Build Kick-Ass Apps with Python - Be a Boss at Python In No Time | BrickleRex | Skillshare

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Build Kick-Ass Apps with Python - Be a Boss at Python In No Time

teacher avatar BrickleRex

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

20 Lessons (2h 52m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Main Programming Concepts

    • 3. Variables

    • 4. Data Types

    • 5. Lists

    • 6. Dictionaries

    • 7. Functions

    • 8. Logical and Conditional Operators

    • 9. If Statements

    • 10. String Interpolation

    • 11. For Loops

    • 12. While Loops

    • 13. Logical Thinking

    • 14. Installing External Modules

    • 15. Reading Documentation

    • 16. Debugging

    • 17. Beginner Level Project - Number Guessing Game

    • 18. Intermediate Project - Weather Agent

    • 19. Advanced Level Project - Stock Market Agent

    • 20. Conclusion

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About This Class

Welcome to the Course. I am your instructor, Aarash.

We shall journey together through this course, in order to build KICK-ASS APPS with Python.

Within the space of a few hours you will achieve the capability to write your own apps from scratch, without the need to re-watch tutorials repeatedly. I make sure of that.

This course differentiates itself from others by focusing more on PRACTICAL side of development. You will build AMAZING projects such as a Talking Weather Agent and a Stock Market Screener. 

This course will get you ready for app development whether you are beginner or experienced. It is for all levels of developers.

There are NO PREREQUISITES to this course. Just an Internet Connection and Common Sense.

There is NO NEED FOR MATHEMATICS IN THIS COURSE. Thats right, you can build BLOCKBUSTER apps with this course, without knowing any mathematics at all.

Best of all, this course gets you ready for the real world, whether you are an aspiring game designer, desktop app developer or hobbyist coder.

Come join us on this EPIC journey.

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1. Introduction: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the program. In spite, of course, we're going to get gas efs and noting with fighter this is meant to be the last course you ever need before starting to build ups with bite on. Now you. Since you're here, you probably already know what bite on is. However, iVillage certified what by on its just for beginners After the scores, you can restart it with your own projects immediately. No need to take another tutorial. I will guide you through the whole ordeal according to my own. In my own experience, you go to the fundamental wilderness after teeth and also we'll do three main projects. By the end of the course, three courses are in increasing difficulty beginner, intermediate and advanced on day. Our project like you've never seen before. Pattern in the programming language blowing up. Right now, there is nothing you can you can not do with by time. Literally anything you want with python can be done. Deep learning machine learning Ai Let's say you want to build a server, a back end server for the for your website or you just want to make games or you wanna dig normal scripts Data 100. Anything can now be done with bottom, and it's blowing a job opportunity constantly coming up for bite on on Now, in the prime time to start programming. This course will teach you to fundamentals and guide you through a lot of projects in order to get you ready for the real world projects. The first thing you believe in the fight on Interpreter. Let's go to fight on the or slash download slash and then they speak on Donald Crisman 3.8 point. This course will be torturing Apartment 3.7, but most of what we do, in fact, all of what we do, it's compatible as a longer we're doing it to bite on three. It is going on now with the latest fight on region. Let's look on it on. You should start downloading, so it's a five megabytes static. If I don't feel right, click open. All right on. Make sure you check this box at five from 3.8 or whatever at fire from 3.8 to pat, you have detective box, all right. Otherwise, call it is going to make your life so much. Let's click on this and click on install now. And this should particularly for you, I already have installed on only started again. Any other piece of software that will need it either. A text editor are an I. D and I d even integrated development environment. What it will provide you is a lot of features that will help you doing programming. In our case, we will be using veterans by charm. Community Edition. This has amazing order. Complete features on overall, it's a really good editor. If you want to use a decorator like me, you can. You can just feel free to use sublime victory of the escort to install these applications. Simply good. So effort with sublime text to get down with the blind takes three At the download of lime , take three at the latest version. Well down on the wrong it was Go to the website and you can know it did. A lot of brexiters are there on. This is my favorite. One took them, but you can also use alternatives such as active if you go to happen. Adam the Royal. This is also one of the world's most famous on it, depending the person personal preference. But I prepares neighbor for sublime text. Discontinue the introductory review. Everyone stay tuned because the next videos are going to teach you the fundamental off python and programming injured. 2. Main Programming Concepts: Welcome back to the fight on programming course. In this video, we'll be taking a look at what programming is on, how we can simplify it and learn it better. So programming, essentially, just for barbs. A fine mint iteration collection and execution. Now the May found complicated, But trust me, they're ready. Really easy, aggressive. So what do anyway? Refinement. A refinement. It basically work. Setting a name are of value to something. Let's say I said my name do, but all right, that means I just a find method of the name off. That means my name has the value book, right? So that's basically assignment, alleged. Am I worked my age? If I want to set my age 20 then my age had now the value off that assigned federation what the duration mean, which rate over something to go over it repeatedly or were repeatedly again and again and again and again in programming until it's some third condition has been met. Situation is really done using loops which we will go over later, but I think affected an example. For example, in one family, therefore people and for every person we need, we want toe output the age of that person. To do this, we will integrate over every person on output their age. That is how integration works. Simple selection. What is the election selection is basically saying, Okay, I want this thing. I want this value. If a certain condition is true, right, that's basically selection. There's nothing else. Stewart selection is visit. Think if her condition is true. I want this value ever condition is true. I want this thing. I want this thing with whatever value it had. All right, So there's a lot of ways to go with election, but does that mean concept one in execution? The only thing execution is you combine assignment, situation and collection and do a perfect, perfect uniting program. Now remember, they've never, uh no such no such thing as a perfect program. They will always be better than puts. But we do the best we can. Understanding the four concept will enable you learn any more modern program. So after running five from this work, you may be interested in learning job up another or JavaScript from another course a C r. C. Sharp. We've learned dotnet framework, but in this course we will only recovering pattern. But this court has three parts pass on fundamentals, extremely three skills and three projects and increasing the projects. I quite different from what you see in other courses. The first project we will encounter is actually a usual one. A number getting here. Why? Because it will help you graph the constant contact for the first time and apply them. But after that, the real fun begins. The intermediate project in involved building a rather agent duffel jack your location and deducted on, then together with other data for it. And then it will also used convert that data to speech. So basically, we'll be out putting using our speakers the weather data. So let's say I live in New York than the Andi temperatures. Currently 28 degrees. The program will say the temperature currently in New York attorney degrees. That's how our intermediate problems didn't. Often that's where ever lost Advanced project. We will. We will be building a stock market. Data are noted. A little collector, you can say all right, it will collect data for any stop you want, and it is the person the user will have to enter a ticker are a simple stock symbol in orderto view, which data? It will also convert a speech. But this will include a lot more networking on on a lot more that's working with a actually p and G. P s portables. So that is how they're drafting in this course. The next video we'll be covering the basic white one fundamental off the very Don't worry about them right now. Just go on the next video and you will know all you need to know about very 3. Variables: Welcome back to the bite on programming course. Let's go over variables. Variables are one of the most important contacts and programming. Overall, there's not a single program language without variables. So what are we reveals? Well, you can just think of variables as label for placeholder values. Now this may sound complicated. Hold on a mo. So let's see you have a box, right, and you can call that box whatever you want, so you can call it name. You can polish age on according to the books name. You will obviously want to get some value to work, right? So whatever you put in that boats is now the value off the books. So let's say I want our box called Age. And in that books I have the value or what have, let's say, a piece of paper with over 100 and 20. That means that box had the aid. That duct variable with his age, has a value off 20. All right, so basically, you're assigning just another name on your finding that Neymar value. That's all relative. They're really simple contact grass. Ah, very well. Bite hunt is usually anything any data types, so it can be a bit of text. A number. Ah, boolean bullion. Basically four falls. It can be an integer. All right. It can be a decimal number. It can be whatever you now remember a piece of text. It usually called a string in programming for future reference. So in python a variable, it declared What happened in the variable name Forgotten equal time for about a fine. Well, so if he said Joe Torre, text editor on by the way, just to you know which reference all parts on file, they're saved as dark five. So we can go ahead and save it and don't buy. So let's think class by. All right, now in apartment valuable. This I'm giving this. Let's say you want a variable called H right to this type of each. And this then equals equal scientists. You that refinement operators assignment. Operator basically assigns a value to a very so ages have a variable, and we have to sign a valuable hurt while you will be 20. All right, let's say we wanna okay. Now, if you want Jane value a later, we're gonna say a equals to 21 or whatever is 139 Maybe you can actually change the whole thing. So instead of 25 printed an interview right now, you can change it to a piece of text alerts that you want to be 20. But at that, so you have for text you have to use inverted Communists or ST Mark double and ripened text . That's different, Dad. How very well. There was a really simple concept, a graph, a graph. But they are going the most important things in program without very of It's it is exponentially hard. Just do any guy knows scripting advice, especially. 4. Data Types: So in the last video, we covered variables. Now variables are stored and data types all right, so all variables are basically basically a piece of data. And how do we store data? But we have better. Thanks for that. And these types are different, vastly different. There are so many different data rife. Invite on. However, it's really it's really simple. Do know how, what? How many leaders like there? Because they're just a few which we can go with. We can involve into different You didn't find it if you covered later on right now, the primitively that I've included in five Hon. I quite limited, actually, but they fulfilled all purpose. It's off this course and any normal script. That does not mean you cannot create a complex application, and actually it's the opposite. You can create incredibly complex application fight on without too many lines, of course. So in part on there did it like like strings repeated text introgen, which are whole numbers floats, which are decimal number on double, which are decimal numbers with more precision. Precision means, like, more or less not more, available in part on data types or not usually better party when defining able, but right, So when you're finding, for example, age 20 that means you don't have to specify that. But that area is actually a number by turned detects that automatic dash greatness. But certain operations can't really work on certain data types. For example, you can't are the string and into integer together right? You cannot impose, but you can add an integer and introduce the left state Do plus one specific. But it's the same thing will interview the string and let's say the string with Bob and the interview with one. You cannot add them together. They're not compatible with the right. Didn't I say you should be very simple and let their acquitted by the UK Did you? The defined data type will recover later on, but otherwise the perimeter that I really easy to understand. So usually, for example, this very well old age it's 20 string. All right, this is a number in culture. Now we can convert data types toe other, certainly other data types. However, it have limitation for grapple. You cannot convert 20 into 20 string into 2020 number right. However, if I if I think that I had 20 in the string of digits right then if I wanted to, I could convert this to a number. I could do that by saying age is the question str brackets age now don't worry, it's not complicated at all. So what? Str it's a function now. We will come core function later but what they do is taken a value under turning out its drink the SDR basically short version of string on. We want the string working of this. This is actually a string where we already had a string work. So let's say we want string Virgin off 20 right? So how would we do that? We get have converted to strain using FDR so we save this file now if we want we can we have to start up cm deep throat You know how to sort of the anti if you don't. All you do If your windows are right, CMD And if you open your come on from and then you just type in 51 and go ahead with whatever five you have. So now to execute this program, what we can do is ripe in 500 laugh. Don't fight write yourself by someone in the name of the file. You do you think just enter and that will actually get the program? You might be wondering Why didn't we get anything? No. Tried that because all the processing took place. But we never told the program throughout anything. Right. So we just have to make sure that we are or something. And vice 12 out for something you consider a print statement just forever print with identities. And then you put in the valuable that you want or it can be a string. It can be number. All right. It can't be both together on left. All the elements of the French statements have to the same database, right? So that they're compatible. We can print, for example age. Right? So now we should expect the every print 20 exactly what we want. If you want to convert, for example, 20 at the string. Do an integer. Then what? We had to do it. You the in function, it is very easy to remember about interview. So now if you want to print it again, you can see it also had the same output. However, we actually this is therefore the stream before. Now it's an interview. And with first time after the interview before and now Danica District, that is, how did that I've working? There are several data types and fight on indigenous flow. Two doubles the dealer just numb numerical string in a bit of text. A list such and people either it rated arrays became covering literal right there basically just number of elements or number off variables in a single list way covered later on even dictionary. A Boolean ingested either two or four value, and none is that none type. 5. Lists: in this video we're discussing lists in python lists are one of the most important infrastructures in programming in general on especially in python. But to understand list, we first need to understand our ways. Array it just a data type weather. Multiple items are values stored in a single Lestrade or in a single element. You can say that array a single element with multiple elements inside it, right? Solar it. We can say that, for example, and a day, maybe the numbers 1 to 10 wrote for 123456789 and 10. They're always invigorated now a raise in most programming languages have fixed size. However, in Pattana, raising won't exist. Variation off a rate is called a list A list her dynamic fight. So this I can train however you want. And this is an amazing feature that fight on has because it is very district. Er, sometimes to have a static side list right side excised. Very. Which, which can you really district for your application? No. How do list exactly work? So you basically declare lists if you go over here, So let's say I want to declare a list called Age is Right. So just like any other valuable I say, I drive in the name of the variable and I find it. And then I use square brackets to start the list. Right? Sablan, director of Differences Court Records for you. Now all of the elements of the list are going to be within the squared rockets. So the great more Pattani's became store different data types in a single let's all of the data items do not need to be the same. Better tight. So one of them could be an interview. One of them could be a string. It's your church. So how do we still writings? Well, let's say I wanted to store ages of my all my family were right. So this is in a hypothetical scenario. So let's say 19 in the first stage, right then to go toe on to the next item. I just use a comma and it's trapping the neck value. 39 40. All right, 81. Something like that. Right. So this is how you declare a list. Now, lists are done using indexes on value. So all values, So each element in a list actually has its own index and inductive in python start from zero. So basically, this has the index zero. This have the index one that have the index to this, have the in victory. All right, so if you want to actually access devalues inside the list, we need to use the index. So, for example, if I wanted to print the actually the first item, right, I would have to you the index zero Still, you can always you the rule off n minus one with end it, I can you want to access and then minus one, Get the index. All right, So if you want, after the first items than one minute, quantity was zero, which is my index. Now, if I save this on, Go on, my Cindy. If I open my but Iran a python program, it will output 19. Right? Because it's the first item. If I want her in for two, that would give you the tour doctor in the list. Ah, that you thought I didn't live? No. What can you do with lifts? So let's saying you or any family member all right, obviously 81 So you can append to list any way you want, basically, unless they're going to append to this list. Right? So we want to add to our to the end off this list. So what do we do? We just simply go ages right to the name of the area or the list dot append. All right, and then parentheses. So the adult a pen function basically ours. The this item at the end of the list. So let's say I have a new family member at 21 right? A for anyone. And now this hurry has a value with the in, uh, 31. That had not I did not have the 50 member if I want to confront the whole body just by going print agents. And now, if I goto CNB and print or if it as you can feed its 21 at the end. So it is definitely added, uh, an element to the end of the area. We can also remove certain elements. So let's say if you wanted to remove on 19 we could remove 19. All right? I happened. Now you can see if 39 40 81 41 19 gone. If I wanted to remove whatever item there waas at the tour index. Right? So if I want to hurt indexed and I use the proper function dark pop function, there's basically removed it at the index if I wanted to do the first item, but again, 19 it's a good thing are pretty 9 48 1 2119 incomes If I wanted to enable 29 Now, as you can see for not going and I get 1948 1 and 21 now, lists are incredibly useful little structures. I cannot stress how important this is. You will use them in a majority of what you do on. Even in our projects. Lift will be a major part of our program. One more thing I would like to show you is that's the how from deck straight a variable context, which is a feat of strength so that the thing, the quick brown jump or the lady right, this is ever piece of text. So what do we Actually, the thing is in python deaths is our strings are actually stood as lift so you can access any character or any sequence of characters