Blender Materials Series 1.1 | Joe Baily | Skillshare

Blender Materials Series 1.1

Joe Baily

Blender Materials Series 1.1

Joe Baily

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13 Lessons (58m)
    • 1. Welcome To The Class

      1:06
    • 2. Where To Find Materials And Change Their Color

      2:12
    • 3. Using Multiple Materials On A Single Object

      6:18
    • 4. Using A Material On Multiple Objects

      3:30
    • 5. Creating New Materials From Existing Ones And Fake Users

      6:30
    • 6. Copy And Paste Materials Over To Other Objects

      4:23
    • 7. Introducing The Node Editor And How To Connect Nodes To Each Other

      5:47
    • 8. Getting The Color That You Want To Use

      4:09
    • 9. Subsurface Scattering, Radius And Color

      3:57
    • 10. Metallic Objects And Specular Reflections

      2:58
    • 11. The Effect Of Roughness On Our Materials

      2:48
    • 12. What The Other Options Do

      12:44
    • 13. End Of Class Challenge

      1:16
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About This Class

Blender Materials Series 1.1

Welcome to our Blender series on creating materials using the popular 3D software known as Blender 3D. In this series we will work from the ground up to created a wide variety of materials both realistic and stylised alike. Learning about material properties, texture maps, UV's and procedural workflows plus more.

In this class we introduce the concept of material application in Blender, including....

  • Where to create materials
  • How to assign multiple materials to an object
  • How to assign one material to many objects
  • Fake users and data blocks
  • The Node Editor
  • Base color
  • Subsurface Scattering
  • Metallic and Specular
  • Transmission
  • Roughness
  • Index Of Refraction

Meet Your Teacher

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Joe Baily

Teacher

My name is Joe Baily and I am an instructor for 2D and 3D design. I specialise in 3D modelling using software platforms such as blender and 3DS max to create virtual models and assets for video games and animations.

My alternative job involves teaching sport and PE in schools and so I have 1000's of hours teaching experience in multiple various fields. My goal here is that I always find great instructors in websites like youtube who are great but never give out enough content to really satisfy my own hunger for learning. Therefore, my goal on skillshare is to provide comprehensive quality teaching on any subjects that I cover, such as blender 3D.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome To The Class: Welcome ladies and gentlemen to this blend up beginner's class on how to use materials in blender free day. This class is for beginners who are interested in learning about using materials for 3D objects in Blender. By the end of this class, students will be able to apply materials to new objects. Understand the data block system. Assign a single material to multiple objects, and apply multiple materials to a single object. And also recognize how the node system works at its most basic level. And using the principled shader to create a basic version of a material. So let's move on to our first lecture of the class, where we're going to be learning about the basic application of materials to objects. 2. Where To Find Materials And Change Their Color: The first thing that we need to do when it comes to assigning materials to objects is first of all, to see if our objects already has a material. You can feel an object's materials by governed to the Properties panel. And then come down to the material properties tab, which should be located towards the bottom. So left-click on the material properties tab. And with your default Q B should already have a material that is named as material. If you scroll down, you can see that we have a wide variety of values that we can change with relation to this active material. One of these attributes is the base color. Now if you want to change the base color of your active material, just left-click on the color itself. This brings up the color wheel. From here. We can change the cutter Swartz ever we want based on the color wheel. Now, you will notice that even when we change the base color, the color of the cube in the viewport does not change. This is because our current Few is set to solid view, which means we are able to see the faces and the geometry of our models, but not the materials. If we want to see the materials, we need to come up to the top corner of the fruity viewports. You will see one icon is highlighted and this is for solid people shading. The one next to it is for material shading. If we click on material shading, the cutoff of the cube changes to match the base color set he in the Properties panel. Now, if we left-click and begin to change the base color, you can see it updates this color in real-time. 3. Using Multiple Materials On A Single Object: In Blender, and objects can have multiple materials and a material can be assigned to multiple objects. In the case of our cube, we completely have a single material located in this box here. So this box is where we can view all of the materials that are associated with the selected object. Now, what we can do is we can unlink these materials by clicking on this minus button here. This is going to remove the material slot. If we left-click, we end up removing the material from our key. If we want to access existing materials, we can come down to this button here, which allows us to browse active materials in our projects. We will see that there is one material named material. You'll notice that there is a 0 that is positioned in front of the nine. Basically, this means that that material has not been assigned to any objects. This is important because any materials that have not been assigned to objects will be permanently deleted. If you were to close blender, even if you were to save your file and then close any materials that have this Ciro prefix fix will be deleted. Left-click. We re-add this material to our cube. Now if we go back to this browse material menu, you can see we have the same material, dare still, but now there is no CFO because it has been linked to our cube. What we can also do is we can add more materials by adding more data blocks. If we click on the plus button, we can add a new material slot. We can then press the New button to add a new material and store it in this material slot. When we add a new material, it's going to be given the name material. But if the material is already being used, then a suffix is added. And this suffix is a numerical value, in this case, brought zeros 01. If we repeat this process by creating a third material, you can see it's now labeled as Material dot 002. So a quick task, boy, you I want you to change the color of each of these materials. Pause the video now and give that a go. Okay, so what we can do is we can select any material and the properties of that material are going to be listed down here. We can change the base color of the first material to be read. We can change the base color of the second material to be blue. And we can change the base color of the third material to be green. Now what you will notice on your cube is that only the first material is being used. Now we can assign multiple materials to single objects. We do this by going into edit mode and assigning materials to specific faces. So I'm going to go into edit mode. Go to face, select and select this top face. Then I'm going to left-click on my blue material, which you can see the color of here. And then I'm going to click assign. What this is going to do is it's going to assign the selected material to the selected face. So click assign, and the color changes to blue. If we click on this face, go to our green material and click assign, it changes the color to green. Now, having done named as material, material or series A01, et cetera, is very confusing and is not very descriptive. So what we need to do is we need to change the names of these materials. That's very easy to do. We can either left click here and rename. So let's rename this as green. And then press enter, and that changes the name of the material to Green. Can you do the same with the other two materials? So blue for this one and then red for this one. I'm going to do this now. So click on that material, click here, and then type in the 91 more time for the red material. And that just makes things a little bit easier when it comes to identifying what materials we are using. Now if I de-select everything, you can see we have two more buttons here, select and deselect. This would allow us to select our geometry based on the material assigned to it. If I was to select with the wet material active, then all the faces have the wet material will be selected. I can also be select these material basis. We can do the same with the blue material. And we can do to sign with the green material. 