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Brain Health and Lifestyle Factors-Part 1

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14 Lessons (24m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Course Overview

    • 3. Disclaimer

    • 4. What is Brain Plasticity?

    • 5. Brain Inflammation and Ageing

    • 6. Exercise & the Brain

    • 7. Improve Memory and Brain Fuction-Use it or Lose it!

    • 8. Chronic Stress - How Harmful is it For Brain Function?

    • 9. Brain Benefits of Meditation

    • 10. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    • 11. How Does Diet Affect Your Brain?

    • 12. How Does Socializing Affect the Older Brain?

    • 13. Course Summary - What Have You Learned in This Course?

    • 14. What's Next?


About This Class


Brain Health and Lifestyle Factors-Learn from the Latest Research-Part 1

Brain changes occur as a normal part of ageing. In fact, the human brain starts to reduce in volume and weight from the mid-twenties onwards. 

Based on scientific research, this is a brief overview of the impact of various lifestyle factors including physical exercise, mental stimulation, chronic stress, sleep, diet and social interaction on brain health.

Learn about brain plasticity, how the brain changes in response to experience, and the effects of inflammation on the ageing brain.

There's currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Although there's no guaranteed way to prevent dementia, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can reduce your risk.

Upon completion of this class, please watch part 2:


1. Introduction: 2. Course Overview : Welcome to the course overview. Due to increasing rates of dementia worldwide, there's been an increase in research in lifestyle factors that will enhance the brain function of older adults and reduce the risk for age related neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Given the scope of this course, full coverage of all the relevant research is not possible. Instead, it will highlight the results of some of the latest research relevant to various lifestyle factors known to have an impact on overall brain health and function. In Section one, you'll learn about brain plasticity on how the brain changes. In response to experience on the effects of inflammation on the aging brain, Section two will cover the impact of various lifestyle factors such as physical exercise, mental activity, chronic stress, sleep diet and social interaction on brain health. Finally, Section three is the course summary and conclusion 3. Disclaimer: 4. What is Brain Plasticity?: in this lecture, I'm going to talk about brain plasticity neurogenesis from why adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important. So what is meant by brain plasticity? The human brain remains plastic throughout life. Brain plasticity, also known as neuro plasticity, is the amazing capacity of brain cells to change structurally and functionally in response to experience. The hippocampus is a region in the brain that regulates learning, memory and mood, and it's very sensitive to environmental stimuli. In fact, the Dent age Iris, a sub region of the hippocampus, has the capability of generating new new Ron's throughout life, a process known as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. So why is adult hippocampal neurogenesis important? We'll never Genesis plays an important role in learning memory on emotional regulation. 5. Brain Inflammation and Ageing : One of the most recognized effects of aging in humans is the dis. Regulation of the immune system, known as immune is in essence, accompanied by chronic low grade inflammation known as inflammatory ing. The brain is very sensitive to inflammatory molecules, which have a detrimental effect on neuronal function. In fact, new information is a characteristic of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. However, even in the healthy brain, there are new inflammatory changes. Associate it with advanced in age as there is an increase in the aging population. There's a greater urgency now to understand the courses and consequences of the inflammatory changes that occur in the brain with age. Age related neuro inflammation is associating with deterioration in brain function on the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable toe age related cognitive decline. 6. Exercise & the Brain : different lifestyle factors have been shown to affect brain health, including exercise, mental activity, diet, stress, sleep and social interaction. In this lecture, I'll focus on the brain benefits of exercise. Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive function and also reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in aging adults. In fact, aerobic exercise stimulates neural plasticity improve in hippocampal function. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise decreases the risk of dementia is not fully understood. In an ousama disease mouse model study, physical activity delayed hippocampal new into generation and also improved memory function , providing further evidence that increased physical activity may be a potential strategy for the prevention of dementia. In a six month human study of 67 tree adults age 64 to 78 the results showed that those that participated in aerobic exercise showed a broad improvement in cognitive performance compared to the controls who did stretch in and tone in training. In a review of numerous studies examining the impact of exercise on cognition in agent individuals whilst physical activity alone improved cognition, the most beneficial form of exercise was dancing. One study. They evaluated the effect of music in combination with exercise with the Japanese study of 119 individuals age 65 to 84. 40 subjects performed physical exercise while listening to music for one l once a week, completing 40 hours in one year, 40 before the same exercise without music and 39 more controls. The results showed exercising with or without music increased psycho motor speed, but only the music group had significant improvement in visual spatial function. Psycho motor speed is the speed of the relationship between cognitive functions. On physical movements. On visual spatial function is the visual perception of the spatial relationships. Off objects in summary physical exercise combined with music, improve cognitive function more than exercise alone. This is because combining physical exercise with music access both cognitive on physical training. 