just by your indexing for example, if I wanted to print the fifth character in this hour just in death, all right, with me, square brackets. And then that's right. The index, whatever it character, I want to actually try. And then I would go to my 15. Run it. Honesty Different, Did you? As you can see, the index at in the five he worked in the price captivity. That index veto one If Etch Do is e Teoh space for rescue and five You right, we actually interview now. Would people want to bring the first like their state 20 car with, Right. So how do we do that? We're in pattern this mating Lee et do that and you could be hit with any lift at all. All right, The only thing you need to do let me just be the next fight. So just not your induction. Use square brackets after the variable name list name. And now, if you want to, who actually called slicing? So basically you're taking certain elements from the left. So let's say if I wanted to first the fourth element right, so forth elements, indexes tree, and then a right. According this separate events that I want to go to this next step party next, the tree cold. And actually I want to go to the first. I want up to Not including, but up to the 11th character which is basically index 10. All right, this will give me upto Forgive me all the characters I'm from character number four upto character number 11. All right, but extremely remember this Is this an upper bound on it? Excuse? It does not include However, the lower bound is always inclusive. So if I go ahead and print this, are you going to see it pretty quick on the space, right? So because now we can feel veto. 1233 start in this space. Thank you. With 456 step in age nine then then is actually be on nine Iraqi airspace awaiting deep into the space quick and then its base. What? We wanted to bring the 1st 20 characters. Then we would just simply don't nothing here We could also write veto but equivalent of writing nothing here and right in front of him. That means we want 1st 20 characters. Don't give it 1st 1 characters. There we go. If I want to print the last 20 characters. Then I would go different. Meeting another meeting. Picture Pathankot. Diverse indexing where If you want to index from the and off the string or end of the left , you can you negative numbers. Now it's a many of it. It may be a bit confusing for you through the last in the last active in the list, which, in this case, G right. It had the index minus one. All right, so if I forget Apple, I want in Texas minus one that will give me G if I wanted for Gampel minus two, which is 00 in this year. Right? And I wanted it to the end. I would just like Colon and then nothing else because the Taliban at night that I want everything starting from index minus two. Give me. Oh, gee, just like that. If I wanted the last 20 characters, I would just go minus 20 on to the end of the list. Could you give me 80 over the lady door? All right. So that now lift actually were on again. I cannot stress how important lists are. We will be covering on how to it rate over these lifts in the next few historians, but I hope you understood what lists do and how important they can be. Thank you for watching. 6. Dictionaries: Welcome back in this video, we'll be discussing dictionary back home. A dictionary may found complex. But trust me, it's one of the E. T s detractors out there. So what are the dictionary? Well, in complex terms are Iran. And see if you can I don't even think you can call this complex. But in complex terms, it is a step off key value pairs who in a key value pair a key identified the value and the key must be you need for that item and the value If What is a store? Ah, the value that I don't part by the key. Now forget everything that I just on. Now I'm gonna explain to you in simple words it is just a list where you create your own indexes. So before, if you remember, if you go backwards blind, tech straight. If I wanted if I had the ages agree, let's stay 21 only eight. 35 67. Right now, the index of here are 01213 Now what? I don't want that for what? If I want to? A finding by name selects state. It is in the age of John arrested. This is the age of Samantha for the eight above this theeighties ever. Right now if I wanted to do that, I can do addiction is which is an amazing way to probably probably problems hard bu the dictionary. It's extremely simple. So all you have to do is instead of writing this in squared rockers, we just use curly braces right now. What? When you the curly brace, it basically think I'm starting a dictionary. The first thing you write for each element in a dictionary is the key in this game left. The first element has the age of John. So I write John here. And then I read a colon to separate the key and the value of the first thing I will keep. Now I'm going to get the value for John Tate was 21 Now until only the next element I want Samantha. Okay, amount of age, which is 25 then I want Edward, whose age is, let's say 35. All right, so this is basically what exactly where additionally is you basically setting the indexes and now you can't access the They are from Europe. You that if you can But you can't normally access this dictionary using normal indexes like 01 and two. You have to access them using the key that you defined thingy that you defined. John Samantha Network and the value that only 1 35 35 great philosophy. I wanted the age off John, right? So I would just go. Now I will just access this like normal list. I would just go for a squared rocket indexing, and then I would rather key, which is basically the index of the of the I don't get trying to access right. So basically, instead of writing the index for just reading the key, I hope that's really clear if you run this as you can see it in 21. If I wanted to Manto age, it would become 45 because we defined it to be 25 right? So dictionary There actually was also one of the most useful, ah, useful data structures available in fighting. So, in fact, it's one of the world's youthful. In any program which were, for example, you have to create variable on the fly. When you're a trained iterating over the form right, you can't do that normally with a raise or normal valuables, you can, however, got dictionary. Because if I want, I can just, uh, what I could do. It's just that a veritable that say, John to this. The key is John and the age of 25. Right now, John. Maybe a valuable that I don't even know about right. However, I could have said this before. Uh, Joan, I can do this instead. Now, Right now, this you may be asking, why really that instead? Great. But later on, when you discuss moved, it will be clear that why we're doing this. So, overall, dictionary there really important data structures that you must use? Ah, not much you, but should youth whenever you need to, whenever you need to create your own away or you can you read your own list with your own in Texas? All right. They're just And if you want professional definition, if that they are devalue periods, So this is the key value is the key difficult value. The key identifies the value. The key, the index for the value. Now a key can be anything on a value can be anything they can be. Ah, and like any day just did it. I possible job, maybe string. It may be an integer, a decimal water. However, all keys must be unique. So if I think, for example, that ages like growing up if I wanted Jane John age So if I wanted to change on the age toe 25 I would just do this Ages, John and equal to 25. If I did there the program executed. I didn't. John, what do you got? You can see from 35 41 for example, if I wanted If if, for example, somehow another guy came into the family Rick named John on the 25. Now we can just add John and 25. It's going over a previous John. So this is a limitation where, off a dictionary, you must somehow really separation magnetism so that you can identify different value because this I all give in dictionary must be unique. All right. So I hope it was clear what dictionaries are really importantly restructures that you must you and that you would probably be using in very complex applications 7. Functions: Welcome back, everyone In this video we'll be discussing functions in Python the world Either function. You might have heard a lot about functions. Or maybe not nothing at all, but function essentially, It is just a named reusable block off court. So basically, I'm writing a block off course. Right on debts. Say, I wonder you that again and again I'm not going to write 50 lines. Of course, every time. And this would rather once. And I'm gonna call that function repeatedly whenever I need it. It they immensely reduce the number of lines needed and completely making court maintainable. All right, so how do we use function? And by phone where invite home, you start functions with writing the keyboard death Does that stand for define but the 44 unit death and you can't read defined this death right? Deaf and then right in the head function for Lexie. I want, uh, odd right now. I read function. You must after after I didn't want your name, you must are printed. And then according about after the independence. Now what do you are in these fantasies within this friend to see if you have You can are anything that you want, which will be used in the which would be you inside the function, right. So these would be actually called the They're actually called parameters or arguments. All right. The arguments are used within their basically valuable that were you within the processing of the function? Well, actually, I have number one and number two right to deter upto idea. Are you off my arguments? So nama function where the phone function do what it will carry out. Any processing on these arguments are other Royce, and then it's going to either return a value on return. Nothing at all. No, I know why I'm such a confusing about returning the value war returning value leads. But I I saw it. I literally the second. So let's let's actually carry out the profiting. So first, let's declare a variable called Return. And are these two number? There's the number one less number. That's basically our whole art function right now. What? Doctors doubted other numbers, however hard we get the reader back, right? So how do we do that? We just type in return? Onda happened with that will actually make sure that venera we execute this function. It returns a value depending upon the inputs. He provided a trick so that actually diss in action. So I say that, OK, some Afghanistan, because after a keyword pipe on, let's say red desert. Actually, they just can't be. Have anybody really want? I'm just leaving it to third. I find out, Do the function. Okay, Execute the function. Add So, doctor, you execute from can you just off once you're done defining the function. Yes, right. You just execute the function by calling it It's basically called calling. So you ripe in the name you after into thieves. And then you are the imports, right? So how did the ad number one of number two for Let's say we want in some of five and three , right? You can do that now. If I print readers, you should get it right. There you go. Exactly what we wanted. So if I wanted for number five intent, how did you get 15? Right, 50. But you might be thinking, How do you get these arguments? Number one and number two Well, deeds will usually be input by the user. And how how did that user input How so In part one, I should have gone with earlier. However, I think it's just a adequate If I mention it over here and by phone, you can take value that input from the user like this. For example, if I want number one right, it was too. And then I just write in input. Right? And that would basically asked for the user for input on. I could put it in whatever string I want it. We're here. So it prints the string first and then it off with them for the last day I left there. I want them to input number one for they please input number one. And then I just recorded whatever I do the same with them too. I say please, I'm there. Do. That's it. No, Take a moment. Okay. So basically, the score will not work. Dig. A woman gets away if you get uh let's see if you guess right if you get it right. Perfect. If you do, nobody's just perfectly fine. All right. So why will score? Not for well because the input function. Although the input function, if you're calling, is returning a value that is string and we want interview values to our we cannot add. You know, we cannot add toe a string in a number of important that we want to integers, which is why we can't have to string together. So that's why we need to convert these two interviews on How do you do that? Remember, in a previous career, I told you how to convert these. Any very willing to interview. This is basically called typecasting on your pride. Coughing these variable intuited with three different end and cover them in parentheses, again different. And now the youthful input number one, number two. And for the art function, we can just right number one and two. So these are the imports, right? So if we execute our program, it asked me Tonto number one lesson. Remember this one for number two? Are they continuing this? I don't get me that girl. This is how you view functions now, another concept function that's called default arguments. So let's say you have number one and number two right now. What if the you didn't want to enter the great? What would you do then? Well, if you didn't introduce, you could always have a default value for for Lexie for number one. If the you didn't enter anything for number one, we could just say that Always make it equal to one. If the you you didn't enter, how we do that? Well, events you put number one or the name of the valuable in the header or in the arguments missed, you just type in equal sign and whatever default value you have, Okay, for a number, we can say, like, five. So if you don't enter anything or any argument, they should get six. Even if we re import like this. But we didn't do not actually are indeed number. Garvey because we're not calling the function are with the number with the imports were calling them with the default arguments, which are one and fight that big or six. This is called different arguments. Now, if you want to call arguments, but basically we can say number one, which is the name of the doctor, because the number one equals two. Number one and number that is everything Okay? I'm making sure that number one, because you know more. Number two, you can award any errors. For example, if you mess up the order off number two or number one. That way, the but by phone will know whether we talked with more number one or number left. They are war 50 year, but the number one Did you fight for the number? Do get 75. Let's say I only fits by number two, not number one. So for number one, I can't anything be taken into account number two. Actually, I want 65. So I should give 66 because number one had the default value off one. I added number two only. Write the I called unspecific. If I are just not right without specifying its number two, then the only thing that I actually entered number one But I did not. I actually entered number two second. So that is how you function and rifle basically, how you can see it. An interesting Dixon Parameters doesn't posting and return. The result doesn't always have alternative. So let's say be having very cold ages again. Bring 1 35 64 leader in your unrealistic water. So and then we have a function called Oh God, to lift right on. We can say our list and we are any parameter is a list of agents straight so you can fit age. And then you could say ages. But then age. What we're doing here is you're writing a function that takes in a parameter called age, then appends the ages list with this age. Make sure before that, Mr Ward, any it or something. So now what we're basically doing if you're not returning any value, as you can see But we're just changing something in the legendary and we're not doing anything I've been after turning anything. So right now, first Sprint Ages we will get this one right. The Fortunate Ages list. Then we can say our do list 65. Now we added the 55 to 8 years and then we can print agent again. You do that, You can see we get the first, the original list, which we expected and then 5500 with this Are you going to do to turn anything? It just made a change, and it did the function 8. Logical and Conditional Operators: Welcome back in this video will be the stuffing logical and conditional Operators in logical operators basically evaluate conditions either true or false. Now let's back up a bit. Understand what you mean by that? So let's go over to bank text on. Let's see. Oh, we have two conditions for so right function right on. We can say we'll call the function if eligible, dr. And then we can take into parameters under 18 30/80. Andi, something else like, uh, but which is unrealistic, right? Actually bust best neither to parameter that they're taking into the function. So no, What we're going to return from this function is whether the only way a person is eligible to try right is there over 80 on. They have passed the test, Did the boat bullion value. By the way, the arguments are both bullion between there, either true or force. They both of the arguments must be true in order to part the test. Right. So what way are going to do is boss, but in return, true or false over there, both conditions they're true or not. When we just whether both conditions are true, we can do the and operator so you can see her to turn over 80 on and bath Death. What this is doing in evaluating. Okay, so don't let it mislead you on does not mean different. Both of you know what this is doing is evaluating whether both the conditions over 18 on fastest are both the bullion Valdez true or force right? Logical operators only work on bullion price. So don't That does not mean you can't You don't just like that What I mean For example, if I haven't ate a 13 age, then I have to say, uh if it will cover a statement later. But you can say that if age is greater than five right? Then we can say that this values truth, right? If, for example, my aged 18 and variant five with me, it values truth over 80 so that we over five will be true. Five anything for ages richer than 80. That means that if my age in resonant in this evaluated through this whole expression values it's it coming back. Old court, you can say will turn over 18. So we're with you evaluating whether both of the are true or not what did They must be true , right? So now you didn't actually call the function. We can stay print if eligible to drive and you can say it over 18. True boss test since your group Now let's debut Not over 18 right? We're going to get different spots because we have to have both conditions value to troop just like that. If you want to Just one condition to be true. We can use the or operator but the auto part of me that either one of them should be so that you can t One of them was one of them is grouper I returned to through what mean alleged price Because they're either over 18 are either breast just like that. You got to you they're not operating. So let me assure you not operators basically could return the opposite off the value of previous evaluation. So for example, we have overeating. If overrating was true right on. If he added the not up are not operator which is basically the exclamation mark. Then what that would do is can the opposite off the bullying. So now, in this case, if