Blender Modelling Series 1.1 | Joe Baily | Skillshare

Blender Modelling Series 1.1

Joe Baily

Blender Modelling Series 1.1

Joe Baily

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13 Lessons (1h)
    • 1. Welcome To The Class

      1:20
    • 2. The Basic Functions

      3:36
    • 3. Object Types

      2:37
    • 4. The Structure Of The Mesh Object

      5:32
    • 5. Using Transforms In Object And Edit Mode

      4:52
    • 6. Shift Control And Alt Selection

      6:18
    • 7. Box, Circle And Lasso Selection

      6:41
    • 8. The Different Data Types

      6:06
    • 9. Using Edit Mode For Multiple Objects

      1:28
    • 10. The Two Types Of Shading

      4:30
    • 11. What Are Normals And How To Fix Them

      9:17
    • 12. 3 Objects From A Single Primitive

      7:16
    • 13. End Of Class Challenge

      1:04
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About This Class

Blender Modelling Series 1.1

Welcome to the Blender modelling series where we take you through what it takes to become a successful 3D modelling using the FREE software program Blender 3D. Each volume of this series will build up your skills in 3D modelling starting with the foundations and working all the way up to expert level modelling,

This is the first volume of the series meaning this is where we introduce the absolute fundamentals, ie how to manipulate the standard properties of mesh objects in Blender.

We will be covering the following topics in this class:

  • The difference between object mode and edit mode.
  • Basic functions like adding deleting and naming objects
  • Overview of the different object types used in Blender
  • Understanding the difference between mesh data and object data and how this applies to modelling
  • Manipulate the geometry of out models to begin forming new shapes
  • Apply smooth shading effects
  • Know what normals are, how they relate to models and how to fix them

This is the perfect place to start learning about how objects work in Blender and how you can manipulate those objects into whatever form you choose.

Meet Your Teacher

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Joe Baily

Teacher

My name is Joe Baily and I am an instructor for 2D and 3D design. I specialise in 3D modelling using software platforms such as blender and 3DS max to create virtual models and assets for video games and animations.