7. Improve Memory and Brain Fuction-Use it or Lose it! : Animal and human research studies have shown the environmental stimulation is necessary to enhance on maintain competent function. In fact, new challenging activities a critical for enhancing complicit function. Continuous engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. Based on these findings, the study was conducted to examine the relationship between a busy lifestyle and cognition . 330 healthy adults aged 50 to 89 were assessed in terms of how busy they were. That is, if I had a busy schedule. The results showed that a busy lifestyle was associated with better cognition. There were improvements in processing speed, working memory, episodic memory reasoning and crystallized knowledge with the greatest effects on episodic memory. Processing speed is the time it takes a person to do a mental tasks such as reading. Working memory is holding short term information that is temporary information in your mind . Episodic memory is the person's unique memory of a specific event, so it will be different of someone else's recollection of the same event. Reasoning is the process of thinking about something in order to make a decision and crystallize knowledge is learned knowledge. One example of a complex activity is reading music on playing a musical instrument as it comprises motor on multi sensory that is auditory visual and so matter sensory integration . Motor skills are movements and actions of the muscles required to perform tasks. In this case, playing an instrument so much a sensory function is the ability to interpret bodily sensations such as touch. There's a growing body of evidence that supports playing a musical instrument may be beneficial for cognitive development at a young age may also be protective against dimension cognitive impairment in later life. Population based twin study playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with a reduced possibility of developing dementia. Onda cognitive impairment. In another study of 41 people aged 60 to 84 4 months of piano lessons improved mood and resulted in significant improvements in attention on executive function. Executive function is a set of mental skills that basically help you get things done in summary. In order to maintain optimum brain function throughout life, it's necessary to engage in mentally challenging activities 8. Chronic Stress - How Harmful is it For Brain Function?: How harmful is chronic stress for brain function, research studies have shown. The uncontrollable stress can reduce hippocampal function, which influences various hippocampal dependent tasks such as memory, cognition, behavior and mood. Chronic stress results in changes in the brain and contributes to the development of brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Anxiety. A major depression by altering hippocampal plasticity. Hippocampal plasticity is a term that describes the structural and functional changes that occur in the hippocampus in response to various stimuli, including stress in summary, chronic stress impairs hippocampal function and therefore effects, cognition, memory, behavior and mood. It also contributes to the development of mental health issues on Alzheimer's disease. 9. Brain Benefits of Meditation: in this lecture, I'm going to go over the brain benefits of meditation. One activity which can counteract the negative effects of stress is meditation. Normal aging disassociated with gradual brain structure. Deterioration known as brain atrophy, which is the loss of new Ron's on the connections between them. Gray matter volume decreases over time with advancing age. In fact, the human brain begins to decrease in volume and weight from the mid twenties onwards. This structural deterioration results in cognitive impairment andan increased risk of developing mental illness on newer degenerative disease. Meditation has also been associated with reduced eight related atrophy of brain gray matter . In a study of 100 people, 50 meditators and 50 controls aged between 24 77. Long term meditators ranging from 4 to 46 years of meditation, had less age related gray matter decline compared to controls Suggested meditation may have a brain protective role in summary meditation can protect the brain against the negative effects of stress. On Also promote healthy brain aging by reducing grain matter atrophy that is associated with normal aging 10. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain : in this lecture, I'm going to cover the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain. Adequate sleep is crucial for brain function and in our 24 7 society, lack of sleep is a common problem that affects overall health and brain function. Sleep is essential for learning and memory. In the pre clinical study, just five hours of sleep deprivation in mice greatly reduced the connectivity between neurons in the hippocampus. Much sleep deprivation caused impaired memory function, which was reversed by just three hours of recovery sleep. There's also an abundance of evidence that suggests sleep plays an important role in the normal function of human memory. Sleep consolidates previously learned information and is therefore crucial for long term memory formation during sleep. The brain processes information acquired during the previous day on prepares itself for the next day. Sleep deprivation is a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. During the deep stages of sleep, there's a clearance of harmful metabolic waste, including amyloid beta from the brain. Um, Awad beater is a protein that can build up on brain cells, causing clocks. The play a role in the development of dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease, therefore, getting enough sleep reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by clearing the amyloid beater from the brain. So how much sleep is enough? Well, According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society, adults need seven or more hours of sleep per day for optimal health in summary, at least seven hours of sleep per day required for learning and memory function. And during the deep stages of sleep, there is clearance of harmful metabolic waste, including amyloid beater from the brain, which reduces the risk of developing dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. 