4. Using A Material On Multiple Objects: In the previous video, we looked at adding multiple materials to a single object. To review, materials can be added to a single objects and you can create as many materials as you have faces on your object. A face can only ever have a single material assigned to it. Let's take a look now at adding the same materials to a second object. What I'm going to do is I'm going to go into objects mode. And I'm just going to move my cube off to the side. I'm then going to add a second mesh object to our scene, a monkey object. And it's not basing me at the moment, so I'm just going to rotate it on the C axis. And here we have an object that has no materials whatsoever. Now we could add a new material and just repeat the process that we did with the cube from scratch. Or we could use the existing materials form the cube. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to go once again to our browse material list. You can see all for you, the material was that we were created for our cube. We can use any of these materials on our monkey object. For example, if I left-click on the red material, it applies the red material to Suzanne. I can also add a material slots, same as before, and add a second and even a third material and even beyond nuts. But remember, as we did in the previous lecture, in order to use multiple materials, we need to go into edit mode and apply those extra materials to the faces. Now, one thing that you can do on an objects that has islands is you can apply materials to those islands. Now we've suzanne, There are free islands or free separate meshes. You have the head and then you have the two eyes. So what I can do here is I can left click away, form Suzanne to de-select everything. Then hover my cursor over one eye and press l. This is going to allow me to select that. I can then select one of my other materials, say the green material, and click assign. This allows me to select that entire island and then apply the green material to the eye. I can do the same with my second. I. So click away to de-select everything or even used it the Select button here. Then press the elk, select the blue material and click assign. And just like that, we have free materials and each material is being employed on two separate objects that otherwise have no relation to each other. 5. Creating New Materials From Existing Ones And Fake Users: In this video, we're going to be focusing on this area here. So we already know that this is where we can rename our material. And we know that we can browse other materials from this drop-down menu. Where you can also do here is you can replace materials. So for example, for Suzanne, the light is green as assigned by the green material. What happens when we change this to another material, say blue. Well, if we left-click, we end up with two different materials slots using the same material. The material blew. The glenoid has now changed to a blue eye. So this is another way of very quickly changing what materials are being used by the faces on your model. If we take a look at some of these other buttons, one that you will notice is a number, in this case the number two. Now this is how many objects are using this material. So at the moment that's set to a value of two because we have two objects using the green material. If I was to add a novel objects, making sure I'm in objects mode. I can add maybe a UV sphere and just bring it across. And let's add that green material to this UV sphere. You can now see that there are free uses for this green material when we're working in edit mode, you can't do anything to this button. If I go into edit mode and then left-click, nothing happens. However, if I was to left-click or this number free, while in objects mode, what this would do is it will create a new material from the existing material. So if I left-click, we end up with green dots, 0.01. now I'm just going to hit Control and z a couple of times to go back. Even though we have free materials or free objects using the same green material. If we change our base color, the base color is going to change on all of our objects. But what we can do here is if we want this to be, say, a different shade of green, we can click on this button here and then change the base Karla. So maybe I want to bring down the brightness, which I can do here. If I click and drag, you can see that the UAVs fig gets darker, but the green on the other two objects does not. Because this is now an independent material. So I can rename this as something like dark green. Now you'll have noticed there that even though I have two words, there is no space in between. And this is just a type of naming convention that I like to use for both why materials and objects. The button itself has disappeared because there's no reason for it to exist so long as there is only one object using that material. Now the next option which actually looks like a shield, is this fake user option. Now, if you remember in a previous lecture where we briefly touched upon the prefix that you may see with certain materials. That is a 0. Well, what the fake user button does is it creates a fake user for that material. So left-click. And you can see the icon now has a tick inside the shield. If I was to close this material, unlink kids form my objects, which I can do by pressing on this button here. And then go to Mike Brown was material to be linked menu. You can see that we have our dark green material, but instead of the number 0, we have the letter F. The big difference is that any materials that have this letter F as the prefix, will not be deleted by blend out when you close it, even if they are not being used on any objects. So then I can freely go back to my green material. Knowing that if I ever want to go back to my dark green material, I can do so even after I have closed my project. The next option is the new material option. And this basically does the same thing as this option here. It effectively creates a new material from the existing material using the original materials properties. So in this case, we are green dots here, 01, we still have that green based color. We can adjust this however we want now. So let's make a blue color and rename it as blue. But wait a minute, we already had a blue material. So how can we have this as a blue material and then this is a blue material. Well, what happens if you add a new material and you give it the same name as an older material than the older material will then get that suffix extension. In this case, blue dots here, 01 for the lighter blue. So in this case, I might go to that lighter blue material and give it a slightly different nine. So sky blue, for example. 6. Copy And Paste Materials Over To Other Objects: Copying and pasting materials over to other objects is not as common as some of the other methods that we've used previously to create new materials or just add materials to other objects. But there are a couple of things that we can do with copy and paste. For example, if we wanted to copy the properties of our sky is blue material. We can click on this down arrow here. We then have four options. Now that bottom one allows us to remove any unused slots. But at the moment, all of our material slots are being used, so that's not going to do anything. If we were to add an empty material slot and then go remove unused slots, then it removes that unused material slots. Now what we can do with our sky blue material is we can copy and then select maybe our Suzanne material. And then we can paste. Now if I was to select the green material, then go and paste my sky blue material onto my green material. What do you think is going to happen? Well, what's going to happen is when I paste the material, I still have my green material, but now it has the properties of my Skype blue material. So the base color has now become this sky blue color instead of green. It hasn't done anything to describe blue material itself. These are still classed as two separate materials by blender, but they now have the same properties because we copied the properties of the sky blue material and pasted them over to our green material. I'm going to hit Control and Z to undo that operation. And then we have one more option, copy material to selected. Now this does something slightly different. So if I was to psi, selects my sphere and then shift, select my Suzanne, and then go to this arrow once again, 4D material specialists menu and select copy material to selected. What will happen in this time is the material or my UV sphere appears red. So it looks as if my red material has been copied from my Susanna to YUV sphere. But it's more than that. If we select our UV sphere, we will actually see that we have transferred all of our materials from Suzanne over to the UV sphere. But the one that acts as the primary material that is assigned to the entire object is going to be the one at the top, which is the green material. Now what we can do here is we can reorder these materials by using these up and down keys here. Now, if you do this, knows that it's not changing the material that has been assigned to the object. Once the material has been assigned, that's it. It's been assigned. So I'm just going to hit control and C a few times until we get our sky blue material. I'm then going to do the same thing again. I'm going to copy my materials form my Suzanne objects over to my UV sphere. But this time I'm going to move my green material the top. If I was to not select the UV sphere, then shift select my Suzanne, and then copy material to selected. More UV sphere now appears as a green color instead of red. 7. Introducing The Node Editor And How To Connect Nodes To Each Other: Now, up until this point, we've really covered the basics on how to apply and move materials across a variety of different objects. Let's now turn our attention to the materials themselves, because so far we've only really focused on changing the base color. Now, lava than going through each of these in the Properties panel. We're going to change our approach slightly and we're going to change the workspace that we've been using. Up to this point, we have been working in the layout workspace and adjusting our materials in the Properties panel. Now this is ideal for when we are working on the material was as just data blocks that we are assigning to different parts of our model. But if we want to really get into the depends of manipulating these materials, we're going to want to use the shading workspace. So click up here where it says shading. And she will see that the blender interface changes quite significantly. Now we have our 3D viewport and you can see it looks a little bit weird. And that's because this what looks like a blurry image in the background. This is a source of HDR I that is used to provide a certain type of environmental lighting to our scene. Now, if we take a look below, we will see that we have a new panel known as the shader editor. So you can see the name here. This is the shader editor. And if we just zoom out, you can see we have two boxes. Now, these boxes are referred to as nodes. We have two of these. By default, we have our material output and we have a principled BSD F shader. Now I'm going to zoom in and just make this panel bigger. Because this is going to be our main focus for the next few lectures. So what's happening here is we've got this shade a node as its known as. This shaded node tells blender what we want the material to be with selling blender, how we want this material to behave by using this principle, VST F shading. And we have a variety of different attributes that we can change. All of which can change the behavior of a material to some degree. We already know about the base color, but there are a few others that we can play with. For example, this metallic option. Now at the moment, you can see here that we are manipulating the green material. We can change this by browsing material and selecting its form here so we can go red, for example. Now keep in mind that that will still change what material is being used for our selected objects. So now, instead of having that greedy noise, we have a red eye instead. So I'm just going to go back to that green I. And one option here is the metallic option. Now if I manipulate this, you can see especially on the UV sphere, that the effect of the lighting is being altered. So it doesn't look as flat. And basically what this option is is it's used to tell blend out whether or not you want your material to represent a metal or a non-metal, otherwise known as a dielectric material. Even though this has a 0 to one slider, it is recommended for realism that you stick with IVR COO for dielectrics or one for metals. Because in the real world, you can't have something that is half metal. Now there are many other options here that we're going to go through in the next few lectures. But for now, just keep in mind that we have one node here that's telling blender exactly what we want our materials to behave. And then we have this second node, and this is our output node. Now that they are connected by this line, we can click and drag on any of these small circles to disconnect the line that connects the two notes. If we release the left mouse button, you can see that the material that was once Green now appears black. There is no material or love at no shader that has been connected to the material output. Soda material output has nothing to display. No material can exist without at least the material output. And one shaded nodes. Two, we connect these, click and drag from the principled BSD F. And hover your mouse over at the surface connection here. Then release the left mouse button. And that connects the two nodes back together. 8. Getting The Color That You Want To Use: Let's now take a look at some of these other elements or attributes that we can change for our principle to be SDF shader. Now because we're focused on our green material at the moment, we're going to turn our attention to the UV sphere, since that is the one object that is only using a single material. Select the UV sphere and then hit the period key on your number part to zoom in. You can also go view and find selected. Now, we already know about this base color and how it works. Now a little bit more depth about how to base color works. We know how to select the color from the color wheel. We also know how to adjust the pleasantness of that color. But what about a values underneath? Well, by default, we're using HSPA, which stands for hue saturation value. The fourth value, by the way, is alpha. Hugh, If we were to adjust this value, actually changes what the color is. So the small white dot here is actually rotating around our colour wheel. The saturation is how strong that color appears. So as we increase the saturation value, that white dots needs the edge of our circle. And as we reduce the saturation, it needs the center. The value represents the brightness. So a lower value means a lower level of politeness and a higher value means a higher level of blindness. The alpha value indicates the transparency of your material. In this example, alpha is not affecting our material. Now you can also choose to decide what color you want using RGB. Rgb stands for red, green, and blue. So you can adjust the red channel, the green channel, and the blue channel. To adjust the base color. Again, we have the alpha value underneath. The next option is the hex value. So every single color has a hex value that is assigned to it. And this will normally be a six digit value. So the first two represent the red channel, the second two represent the green channel, and this, and the final two represents the blue channel. Now, if we were to try and just type something random into this hex value and then press Enter. We come up with a slightly different color here. So there are loads of different hex values that you can use. You can find them on specific sites on the Internet. If you'd like to look at the color, you can take its hex value, then use that hex value in blender. On top of that, you also have this color picker option. So if we left-click on this eyedropper and then select a color that we like the look of it. So for example, say if we wanted to use the red coming from this material output node, we can left-click. And that will give our green material with the same shade of red that this header for our material output node is using. I'm going to hit Control and Z to undo that operation. 9. Subsurface Scattering, Radius And Color: Underneath our base color, we have free options that are all closely linked together. We have subsurface, subsurface radius, and subsurface color. The first option is a slider that goes from 0 to one. Subsurface scattering is the process of light hitting the surface of an object or surface of the material. The light, then it penetrates that surface and bounces around underneath the surface before exiting at a different location. If we increase this subsurface value, you can see that the sphere turns from green to white. And that's because the subsurface color is set to white. So what you would want to do in this situation is if you are creating an organic material because a lot of organic materials like human skin, for example, have subsurface scattering to some degree. So you can adjust what you want. The subsurface color, TBI, for example. So if you wanted it to have a red color, you could then increase the subsurface valley. And as you increase that value, it goes from the base color and then becomes more and more like the subsurface color until you reach a full value of one. So afford value of one here represents the subsurface color and a value of 0 is the base color. This is effectively acting as a mixer. It's mixing these two nodes together. And the number here is the factor of that mix. So COO represents base, one, represents the subsurface color. The subsurface radius just looks like free values here, 1.2.1. But what the subsurface is, is, is actually quite important to how the subsurface scattering can behave. What this is, is it represents free channels, red, green, and blue. And this is going to tell blender how far these channels of lights are going to penetrate the surface of the material. By default, it's actually set up for human skin. So red, green, and blue. So the red is going to travel versus the green, much less so, and a blue light even less so than that. So this will favor red lights more than the other two. If we were to adjust these values, to say something like this, then, now if we go by RGB, the priority is for green lights. So green lights will penetrate further into the material, then the blue lines, and then the red light, which actually he doesn't penetrate at all. Now, if we were to increase the subsurface value, that doesn't necessarily mean that the subsurface color not going to be red. Because remember this is still a mixed value, but it is used as a guide for those more complicated materials. And it does have an effect on the softness of the color. So basically, the higher the value of a certain channel, the softer the appearance of that color. When subsurface scattering is applied. 10. Metallic Objects And Specular Reflections: We already covered earlier on this metallic value. Yes, you can go from 0 up to one. But if you are looking to create realistic materials, you should only really use either 01. And normally nothing in-between unless you are creating a stylized scene. Now the two options underneath are related to dielectric materials. In other words, non-metals. The specular value here represents the amount of specular reflection form that given material. Let's take our UV sphere, for example. It's currently set to 0.5. So we've gots some sort of a reflection here. If we increase this value. You can see on the faces of the UV sphere, that's the distinction between these faces here is more parents based on the light that is hitting the object. If we reduce this value, more and more, they begin to blend in. If we set it all the way to 0, then we are not allowing for any specular reflection whatsoever, so it just appears green all the way around. We have no real reflective properties. Note that this value does not apply to your material if your material is a metal. So we have the metallic value sets or one, changing the specular value will do absolutely nothing to our material. Finally, we have the specular tint. Now the speculates hint is effectively, how close do you want the specular reflections and match the base color of your material? So when it set to 0, the specular reflection is effectively this whitish color that hits and reflects off of the surface. For our green material, if we set the greens in higher, all the way up to one, then it sort of does something that's very similar to setting the specular value all the way to 0. It's blending the reflection in with the base color. So because of this, I don't recommend having the speculative and set all the way up to one. In fact, in most cases, I tend to not change the speculative hint as at all, unless I'm building up specific objects that have that property in the real world. 11. The Effect Of Roughness On Our Materials: One of the more commonly used inputs is going to be the roughness. The roughness represent how reflective I immaterial is in blender. With our green material, the roughness is set to 0.5. Watch what happens when I set it to 0. You can see that the faces on our EV sphere appear much more reflective. To make this even clearer, I'm just kind of go to objects and shades MOOC. With our UV sphere, you can now see a reflection of the HDR lie that surrounds this sin. So you can even see the trees and the sky in the background. The reason why is when we have this roughness value set to 0, when light hits the material, it reflects straight out again. By increasing the roughness value, we actually create this sort of micro facet effects on the surface of a material that scatters the light. The higher the value, the more the light gets scattered on the surface. Notice that this is not the same as subsurface scattering, where the light is scattered after it has penetrated the surface of the object. The roughness value is what's happening on the surface itself. So the light is being scattered across the surface. And as we increase the value, the reflection gets more and more blurred until it becomes indistinguishable. You can go all the way up to one, again with roughness value. But in most cases, you will find that the difference between 0.61 is minimal. Minimal for most materials. Much like with the subsurface value, I tend to keep the roughness value between 0 and points 5.6 with a subsurface value, I tend to keep it around 0.4. For most objects that require subsurface scattering with roughness, it is a bit more varied. There are going to be a loss of materials that are very reflective, such as a glass mirror. And then there are going to be other materials like metals, like iron, for example, that are not going to be that reflective at all and needs have the roughness cranked up quite a bit. 12. What The Other Options Do: Up to this point, we have covered the main inputs that she will be using for the majority of your principled BST F style materials. But of course there are quite a few more underneath. Now some of these only work in the Cycles Render engine. So what I'm going to do is I'm just going to change my current render engine from EV cycles and then set my device to GPU, although it doesn't really matter here. Now, in cycles, materials can sometimes work differently compared to how they work in EV, Because cycles is focused on creating a more realistic results. Now a lot of what we've done so far, we have manipulating things like metals and the roughness values. That's not going to change compared to what it was before. But what is going to change is the use of things like the anisotropic effect. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to set a roughness stands for about 0.3 and increase this anisotropic value. Nothing happens. So what is this anisotropic value actually doing? Well, anisotropy is something that normally happens with metallic objects, such as frying pans. So we increased our metallic value and then begin to manipulate our anisotropic value. We still see no change. Why is that? Well, this is something that's very important to remember. The material preview uses EV, even when we have the render engine is set to cycles. The material preview viewport shading style uses EV to preview the materials because we're working on speeds. So EV is for speed, cycles is for realism. If we want to see the anisotropic effect, we need to change our rendered view once again. This time, we're going to go to rendered view, which is going to render both the materials and the lighting of arsine. As soon as I do that, you can see that we have this sort of halo effect on top of our UV sphere. Watches are now adjust to anisotropic value. So I'm going to click and drag. And you're going to see that it goes from this source of light reflective ball all the way up to this sort of halo effect. Now we can combine this with the roughness value to determine how we want the anisotropic effect to look what is effectively happening here is, and you can see it as, oh, I orbit my view. We are creating this sort of highlights along with the objects normals. Now we can further adjust this look by adjusting the anisotropic rotation here. So if I adjust the anisotropic local rotation. You can see that highlight is being almost rotated around our sphere. So here you can choose the effects that you like the look of. So for example, a value of 0.755 looks pretty good for the anthropic effects that I would like for this object. So we can see that we have the very top of our UV sphere. And then we have almost this beam of light coming out from either side. And this highlight is the anisotropic effect. So you can mix the anisotropic values with the anisotropic rotation values and the roughness to get the look that you want for this anisotropic effect. And as I mentioned before, this is often used for metals. If we changed this to a dielectric material, we still get the anisotropic effect, but it is far less pronounced on a dielectric material than it is on a metallic material. Now the ones underneath are not strictly for metals, but actually for software objects. So Xin, For example, Xing effectively creates a reflection on the edge of a material, kind of like a velvet or cloth materials. So if you increase this value, you create that sorts of added reflection on the edges of that material. Now this does not go with the anisotropic value. I don't know of any material that would have both of these effects applied. So I will just decrease that to 0 and then increase the xin. Now, for an object that is as smooth and as round as a UV sphere, we're not really going to see this xin in effect. But as I previously mentioned, it's more used for fabric, materials like velvet, cloth, et cetera. Creating that added reflectivity to the edges of that object. The xin tint is basically how much of the original color of the object do we want to be shown in this reflection kind of like with the specular tin. So 0 represents whites, and one in this case would represent the color green because we have that base color, which is green. Underneath we have the clear coat and clear coat roughness values. This will add an additional layer of reflexivity on top of your material. So by adding this clear coat, and you can actually see this in effect slightly when it comes to the reflexivity on our UV sphere. If we increase the clear coat all the way up, you can see that this point of reflection gets much more intense. We can actually reverse this to some extent by manipulating the clear coat roughness value. So as we increase this value. Then the clear coats reflection begins to spread across the surface, much like the behavior when we increase the roughness over the base color. Then we have the index of refraction, transmission and transmission roughness. Now if I set the clear coat back to 0, these free values will allow us to create a glass-like material form the shader. So the index of refraction represent how we want the lights to behave when it enters a class objects. In fact, it's not just a glass object, all objects. An index of refraction, which can determine how reflexivity behaves. In glass objects. However, it's much more visible. So we often use this in conjunction with the transmission and transmission roughness values. If we set the transmission value up to one, we effectively turn our material into class. Now this is very rough class, even though we haven't manipulated the transmission roughness. And that's because we are still using the roughness value as the base. If we decrease this value to 0, then we get a more reflective UV sphere. If I navigate my view slightly, you should just about see, do reflection of Susanne in this glass sphere. Now what I can do here is I can manipulate the index of refraction. And I'm going to actually manipulate this quite severely just so you can see what's going on. If I increase this. You can see that the reflection of suzanne becomes clearer. And also we're losing some of our base color here by setting up the index of refraction to this very high value. Now, it's important to note that this is just to exaggerate the effect. All materials in the real-world had their own index of refraction. And whenever you create a new material, I advise that you research what the r value for that material is. A lot of materials are going to be around the one-point free, free range to 1.45, especially dielectric materials. But a lot of materials will have different values to that. We also have the transmission roughness value. And this works differently to the roughness itself. By pushing the transmission roughness all the way up to one. We are effectively creating this reverse for nel effects now, for now is where light hits the surface of an object. And if it's hitting the surface at an angle, it's going to reflect a Y at an angle, and that makes it appear more reflective. So in the real world, when we apply the principle of personnel, objects tend to be more reflective. As you hit the edges of that reflection. If you're looking at an object straight on, it's going to be less reflective. And you're going to be able to see through that material more clearly. For example, if you were to look at a body of water, straight form a bird's eye view. You would probably be able to see if the body of water was shallow enough, the bottom. But if you were to look at that body of water form a sharp angle, then you will be able to see the background reflected in the surface of the water. The transmission roughness is in a way sort of like a reverse of this effect in this case. So it sort of making the AG's appear much darker. And then the, because it is altering the way that light is being pushed through the surface of the material. The final option that we are going to look at is this option here, the emission. So we have rights in Blender, but did you know that you can make any material into a light source? Or the emission here is set to black, which means we are not missing any lights. But if we were to increase this, you can see that the material is self becomes white and begins to emit light for which we can't change that emitted color he. So we can still go with our green material, for example. But now it just looks pure green. That doesn't look like there's any shadows on our UV sphere. There's still a little bit of a reflection here for the lights, but there's no shadows. And that's because this entire object is now emitting light, not just absorbing and reflecting is as a little bonus. Just to finish, I'm sure you're curious about what happens when we manipulate the alpha value, which represents the transparency of the actual material. Not the same as transmission. Because transmission allows for reflectivity. If we were to reduce the alpha value, we make the material more transparent. And if we set that value dance Z of o, then the object becomes invisible. So we've now fully covered all of the different factors that we can change to create different materials. So we should now be able to create these materials, at least to a very basic level. 13. End Of Class Challenge: Congratulations ladies and gentleman, on completing this class on introducing the application of materials in blender. It's now time for our challenge to test, to see how good we are at creating basic materials. Bullish challenge, I want you to create the following materials. I want you to create a gold metallic material. I want you to create an iron material, Create a glass material, and then create a clear plastic material. See if you can also look online to do some additional research on the properties of these materials. Namely the index of refraction. As the gold material, for example, is going to have a very different index of refraction to the class material. The glass material itself might have many different values for the index of refraction depending on the type of glass. So thanks for taking part in this class, guys, and I will see you next time.