My alternative job involves teaching sport and PE in schools and so I have 1000's of hours teaching experience in multiple various fields. My goal here is that I always find great instructors in websites like youtube who are great but never give out enough content to really satisfy my own hunger for learning. Therefore, my goal on skillshare is to provide comprehensive quality teaching on any subjects that I cover, such as blender 3D.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome To The Class: Welcome ladies and gentlemen to this class on modelling in blender. This class is for absolute beginners who are interested in learning about modelling 3D objects using blender free date, body ended this class, students will be able to use basic functions like adding, deleting, and naming objects. Learn at the difference between objects mode and edit mode. Manipulate mesh geometry using transforms. Understand object types and data types. Correct the normals of objects and apply smooth or flat shading and build a variety of different objects using primitives. This class is, as mentioned for absolute beginners, who wants to learn about 3D modeling? If you understand any or all of these concepts, then it may be a good idea to look for some more advanced content. Otherwise, if you are one of those absolute beginners who want to get started in creating simple 3D models. This is the course for you. And we're going to get started right now. 2. The Basic Functions: Let's take a look at some of the core functions that we can do with objects in a blender. The ones we're going to be taking a look at in this video are the abilities to add, delete, and name our objects. So in our scene, we have free objects, we have r cube objects, our camera object, and our light objects. To delete an object form our scene. Left-click to select that object. Any selected objects should be highlighted. In this case, the cube is highlighted yellow. In order to delete my cube object, press or either the x or delete keys on your keyboard. So I'm going to press x to bring up the delete menu. In objects mode, we have a single option, delete. So left-click on your mouse to confirm the option. The cube has been deleted, both form our scene and also the outline up panel. To add a new object to our scene. We can either go to the Add menu in the top corner of the 3D viewport and then select the object that we want to add. We can also use the hotkey Shift. And I. So hold down the Shift key and then press i. This will bring up the same add many. From here, we can choose a variety of different object types. I'm going to add a mesh objects. And the objects I'm going to select is monkey. So left-click to add the object that you wants. Now the object has been added to our scene, both in the 3D viewport and in the outline, a panel. To rename your objects in Blender. Come up to the outline of panel and double left-click on the name of the objects. You can now rename it to whatever you wish. So for example, I'm going to rename Suzanne as Sam. Alternatively, I can right-click on the same object to bring up the object context menu in the outline a panel. I can then come down to where it says ID data. And then select Rename. Left-click, and I can rename my objects again. So this time, Let's rename it as Samantha. The third method of renaming your objects is the compounds, the Properties panel. And make sure you're in the object's properties tab. You will see the nine of your active objects here. Just left-click and then rename. So this time I'm going to go back to Suzanne. These are the three main methods of being able to rename your objects in Blender. 3. Object Types: Glenda has a variety of different object types. You can see all of the different object types whenever you go to add a new object. If we come up to the top of our 3D view port two where we have the Add menu and left click. You can see all of the different object types that we have. They're all listed in this menu. Now, the main type that we are going to be working with in this class, the mesh type. So the mesh type is located at the top of this menu. It's ICANN is indicated as an upside down triangle. You can see that we have a bunch of different presets for mesh objects. These are referred to as primitive objects. You can also see the type of objects that you have in your scene collection. By going over to the outliner panel. Each of the objects in our scene has its name, as well as the icon that represents what type of object it is. Now, each type of object will have a variety of different modes used to manipulate that object type. With the mesh objects. For example, if we made sure it selected by left clicking, and you will see that an object is selected when it is highlighted in this orange color. Go to the top corner of the 3D view ports where it says objects mode. If we left-click, We will see six different modes. Object Mode, edit mode, Sculpt Mode, vertex paints, white paint, and texture paints. For this class, our focus is going to be on edit mode. Now, if you select another object types such as the camera, and then go back to the same menu. You may find that there is only one mode available, object mode. So object mode is going to be available regardless of the type of objects you have selected. But different object types. We'll have a variety of different modes. So in this case, our mesh object has six modes to play with. 4. The Structure Of The Mesh Object: All mesh objects are constructed with geometry. There are three types of geometry. Vertices, edges, and faces. In edit mode, we can select individual pieces of geometry on our selected model. In this example, we currently have a fully selected cubes. So all the geometry is selected to be select everything. Just left-click away from our model. You'll see that the cube is no longer highlighted. If we press the key on our keyboard, we can once again select all of our geometry. So the quickest way to de-select everything is just left-click away from the object. And the quickest way to select everything on our model is to just press a so left-click. And I. Now if we want to select an individual for vertex, we need to make sure that we have the correct selection mode enabled. Now in this example we do. So this icon here that is directly next to the edit mode many. This is our third Tech Select mode. It's going to allow us to select vertices on our model. Now a vertex is a singular coordinate in 3D space. So we left-click on any of these corners. We can select them. So selecting a vertex, we can't manipulate its location. But because it's a singular point in 3D space, we cannot rotate it, nor can we scale this selection. So if you're going to manipulate a single vertex, be mindful that you can only manipulate its location, not the rotation and scale. Alternatively, you can also select edges. So the next button is the edge select button. Once that is selected, we can then select an edge on our model. An edge is effectively a straight line that is connected with two vertices. That's all you need to memorize for understanding what an edge is, each just two vertices connected together. Again, you can manipulate the location of your selection. This time though, you can also manipulate the rotation to an extent and also the scale. With regards to the scale, we're only able to adjust the length of the edge itself. Once again, the age is simply two coordinates. So when we're using the scale tool, we are basically scaling the length or distance between those two vertices. Where we can get even more control is when we manipulate faces. So the next option is base selects, which is located here. If we select the top face by left clicking, you can see the entire face is highlighted. We can then grab the face, rotate it and scalar. Now, as we manipulate the geometry, you will notice that when we grab it, rotate or scale a selection, it weighs influenced all of the geometry that is directly connected to our selection. In the example of our cube, if we hit the G key to grab, we can move the selection. But if we move it up, we extend the sizing of all of the panels going along the sides of our face. We can extend all of the faces along the side of our cube. You will also notice that there is no influence on the bottom face of this cube. The reason why is because the bottom face is not directly connected to the selection. If I right-click to cancel the operation, I can left-click on another face, hit the G key to get similar behavior. So as we move the selection, we adjust the sizing of all of the faces that are directly connected. But we do not influence the opposite face at all. This behavior is mirrored when rotating and scaling as well. And it is also mirrored when we are manipulating singular edges and also singular vertices. So here for example, if I grab our manipulate this vertex, I can influence the sizing and direction of each of the connected edges and faces. But none of the other faces or edges are influenced. 5. Using Transforms In Object And Edit Mode: A mesh object is constructed with geometry. There are three types of geometry. Vertices, edges, and faces. To access the geometry of our mesh, we need to change our current mode from object mode to edit mode. So select your mesh objects. Then come up to the top corner and open up the menu. Left-click where it says edit mode. And you will see that the appearance of our cube object is slightly different. This because all of our geometry is highlighted. If we attempt to move, rotate, or scale this geometry, it will behave much as it does in objects mode. So for example, if we use the Move tool located here, we can move our geometry on any of these axes. So X, Y, and Z. We can also left click inside the circle to move our geometry on all three axes depending on our camera view. We can also use the Rotate tool to rotate our geometry in various ways. And then we can use the scale tool once again to scale in a variety of different orientations and directions. Now this behavior is all very similar to what you'd have in objects mode if using these same tools. However, the impacts on the object itself is a little bit different. So what I'm going to do is I'm just going to delete my object in objects mode. By the way, I've just switched from edit modes or object mode. By pressing the tab key, you will find the tab key next to the queue key on your keyboard. And so making sure you an object mode, I'm just going to hit X and delete the key. Then I'm just going to shift i and replace it with a new cube. Introduced a little bit quicker then pressing the undo CHI 20 times because of all of the different actions to I just did for grabbing, rotating and scale. Now, in object mode, you can move an object. You can rotate it, and you can scale it. This is very much the same as what we saw in edit mode. The difference is with the objects origin. So the one thing that I want you to remember here is that if we were to manipulate our transforms in object mode, we would be able to manipulate these values here for the location, rotation, and scale on each axis. These values relate to the objects relationship with the 3D scene. However, if we were to go into edit mode and perform these actions. And then if we were to perform a couple of these and go back into objects mode, you would see that these values have not changed. Because in edit mode, we are only using these transformations holes to manipulate the selected geometry, nots the object's properties itself. What does this mean? Well, if I wish to move my selected geometry in edit mode, over here, you see that the objects origin, which is the point of reference between the object itself and the 3D scene around it. Then go back into objects mode and attempt to, for example, rotate our object. What you will see is the geometry orbiting around our objects origin. Because that's what it does is it uses the object's origins to determine the rotation of the geometry. But with the geometry located far away from the objects orogeny itself, the behavior is very different to before when the objects origin was located inside of our geometry. This is the most important difference between manipulating the transforms in edit mode and objects mode. For now, I'm just going to hit Control Z a few times until we get our cube back to its default position. 6. Shift Control And Alt Selection: In this video, we are going to be focused on tree methods of selecting multiple geometry. The first method is to use the shift key to add it to your existing selection. So for example, we have our default QP. If we were to select a single vertex and then select a second vertex, we effectively replace our selection. To add the selection, we need to hold down the Shift key on our keyboard. And with the shift button held down, left-click on any vertices that we wanted to add. So this is how we can add new geometry to our selection one by one. This same behavior applies the edges as well as faces. The second method of selecting multiple pieces of geometry that we're going to demonstrate is to pick the shortest path. So I'm going to replace my cube objects with an object that has more geometry. So I'm going to hit the X key in object mode and deleted, then hit shift and I go mesh and select UV sphere. If I hit the tab key again to go into edit mode, you can see that we have a lot more vertices, edges, and faces to play with. When it comes to picking the shortest path, what we can do is we can select one piece of geometry, for example, this face here. Then hold down the Control key and select the end of the path. So we're going to create a path here by selecting the first face and then hold down control and left-click to select the second face. Now what you see, he is going to be a little bit difference what you see on your screen. And that's because I've been playing about with these values down here. So what you will probably see is you will probably see something that looks like this in the operator panel. Phil region Book button will be tickets, the de-selected value set to 0, the selected value sets or one or two, and the offset value set to 0. What you can do here is you can manipulate the behavior of this path by manipulating these values. So I like to turn this option off and then manipulate these values here to change exactly how my selection is going to behave. But that is one method of being able to select multiple. Pieces of geometry very quickly. What we can also do here is we can combine the shift and control keys. So if I hold down my shift key and then hold down my control key, and then left-click. We can extend our path. I can do it the same over here. So shift control, left-click. And then the same up here to create a for loop of selected geometry. The third option that I want to display is the ability to select loops. So let's once again USE faces for our example. Say if we wanted to select all of the faces going around our UV sphere on a single row or column. What we can do is we can hold down the Alt key. Then left-click on one of these edges here to create our loops selection. So if we orbit around our UV sphere, you can see all of these phases have been selected. Now, this tall is heavily influenced by the objects topology. The topology is the flow of the geometry and is dictated by loops and poles. Now, a pole can be found wherever you find a triangular face who an end gone. Loops follow four-sided faces, otherwise known as quartz. Now when our UV sphere, we have triangles located at the top and bottom of our objects. So we were to create a vertical loop rather than a horizontal one by holding down the alt key and then left clicking on this edge, he, you can see that we do create a selection of faces, but that selection terminates as soon as it reaches the triangles at the top and bottom of the UV sphere. The reason why is because the geometry has to follow a certain flow. That flow is dictated by courts, but the triangles cannot dictate that flow. Therefore, the loop is going to be terminated as soon as it reaches that triangular face. The same behaviour is true of n gums, which have five or more sites. Because blend that cannot dictate the direction that the loop is supposed to go. Blender will instead terminate the loop at that location. These are the free main keys that you can use for selecting multiple pieces of geometry on your model. 7. Box, Circle And Lasso Selection: Earlier on in the class, we looked at using the shift control and alt keys for selecting our geometry. But if we wanted to select a lot more of our mesh much more quickly than we can use box, circle and lasso select to select a group of vertices, edges, and faces. To do this, select your objects and make sure you are in that its mode. The first option in the tall shelf is the select box option. Now with this activated, what you can do is with your objects, the selected, you can just click and drag to create a box. If you release your left mouse button, all of the geometry inside of that box will be selected. Now, an important thing to note is that when you use box select in this manner and then orbits, you'll view. You can see that the geometry around the back or value the sphere has not been selected. We can change this behavior up here by clicking on this toggle x-ray button. We, if we toggle this option, we can now see through our mesh. If we use the same box select Hall to select the same area of vertices. And then orbits. You will now see that all of the geometry around the back of the UV sphere has been selected. As well as the fun and alternative to this is to change from solid view to wireframe shading. So if we were to instead to wireframe, once again, we can see straight through our model. With wireframe, we are basically hiding the faces from view. Again, click and drag to select all of the geometry that we want. Now in addition to this, we also have circle select and lasso select. I'm just going to toggle the X-ray back on. And if we were to use circle select, we would need to come up to the top shelf where we have the select box tall, click and hold. To get this menu. We would then need to select circle and release. Now when you do this, you see a circle appear around our cursor. If you want to adjust the radius of this circle, come up here and adjust the radius value. So I'm going to adjust it to about 74. If you left-click with your circle over the objects, it will select all of the geometry located in the confines of that circle. If you click and drag, you can manually begin adding more to your selection. You can change the functionality of these tools up here. So next to the radius, we have the ability to change form, creating a new selection to extending our existing selection. So for example, if we left-click, everything becomes the selected. And then we can create new selections with each click. Or we can extend our selection, which adds to the geometry that we've already selected. Or we can subtract for mass selection. And now left clicking is going to subtract any of the geometry within the circle from our CMS selection. The final option is the select lasso tool. The select lasso tool is similar to the box tool in that we click and drag to create the shape. But it's now a custom shape. So we click and move our cursor. We can move our cursor any way we want. To create any shape we want for our selection. Again, we have a variety of options up here to change exactly how Lasso selection is going to work each time. By the way, you'll see these options were books select as well. Now it should be noted that with regards to the box selections hold and circle select tool, you can use the hotkeys B and C to use the same tools. You don't have this functionality with the select lasso tool by default. So if we use the geeky for Bach selects, you will see a horizontal and vertical line. You can then click and drag wherever you want in the 3D view port to begin creating your box, same as before. Now we've circled select the hockey works a little bit differently to using the tall. If we hit C for circle select, then without pressing anything else, we can scroll up on the scroll wheel of our mouse to reduce the radius. We can scroll down on our scroll wheel. To increase the radius. We can left-click and drag to add to our selection using the circle tool. We can also hold down the middle mouse button to subtract from our selection instead. But this functionality is exclusive to using the circle tool. The hockey. If we were to do the same thing by using the circle told form, tall shelf, making sure that we have the correct mode selected. If we were to press down on the middle mouse button, we would instead orbits our view while using the circle select toll. 8. The Different Data Types: When working in Blender, we will often be working with different types of data. Now, the three most common types are Object Data, mesh data, and material data. Blender actually keeps the three separate. And you're going to see how this works with our objects. So with our cube objects, we have object IDSA and we also have mesh data. If we take a look in the material properties tab in the Properties panel, we also have a material assigned to this object. So we also have some material data as well. Now, because blender treats these as separate entities, you can actually use mesh data for multiple objects, the same with materials. So you can use one material on multiple objects, or you can use the same mesh data on multiple objects. In our example, we only have one mesh objects, the cube. We come up to the outliner panel and just open up the cube. From here, you can see that inside our objects we have our mesh data. So to mesh data is highlighted by a green icon. The object data is highlighted by the orange icon. If you go into the mesh data, you will see we then have our material data. So we have a hierarchy here going from objects to mesh to material. You can also find the mesh data for a specific object. Coming down to the object data properties, which is located just above the material tab. Here you can see the name of the mesh data. Now what's interesting here is that if we tried to rename the mesh data, so let's rename this as box for example. You can see that we changed the name with the mesh data, but we don't change the name of the object itself. To change the name of the object itself, we would come to the object tab, not to be confused with the object data tab. Then we could click, click here and change it to whatever name we want. So again, we can name it as box. But it goes further than just being able to rename each of these data types. By the way, you can also rename your material data if you want to. For this comes to the material tab, click on the name and rename it. Now you can, Before we move on and double-click in the outline a panel on each of these and rename them form the outline a panel. But if we go back to what we can do with our mesh data, we can actually swap this out for other mesh data blocks if we have them. So what I'm going to do now is I'm going to add two more objects. I'm going to hit shift and a while in objects mode, and I'm going to add a UV sphere. Then I'm just going to drag my UV sphere over here. Then I'm going to add an IPO sphere and drag it over here. We now have three different objects. We have our box objects, our Ico sphere objects, and our sphere object. Now if we open up the Ico sphere and sphere objects, you can see the mesh data for each underneath. What we can do here is we can select R cube and go to the mesh data tab. And if we left click on this button here, we get the list of all of the mesh data blocks that we are using. If we change this from box to Ico sphere, our box object now looks like our Ico sphere because it's using the Ico spheres mesh data instead of the box mesh data. The big difference between the mesh data and the object data in practice is that you can have multiple of your mesh data blocks. So you can have multiple Ico spheres in your scene. So we select the sphere object. We can change that to an IPO sphere as well. We have three different objects, but they are all using the same mesh data. Now, this does not work with the objects themselves. So if we selected the box, wins to the object tab in the Properties panel, and then it sends it to change our objects here, which you can see by this list. If we change that to the sphere, for example, you can see that what it does instead is it selects the spear object in the outliner, which you can see by the highlighted icon, so that you can change the settings of the object he in the Properties panel, and also here in the side panel. But it doesn't change the box object at all. This is because you cannot have two of the same objects in your scene. These are just a couple of examples of the differences between the data types used in Blender. 9. Using Edit Mode For Multiple Objects: If you are using Blender version 2.8 or newer, then you will be able to edit multiple objects at the same time. To edit multiple objects at the same time, make sure that multiple objects are selected. In my example seen here, I have a cylinder, a cube, and a UV sphere. I can select each of these by holding down the Shift key. Now, note that it does not matter here which objects you select last. All you need to do is make sure that all of the objects that you want to edit are selected and then change from objects mode to edit modes. You can now see that all of the objects are highlighted in edit mode. You can now select geometry on each of these models and begin manipulating. So for example, I can grab for my cube objects, I can rotate for my cylinder objects. And I can also scale for my UV objects. 10. The Two Types Of Shading: There are two types of shading in Blender. These are known as flat shading and smooth shading. The difference between the two is the ability to see the geometry on your model. We're going to temporarily swap out our cube for an object that has more curvature and more geometry. So I'm just going to delete the cube and replace it with a UV sphere. Now with issue the sphere, you can see as we orbit around all of the edges, vertices, and faces. Now initially, you might think that in order to make this look perfectly smooth, we're going to need to add a lot more geometry so that it almost fades in. But this isn't necessarily the case. What we can do instead is we can just change the way the light is hitting the object. If we go up to the objects menu in the 3D view port, you will see two options about two-thirds of the way down the menu. The first is shade smooth, The second is shade flats. Currently, we have it set to shade flats, which allows US to see all of our different faces as they are all shaded slightly differently based on their angle to the lights. However, if we go shade smooth, we will no longer be able to see the edges, vertices, and faces on our model. Now it's still there. The model is exactly the same as it was just a moment ago. The only difference now that we have changed the way the lighting is hitting our objects. Meaning that we are no longer able to see those vertices, edges, and faces. There is one thing that you will notice, and that's the jacket edges around our objects, which are more visible when the object is selected. Not to make these edges smoother, we will need to add more geometry. But if you look at the objects from a distance and they select it, you would just think that it's a normal sphere. If we select it. And then go back to the flat shading. You can see that we once again have our vertices, edges and faces in full view. Again, they don't go anywhere. They're just hidden because of the change in lighting when we go from shade flats to shade Smooth. Now one thing to keep in mind when using smooth shading is that it does not work that well on its own with objects that have really sharp edges. So for example, our default key, I'm going to delete the UV sphere and bring back the cube. At the moment, the cube looks absolutely fine as it is. It currently has flat shading. If we go to the shade is smooth option. You can see the lighting looks very awkward. Now, you are going to find that that there are a loss of objects that we'll have for parties of both our UV sphere and our keep, where certain parts will be quite sharp and certain parts will be quite smooth. So how do you fix this issue with smooth shading on objects that have these sharp edges? Well, to do this, you can go to the object data properties. Then comes where it says normals. Open up this menu and click on the button. For Altos move. You can now see that our cube looks just as good as it did before, but it still has smooth shading applied. As you begin to create more complex objects. This option is going to come in handy for making sure that any smooth shading does not create those weird artifacts. And you get the look that you want for your model. 11. What Are Normals And How To Fix Them: All geometry, whether it be vertices, edges and faces have what are known as normals. They have an inward direction and an outward direction. The idea here with normals is that the outward direction should always be pointing towards the camera. The inward direction should always be invisible form view. Take a standard UV sphere, for example. All of the geometry for a UV sphere will have normals pointing in an outward direction. However, there may be times when you are creating your own model where the normal scan flip. So you end up with the inward normals facing outwards and vice versa. This can create a whole host of issues, especially when exporting your models to other software programs like video game engines. This UV sphere is not, as it seems. I have purposely manipulated this UV sphere to have numerous incorrect normals. But at the moment, you cannot see any difference compared to a normal UV sphere. So if I added a second UV sphere and then just move it along the x-axis. Initial impressions suggests that these two objects are exactly the same. Now all the geometry is in the exact same place. The difference here is the normals. But how do we view this? Well, one method is to enable back face culling in the 3D viewport. Back face culling is used by game engines. If we come up to the top corner or the fruity viewports and click on this shading, our o here. To enter our viewport shading menu, you will see an option titled back face culling. Watch what happens when we left click this option with our original UV sphere that I intentionally manipulated to have incorrect normals. We can now begin to see fruit some of these faces. All of the areas where you see no faces at all are still faces, but they are pointing in the wrong direction. If I was to zoom into this UV sphere, you end up with the opposite. So every face that you can see here, so this face here, for example, is not visible from the outside. So if we zoom out, that same face is now invisible. This is what the UV sphere will look like in its current state if we exported it to a game engine. Now that's clearly not what we're looking for. So how else can we detect incorrect normals? Because there's more than one way, there's more than just back face culling. Well, I'm going to turn off back face culling. And with this object, I'm going to come over to this option here, the overlays option, and open up the view port overlays menu. Down towards the bottom, we have the option for face orientation. If we left click this option, you'll see that all of the geometry is one of two different colors. Either blue or red. Blue indicates normals of the outward direction. Red in the case, nor wars that are supposed to be facing inwards. If we were to select our perfect UV sphere here. Then press the period key on our number part so that we can look our view to this UV sphere by the white. You can do that. If you could go to View and then find selects it. If we zoom in, you can see that this UV sphere is red on the inside and blue on the outside. And this is exactly what we want from our model, so long as we don't need to look inside of the model itself. Of course, that's not the case for our manipulated UV sphere here. A third method of displaying whether or not you have incorrect normals is to display the normals themselves. So to do that, what we need to do is just turn off base orientation and then go into edit mode. Now you can actually see that I previously selected all of these faces and then I flipped the normals Iran so that they would be incorrect for the purposes of this demonstration. I'm going to show you in a couple of minutes how to correct your incorrect normals. But right now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to open up that same viewports overlays menu, but this time in edit mode. And you can see that we have options for normals for the vertices, edges, and faces. Now here it's not displayed as the edges themselves is known as split normals. So it calculates the normals for the edges a bit differently to what it does the vertices and the faces. Now because the faces going to be the ones that's impacts my model the most visually. I like to turn on the option to display the normals for the faces. What you should then see is you should be able to see all of these blue lines coming out of most of our faces now not all of them. So this face here, you can't see the blue line and that indicates that it's an incorrect normal. If we go back to our menu and increase the size just to make it all a bit more visible. You can get an idea of which faces are correct and which are incorrect. You can also do this with the verticies if you want to. But be careful that you don't make your object would like a porcupine and then just ends up with too many normal sticking out and you don't even know what to look for anymore. So I recommend just using one of these options at a time. Now in order to correct your Normals, what you would need to do if we just turn off these normals temporarily is selects. Your entire model, then hits out and N on your keyboard. This brings up your Normals menu. Now the first free options are the main free. So you have flip, recalculate outside, which can actually be done with shift and, and also we calculate inside. Now why would you want to recalculate inside? Well, you may want to recalculate on the inside. If the inside of your model is where you're going to be viewing your seen. In, for example, if you wanted to create a model of a house and she wanted to view inside of the house. Then you want the normals to be recalculated on the inside rather than the outside. If I was the click on the week calculate outside button. And before I do that, I'm just going to turn on my face orientation. So Alton and recalculate outside. You can now see that all of our faces are now in the correct orientation. And if we go inside of our UB sphere, we can see again, they're all red on the inside or blue on the outside. Now, this tool does not always work. There will be some times where blender, we'll believe that the normals will be facing decrypts y, even when they're not. In those examples, you would need to select the individual faces that have those incorrect normals. Hit ALT N and then flip or we calculates. So in those cases, you'd probably want to use the flip option to fit those normals around. So that's an introduction into what normals are and how they can be located and solved in Blender. 12. 3 Objects From A Single Primitive: Using the knowledge that we have obtained so far, I am going to create three different shapes using my cube objects. The third shade the I'm going to create is a rectangular shape using the scale tool. This one is very easy. Just hit the SK and then scale on the axis that you want. I'm going to scale on both the X and Y axes. To do that. Hold down the Shift key, then press the Z key to lock it to the z plane. Now, we can scale on two axes instead of three. So I'm going to scale up. And what I can do here is if I want to use a specific value, rather than just moving my mouse and positioning it wherever I want, I can just type in the number. So I'm going to type in the number five on my keyboard to scale it up five times on the X and Y axes. Press Enter to confirm. This is the first shape that I have created, so I'm just going to rename it as a rectangle. Or better yet, let's actually rename it as a building. Because it can be the starts to creating a building. And then I'm going to do is I'm going to hide this object. To hide objects in your 3D view port. You can either press the H key on your keyboard to hide the selected object. You can also toggle the IR icon next to the object in the outline a panel. I prefer to use this method. If you want to bring back all of your objects in the 3D view port, that's where hidden. Hold down the Alt key and then press height h. Of course, if you want to bring back objects individually, then it would be better to use the tuple key he for each individual objects. So we've our building objects now hidden. We're going to add a second heap, hit shift and I, and add the second key. This time, I'm going to manipulate the cube in edit mode. I wanted to create a pyramid shape. So to do that, I'm going to go into edit mode by pressing the tab key on my keyboard. And then I need to select myVar, the four vertices on top of my cube, audience Higher face. The easier method here is just going to be to go into phase select and left-click on the top face. Then I'm going to hit the AES key to scaling. Now I want there to be just a little bit of surface area right at the top of my pyramid. So I'm not going to. All of these vertices meet in the middle. I'm just going to keep it very close. So left clicks convert, then tab to go into objects mode. So now we have what looks like a pyramid shape. If anything. The bottom needs to be a bit larger. So I'm just going to go back into edit mode and select the bottom face. Then hit the AES key to Skylab. And I've gone to scale to something like this. So I reckon a value of about 1.5 should be a good enough value. And now we have our pyramid shape. I'm going to rename my objects as pyramid. And then I'm going to hide it in the outline, a panel. Let's create one more shape using a keep. We're going to this time create a which shape. So again, hit shift and select Cube. Then hit tab once again to go into edit mode. This time, I'm going to combine scaling in edit mode with the ability to move individual vertices. So first of all, we're going to scale this wage on the y axis. So here s And then y. Remember that scaling in edit mode will have a different effect or newer model compared to the scaling in objects might. Fernando, we could do either method and it would work perfectly fine for what we want to do. So I'm going to scale it two times on the y axis. Then I'm going to press Enter. Next. I'm going to go into H Select mode because this would be easiest for what we want today. And I'm going to select one of the top edges. Then I'm going to hit g to move this edge. Now I just want to move it straight down. So if I want to just move it straight down, I can do so by pressing the Z key on my keyboard to look at the z-axis. Then I can move it down to about here. The, my motto, I wouldn't that just be a little bit of surface area at the very end. So I'm going to go to about he and left-click. If I hit tab, you can see our creative, which finally, I'm going to rename this new objects as which instead of hiding this, I'm actually just going to move it across on the x axis. Then I'm going to bring back my building, select it and move it across on the x-axis, and then bring back our pyramid shape. So here you can see we have three very simple objects, but they have all been created from the same primitive objects. You can create almost any shape that you want by using these primitives as your base models. And you can do so by using the tools that we have learned in this class so far, and also many more tools that you can experiment in future. 13. End Of Class Challenge: It is now time, ladies and gentlemen, for the end of class challenge. So, or this challenge, you must complete the following. Create ten objects using primitives, for example, cones, UV space, et cetera. As a base, makes sure that you have no more than two objects per primitive. Name, each and every object as soon as it is created. And as a bonus, create free more objects that use two or more primitives. For example, you could combine a cone and the cylinder to create a rocket. Complete this challenge, and you will have completed volume 1.1 of the blender modelling series. I hope you guys have enjoyed this class and I hope to see you in the next one.