you xperia again Okay, This I did not correct because we have to use it on condition like this. Okay, I'm sorry we can you not hear so you can say you can not over 18. So if you the only way returned true. If you're not over 80 let's check with just ruined. It's true because we're not over 18 falls. Is that meeting under 80 on that? If you're under 18 you're not over 81st. Basically, if we're importing falls and then we're applying no operator on it, that means we've been over it. And that means you get the operative. It also combined if the others other operators select, they're not over 18 on the author off the best. That way it becomes true because now we're not over 80 because we have 1/4 and V also, profit, if it's true, is another operator which doesn't so the two of just identical you won't be using too much . But we can say to turn over 18 which is the but it just have a variety you would never use this life it's basically saying, tell you whether two objects are thing. So if I think proven true between overrated prospect both are true. It should return true because both are true. However it find them for you. False because they're both not to see right. They both have the same. But so, for example, even if I put both falls, give me the return value should be true because they both equal. I'm just asking whether it is with it is equal to past All right, moving on conditional operators conditioner operated basically valued conditions depending on evaluate our brilliance depending on conditions. So let's say over 18 Okay, we in this time instead of overrating the importance age on then you want to return for the ages rooted in Haiti, Right? So for our age 45 it's sure plane truth because of her age is get it. And 80 This is a greater that simple By the way you can. There are the redundancy but the best and symbol Agrarian equals December left any clues? Simple, An equal to symbol it to equal sign. Remember north anything? A single. It could find it The final operator She do that you will run into others. Don't do that. If you want to find the equality of two objects, use the equal toe operated right. So that means to equal some not equals, to invest to be an exclamation mark, and then a legal thing, the last point of the exclamation markets. You won't really youth, but it's basically the same as not operated right going backwards. It will be as you can feed returned. True, because our A is greater than 18. Change to agent affinity. It returned for, because when qualities is less than it did in 18. So that's not true. You can fake Britain equals 2 18 right? If the inter exactly 80 it should learn through. However, if I move the equal finger, it will be false because I need to be less than 80. What? Oh, I forgot you not equals two. That means the value age should be anything but 18. So even if it's 19 that should even for one year old it should work, which is horrible about it, that basically, how conditional operators and logical operators we will cover in the next year s statements that African figure out how to use the conditional only logical operators perfectly all right, seeing the next with you 9. If Statements: back in this video distorting his statements, which are arguably the most important part of programming. If statements are actually weren't defined selection and you selection, it is essential part programming have discussed in the first few with you. Now, how didn't perform? Use it in this statement. What does it if they do act? It basically evaluates whether condition is true for certain valuables were threatened. So if you go over to our blind text, right and we see if five is greater than one right then we just had it fallen. So we think we estimated that if the condition and then a colon and then you press enter or winding If I If I better than one, we will Gadi out or pool sort of saying you want a French 20 right? So we can think Okay, I'm getting more different. Yeah, five. It's five. Greater one. Well, that should about your troupe first if you were to our CMD yet by greater than one. However, if flip it around five less than one. But I was not less than right. It won't do anything but by the numbers and one, it's a biscuit or all of they didn't desiccated one night school. Now visit. Really simple. But let's see, we import do number. That's the number one if you remember from the doctor. And you, by the way, did not try to memorize is at all Please, I'm begging you to remember these 94 just so you understand them. And as in court project, you fool. Uh, you know, you don't understand that yourself. And you thought I write for yourself, right? You know, you don't need to memorize anything at all justice intact, but okay, it won't converted to an integer issued. And if you want import just for you the word in from statements if statement that's just remember the keeper doctor on your computer memory. Each and every life quarter I write in. So for example, I want to Britain. He's interest. Then I had the same problem too. So we can just coffee table lady, give it different names. Remember to say second number did so now we can you've even interested. We can see number two is greater than no one. So if that's true, we can say though nothing really. Once we can say second number, it's greater right So now if you go over there and execrable glass personal builder Steve, then second number 11 second number, this creature. All right. Now what if you wanted that? Okay, let's say a stump do is ridden number number that someone. What, then? All right. So that for that use l stick l statement because they were inundation of the first estate trick. So we just go ahead and try pinheads, and they're called Remember? L statements don't have conditions. They just mean that if the first if the s condition has not been started fire, then you have to execute this bubble. You can see they are either equal. Our first number is greater, right? If you do this now and first of distant second numbers 10 for the other, equal with again 15. It's birth number down in seconds. The first number No. What if you wanted to determine whether they're equal? No, But we also wanted to execute this condition first. So in dark caves used else distance there. If this condition is true, we go on to the next condition. So the next condition is you don't anything else? If in fact, the syntax in a healthy condition doing you The e l I s Ellis got Understand? If then we distract another condition like the first. So in this case, we want to say whether we want to ask whether number two another one. Number two. He was doing her equal science. You can find the equality of rhetoric No one And then you can say they are equal now. Otherwise, as that the only other meaning outcome is that number one is actually good. You can think First of birth creator. So first number 50 pick a number Second numbers person with 52nd number 50. They're equal. First number 15 2nd number 20 first. A number of people that's vested. Just of they just of testing, however, is that you can use more conditions in just one statement Trips for that in the first condition. The first statement. It's nothing good in the one Onda. We can say that on none. One has to be greater than five other ones This point. This will go directly to l three. If you go to the next condition, actually and then if ever you're trying to value this condition so we can see Yeah, OK, first number at 50 on second number 73 for the expected Oh, if he xperia again Birth number one and second number deal. Well, first number in greater, you know that. All right, because it went out of existence. If you do again, fourth number one second number it's six. The first number is greater, even though the first number don't greater. That's just hypothetical scenario. Just to show you that you can use logical operators within if statements this right, even though the a second number is actually greater. But it didn't seem so because this condition may have evaluated group right number written on one. But remember, Andi operator me that both conditions need to value too. And number one is none other than firebreaks. This value falls with means. We go there. Next statement is number two equals one. Well, in this case, no. Then we go back good on the last statement else, which is for desperate first number is bigger. Can you do the same or sort of thing? Or right? And now it's really the same thing. So one and six. But this time give the correct because no one is has to be added grated and fight our number two happier than one. No, remember, order matters. So if, for example, I entered them again right now, if I enter 70 and for the second number, I enter 50 Now the expected output should be the first number is greater, right? But it said second number the greater Why? Because the first date in bed with executed with this didn line number five understands that come to have to bigger than them one or someone has buried in size. In this case, this condition evaluate to false. But this condition valued it through are states that I don't want Nothing should be true. Doesn't matter. Even one of them falls. The both can be true or only one of them to be true. But yes, at least one of them has to be true. So that definitely so. As you can see, second number future even the second number is actually that is how that I don't know if didn't for on we left with 10. String Interpolation: Welcome back in this video with music a string interpolation. This will be rather short video because triggered population. Though it is an important technique, it's not very complex. It basically means we can arrogant coordinator with things together. But a better definition would be that fear using placeholder value in the spring and then replacing them later on right? So hardly use it. Well, as you know, we can convert surgeon valuables in fight one. Do string using the SDR method. Right? So it's definitely the number one and number two here could use the middle right? So we can say that. Okay, we want string version of number one and number two. Well, we can do that. So numb. One can be both the string str off no. One none to report toe str off Do that gives the string version of quote the variables worst next. While string interpolation basically works like this, let's say I want to print this right there to basically two ways off. You think triggered population. But the main way are beating you is eating Estrogen's, which are available in Barton three point X rated. Any inversion of presently so to use s trains. You just okay? We just know. Really. Do the French state you can just it reserved the string, right? We can say equals two s. And then we yesterday the normal string. Former Well, actually, we want to output both in numbers. We can say number one. Is this on a number? Who is this? Right. So we have to output the numbers. How we do that. Well, it's no symptoms. We used curly braces in the spring. And then just like the name of the valuable Phillips, the number one And that for this one on if the go ahead and prince the reserved all right, you can see it will asking for introverts 50 and one year happy if you tell us. Number 1 15 Number 3 30 years. So as you can see it had baseball undervalues inside the spring for a rally for radio. It's incredibly useful because you can come on constantly, have dynamically changing street. So darts is not a big conference stopping. But it is a very important technique which will you will incomplete room also, If you want a concussion, your strings you can just go ahead and ah use the blessed symbol are the addition. Simple. All right, concoct mystery. So let's stay for after this one, you can say all of the doctor. All right? We can, actually I got me a D C. Streets. As you can see, Number 1 15 Number two is 50. And about there you go. That's how drinking population 11. For Loops: Welcome back in this video, we'll be discussing four looks. Now there's a whole new topic. Looks right and trust me, it is going to be the one of the most interesting talk it's you'll ever been learning. Program. Now what are loose? Basically in a new you. You keep Iterating over something until after the condition has been much in both four loops and Alex. So with the informant, for example, you keep it rating over in a day, right? Until you run off, I tend to rate over. So once you're done, you're done with the whole array. Our indomitable list, right? You stop for it for a while. Looks you keep iterating as long as a concern condition is true. These are the main to kind of truth for loose and violence, in part on either the only two kind of food. However, another programming languages you can find other loose. For example, Dubai looks and repeat move and both condition Luke recondition moves stuff like that. But in python it's much, much simpler. You only have two kinds of four loops and violent and both the loops. You are basically iterating until a certain condition in this really, ever been expecting for looks. So basically, if we go over to ever blind text and you didn't go Andi, just make another Ah record ages. Bring one, 4567 I'm just reusing area. They're going against the active pickle system and you can understand, I think, the beginner's course. However, after this court, you won't have other everything another course, because I in my experience, you know, people got stuck in the material watching face repeatedly, and they keep wanting to do an interview in real life projects. This course isn't like any other costs. After finishing this course, you will be completely that it's called the Real World and creating problems. Let's I declare this sorry. So we have this energy for ages deep values, right? And I want to output. All of these are great, but one by one I will use former. So the syntax in four room is for. Then you have to declare country valuable is this, Can you? This is usually I like a lot of programming issues, I but it can be something meaningful. For example, age the book, basically this temporary variable friends just presents the element that is being generated over right now, right? So four age in ages, you get different age. If you do that, we go over. Let's just near the confidence. Maybe so, as you can see, it printed them one by one separate lengths. If I wanted, I've been multiplied them by two. And Britain again didn't go much about them but you. So basically, that's basically a formal iterating. Overall variables are all elements off in a hurry and 10 elements over. If I want, I can index them. So I want Ah, I want to active or it rate overall elements except the last one. Right. So I'm going to go from minus one up to minus one, but excluding minus one by the law. So this will exclude everything but the last index. Whether four loops can actually if condition has been reached any looper. In fact, if a condition has been reached, then we can break the loop and continue with normal profiting from Annapolis age. If a, uh 30 it's if age is divisible by five. Okay, then we can say that regularly. No. How do you found? Find out if something is inevitable with him. well, we use something called a ordinance operator. This is a youth, but at the percent sign and what dispute does is divide the U numbers and returned the remainder. So if a divided by five returned that a major zero, it means it's divisible by five. Right? Makes him so we can say Then you can just break the loop. So over here, if we were so it should break the loop after 45. There we go. So it only got went over to let me know that you can see clearly, really want And 45 you could just That is how four look works you can actually create, arranges and python with using built in functions. Right? So the only ages you can just say four our number or I for I in range, Right. This is a virgin conference. Were you? The first argument represent is starting out starting value with the robot before, so you're gonna have to enter. But if you want you gone on, then second argument is the ending value, right? So let's say I want all valleys between one and one tote and once but 101 thing that I don't think that one protein in the process because, as you know, 1000 men would be executed. So if I want, I can just use this and say print. I know this will put all the numbers between one and 1000 and one. Did you go to different 1000 numbers? Hartson hurt? If we want to confront every fifth number, let's say if I percent five with Theo, then we can go ahead and print I. So if we started, you can see only pretty multiples of five. Another would do. This would be using indexing. So what? Basically Ranger turns If and Ari or a list ofall the number between starting value on the ending value with one Hey, so we can index it like this If you want, we can say that, OK, we don't want, uh we just want the whole right so we can say to semi corns I want to say that I get every church value, right, So we just do some corns and three. That means that we want every turd value. And if we do this because different I if you see if it'll print only every third value. 