11. How Does Diet Affect Your Brain? : in this electronic and cover Hades I effectual brain. There's extensive research that suggests diet influences, brain health and function throughout life, dietary factors of powerful regulators of brain plasticity and mental health. It's well documented that there's an obesity crisis in the world today. However, it's important to understand that a diet high in saturated fat and sugar is also having an impact on cognition and mood and can impair memory function. The hippocampus regulates appetite control and is very sensitive to such high energy diets . When the function of the hippocampus is impaired, there's dis regulation of appetite control leading to overeating, causing further diet induced hippocampal damage. The effect on the hippocampus is known took her prior to wait going. Poor diets high in fat and sugar have been shown to impair memory andare associated with decreased neurogenesis on increased inflammatory responses. Furthermore, obesity has been associated with cognitive impairments, andan increased risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease. There is encouraging evidence that a Mediterranean style diet is associated with improvements in cognitive function on slower rates of cognitive decline. With age, studies have shown there were improvements in memory delayed recognition that is the ability to recognize previously encountered events, objects or people, long term memory and working memory. That is short term memory executive function, which is a set of mental skills that help you get things done, such as planning or making decisions on visual constructs, which is how the brain makes sense of the visual world. Increase appearance to a Mediterranean style DIA was also linked with the lower inflammation on also reduce the risk off Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The main components of a Mediterranean style diet include Ah, high intake of fruit, vegetables and fish on a lower consumption of dairy, red meat and sugar, with olive oil being the major source of fat. The Mediterranean type diet has also been associate ID with brain structural change in order age. The results from a Scottish study investigating the association between the Mediterranean style diet and brain structure showed great right eerie inst to the Mediterranean style diet was associated with lover total brain atrophy over three year period in adults from 73 to 76 years of age. This may indicate that a Mediterranean style diet is having a brain protective effect against brain atrophy and old Ray in summary Poor diets high in saturated fat and sugar have a negative impact on brain health. However, a Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognition on to reduce risk of developing Alzheimer's disease on Parkinson's disease. 12. How Does Socializing Affect the Older Brain? : In this lecture, I'll cover how socializing affects the older brain. Numerous studies have shown that involvement in social activities could help to reduce cognitive decline in the elderly. In a study of adults age 65 to 74 the results showed attending a senior citizen club Love the risk off cognitive decline four years later, also in adults aged 75 or above. Frequent contact with their adult Children by phone or letters was associated with reduced cognitive decline. These results suggest the active involvement in social activities may help reduce or prevent cognitive decline in later life. 13. Course Summary - What Have You Learned in This Course?: congratulations on coming to the end of the course In this lecture, I'm going to summarize what you've learned and also discussed future research in the area of cognitive medicine. The global population is aging on agent is a major risk factor that increases the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, the commonest cause of dementia. As a result, cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease has become a global major health issue. However, healthy aging is also associate ID with the decline in cooperative function. In Section one, you learned how the brain changes in response to experience. That is, brain plasticity on the effects of inflammation on the aging brain section. To summarize certain lifestyle factors that may reduce or delay age related cognitive decline, the effect of various lifestyle factors, including physical exercise, mental stimulation, chronic stress, sleep, diet and social interaction on brain health, were discussed. While there's no guaranteed way of preventing dementia, maintaining a healthy lifestyle can reduce your risk. The lack of physical activity worldwide and the increased levels of stress in today's society are not only affecting the brain health of the global aging population, but is also having an effect on Children in school. The lack of exercise and increasing rates for obesity worldwide are associated with lower cognitive performance at school and an increased risk of developing cognitive disorders in later life. More knowledge is needed on how to maintain all aspects of brain health, as there are currently no successful lifestyle related prevention strategies in existence. Future Research in Cognitive Medicine A new approach in Health Care science that is, research focused on preventing and treating cognitive impairment and decline. We'll need to design prevention strategies in Children and adults to develop an active lifestyle in order to reduce the risk of developing cognitive impairments in later life. In summary, preliminary evidence supports the importance of lifestyle factors on brain health. However, further research is required to determine the exact details of the impact of each lifestyle factor on brain health during ageing. Although recent studies show negative lifestyle factors play a role in the development of cognitive impairment, further research is required to develop strategies for the prevention on treatment of cognitive decline. Thank you for watching the course. I hope you found it used for on that you can use your new knowledge to look after your brain, which is of course, your greatest asset in life 14. What's Next?: