move I own y a et Voila End of watch happily with this one the l becomes a double l on all the congregation is except for new and Japan . Do you have been You have been in a pill or not paid new app alone Who happily in a pen in a pill Or if you want to liaise from new we get news app alone Was that really is that bell ends up in arrestee? This one is a regular for Is your Christ too fast? Even fist in arrest On the rest No estan voice day your breast effaced 12 A is another normal regular verb that follows the ER very pattern is your tool to to improve and to on tools neutral alone. Vote away if to l two. 12. French Structure 2 Chapter 3f: and finally, dear, this one is an irregular verb. Is your d two d una de l d on d? No de zone would it if these lt's so that's a lot of infinitives in the present tense in structure to however, the second part is an inverted present tense. So we've just seen the present tense. But if you look at all the present tense verbs, you'll notice there are two words for each of them. To invert them just means to switch them around. For example, if you have vu Passy, which means you spend or your spending then to invert it, you get passive room. Which means are you spending or do you spend? So let's have a quick practice with these verbs. How would you say in French? Where are we going? Who? I don't know. MM along new. And so we are going is new alone. You just flip them round and you get Alan new. Are we going? Who? Ellen. Where we're going. How are you paying common Bayview Common Pave. That's if you're talking to more than one person or if you're talking to somebody whom you don't know very well. However, if you're talking to a friend, you would say Comma paid to common patriot. When are we going out? Khan Sultan, New consultant New. So we are going out his new soft on and you just flip it around and we get soft on assault on When are we going out? What you trying? I guess they're evil. Casey. Just note that the word could shortens to Qu apostrophe when you put it in front of a word that starts with a vowel or a hate each. That's why it's Casey evil rather than good essay evil. It just makes it a bit easier to say yes, evil. That's if you're talking to more than one person or if you're talking to somebody you don't know very well. If you're talking to a friend, you would say Yes, they do. Yes, they do 13. French Structure 2 Chapter 3g: What is he eating now? With this one, you might say Cook Monge deal. But actually, when you have eel or l or arm in a question, then if the verb ends in a vowel like Monge doors, you have to put a T in between to join the two words together. So we get cooked. Monge teal, come on, steel for what is he eating? This is only there just to make it easier to say rather than come orange peel. Come on, Steve. And this only happens if the verb ends in a vowel. Andi, you are talking about he she or one so you would have come on. Steel is What is he eating, Commanche tell will be. What is she eating? Good morning stone. What is one eating by building questions using instructor to. You'll not only get yourself more familiarized with the vocabulary on the structure, but you're also without even trying, reduced the time it takes for you to string a sentence together. So let's add a few more had to say in French, What are you doing? Cough it? Do Could fit. Move. That's if you're talking to more than one person or somebody you don't know very well. If you talk to a friend, you would say good faith too. Cafe too. How is he paying? Common Patil Common pay till so you have a T in the middle because bay ends in an e on your using. He's a common pay Teal, What are they trying? Que se till I guess it to you. So here the could shortens to Qu apostrophe because the next word starts with a vowel then essay for they it ends in a T And you liaise the tea with the eye off eel So it becomes que se kill you still don't pronounce the e nt. So it's not case a young dealer, even of that they become scarce Stay till just like with structure one instructor to there is also an optional part you can put on the end the extra information 14. French Structure 2 Chapter 3h: extra information. The extra information is all denounce and adjectives and time words etcetera that you couldn't put on the end off the question toe. Add extra information, for example. Could fit voices. Wa could fit voices. Wow, means! What are you doing tonight? Who? Mongie. Budiman Who? Mongie. Voodoo man. Where you're eating tomorrow. Who gave you Montana? Who will even mental? Where you going now? Now we learned quite a lot off extra information Words in structure one. But the list is endless. And so any extra word that you want to put on the end if you just get a dictionary ins and search for that But we'll just go over the words that we learned in structure. Wanted to make sure you remembered them. How do you say in French tomorrow, Do man today? Tonight Just watch now. Mental Later. Put down to Paris or in Paris. A very two friends. So in France and forms at the restaurant or to the restaurant. Oh, esta home. The chicken look poorly. The red coat lemon toe Whose a ticket on me for Pierre Pope Here and here. You see, let's try and make our structure to questions a little more adventurous by adding some extra information on the end. Had you say in French. What are you doing now? Perfect woman tunnel could fit Woman tunnel. That's if you're talking to more than one person or somebody you don't know If you're talking to somebody you know, you would say good faith to Montana. Could feet two months now. What you buying for Pierre? Cash Dave Oop. Appear cash. Dave Lupo. Pierre, uh, cashiers to propia cash set to pop here. What time are we eating? Later. Makayla Monjo New puta a Kayla Morgan nuclear. 15. French Structure 2 Chapter 4a: extra information. The extra information is all denounce and adjectives and time words etcetera that you couldn't put on the end off the question toe. Add extra information, for example. Could fit voices. Wa could fit voices. Wow, means! What are you doing tonight? Who? Mongie. Budiman Who? Mongie. Voodoo man. Where you're eating tomorrow. Who gave you Montana? Who will even mental? Where you going now? Now we learned quite a lot off extra information Words in structure one. But the list is endless. And so any extra word that you want to put on the end if you just get a dictionary ins and search for that But we'll just go over the words that we learned in structure. Wanted to make sure you remembered them. How do you say in French tomorrow, Do man today? Tonight Just watch now. Mental Later. Put down to Paris or in Paris. A very two friends. So in France and forms at the restaurant or to the restaurant. Oh, esta home. The chicken look poorly. The red coat lemon toe Whose a ticket on me for Pierre Pope Here and here. You see, let's try and make our structure to questions a little more adventurous by adding some extra information on the end. Had you say in French. What are you doing now? Perfect woman tunnel could fit Woman tunnel. That's if you're talking to more than one person or somebody you don't know If you're talking to somebody you know, you would say good faith to Montana. Could feet two months now. What you buying for Pierre? Cash Dave Oop. Appear cash. Dave Lupo. Pierre, uh, cashiers to propia cash set to pop here. What time are we eating? Later. Makayla Monjo New puta a Kayla Morgan nuclear. 16. French Structure 2 Chapter 5a: manipulating structure to you can manipulate structure to in many different ways. For example, you can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick. A question would on the start. Let's see what happens when you don't put a question. We're done. Are you eating most evil Montrevil? Or if you're talking to a friend March 2 monster. So this is a question with no question word at the start. Just the inverted present tense. So much of war. Must you Are you eating? How would you say? Are they eating here more still? Isi mon still see? Or you can liaise the s on the end of deal with the eye in the sea Monsters isi more Stephen Ceci, Are you paying the bill? Hey, Vlad, issue pave over, ladies. Or if talking to a friend Patriotism pe two additional. Are you buying some cheese? Este beautiful marsh. Ash Dave, do from ash. Oh, I should to do for marriage. I should to do for Marsh. Are you going now? I leave women's No. Any moment now or doctor friend that you meant? No, that you meant No. Am I paying the Bill Patiala Patiala district. So when you take the present tense and inverted, we're doing really is flipping around the two parts, the present tense is made up of two words the pronoun and the VEB. For example, German means I eat is your is the pro now, meaning I and munge is the very meaning. Eat. If you swap these two elements around or invert, um, you have to put a hyphen in the middle and this makes them into a question. 17. French Structure 2 Chapter 5b: so room Andrzej means your eating if you invent them montrevil and put a hyphen in the middle. Onda question mark. On the end, you get Monge evil. Which means Are you eating? Margie? Inverting works fine for all persons except one. The third person singular, which is the eel and L and own version. I've mentioned it very briefly, but I'll talk about this in a little bit more detail shortly. But for now, we've got is your mom's means. I eat and Morning Joe would be a My eating cumin becomes managed to, so you eat becomes do you eat or are you eating new Mongia means we eat and that becomes Monge on new, which means Are we eating or do we eat room on J means you eat and that becomes more gave you. Which means are you eating? And in Moans becomes mon steel. So again, the T on the end off Monge can liaise with the I at the start of evil. And that's also the same for L. L. Monge becomes Monge tell, which means are they eating? But when you want to invert with eel l or own meaning he she or one. There's an ex little thing to remember. So ill mountains. Is he eats or heating munch Tear is, does he eat? Or is he eating? Because whenever you invert with eel or N or on, you have to put a little tea in between the verb on the program. This is only if the verb ends in a vowel, and this is simply because it sounds nicer to French ears. If the Web doesn't end in a valve, you don't have to bother. For example, L Component means she understands. Compounded means just you understand you haven't got to put a T here because there's no vowel on the end of compon. And that's because you can link the D now with the E instead. So you get compound. L only if there's a vow. Do you have to put the T in the middle, for example. It's bad means he speaks. So is he speaking would be politics. Pilot deal in Monge means he is eating so more steel means is he eating marched You. It passed, however, doesn't end in a vowel, so that one becomes a bad deal. Bacteria, which means is he leaving or does he leave, and so there's no need to put an extra T in the middle of these two words e comm poem means he understands compon deal. Does he understand? So again, you don't need to put in extra T because there's no vow on the end of compon. However, in this one deal at a self, there's an E on the end. So when you conjugated, it becomes of as they off till it has off to you, which means is he reserving? 18. French Structure 2 Chapter 6a: Let's just have a quick recap off all the question words on some of the more common inverted present tenses. How do you say in French? Where what could at what time? A killer? When Go on How come on which or which one. Ken. Why Pacquiao? How much or how many come young? How long, Commander Tom, who are him? Key? And now let's look at a few off the more common inverted present tenses. How do you say in French? Are you eating more drivel or months to? Is he drinking what he did? Are you ordering common debut or commander to? Are we trying? It's a whole new. Are you paying Bayview or pay, too? Is she doing fit then? Are we hiring Luan New? Is he going? Vatel? Are you taking point of view or point you? Does she have at Dell? Are we changing? Shaun's on new Um, I buying, I said, Sure. Are you starting common save or comments to? Are they Santita or some 10? Are we going out soft on new? Are they leaving back to till or back to tell? So there's a double T sound in this one because packed in the middle of the tea and then, in the end, a city. So you plants the middle t affairs packed and then the NT liaises with the eye or the E. So back to teal or path to tell, Are you bringing a party boo apart table or about to? 19. French Structure 2 Chapter 6b: is he spending in the sense of spending money dip on steel? Or is he spending meaning spending time past ill? Are we seeing y all new? Are you calling uplevel for a pell too? Are they staying arrested till or less to tell? So again, you've got the double t sound arrested teal and the rest to tell because the arrest has it in the middle and then the t on the end. And do you find to leave you or 12 to? So how would you say in French? What is he doing? Graffiti. Could Fadi, how are you paying the bill? Common pave eulogist Common pave eulogist or common pay to lady soon. Common paid to addition. Which one is she buying? Gale assured to tell. Okay. A shed to tell why I'll be hiring a car. Aqua blue. New In what year? Poor quality. One new invite You. How much are you eating? Cumbia, Cumbia, Monju or cumbia? Months to cumbia. Most to where are you hiring a car? A wave? You in, Watcher? Who? Louisville in Watcher or allude To invite you who blew to invite you? When are they eating? Come on. Still most steel or common still conquer monster. What time you're going? A killer and even arugula, olive or a killer about you. I care about you. 20. French Structure 2 Chapter 7a: do versus ING now in English. We have more ways off saying the same thing as French doors. So sometimes things can get a little confusing. When you're asking a question using structure to in English, there are two ways to say it. We could say, What are you eating or what do you eat in French? These are both the same. Could more gave you? Come on, people. This is because, firstly, there is no ing in French. And secondly, the little question would do doesn't exist in French, either. If neither of those words exist, all you have left is what you eat. So to make it into a question, the French flip the verb on the pronoun around. So what eat you? It's what you would little say in French cook Mongie. So because the thing doesn't exist, we can say that in French there is no um, ing is being or thing. So you can't say where I'm I going. Where is he going? Where are you going? Therefore, whenever you see that, just look at what the verb is. And so if you see where are you going? Well, knock off the are and knock off the thing and you have where you go, you flip the verb around with the pronoun you get where go do which is a level. Well, even so, you haven't got to think what's are on. What's being you just say, Where go you who are leaving? If you look at old English, you'll see that we used to say it that way in English to if you look at Shakespeare, you'll see things like Where go you or where? Ghost bow. Similarly, the little question would do that often appears in English. Questions doesn't exist in French, so just ignore it in English, we say, When do you leave in French? The do in questions doesn't exist, so you just say when you leave on to make into a question you invert when leave you come back. TV room combative. So there is to be no ing, no do in French questions. And there are two ways to ask questions in English, whereas there is just one way in French. So come on, Jay, rule could mean, What do you eat or what are you reading? Compact Evil? I mean, when do you leave? When are you leaving Con VI? Until means when do they come or when are they coming 21. French Structure 2 Chapter 7b: So how would you say in French? Where are you eating? Who? More, more evil? Oh who marched to? Who wants to Where do you eat Omar Montrevil Or who wants to Moors too? So it's the same. Where all you eating On where do you eat that? The same in French. When does he finish? Confident till confident ill When is he finishing? Confident till confident till when do we arrive? Calm of even knew Calm at even knew When are we arriving? Calm of even knew Come at even knew Why do you say that for quite Did Moussa pork What did Moussa? Or if you're talking to just one person whom you consider a friend Look what did Dusa quite atoosa Why are you saying that Pacquiao did Moussa What did Moussa? Quite de Tusa Poor quality tuesta What are they doing? Proof Until careful until or cliff until griffon tell And how would you say? What do they do? Fonte confronted or kiffen tell kerf until what do they drink? Could we have teal? Could we often? Or Kabul Avtel could waft in 22. French Structure 2 Chapter 7c: What are they drinking? Could we 15 could waft till? Or could we have 10? Could we often? What are you eating? Come on, you Montrevil. Oh, come on. Just you Come on. Just you. What do you eat? Come on, cook much evil or commits to come on to Where is he going? Move a till who? That you? Where did he go? Over 18. Over Teen. What are they saying? Could the steel or could these tell? What did they say here? Could still see Or could you tell e. C. Does he speak English? Party lonely? It's his begin English part Ill only. Does she arrive tomorrow of him till doma Is she arriving tomorrow? I have. Tell them A what time did they leave tonight? A Kayla battle to swap or a killer batter? Taylor says, Well, what time are they leaving? Tonight? Again? I go back to to use a sua or a killer back to Dallas is Well, How many pizzas are you ordering, Commander Pete? Sacha Monday. Boom Or Commander Pizza. Come on to 23. French Structure 2 Chapter 7d: How many pizzas do you order? Usually, Commander Pizza. Come on. They would attitude. So do attitude means usually. Or you could say Come beyond the pizza command To Deb itude depending on who you're talking to. How much wind is entering? Commander Vandewater? How much wine is he drinking? Commander Vandewater. What are they making? Crew? Fontina or coupon today? What do they make? Careful until Okay, Fantail, are you trying? The wine s a evil. Live on or essay to Nirvana. Do you try the wine savialova? Well, I say to Nirvana, Are you making a reservation? If it Yoon has a vast or feet You in another restaurant. Do you make a reservation? Usually fit, You know a lot of ASEAN latitude or feed you. You know how? The vast latitude. What do you having? Can you or can't you? What? Do you have caviar or catch you? Where are they eating tomorrow? Whom are still the man or months? Tell demon Are you eating with me today? Moon Jae, Quebec Marzorati Or months to have a baby 24. French Structure 2 Chapter 7e: When is he calling? Call a pelt in. When does he call? Come Appelt Ill. What do you ordering for us? Come on, Dave. Upon new. Or could come on to porn? New issue ordering for me as well. Come on to tell for Marcy. Why are you here for quite. Do we see or a toothy? Why are they here? Proquest Until we see or proquest until what you doing here? Cough it, Boise or cough it juicy. Which one is she buying? Kill A Should tell which ones Do you have kids of evil, or is that too? Are you being stupid at worst trip either, or it used to. Peter, are we leaving soon? Pattern new bientot to believe. Soon backed on new bientot. Are you drinking the wine? Booby? Bolivia. Oh, what you live on? Do you drink wine? Buffet Bolivia or what you live on. So even though the things they do drink wine in French is to have to say Do you drink the wine when you're speaking about food and drink in general? So do you drink wine? Do you eat cheese? Do you like steak? You always have the same French. The in front of the noun 25. French Structure 2 Chapter 7f: How are you going to friends? Com. Montolivo in France or Common Backed you on first. When are they going out? Consort until or can't start to tell? When did they go out? Consort till council to tell. Are you going out later? South Daewoo, Pluta or soft Jupiter? Is he leaving today? Bhakti Luxury back Till is he here? A Tennessee? Are we speaking with Marie Babylon? New Arabic Marry? Who are you calling key? Uplevel. Or keep it to What do you taking with you tomorrow? Cooked Funny Warlick Food, Emma Or keep on to affect chadema. What do you take with you? Plenty of logic or keep onto a victoire. What are they changing? Cash are still or questions? 10. Why are they changing the reservation? The question still has a Western or questions. Still, love is a vast. So just to remind you that eel is used when it's talking about a group off men or group of masculine mounds, or a mixed group of men and women or a mixed group off masculine and feminine Nam's and then you use L only if you're talking about a group of women or a group of feminine now. Arms. Where are we staying tonight? Well has done Nusa smile. Are you staying here? What state do you see or just to see? 26. French Structure 2 Chapter 7g: does he stay here very often. I was two till a seat restaurant, so studio means often. So arrest the teal C trace. Even what time you eating Makayla Mongia or a Kayla months to which one are you taking? Can point even or kelp onto. Why are you going with them? Pacquiao Any vote Becker, Pacquiao and even now is them When you're talking about a group of masculine mounds or masculine and feminine mixed If you're talking about a group of feminine now, as you would say avec l so you could either say what a live wire or Pacquiao Malibu avec l or is there we would use to endure save poor quite back to Africa. Oh, Pacquiao that you Abigail, Why did you go with them? Pacquiao Olive with record or Pacquiao Olivo avec l or you could say Pacquiao, Batu Rebecca, have you talking toe just one person whom you know very well or poke what? That you have a kale. Why are they going to Paris or Pacquiao Montella party. Why do they go to Paris? Poco Fontina Taqi Pacquiao Avantel Why are you taking that Moussa Poor cooperative, Busta or Pacquiao upon Tusa Why did you take that? Open up on Tusa. Who is he telling? Kiddy teal Key detail. Whom are you seeing? Keep wave key, rival. Or you could say key. What to what do they bringing Capitol Hill or a couple to tell? Where is she going tonight? Move a Tells us what? Why are you going now? Poor quality movement No. Or pork wafa to mental. 27. French Structure 2 Chapter 8a: as a non question. So far, we've only looked at structure to in a question format. However, you can also use it in a non question format. Let's just start this chapter with a quick recap off the structure in the question for so structure to in the question format consists of just two parts. Could march evil? What are you eating or what do you eat? It consists off, which is a question word. So any question would and start, and then the second part is an inverted present tense. Or you could add the optional third part, the extra information and say cook, Mongie voices swap. What are you eating tonight? To use this structure when you're not asking a question is quite simple. You just take the question we're off and flip the inverted present tense back around. Let me show you what I mean. Let's compare a question and a non question in the strip to to format. Come on, Steve means What are they eating? If you take the question, would off and then flip the inverted present tense back around, you get even more orange. That means they're eating. So in Monge literally. They're eating the chicken. So the phrase march teal means are they eating? And if you flip it around, you get ill. Monge, which means they are eating similarly wife Till is are they drinking? Flip it round you get heated Behalf they are drinking l Paul Pierre. They are speaking with Pierre. You won't amount. They're going tomorrow. One thing to note is that just like the question format, the non question format can have two meanings too. Every present tense verbs in French can be translated in two ways into English. For example, Germans can mean I eat or I'm eating. There's one way that hasn't ing and the other way doesn't have being so new. Pilon we speak or were speaking in French is just blue banner it bat they leave or they're leaving. Well, come Monday. New order or your ordering. So how would you say in French? She is buying something here for Pierre and I should coco show the steep appear and a ship cargo shows the CPA appear they're buying the wine later Il a shed Levante Pluta Or with this one? The s on the end of you can liaise with the start of a shit. And making that sound is a shit. The Vampeta 28. French Structure 2 Chapter 8b: I see Marie Jamari. Juve Marquis. I'm buying something here, Josh. Just yet. We're buying something at the supermarket. New Ashton caricatures or stupid matter? She or you can liaise them and say news. Ashtanga co shows or student She I'm buying some cheese. Josh. It do for Marge Did you should do for miles. I'm buying something for my mom here. Josh Keiko shows poem Amar'e. He is very tired in a tray. Fatigue a it a try fatigue A I'm there tomorrow. Just three landerman. Just real abdomen. He's bringing everything for Pierre. It's about to appear it apart to appear I'm bringing some few tomorrow jackpots. Delano He took the money. Jackpot. Villanova et on the mom. I'm saying something is your dick ago shows is your d K car shows they bring some wine for Jen ill apart. Doiron boys young or the s on the end of eel can liaise with the A Is that pot do vampires ? Or you could say L apart is a part do vamp version. She's starting soon. It almost bientot a commerce bientot. We're eating at the restaurant no more John O esta home. Newman John O esta home you're leaving tomorrow. He's buying something in Paris. You know, shit can go Shows that puffy it actually keep the shows apathy. 29. French Structure 2 Chapter 8c: you're going to Paris student. Usually after habian two or Juve apparently in tow. They're leaving tonight. Impacts the swat. Oh, a bat's a swell. They're eating at mind tomorrow. Emotions shame. Wadman or Edmon Shame. Weatherman. I'm seeing Michelle later. Is your wife Michelle? Is your what? Michelle Pluta. You're eating something. Come on, JK, Cashews, Vermont. We're bringing everything with us tomorrow. New app often to elect new demand. Or you can liaise the new and Appleton News Appleton to elect new demand. I'm doing something. Is your fake occur shows is your faking Kershaw's? You're spending too much money, deposit holders, different statehood. Or if you talking to one person who is a friend, you would say to the post production, Do they pose talk? I find the hotel terrible You to tell is your Tove Lo tell table I'm changing. The reservation now is your shoulders. Life is a vast moment. No. Is your shoulder lovers of last moment? You're buying too much with a state school or do a shit tall. I'm buying something here. Josh killed just yet. We're going to Marseille, New Zealand. MFC, New Zealand. He's drinking something in walking shoes in what? Kiko shows. I'm bringing Pierre tomorrow. Jackpots, P abdomen. Jackpot, P abdomen. I'm buying something for Marie. Josh. Josh, Keiko shows we're speaking new power alone. We're starting now. New commerce moments. Now I'm ordering a bottle of water for the table. You commanding, but they dope on the table. 30. French Structure 2 Chapter 8d: I'm ordering for you, you command Or as you command for 12 she's calling Michelle Lapel Michelle. I'm calling Michelle tomorrow. Japan Michelle Obama Japan Michelle Damon I'm spending three weeks there. Japan twice Mendola. I'm ordering the chicken for Pierre As you command. Look pullup appear. Is your commander pullup Appear? I'm changing. The reservation is your shoulders. Life is the best time Just shows a lack of the Western I'm going now is you've a month? No Is your payment now? He's eating something in most Keiko shores in moment Keiko shows we're eating here today Nouman Johnny's theater New more Joni CEO should be I'm doing everything later. Is your faith to PETA? Is your faith to PETA? You're in X and Provence TEM tomorrow. Was it exam problems? Demon? Or you could say to a example Munsterman. They're starting student. It calms bientot or l Communist bientot. You're going to the hotel was a Yellowtail or Juve hotel. I'm buying something for Divvied Josh. Yet Josh Keiko shows poor David. She's changing everything. Insurance too. A shows too. They're calling Marie is a pale Muffy. Oh, is a pill, Murray. I mean, Calais tomorrow Just be carried Emma. You just be like a Laderman. She's here today in a east usually in a city or Jimmy. We're drinking the wine. New Beavon live on new boom live on So there you have it. The second French structure in a non question form. So he'll Monge e c. It's two parts in Monge is the present tense. BC is extra information. 31. French Structure 2 Chapter 9a: Let's do a quick recap of all the question words some inverted present tense verbs on some extra information Have to say in French where Oh, what good At what time? A killer when call how? Come on which or which one skin. Why book? Wow, How much or how many come young? How long, actually How much time, Commander Tone? Who? Or Human key are you eating Mom gave you four months to? Is he drinking? What ill are you ordering? Come on, Dave. You or come under two? Are we trying? They say your new Are you paying pay vu or pay too? Is she doing fit in? Are we hiring Blue on New? Is he going the vaccine? Are you taking point Evil or point you? Does she have a tale? Are we changing, Sean? John New. Um, I buying. I should shoot. Are you starting? Almost a view. Oh, come on to Are they some to you or something? Are we going out? Sort on new. Are they leaving part? Eel or Patil? Are you bringing a party mood or about to? Is he spending meaning money dip on? Still is he spending time past ill 32. French Structure 2 Chapter 9b: are we seeing? Why on move Are you calling uplevel or appear to? Are they staying of ftt did or arrest detail. Do you find to have a view or two to tomorrow? Demand today. Who is your dream tonight? Cysts While now mental later puta to Paris or in Paris at a party two front. So in France, in four months at the restaurant or to the restaurant? Oh estan the chicken in the pool. The red coat, lemon toe holes. A ticket. I m B A for Pierre, for Pierre. And here, you see? How do you say in French? What do you bringing Kapil Dev? Ooh or cap after two. What is he eating? Good morning, Tita. You're spending more too much money. Vodafone, say Boco Toda John or to their parents. Bow kowtow. What do you see? Could Wavel or Good? What? You? When are they going out? Con started TV. Oh, Concerts held. I'm bringing some wine for Pierre tomorrow. Jackpots, Duvan, potpie, abdomen. Are we using at the hotel tonight? Marshall. New hotels. According Marie, at quarter past four. I believe you, Maria. Cattle Africa Or appeared to marry a cattle America. Is she paying the bill? Hey, Taylor, issue 33. French Structure 2 Chapter 9c: How are you finding the film? Come on, toe. Do you feel or common? 12 to life? In what time you're starting. I cannot comment, Steve, or a killer commenced you. Which ones are they trying gives the same deal Or kids? They say tell What do you doing tomorrow? Cough it. Dodoma or coffee Chadema. He's buying the food later. You should look it up. I'm going out later. You just soft flute there. Are you going out later? Soft debut Pluta or south to Peter. Do you see the restaurant? Why evil? Us, huh? What you know has the home. Are you trying the wine savialova or as they to live on? Which car you hiring killed my child with you? Or killed? Gotcha! Blue too. Who are you seeing in Marseille Kiev Wave Matthey. Or keep what? To a Matthey whom you seeing in Paris? Keep wave weaponry or Kiva atropine? Who you calling in? Cap Calais. Key up. Live locally or key? Apple to up actually So you can see now on the screen A structure to outline, including the question word inverted, present tense. And then the extra information What you can do to practice this structure is just like Instructor one. Say one question to yourself over and over and try and change one little bit of it at a time whilst you're saying it over and over. By doing this, you will make the words flow more easily off your tongue and you'll reach fluency much more quickly. Obviously, the inverted present tense list in the middle is not an exhaustive list, and it can be filled with any inverted present tense is that you can think off. Similarly, the extra information is almost an endless list, but you can add to with whatever you want. 34. French Structure 2 Chapter 10a: turning it all negative. There's one more useful thing that you can do to this structure quite easily. Make it negative. You can change the inverted present tense from positive to negative in English. For example, Why are you going to Paris? Would become Why aren't you going to Paris? Or is he staying here becomes? Isn't he staying here? Are they leaving Tomorrow in the negative would become something like, Aren't they leaving today in English? It's simply a matter of putting a little n apostrophe t after the is or are. But it's almost a simple in French, too. All you have to do to turn the inverted present tense negative is put a new in front of it and put EPA after it. For example, I leave means are you going now? Leave oupa means aren't you going? You can do this with any invaded present tense in the question for, for example, No more Jajouka means Aren't you eating or don't you eat? Nobody means Isn't he drinking? Or doesn't he drink in the commodity path means Aren't you ordering or don't you order? And they say, Oh, Nouba means aren't we trying or don't we try infidel means. Isn't she doing Gore? Doesn't she do new pay? Bouba means Aren't you paying or don't you pay? You might have noticed that the word new shortness slightly to just n apostrophe when it's placed in front of a word that starts with a vowel or h Let's have a quick practice with this. Why don't you try the wine Pacquiao in this au Taliban Look what they say, you pal over. Or if you're talking to a friend Pacquiao ness a two Taliban quiet and they say to deliver , isn't he making your reservation benefitted pattern has a vested. You could make the part The s on the end of the path Liaise with the you at the beginning Off Eun and it'll sound like benefit You passed you in the house of SQL. It just happens it toe slide together a little bit better in the fifties pattern as a vessel. Are they buying something for Marie in a shitty deal? Paktika shows poor Marty or National Hotel package 35. French Structure 2 Chapter 10b: what we call Lucy Mokwa Nap along New policy. Qana Pelham New Policy Why aren't you doing it now? Pacquiao New, effective Lupe Montana or Pork watt Liffe to payments? No, the lure means it in French. Andi. It goes in front of the inverted present tense. But after the new pope. Okwara new. If it meant no new fe two payments? No, you can also turn the non question present tense. Negative. You do it a little differently. There. You'll notice that in the non question format, the present tense starts with a pronoun, usually to you. L etcetera. You should put the new after this program, but before the VEB and then you should put the part on the end of the verb. For example, is your V means I'm going Is your new vapor means I'm not going? So the nerve comes after the azure. But before the V on the Packers on the end, you can do this with any of the present tense verbs in the non question form, For example, Jenna More spa means I'm not eating or I don't eat. You hear the nure sound like it's part of the azure in speaking rather than junior mantra. You'll hear French people say Jeanne Mance. And so they bring the new very close to the jury in speaking June Mosebar. I'm not eating, I don't eat June Fe, Pa. To know FIBA means you're not doing or you don't do so again. The no comes very close to the to in speaking June VIP bar even and weapon. He isn't drinking or he doesn't drink even of Weapon and Palpa, End of Palpa means she isn't speaking or she doesn't speak new. National New National means we aren't buying or we don't buy June patty epa. You know Pat EPA means you're not leaving. Go. You don't leave Bhupati Ba in the South bar. Even a thought means they aren't going out or they don't go out. Even the soft bath in the paper. A nice sipah means they're not trying or they don't try it next. Siba 36. French Structure 2 Chapter 10c: just like in the positive present tense. There are always two ways in English to translate something from French. In the negative. You can either say in English, Don't or um, are is not being, For example, Una March bar can be translated into English, either. As I'm not eating or I don't eat in, the Palpa only can be translated into English as he is not speaking English or he doesn't speak English. So you can always haven't is not all. I'm not within England the end or a don't or doesn't in English in French, that anyone way. So let's have a practice with these. Have the same French. I'm not doing that. Today isn't a past our Judy June fait pas de. He's not eating the chocolate in the Marsh parish Ochola in the most polished Aquila. They're not spending too much money in the difference. Battle Diver in a different spat. Khadijah, she's not calling Pierre in a bell Poppaea El nopal Poppaea. You're not leaving until later. Vona pathway Pat juice cap, Bhupati Passions capita. Or you could say June pappa. I just got through the house to the pappa. Just get pita. I'm not hiring it. I'm buying it. General Oupa Julhas. Yet generally Lupu jealous yet so again the law, which means it comes after the note but before the blue. So that's how you make structure to negative in the question you put a no in front of the invaded present tense Onda a part on the end off the inverted present tense In a non question, you put the no after the pronoun, but in front of the VEB and the pot goes on the end of the fib. 37. The Happy Linguist: If you would like some hints and tips on how to make the most out of these courses on how to accelerate your language learning, you can read through my articles on my blawg called The Happy Linguist. I have written almost 400 articles on their full of ideas to keep learning a language fresh and exciting, and I'm constantly updating it with new articles. For example, you can listen to some foreign language songs that I have translated into English. For you, this is always a great way of learning new vocabulary. You can find lots of foreign language films and books that I recommend, or you can find extra language and grammar points that reinforce the content you've been learning in my three minute languages courses. So if you want to read all my articles for free, just head to my blawg at www 0.3 minute dot club forward slash bloke. As well as being able to read hundreds of articles on my block, you can sign up to my mailing list. Andi. You'll get a message sent straight to your inbox to let you know whenever I publish new articles or publish new courses so w w w 0.3 minute dot club forward slash blawg is where you can find the happy linguist. I hope you enjoy unhappy learning.