5 43 506 5 from nine. You can visit every fifth value to basically remember. This is starting value in indexing. They have the ending value. And this is the step value. Step value will tell you basically help. How about how much to step every time? All right, that is basically what afford group is. 12. While Loops: Welcome back in this video we'll be discussing Why looks while loose air basically loose, which keep running to the certain conditions. So the automatically Greek when a condition in which the Lexi I input my address or agent It was input the integer that input. Uh, please enter old age. Basically, I'm reusing partners in territory that you can report your knowledge agent equals two integer and put it into your age. So we can say that wild age is less than 18. You can waken keep saying that you are not allowed to drive. You are allowed right, So this will keep running till age. It's less till as long as ages rest in 18 right? So we can actually keep asking for age until express than until rhetoric cultivating it will automatically break when age is less than 18. However, if southward condition and match for example of age divisible by five, we can break it are on our own the last actually execute this damage of the while, have a word than any condition you want and then holding and invitation. All right, so if we execute, it will ask us feed into your age My 84. I'm not allowed to drive my age. Take not allowed to write 15. Address the blue. No, it all just based on your right again. My age 18. I'm allowed to race, right? Well, no, but it all because if you can see we did not. We didn't have any output for individual operational. So you can say you are allowed to cry if right, so in this case, you don't do anything years. Because if we exit this loop, then we automatically do that a lot of praise so we can go ahead and say if example 25 we're not drink now. By the way, this, uh, condition here, that's even for you guys. It just Were you your knowledge for braced it It's not really right. Obviously, if you're five years old, you can't driving even find a five year. Actually not remember. Okay, So basically is checking while age is less than 18 right? So if you keep asking you for your age So now again, if I enter five again saying you're a lot Dr because the first time I entered it, it was outside the loop. This time it was inside the group and it actually check this condition. Right? Dr. Basically are for losers. There's nothing else while loops are loop that even executing keeper executing until a certain condition it man. So you're actually, for example, is not equals toe while agent request. You know, not every right, right? So even offended in five minutes, only 56? No, no, not great, right? However, if I entered 18 Hamanaka, that's basically 13. Logical Thinking: Welcome back. Over. Congratulations. In the last video, we finished our rights and fundamental. We're now on to the other necessities, Marty. Well, in this model, I'm going to show you some required still, that you want to be a professional developer. And even if she just stripping for yourself are needed, you cannot survive with RG Steel's on your program. Well, first of all, I want people magical thinking What is not guilty? So when your breeding program you're doing just, you know, start writing court from the beginning? No, they think about what the problem is. How isn't this all right? How do you solve it? Well, you break it down into growth. Small part, basically, when you break it down in small cards, right function for each. So let's say I have a problem on. I want on broken down into five parts. I ready function for each part. Right? But it's my choice how I function over there about a month or more. But I have to break it down with modern part. Otherwise, the court would be not maintaining. Right. So that's how I break down. Once I break it down, I have determined okay, what input or data will be given in or input will be provided. Did suffer are right into the program, right. That will be profit, but function and return. But either any going to be any kind of output or it will be returned value because they're different things. You know, output. When you basically take something with counsel returning a physical thing, OK, take this value and I find it to the variable. You're calling the function from that with your returning will you be iterating over any later over? You actually seem singular date and performing operations. That and for any part of the solution. Are there any condition? That must be true. So this is how you actually designed a program we have for you, step. But you have to step back and scored that. Try to find this is a really short for you because I'm actually going to implement this in the projects if you're going to do in the next chapter, which is going to release because there are only around two videos left for this morning 14. Installing External Modules: welcome back again in the video off the other necessity project. In this video with Doctor, we're going to be talking about external modules, but pattern you see it a huge language. It's basically the world's most popular language at this point, used by almost hasta verge half. So there's bound to be a lot of support for the program. For the language, support means that did a lot of libraries in the world. I mean by libraries. Let's see, let's say you don't a program right on. Do you want to put it on the Internet so that others can you that if they're going to get around that they don't have a record same court with that? Basically, or libraries are people, right? Program for you so that you don't have to write them a lot of the laboratory that previously tested and everything. So they really don't have a lot of books and others, but obviously they can. So how do we get these libraries? Well, the biggest, uh, the biggest ever, reportedly off bite on library at Piper by the time back index. Right? So if you go to buy, I'd actually like this, But there's 204,095 projects on this, you can find almost anything on here. So let's say you want something for, uh, work sex about service. Right. So that server, I just haven't observer and we'll show you some things. All right, be worth observer contacted. That's ever rt that ever jungle with all of these are just, you know, waste implement observers. That's a I want to have our do. We knows something we would are doing a great Yes, I heard. We know, and we can find library which controls aren't We knew that, right? So, just like that, you could find some ah, library for anything at all. But how do you use this? Every stray. So basically, it's the same way you executed President program for your glory of CMD and you find your basically first to find your the library that warm the next day. The the library gold requests right that she used for intra for using for in networking so we can use requests in networking on how to be you. It's told us however, when you go to the page, you can always see that requests were always are any package over here. We'll always have and start command, right? You just gotta be it. Or you could just type it in and go to the corn food and this type and pip install requests . All right. Put installed. A request for, you know, I already have. It didn't take long for me, but if you have, I don't have it. May take a few minutes if you're on a Mac than you used 50 install requests. Now, that's basically all you saw, you mortals. But how do you think? So you go to your ah script and all your to do that I would like our 501 9 improves the yes , right and type in import requests. And I basically imported a whole Mordor and I don't have to. Anything else. So now, if I wanted, do you anything from it all after do it, For example, Say requests, doctor requests, requests. Start. Get for example doctor function inside the morgue. It right? That's how you use the function inside of you. Let's say Brighton actually has a lot of building models, for example, the time. So let's say that we want to record the current time it takes for the whole quartering finish, right? So instead, restaurant critics simper that's before in arrange 1000. Okay. And we want to record the remote. Refined is pretty. We can say that will start the start time. It was time. Okay. People have reported and used the function time from that morning. Then you can say any time it goes through. Thank you. Okay. Under you can pay print. Anything might start that. She was how much time it took to execute a program. So it took zero point cici seconds to execute a program that's basically our youth warriors . 15. Reading Documentation: Welcome back, everyone in this video, we were discussing documentation. Well, what is documentation? You see, documentation is basically a guide written by the creators off other Mahdi over library their programs, their i D guides so that other users can use these models. For example, in the last video, we used time moderate from by in the apartment library. Well, actually, I turn has its own documentation and documentation is still it exists that be easier for us to you there in the body of the program. Whatever. So what? What? Why should really documentation? Well, firstly, really. Obviously you understand the floor of the morning, right? Would go, then what comes out? Their data types, whatever right were exactly the function. Do who? How the process on, by the way, when you're reading documentation, trying to memorize anything and I don't remember anything in discourse. All you remember I did this intact intact with people. The keywords, Ana, basically that you were doctored. In fact, just keepers on. You need just need to get that logical thinking in RV. Right core. My bathroom reading documentation. You can understand limitations of the program. So how far you know how far you can stretch this program. We're gonna be at every airport where they will not accept understand the bottle. But that may occur in the method with function. So anything that you might put that might go wrong here because of the invalidated on one of the best benefits of reading documentation that you can be other school on it actually improves your own ability to, Right, Right. So later on, you'll see that reading other schools make you. You know, it teaches you think that writing your own court just doesn't just not there on lastly reading documentation. And we will obviously give practical estimate off how much that model or the library will be through workload right on you that using the modern for to reduce your vocal. So, for example, hardly find documentation usually just happen the name off the you just type in the name of whatever model using and talking documentation. But in this case, let's go first to find the 500 condition. If you go fight on documentation, right. If you go here, we can see part 13 point document over here. Keep on it and you can see this is the whole document. Now it's huge. I think it's you just information overlord, but obviously is useful. Still, how do we find what you need? Right, So we actually go ahead and find their morning. So basically, it's a tanner Liar. A government agent. Not in your experience libraries. So, for example, the time more you exactly Part of the time levees didn't go ahead. Find time. You can see that it found the time Modern part on model. In time I'm affected. Convergence. It also find the time to separate more. By the way, if you go ahead and pick on bottom line, never highlight all day since finding from and it shows you everything right. So 1st 4th of terminology and convention in order. So this is basically anything that about the history or any kind of you should know about before you think more. This is a beautiful part. Functions what this does for gonna find it. Asked line or a C and so convert you, kal or structure time within a time as they turn by GM Bangor Local time to a string or following from so basically it converts trying to a string of the foreign form. Right? Like this. So just basically formatting diamond mystery box. If you go down, we can see local time local. So it gives you the local time according to time. Going off here. 50 on Forgot time asleep. This one of the most useful. I met him in our home. They're actually finder Sleep. What is operation for the program for a number of seconds. So what? That number of second I think is going on. Ah, basically, you can just let the pause or anything by the whole program for that amount of time. So this is not made me here in a second milliseconds. In a lot of programs, this is basically read documentation. Now, if you see that. Okay. Time, 2nd 50 executions. Collins were forgiven. Number of seconds. The argument may be a floating point. Numbers to indicate a more professional if time So as you can feed, they actually stayed the input data type. Right? It has. It can be an integer. It can be a floating for a number off. All right, basically, that's how you read documentation. So, for example, I want to read something another rd mortal. I like by degree, they allow you to simulate the mouth and people using right on right and 100. Documentation for fire. Agreed. So, for example, if I wanted to know Okay, how do I submit to keep key press, right? I go to keyboard function because it's a table of contents and bring the right people functions. Okay, I gotta go your type, right? Hello, world. Right Interval. Because second between these that, for example, better communication is not exactly telling you what type it is. But you can infer that. Okay, stream for this functions to string for this one thing you've got to enter in a day. As for this one part, it's also a list of drink. Now we got the best of train a Paris street, and that's basically the documentation. Now, why did I make slipping? Well, because documentation is a huge, huge part off program. And get this misconception out of your head that once you know how the program you never need to go onto the Internet again or anything. You know, that's the farthest thing from the truth. The reality is that even always need if turn and more you already You already determined to be. You have to. You Marty made with others on, you have to find out how they work. Right? So you always have to do that. 16. Debugging: looking back over one. This is one of the most important lesson the whole course today I'm gonna teach you how to debug. Debugging is one of the most crucial points are in crude, crucial things in programming. What is a very basically, when you're running program, they're bound to be logical error the runtime errors on their actually unit parts. Andi, these books could make your life hell if you can't solve them. If you can find them, Can't fix that right on. They will make the program and usable and you have to spend a lot of time to fix them. Damn teach you in this video how you can find book foster and fixed imposters. So, first of all facts, First step is always finding the bug. This is the main problem. Alright, Fixing the bug is usually don't faster and usually in motivated. There are exceptions, but in most hated finding the book take longer than fixing the book because sometimes the buggers, just sometimes a small sin tax that are small, variable, enter a type error or something. So first of all, how do we find a bug? The first thing is using the better output. Trace theater. Still, first of all, no straight program. A normal program import other time more June Andi can start Underscore points is over time . Fine, Henry. Then we can say the input. So our first name, it's a very you go. In fact, against the first age input, Please enter first inch the second you said basically, this program were taken to ages and find 15 more. All right, so go ahead and enter second age. Then you can go ahead and save frank. Second age minus bursting. In fact, US string that student in fourth and then we can save working age are, in fact, we can say absolute remember absolutely basically a match on him. But on the building function on it basically gives you the quality value off any interview off any name numerical value. So even if it's a negative value even bother to open the absolute off Second age minus first age, right? And you could say this is the difference between it is, and then you can go ahead and say and find equal time, and then you can see that. So now I don't know how me if you put for the problem here. But if you run that, really get another. All right, eagle. So if you go ahead and execute this, it says free country for a stage on 1st 6 second aged 79. There you got another. So no stress it back. Right. So for its think type better unsupported operating type for minus No, actually sorry for string and string. The words were saying is that we can't track this. Oh, you can do We can argue this open or operator with the types of string and string What were beating You know what we wanted to do with the crack intended an incident, right? Because age of their interviews. But over here remember input always It turned its drink and did not return an integer We have to convert it to an intensive on If you go to the remember last Listen, then we you remember that we can you their documentation We find out the fight on input function if you go over there, she pointed on before I get to the reputation and free tennis that this function will actually always return Uh, a stream. So I'm not going to show you where it is because the huge, huge reputation, But it will tell you that imported from in order to turn the strength. So okay, that we found the problem, right? Not always. It will tell you the line number, line number eight. And if I've seen a few people get confused sometimes Ah, they think, uh, sometimes the trees back will give you nine number that morning. Probably program. So my my program Roland online, they get line number than five hundreds, right? That that does not mean you grow. Haven't 500 lines now, basically any modern to imported right that more June may have enters insider, because you may have called it wrong over you may have example given wrong info together, the wrong out on the error occurred in some line off that modern is giving you the lying enter in that murder. But what you need to do is fine or trace your Tracy error back to the line in your files. In this case, it's glass or fire. I So I have to find the last race back house plastered by line number eight. Now it's thing. Okay, nine number eight over here. Where do you think that I can keep you practice stringing drink after tracking over there. String and string. All right, so I can't do that, right, Because it's not in interview after converted to an Inter. And if I do that, then program has been fixed. If you supported theater before, good job. But they don't need it. Part of your training. 56 30 times. Right? There you go. 19 of the different between the two wages business Another B. You can actually Ah, you can, actually you know, the bug programs doing bring spring papers are setting records. First phone always investigated to you straight Sfax. Okay, after that Greek wanted in second birthday and Prince stating that the left But it is obviously it's really conventions for the extreme statements they wants for some people, they didn't refer break points. Even the break one make life a lot easier. I don't people don't, But big points, in my opinion, are just just much easier to follow, right? They don't pay that much that much of a mess. So again, if we go ahead, uh, removed, interjecting out the arrogant program it with letters right now. Ok, so we can see that look on their uppers online. Eight. Right. We had the trade package. Said it occurred in 98 so it means everything is fine. Core line. And that means no edit occurred. It doesn't mean it's fine. Me may have been a mistake, but technically, no errors occur, Right? So we just had a break point right below that. Where Big Point does it Basically all is the program for you, Andi, basically. Now you're You can access all the variables of the program and took up the type weaken their values. Steve, you're the editor. Okay. Program has been Paul there. No profiting in Bagram, so we caught a break point. Just You're right. The break form function, doctor. Idiot is, by the way, this is our only after president. 3.7 to make sure you don't call the apartment 3.7. So this without it in 20.7 to make it unique. So no definite a break point. We added a record. We can go ahead and start our class. Andi entered the first age 56. Okay, Now we have entered the great point, remember? Yeah. You basically called the burger all right, but the big the bigger basically helps you find the butts. So that the bugger it's been now started. And now it's showing you own which nine will get executed. All right, So which line is actually next to be executed? Visit the next line to be executed. It had not been executed. Okay, we know that it's not having a subtract second agent. First advantage that the first look at the contents of first stage if you die first that you could give us. Now you can see their quotation marks around 56. That means spring theme, I think give a terror there for, uh, second age. So you can think Origen marks if we are get a different if we get some kind off everyone that's not in our they were in the program. It gives us another No, how, but still. Okay, maybe we can distinguish this from a string. And you're right. Where do you do then? Well, it's not the built in function called. We can use the type function. We find the type of any did. Uh, any kind of video that is going and Piper in second niche. Now you concede two of us that it's the class off string and string. You obviously cannot. It's a crap it from each other, Doctor. Why? There's the other. And we can see that import function actually returns a string. And now if they are our interview function, right, they No, we are done. We actually, for our does successfully developed the application. So now if you did a really good run the program again goingto say 56 75 on OK, give it a break point again. And if you just like to see it reflected the burger. All right. 19 of the different free sewage is now. The program is not working definitely. 17. Beginner Level Project - Number Guessing Game: Welcome back, everyone. And welcome to the last section off the whole course. The projects first project at the beginning 11 project on day one that you might find common again among all the courses. But I promise you, this will be the only common thing with every other course. Otherwise, we're going to do projects that will blow your mind to the first project. Will, I think, the object of the first product, the user input arrange. All right. The program calculates a random number from zero to that input The rain that you, the user input, then the program after you there to guess the number. If under then you either imports the number. If the number is not a random number than output, whether the user is former quarterback compared to the previous number, right, by comparing to the actual number on the new pack one instruction tree, anything that you could get the number. So this whole process will be Luke repeatedly. So that stopped writing well before we thought writing actually really remember logical thinking about that I told you about. We need to find a figure. All the variables that we're going to be using on the matter. So as you can feed the other body, would you rate the random range? First of all, what's the range that you that import also the random number, which is the secret number that our computer generated program generator on the current gift store? The guest that user input and calculate whether it's the same as the random number or no, the conditions is the current guests is equal to the random number that these two are equal . Then we can say that Okay, the number has been found and we can break the loop. If the current is rooted in the random number, we kept you consent to go lower. If it's less than the random we continue to go higher and the only model we're using in the random or there start writing for the court, The first of all we know is going to be using more random order. So go ahead and type in. Quote random Now, what did we need to do next? Well, first for the U their imports. Arendse. Right? So we go ahead and say, OK, Ron range. It goes to the integer import input. We can tell you there to enforce the range. You hear me? Right There we go. Round range is finished. So add you remember Random Ridge over here and one of the values we actually declared it. And we have an issue now to tear down the number. So how do we declare that I know number? Well, you can go ahead and see underscore around and restore number weakness around. It was random got around. And now again, if you go back to the reading documentation stage once you leave the documentation for the random more dude, you will understand its many functions for the random or one of them a grand and which provides you with a random vintage er between being too in between two intruders so we can say zero on ground drink. Teoh Difficult to an integer between these two rings between the three numbers, the other random number have been initialized. Now we can fear I thought OK, we need to start looking just right so we have to look again repeating you can say while true, the two basic to me that you think until it hasn't broken on its own alerted you can't, uh you can have a You can take the condition because there is no condition. You're just think. Okay? True. Because that means execute until execute forever. Until the new had been broken on herself to go here, right? Double world when we can take current at them. It was to end. Leave entered your gift right now you've ever in their gift. Right? And we can see. And then you have input the number. They have just finished tech foot of the whole program Now only step five and six at a meeting the first fall. Ah, we have now. We have this in particular the conditions, but they're random number. The current get or not. So if you go there, Okay. One of the conditions. So if you get sick with a random number Different found break. Okay. Remember the order. It's in its very first. We have to check with the current, gets the legal random number. Otherwise, uh, it might be so on Earth and intent It might. So we say we can get people to rain. Okay, get the sprint. Found the number. Congrats. It's what I did there and then we can big toe. Then you can see I got him to get to Britain, running this attempt. It's greater than run right way can face drink, you go nowhere and we don't break this time because they look to continue. Otherwise, if current attempt it left and run and I think go higher that basically can compute the whole program because that you can see we have finished all the condition that you run The more you and that Basically, we're saying open new bark instructions under the you that gets the number It's an understands the program If you go to CMD on the monsoon No, who have been left? Whatever. Five. Do you think you can create new problems? For the are the project from your single file I'm going to your overrating the fall again and again First your choice Now if you type it every execute saying asking and put the range determined determined around Remember now, since protesting the whole program, we're going to put a small range silicon containable Leslie for you right now. My getting one, I think allure her veto from the number. Here we go lets you try it again. Number 10. So the range is now 10 Our guests. If you get five, go higher it go higher. Nine. I'm gonna another one last time. That's basics. And put your guests six. Go lower. Do going to hire five. You're the found The number that you can see It's working perfectly. This is basically the whole project the whole beginner brother. 18. Intermediate Project - Weather Agent: Welcome back. Everyone today will be tackling in the tackling of very interesting problem. So this is an intermediate project, right? But the problem is amazing. So what we're going to do is create that's to speech or whether agent, what's it going to do is going to detector location, find on get the weather for the application and then you that you know, speakers to output that whether in a very professional way. So I like steering personal. Jarvis partnered office. You could say freshman goaded assistant. So how do you do this, right? So first after outlined the old step, of course, is right. So what's our objective? First of all, the program takes the I P address for you. There's the but the vitamin the user will nor imports i p address. It will have to, uh, detective through the I P address. Then die. Paris would be used to geo locate the youth there by This may not be completely accurate, but that little border No, this is the only interview declared. Problem I will give you is important. Probably the end of the course, though you can go ahead and do them on your own so in that gave you happy, you geo coordinates like large pewter longer here. Do you find that are duplicated. You there, but not right. Who wanted you directly to you there in Augusta evening, Right? And once it does that uses about an FBI with city name. We got the weather. So there are many online whether FBI available on a P. I visited an application programming interface, but make it simple company. There are other more youth. Make it easier for us to use their services. Are there refuting an FBI so we can call on that FBI? We can use that FBI do you their services straight on and actually would meet them stepping . So I want you to get the weather. It converted to sell CSO this discipline in the user, obviously, but I would consider it converted itself. Yes. Then we detective speech engine to output of other using speakers. We also keep checking for it every five seconds on only output again if the temperatures have changed. Right? So this is basically the whole pro program, so let's go ahead and outline the program. So, first of all, the variable of youth temperature with an obvious one city name again. Weather data it obviously needed because the Beethoven received from the FBI will be a complete report. We just wanted them pressure, right. I p addressed of the user the TTF engine in the city because the doctor speech engine is working out of it and found former and then the previous temperature to compare the current temperature. So either all the variable that will be using what would be the function that are the matter that would be using the first of all, get temperature It obviously first in and richer from the data will receive get set evil first. The city from the Directorate of Digital simply output the temperature and voice form and main is the whole main program on the margin is difficult to use. Be using is our couple actually So actually, you have to plan this on your own. This is using step for refinement. The yahoo identify all the part of the program or some long process. It might seem like a long process here, but I listen within five minutes with your problem over. First of all, the 1st 1 is Jason because of data availability videos and former called Jason right on day two parts that former converter into a usable Later We need to use the pattern more Ecologist in. So we can actually read that data. Then we use I p g Oto. Now what? We want to try celebrity forward. You can use any library you want Are any library in this area? I use this one to get the I p. Address for you there, Right? I thought you're not the I P address. In fact, I pity it will give me the geo location of the user using the I. P address You can use any other, but the one that works best for me requests everything. Either wonder will be using to get the i p address on will also be using that to get the weather data time will be using to propose the program every five seconds and then check again on by tthe story. They're protected speech engine. You can find this on the pipe pass on package index. I liked like it only in the last section. So that's going to the pro brother. Go over time text and tightening. First action for all our morning with first of all, import Jason. Then we have to import. I peed your with now I pitied your two of the human library on. We only want a couple way. Only want one section of it for instead offering import. We right from I PTO Really? I pitied. You do thought databases dot non commercial because right now, not being useful commercial Perfect Used by noncommercial on then this is the whole more his one morning very three years import from here db I'd be sitting the captain by our argument. Remember the items capital I on the city? This is basically the jeweler Gitmo. Now, don't worry about how long is that? You don't know what they said? No, don't worry. Basically, if you go online and look for geolocation model for 500 find eventually I p to geo tools on in their documentation, they again documentation Important aspect of programming. When you were the documentation, that's how they show you. How did you locate your eating right address. Then we get every important requests that important find And lastly or by by geeky SX three , which is never attractive speech injured See the full again No. How do we actually no. How did we have to have active findable? I p adjutant? But are you really go on to go independent and live to fight one Your location by on a Nordoff? Ah, blackberry head when GOP to So I just use I Peter dear to that's the so the first episode weaken took me taking me to me s if we start our whole project so we can see the first method that we created Get them, preacher. Right? Hello, Captain Pressure and going to first get the voter data right? But we can do that within the method itself. The first breaking news Go ahead and say Get him Preacher Onda who? Just taking the city name the city name will be basically dissolve later on. From what i p a publication so we can save weather data equals requests don't get and not is it confusing part Maybe for some self. So if you might get really good So for all the pair that thing right, you, uh basically it's not easy to get over city Ah, that I thought you know Daddy, did you get a city right? But like number not focusing one that in this method in this format, focusing and getting the weather data, how do we do that? So there's a lot of online weather services available available. FBI, open GPS. The one we're going to be the open weather map. Okay, It has an open A P I. And free for a number off requests. So basically, you could be 60 requested for a minute. After that, you can eso if you actually take your equipment will destroy another if you're on the three . Uh, if you're just not saying anything, so you just have to sign up like I go ahead and find it right. Our design didn't I could go ahead and click on FBI on, uh, it's reassuring my current, whether they turn right. So if I I can also, uh, pretty sure somewhere I don't get Yeah. Yeah. So if I just go and record the FBI, doc, right, it will show me on the documentation, Basically, that our documentation we're getting the city, uh, are being the temperature. Now, this might also recorded a P I key for some of you. Right. So let me just see where my FBI years ago finding my FBI, It should be available over here. Yeah, If I go over much of my user and go over to the A P I keys now, what do FBI keys to? Well, basically, people are company. Don't front. You abusing their a p I Right. So you defending request that read off them? Well, if you prevent that by only get you get you only have access to the A P. S. You have. So you just have to copy this and use it in the documentation accordingly. So if you go a p I and go if your dog for current weather data Now, we just want this one right by 30. Name. So the way we can do this is OK, They're saying this is the way you do it. Uh, you used Ap. I'd open with it on a map. Broken data like 2.5 weather pushing mark U equals to London languages. Example City we have to I never own city here. And then we also have to add up a p I he Right. So how do we do that? If you look over here when I'm hovering over this, I might human on this in the video, but is on my water left off screen. Uh, it's a link appearing. Right. That will show me the actual request they're going through. I just have to copy is on that, will. My a p I is not in this right now. Are things for I'm not sure if the same one or not, But this is basically the request that going through. So if I can I can probably use it for any, uh, for any cities. Further go answered reality, right? That Give me the I debated for yard. Well, okay. So long. He said we need to be pretty, I think. Samples. Yeah. There you go. That's as you can see, that it has under strong right now. Country. Saudi Arabia. Right. So that her you have to you that we can just coffee doesn't exactly how it is on. Remember. Remember the estranged? We talked about diesel because really useful here, because now we have the whole linked to us. Right, Onda, we just have to substitute this sit for city name that you can just type in college races and type in city and psychologically brutal everybody I kid over there. So let's check for FBI director. Go to the signing, then we can go check whether Ah, hold on AP individual. So you can just copy this one. Andi, basically, with All right on, then. Just remove any extra spaces that with me, uh, give us the whole length. So now we could just this link whether it's going to work on torture in the place of city centre, Any city like London. Example. Okay. Seen hours not letting you go. I don't know why that's not working, but let's just use the original FBI. We thought from the sample in three. So this is the original E p. A Yankee that you're going to be using Open weather map, the oaks updated citizen, or you are in a real beauty. So the quester can actually ordered that the Stanton actually P s request. Do this website or to the server. Andi, fetch the data that return. So this is the beauty of the server of the website. Return the data to you all. You have to three request on the request needed. City name hurt on the way. We have a and we have our cities. If you go ahead and test this out and we type in London going, it's given with the London, the London preacher and everything. Basically, that's it. No way. Actually finished the major part of the program. So once we didn't do this, all we do now it's type in dark. Jason, What this will do is parse this data that we return from this into Jason later. So now we can easily find anger data from the time basically, Jason Data Vantage, parson parts on current gas introduction. So you can see how everything that we studied it links together. All right, so you can see the temperature. If you question with float weather data, the with you temperature will only be floor right by the data. We got back for the string. You converted to a fluid, the weather data. Then we can say OK, night. It's time for you. Do you come off your own profit? Right. So we re happy check. How do we induct? How did you get the temperature from this later? This is the devil getting back. For example, if I put a London time, if I go ahead and say okay, I want the temperature. Really? The temperature right here. A 6.21 on a very less but auto. So this is a temptation. Right now we want this, Which means this is part off main. So you can see the light traditionally a key with a value. And according between writes the value of this whole, uh this or dictionary. Actually, the value in the dictionary is an introduction. As you can see, this is another. That this is the whole addiction in unison. So what we need to access is this main value is this main value in another dictionary? No. Right. So we can just see. I mean on when we just type and them because that will be the temperatures. Very nothing else. No, some of you might be thinking OK, hurry, Holder. How did I just get main? Right? Well, you have to look at it to yourselves. First of all, this is scored the first key. Okay, the one item go over whether second key it started a little list over here. It under the list over here, another one of base and then mean so basically we can just directly access mean and then we have to access stem from there. This is how we're going to accent where they're beautiful. Then we go here and again. Such time equals two indigent. Now we have to come converted to Southie. Afraid so. That's formal. We can work with you. Temperature minus 217. A steep 11 fight. So you don't worry about writing for anything. It's a very bone Google's that you go hair cells? Yes, very helpful. The first is because the front page of the guardian right now. So this is the formula that you can see the OK minus in eternity. So you just have to say Ki minus 71 15 safe and fight over here. Surely five game, I think everything 115 se temperature Mind if people want to give you the temperature in Celsius? That's all. The captain preacher. Now we go ahead and get it. Segmented which waas get city? Forget city What? It's taken Nothing. Nothing. It we're taking Nothing worked. But now what we have to do is actually get a city using the I P address. How do you get the I P? Well, there's no builder Mr In Python. Forgetting the I p part, there are a lot of services online you can use that return your right So basically the any p I like this. But instead, when we requested something we don't even a p i e. It will just simply return. I would i p address. So let's go ahead and say we want stuff get And this is one of the one you I'll be you think sgtp or in slash slash my dot on d N f o Matic. Do you know automatic no call exit now dark text basically saying OK, once you get the response to give you the text. The thing about the services that if I, for example, go here and copy this patient to my brother as you can see, it will record return my i p address on. That's the only thing that return. So I just need the i p address directly. Nothing else. This gave me my back I P address. Now I just need to find the location. I think so. Education in this court Next and the question d b p i p city. So basically we're using this Mordor I'm gonna say you don't get And now we're gonna give it I e And we're going to say our FBI key is very deeply. I think you also requires an A P I key. But in this case, if you're going to use it very rarely, it's going to be C. And then we say city equals mitigation. Text door city basically DBP city, right. This will return on object off its own on. We can access the city by this thing city you can for the country but thank God country. But right now we want the city is if you're gonna take sitting, they're gonna just returned. There we go, basically completed by more than half program. Now the tournament that I think the DTs met with Dexter speech the heart of the issue. We just go ahead and say DTs it was to take the city in. It will take your temperature if you take the engine okay? And then going to say engine dot c because now you have read the documentation of by TSX three on basically the recommendations that due out for something in more sound, we have to use the disputed dysfunction So, engine doxy we can say that s string the temperature to in the cities in the city. If right, actually right now it's Diggory's houses. And after you supported another mistake in this temperature, the after actually just around the time otherwise with no use for, like return city here and we have returned the temperature here. Now we just go ahead and use engine got run on. Rich basically is in the documentation If you would like to go see again documentation he was part of a program no escape are going by the way will be making this holes Programming is under 40 line so that's a major accomplishment just for your second project. Last last method will be the main motive by the dismounted wanted on anything at all because way just need something to be justly the engine something in your stop to the main method. We'll do taking nothing and just start mean person When you said previous come preacher equals d right because we said the previous temperatures also another variable then it's also into initially this doctor speech engine so we can say that engine is expected by 18 60 imaged visited again in the documentation, we can also say 50 et close. Booth gets city. So that ended the whole city problem for this. Now we can say that vile who So, Luke, repeatedly until the loop has been broken. The laboratory Is he close to captain? Preacher on. Remember the temporary getting pretty critics in the city's just type in city. And then we can say if then is not equal school. Do you get the picture, then DTs city them an engine on queen. What? I'm glad, Marino, but just for long, for morning on their yes, actually years dumped you go to and then we have time Basically what I did here world because I said Okay, let's loop while repeatedly until the little broken deliberately. Then I'm saying Okay, get the temperature right now for the city that we initially inverts. If you have the city initially, get the temperature for it right now, current temperature. It's starting creature that nautical to the previous term Pressure which year certain here before? Because we have started to theater, right? We can't not suited to be otherwise. Uh, you know otherwise be victim. Picture does not exist. Maybe not value anymore. So the temperature with nothing close to the victim creature. Then we can say that the temperature had different. That we did have increase or decrease. Right? We can say that DTs, which means say out now that temperature invest city Is that this manager creatures and you this engine that we have to give it this engine for basic living. And if your life the engine over here And then we just said the vestment retreat with a distant paycheck or that the next generation off this loop, we can go ahead and say that OK, you can compare the current temperature with previous temperature on the last time you sleeping for five minutes and that's basically the whole program Last week matures. All right, so that's basically 40 line that impact 39. But we have to offer call the main method, right? That's what you So Yeah, there we go. 40 lines. Exactly. Now we just call the main method. We have to otherwise program won't do anything to mean. So if I go ahead and go toe cmd I can see that we're going to take five left. Don't try on. It will automatically go ahead and find three temperature in Riyadh right now is minus 256 degrees Celsius. Sitting and going to I did it's been documented, preacher. Okay, the program did not appear to work right now, and that's actually the bug. This is a great opportunity for us to actually devote so we can go into the break point at this point because the product that the program is just not doing anything at all. Okay, so let's take a break point here. Now it should execute. And Yeah, There you go. Break point that set the city record. If the engine working, The engineer working for us temperature. It's not looking at running. No, nothing at all. So you can go ahead and execute the temperature in Riyadh right now is minus 256 degrees Celsius on. We can actually set another break point of what? Here. So you can see exit district grown desperate when you do this break point. Yeah. Okay. So you're going to reach this break point in the first iteration? Such have to execute this nine months. First human to look at the break. Look. Attempt is minus 36. Well, how do you get money to fix? Okay. What about Kristen? Okay, on biggest temple were being GTs ever 31 1 30 And you know there. Yeah. So, basically, I think the problem is in the tts engine. Uh, maybe doctors working correctly right now, it may be a problem, because I'm recording at the same time. Live it. Is that issue, like, over there? Uh, let me just check, because we can actually see whether it's a problem that you get in. So we can friend over here that OK, It's the then preacher here. Not okay. Then we just this exact same Soviet prince. Exactly. Statement. If that doesn't see it on, we can remove the big point, and we can see if the program works for you. The temperature every young right now is minus 256 Degrees Celsius thing. I think maybe the a p I have seen has changed chips. Uh, change the way it works because, like, no other temperature Max temperature right now. 6.21 on current reality, whether I'm Richard 18 tingly sense with I've got a night at 64 on 6.1. I don't know what given 6.1 A 6.21 This manifested Our definition is correct. Just my thing is the AP I not even the card brother right now. I'm not sure why. Maybe it's a bit broken, right? More. But it Julie does give you the correct with mercury, so we can actually look at this later on. Ah, current. It's right there in reality 64. I'm not sure they get it. Ah, yeah, I'm not sure it out even. Oh, hold on. It felt this being open to the other. Certain pictures moved in something. Yes, it's actually uh right. So it's actually already giving me to us and tells us they are preaching there Policy. I'm getting. So what we can do instead is not converted to sell theater, right? Obviously, because it's already in selfie is so we just common disturbed to comment anything out. We just put her hashtag before are basically in comment. Is basically anything in a program which adapts commenter will not be executed by the program, but it will be there and program for people to read for the user. Three go right to the corporate right now If you go ahead and started across again the temperature in re online only 17.0 degrees Celsius. I'm anything work. 19. Advanced Level Project - Stock Market Agent: welcome back of one. Do the last project off Discourse. The advanced level project. Now, this product is going to blow your mind because that would do some very creative things on in this project. We're actually going to be creating our own Stephen A P. I actually. So what we're basically doing is a fetching stock market data. The doctor using a paid FBI from another site. Now, keep in mind for education purposes. Sometimes if you do this, it may be illegal on it. May be deemed illegal by the that the owner of the repertory still caution while doing this , but only for education purposes. So let's begin, uh, original. What wanted? What do we actually want to do? So basically, I found this website, right? Market watcher. Come. It gives me the stock market data for any any kind of company company. I want any stock or stock I want, Right. So, for example, right now, the share prices this 1 $50.3 for microphone. Afraid on the the opening price of 1 50.7 All of these, you might you might know you might not know, but what I want to do is without using in a p I a driver market for because it may be paid , right? Some some companies, actually, uh, you know, they act. Some data providers make you pay for a P. I don't want to pay for it. That's where I want to fetch it. My on my own. How do we do that? That's basically going to be doing in this. So, what we're going to we're going to be actually out doing three things. First of all, we're going up with current share price. All right. Secondly, going to output? The, uh, how the stock has been performing over over the last blast. Mont. So if I go ahead thing, reload the page, no profile. Yeah. So I don't know where it's not appearing right now. Big. Yeah. There you go. So over here, you can see in the performance tab. It had a five day performance. It had 11 performance, right? Treatment program. It's the basically. Our program will output the treatment for the one month performance over off the stock. It also opened the volume off the stock. Right. So this is basically the whole programs. So that's how the whole program. It works basically the user input stock symbol basically called a picker. Right? So, for example, the ticker for Microsoft MSFT if you if you can't see it over area msft So this is basically short form a four letter word, uh, that youth signify the stock and the stock market. Then the program was created. This scraping basically need the program will actually fetch the data from this website and filtered through throughout the data. You know, filter throughout the F female that he fetch, and it's going to find the data that we want. It's going to scrape it for struck prices. It reviews of our own custom. Maybe I it will get the volume of the stock have also turned whether the stock has been an upturn or downturn within the past month, it will also write This data were fine, right? So a whole lot of a holder of a year recovering in this one project. So let's go over to our project. So actually, the basically first of all, you need to figure out what we're going to do, what we need, right? What kind of methods? The first month that will obviously need is a way to get the HTML from the way to get the edge came out of the whole pain. Right, But the FDA melody work. What? Hold all this data? Hard to be good, doctor. So how do we get that? Basically, what you have to do is use requests in, like in the last video or in the last project we use request. So every day you have to your request, which will recur to turn the HTML and you have to form the U. S. A. On your own. Once you do that, you can get the html on that. Just a job, one method. So let's go ahead and do that. The first of all, we'll obviously needed quest more you. Then we also need ah, Angie's son. I think you might be Jason, and we also only time, right, But for later on, Burton. Right now I'm gonna important. More. It's also one last library we need. It's called beautiful stoop. Now, I don't know if you've heard of it or not. Beautiful soup. Ah, right. Beautiful. Think by if you look it up and look for the documentation is basically a way for you to go to a nifty Amanda, navigate through an HTML really easily. So it really makes life easier. Beautiful food. So basically, you can started shooting Tip if you want, Like a Children. The external Mardian section. So you are Did you have to do to important isn't right And before from the afford import beautiful. And there we have imported the models. Now the first matter As we said, we need to return the html off this whole page, right? So we could what? We're going to do it just clearly method. And we're gonna think get html. And the only important for take is the ticker or the symbol. Great. So that we can identify which stop we want. Try. We're gonna go ahead and type in response because the requests start here because basically , we want we want the HTML, right. So requests actually returns to the extreme el by default when we other response. So you go ahead and say it just once it goes to this court, request our care, and then we can go here and copy this whole thing if all you are and, uh, face it in here now, you're gonna see, Obviously we don't just want Microsoft. We want any degree wanted. They believe Microsoft, and we go ahead and say less dicker. Now we have to make sure the lower case, because people might you there might enter uppercase working whatever right? And you are lonely up except upper and lower case. So I think, Ah, Rome automatically function then gives you the myself one automatically. But just for, you know, Sekoff knowledge. Let's go ahead and say that we want to convert this to look it before before actually putting it in the new era. All you have to do to convert to lower cases, ripened or lower. No, if you want to in order to upper upper case, it's trapping upper and that will do your job. But basically we want to go and see a ticket or lower right now. This was actually converted toe lower case and former U. S. Will be found form there you are dusted. Basically this have now returned over FTM away so but it didnt doesn't return it in a string object we want at the string object. But what we're gonna do is type in html. Alright, committed everybody about digestive, Ativan, You name it whatever you want, by the way. And go ahead and say response, not text. This will return the response in a string form. If you contain all the html turned, are you going to go ahead under turn? Demon? You just finished a major part off our whole program. Because now, if you return the HTML, we can basically scrape all the tw one. We can filter it all the way we want. We can get any date everyone right. But for the sake of justice project, we're going to be getting three things. What else do we need? Right still, First of all, uh, let's say we need do Oh, yeah. Okay, so we just need to scrape with data stool. We just need to create the data. Traded the page right for the HTML from develop it for the things we need. The water we need treating throat share price. Yeah, and then the performance woman performance. And lastly, the volume I can't see with the volume. It's, uh check it drone. So they're start. So basically, how do you actually identify how to be? And how do we go ahead and say. All right. Uh, this is what I want. How do I fetch it? So first of all, you have to You the brother do identify. How are you going to scrape this data? So actually, go ahead and right click on the share price and go Inspect. Once you got to expect you land right on this 1 50.38 Eso The current rate has obviously wanted people in three years. But this will change, right? Really? This text, this text right here we need this text for the share price. So basically, we look at the html and interesting. Ok, it's the bag BG court. Classical value. Positive. Feel this. This this. So what we basically need is a biggie quote with the class value positive and it on If you can do that, that will actually do our whole job so that you could be the price. Just change. So right now you can see it's value Negative now. So what we want to do is actually make it. It's only value. So if you look over here, uh, let me I don't know if I consume in over here. Got zooming over here in the during the video, But if you can see it Ah, it said that BG court dark value dot negative In this prop operate, that means there are two classes value on negative. Well, we don't care about negative where we don't care. What a positive we just No wonder. God. So we just need a BGE court with class value. Now, How are we? Very far. Did this will actually work. We can go to console in this inspect element. All right? And go ahead and said document, This is just a bit of javascript that you don't really need to know. You can just learn from this. You're going to get elements back, last name colored, and you can see value. And if you return an extreme and collection, right, so we obviously want a biggie Quote to the 1st 1 of the big court and exactly what we want so athletically what we want, right? So we can say OK, starter Matt submitted. So we'll call this method script on the first taken the FDA melody returned before now, the first image we want to do is converted to a stoop object because this is how we're going to navigate with the HTML and find what we need. So to convert toe think what? That already it will declare that valuable. So let's stay soup. And we just need to use a beautiful suit in parentheses on giving the FDA ML on the partners. By the way, you can look at all this from about digit rating the documentation. Uh, if you want, I can show you. Right now it's streets, no down, uh, difficult. So yeah, as you can see over here, the recommendation from the court start shows you are OK. First import before and then just a stupid was too beautiful soup. Give it the extreme and give it the parson Toby one, The html doors parcel right here. No dash pressure. Let's go down on then we want you want now we can aesthetically parts the price from this HTML or deceive object to be just a current price is equal to scoop. I don't find all again you can find all of the methods from documentation. So basically, if you go here and they find all over here you can see that it's using find super find All title super can be with title. So we're gonna use attributes and method like these don't available in the documentation so we can actually barrister and scream website. So woman type in super find all and we actually want a BG court, right? Like we said before BG quote and we want the class to be your value. But so in beautiful soup, you have to use craft underscore as the attribute at the parameter, and you can say in value and then just ah, we actually want to index for a second variable 30 the first, the first just a for and just the only. Basically, this is that this will be the only item in the index basically find all it returned. It returned the list off object. Even if there's just one match, it will return a list. So we can you know you the list on display less to our user. We need to display items from a list definitely to induct the one and only item that that's in the list. We're gonna go say Okay, we want the first item in the list, which is which we already know. It's going to the share price, then you just type in dark text, and this will give us a share price. Perfect. Right. So if you want a contested right, No, but I prefer right now not to way can actually finish this problem program in a few in your Dutch long because it's such a simple project, actually. Well, it's advanced level, but you know the way we're doing it, it's a meeting. So next we want the past month performance, right? Basically, we want this piece of data right here one month as going to see it right here. So how did you get that? Well, you click right. Click on it and again go inspect. You can see it's an ally item. So listen, let's item with the class content item value, ignore color, right? And got the text off before the text that you want. And remember, this is just text on a percentage sign in the end. Offer something you will need to remove the percentage sign Mitterrand. But right now we just actually want this last new. Alright, so we can go here and good counsel and again find document on get elements by last name on instead. You can just started. Been over, Dude. Last we have right now. So as you can see, we all we got all of these items so you can see you if you hover over them, it re show us which items were actually selected. Break now in the council. So this vertically all fired the Titans. You have everyone the 2nd 1 right. Which means we're going to run in the index one. So, basically, that's what we need to do. So we can say past month performance. It was too scoop, not find out we want. And Edye, What list item with the class. You could do this, that we copy. All right. And then we can say we want the first item from the list to be good. Remember, find all this method, remember? Returned the list. Older. We're going to have fun. Doctor, text. Remember, we need a text. We need string because we're going to convert toe afloat rate around right, because we need to compare it to, uh, really to see whether of a little less than zero. We won't actually output the exact value. We will only output. Whether the stock had been going up for the stock has been going down. So we want to string right now. Extrude on detected. Obviously you can slice it like remember if in the strength manipulation to tell you. So we only want I'm up until the last character accusing the last character. Because remember the last character in the percent age, we don't want the percentage sign. We just want the number. Does he basically got the whole number in just 19? How good that. But right now should hamstring form are so we need to convert it to a float. Right? Because otherwise we weren't able to compare a compared against Tito. We can go ahead and say float and just go rapid and float on. Dr. Basically, we just go the apartment performance. Now we can just say if past month performance it greater than you. We can say past month performance. He puts too uptrend. Otherwise fast mint performance equals two downtrend. Yeah, that gives us our apartment performance. Now the last thing we need to find the volume, right? So we have to be very kind of volume, actually. Ah, when First of all, we have to actually find where the volume is. So let's look over here. Um, I'm not sure where the volume is, Actually. Uh, yeah, there we go. So we found the volume right here, $21.5 million. So we're actually going to just right Click it again, Inspector, and see It says, Man, it's just found. It's a span item with the glass off volume. Last value, right? We just want to copy this again. But when adjusted by going into control and saying document to get an element of i d, we're going to, ah, fixed in the glass, right and dress center the senator and only one object, one left Yemen collection basically with one of their so and that one object with the one we want. Right? But it's the only did only one volume with little value. So that's the only when you want a perfect. But basically we got it right. Very wondered that we could just go ahead and see Volume it again. You can see that we're actually repeating stuff or going against really simple. If you don't have to remember either anything you don't have to, you know, again and again. Do it again and again. No, you don't remember I did either Just read your documentation and go Go ahead with it. Just execute order. No need to memorize. So we need to stand very finite. And then we wonder Class equals. Do what? Our this one more human last value. Now remember, it will return a next email collection that we want the first item in the list. And we want the text on one more thing you might notice over here. Or maybe you didn't notice. Ah, may have some. It also has eminent, right? No, that's OK, but we actually, uh, sometimes just may have space is another word. Not still just for being careful, we can go ahead. And our trip is about the video for education purposes or for purpose of knowledge right now, because in tractor introduce you to some other metals because they're usually introduced to people in the apartment documentation when they actually needed otherwise. You only need to know about these methods, but you know, it's useful to know about them. If you some someday you might you might be used. You might do them. So we actually had actually done. We also got the world in. But we also got the volume right. So now we just have to return these values. So in Python we can actually run multiple value that one that we want to return the current price the past month performance on the wall You, David, go the half computer after it mean another main function. We just have one function to want to thank you, I think, to function remaining select ical head and do those 17 we watch the next function. Another function is that is going to output the statistics to the console. Andi. It's also going to read to write to a file the first like let's say, I love straight the function directed to a fight to go ahead and looks like death 38 underscore out booklets neighbor Europa on you can do go ahead and give the ticker because that's what's going to use. So basically, you might not know at first you will probably not know. Okay, what? The function Retake people you may know, but sometimes you mean or so just leave empty and just go along. And as you create the processing, you will eventually come to know what actually you in what accurate require, right? So for creator. But we just need to get the html night, because now this function is worth get over output. So we go ahead and get our HTML. And for that picker, we can go ahead and say current price past month, performance and volume. It was descript. They're html to see how all of this is being done in just one night of port. And then we go ahead and say right now this is the stage they would define what output we need. Right? So basically, this is the output are going to the console on to the file. First of all, we're going to write the confident what will be printed to the council. So, by the way, if you are confused, that this is the control. Very cmd Consul, we're gonna use enough strength older for her and the This is the analysis. Hardly Manassas off the stuff, and we're going to save sticker, all right? And then we're gonna give it a new line character by the venue nine character that it will the whole line and go on to the next line Said it had done by using forward slash end uh, this is the forwards Lovely. Basically using it at the next escape character. So if for example, if I wanna use quotation within a string so I can just go ahead and tapping the escape character and give it and type in text the quotation marks dr mean that I can use these quotation marks within the string, uh, without actually ending the stream. So right now, I just want to get a new night that I'm gonna take. The current stock price is current price. Then again, we give it a new night. We're going to see in the price I was bitten, going in, and uptrend or downtrend reached immediately with past performance. Then we go over it another new night and you can say, Ah, the volume off this stock is We cant say wall you right? And that's basically our whole output I would open for now, uh, juvie mistakes. I don't think so. So this is going to be about That's basically it sort of a normal that we can just go ahead and safe, print this out. Then we can create the filer portrait so you can say filed output you both to f drink and see current price, then, uh, by the way, we're going to be starting in a comma separated file. So if you don't know, a comma separated value for a CFB file can be open in Excel or any other doctorate program in Earth Country program. Right. But you need to separate all the align with common. They're all the detail comments. So they're going to be separating the current price department performance, the volume in within, by using common. So you can go ahead and do this Vatican TV, everything restaurant, current price, bomber, bath, performance volume attacked it. No more common, because now we just need a new nine character that will actually go into the next lane other ways that we continue on the same line and then this. Return the file out for right. So now this won't actually write to the file. This function will only print this to the controller and create a fighter print and return the file open. So now we actually create the main function which will hear the main operation so we can stay tickers. Basically, the first thing that it will do is ask the beautiful tickle right. You couldn't go instead, please. And first ticker. And then we can see while drew. So basically, we'll keep checking again and again and again again directly to the file every five seconds or so. So we're gonna say, OK, while true, the first. A very fine line. You close to create output so we don't need to call are the other method. Because in creative output, we actually called all the metal before we're gonna 58 output and then safe ticker. They're right. Then we can feel with now. This might be confusing for a few of you. So in python to open our profiles. Basically, you can read the documentation for this, but of it is my job to teach you. So how do you actually open include files? So it's really easy, actually, In Brighton we use a statement called a bid statement, or if you like this, it basically opens. A file is usually used for five will also be for other things, But you leaves you for formal. So basically it open the file and bunch of done processing it uploaded automatically. So what we do is this type to open a file with the and say with open and then type of the file name. So we want to store it in data or CSP your anything you want, But it has to be Yes. Before then we, after expressing the name we have respect by the Modoff writing R B s O actually are re writing to the file are reading from the final A pending to the file, though the different between all of those right into the file. Which means it will mean that we're over writing any previous content in the file reading will mean that you're taking in all the content from the file, but we can't right toe offending will mean we're adding all the content to the end of the file and we're not overreacting any offer. But we right now get a pending, so we can just go ahead and say a friend and then we light as f right. Are we going to add file because the village variable to store this file now we can go ahead and say, filed out right, So as we know, right? Well, actually a pen the data to the end of the file begins a file line. All right? That's basically it. No, we just say the anger sleep. And now the fighting open and close on its own using this method it over time. It's leave now and will continue until the program and by the user. Now we just have to call the main method. And that's basically it Didn't a few just above the funeral fight on we actually created of her own FBI in order to fish stock market data and unless actually tested. So if he saves, Python laughed at by in particular sama Cesky. So as you can see Oh, look amazing. This is the analysis of the stock market, and my herself can start to wonder if you went to one going on doctrine while you missed only 1.5. And now if he look at it date of birth DSV over here, right, so we can just open it on. If you're gonna do, you can see that it's during the data here. So now actually have a program will crash. But here because we opened it in Excel and Excel takes away all pride region write permissions from Bennett program. The doctor problem. That's not our our four detectives don't just open Excel. You just text editor to open these files usually. But as you can see, it's working perfectly because it's writing the daytime columns school interpreted columns . Is the market prices with the performance? Is the volume right? And that basically for the advancement project I hope you really, uh, hope you liked it. You know, I hope you learned something on. So if you might be thinking, OK that the guy didn't teach us too much because you know that a lot of new team just learning the products like opening Spiral and the trip method or the lower method a permitted right. You guys, you're right. All right. I should probably teach you them. But here's the thing. I want to get you ready for the practical world. I've seen so many of the course. If they don't get you ready for the craft practical world, nothing like none of the They just teach you in the normal fundamental. The fight off know what they need to do is ready for the practical world, OK? Even if you're not going for a job, even if you're just doing normal scripting, you need to know how you can read documentation. You need to know how you can search for the libraries you want. I don't want you guys to go through the same thing I did, Okay? I had no guy at the door. So, Doctor, why? I'm That's what I'm thinking. All right? Just go here and challenge yourself. Find libraries on your own real documentation on your own. I've guided you. Now it's your job to find these libraries, read the documentation for from them and implement them into your programs. But that will be all everyone. Thank you for, uh, for going through this course in the next video, we'll be providing a short conclusion on providing, providing you where to go next. You know, telling you were to go looks to thank you. 20. Conclusion: who? Welcome back everyone. And welcome to the final video off the whole course conclusion. And this really young will tell you where to go from here. So now you have young. None of the fundamental the pattern You've done three amazing projects. You have created a stock market agent using your own AP. I wasn't a huge accomplishment for beginner. Trust me. I know. All right, So what do you really go from here? So obviously you start learning python for the purpose, right? Maybe some kind of project that you wanted to do. Maybe just to, uh, learn a skill, right? So anyway, just think of some projects. First of all, the best way to dive into any anything is about doing the best way to learn it by doing nothing else. Trust me from experience. I know. Just think of any project. Anything you thought off everything you are you trying to think about It doesn't matter for the benefit. More people or not it better for does if, but it's okay if it doesn't relate. Just build random projects. Bill. Bill, Bill, Bill Billions. You'll see that department skill will improve gradually do an extreme all right? Anything you thought off anything is welcome. Trust me. If you want any help, I think they're the community that you can goto and ask. I'm not sure it exists, however it did. If we go out and knock out the members do want throughout the questions also just find out about more and more libraries now because every day, a new a new library, elaborately the relief for for purposes and normal scripting right that you don't need to reinvent the wheel repeatedly. The just get stay updated on the library the newer versions of existing libraries. So also, you need to read more documentation. I don't know how many times have stressed it, but read more documentation. So the first thing I have recommend for you to do a further documentation is really the official documentation, right? So the bite on tutorial dr 500 or actually the statutory just read whatever interests you. Alright, it's better if you can read all of it, but obviously it's too much. Uh, it's didn't just read it enough so that you can you know, all the major, the major things, so actually already started the fundamentals. But what where do you go after that? Right. So let's just be adjusted. More documentation. So offering python documentation, go ahead and would be a for, like, beautiful things for documentation. Right. Let's help you, Lord. Another library. Selenia. So what's selenium does every Basically It's like, uh, it's not like request. No, it basically amulets the whole brother for you. So this is a documentation for selenium. So basically, you can emulate chrome so that you can automate your web. So why will you What? I would do this union. You might be asking me why I would do this. For example, if you go to the left side drum in the last brother so you can see that we can see all of the data over here. But when we actually tried to get this using the requests library, we wanted to get this because they're loaded and after the FDA. Emily Gordon. And this is loaded and dynamically using javascript, which, which requested the best request library will not be able to do. Maybe you need to use something like any inhuman there which will emulate a brother to just read the documentation for selenium. Find horrible, chilling image It's really amazing. Another thing you should always, always all three aspire to going. That will also help you a lot because it will automate a lot off your macro stuff literally mouth and divorced off any repetitive task. Another thing you need to do with read court from others. So basically, if you don't know this, this website called get about combat, basically repository for everyone. So everyone stories of projects on here. All right, everybody still with this project on here. So if you give any brother if you want, you can search for it over here. So let's say you wanna I'm not sure. Mathematical library. Right. So we can figure trigonometry, okay? And we get certain trigonometry, and it will give us all of the matching depository repository that basically projects by the people, and we can go ahead and filter them by language. So if you go for toe python on filter, you can see trigonometry board number one. After Twitter border generate images using mathematics function, trigonometry functions. So you can just use this library to get trigonometry functions. Uh, so just read quarter further. If you go ahead, open it on. We can go ahead and open a file graphic by 40 lines. Of course. Andi, you can. The man, The man. They murdered the documentation. It better if there is. If there isn't, just try to understand what, the court. Because in the long term, you really help you. Andi. Lastly, actually, second last. Me if they're doing some mailing lists for by from Great for one that I recommend Israel part on. I really like it. It's a meeting because it give you, Ah, a weekly update on the newest buy things. Really? Good python. It also give you a meeting to to really, really two parts one. So go ahead. And for that, it's free, by the way on. Lastly, look at my other forces. I I'm not sure whether by the time you're watching them, I uploaded more courses, but go ahead and look at those courses. They'll help you out eventually. Anyways, thank you for staying along with staying with me. Swell discourse with an amazing journey on. I'll see you in the next course. Hopefully