Blender 3D modeling fundamentals | Widhi Muttaqien | Skillshare

Blender 3D modeling fundamentals

Widhi Muttaqien, CG expert & entrepreneur

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24 Lessons (3h 1m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:35
    • 2. Project : Simple table

      7:29
    • 3. Advanced selection method

      4:00
    • 4. Selection mode custom shortcut

      6:28
    • 5. Mesh selection methods

      8:01
    • 6. Modifying mesh selection

      9:00
    • 7. Adding edges

      12:02
    • 8. Inset, Extrude and Bevel

      7:46
    • 9. Project : Kindergarten chair

      7:47
    • 10. Deleting and patching

      6:27
    • 11. Merging vertices

      7:06
    • 12. Project : Wardrobe

      8:47
    • 13. Good vs bad geometry

      9:54
    • 14. Normal direction

      4:56
    • 15. Face smoothing

      6:53
    • 16. Project : Coffee table

      7:07
    • 17. Splitting and separating object

      3:14
    • 18. MatCap and AO

      6:53
    • 19. The undo system

      5:04
    • 20. Project : Security outpost part 1

      11:46
    • 21. Project : Security outpost part 2

      13:20
    • 22. Project : Fish submarine part 1

      9:18
    • 23. Project : Fish submarine part 2

      13:03
    • 24. Next step

      2:14
24 students are watching this class

About This Class

This course is the continuation of the previous course “Blender 3D essentials”. So if you new to Blender I suggest that you take that course first before taking this one. In this course we will learn the fundamentals yet very important things about 3D modeling. We’re going to learn advanced mesh selection methods and advanced methods also on tweaking the selection. Learn how to quickly set custom shortcuts on modeling commands. Learn how to tweak 3D model using a lot of tools such as the knife tool, inset, extrude, bevel, loop cut and so many more. Learn the difference between deleting, dissolving, collapsing and how to patch holes in the geometry using various techniques. We will discuss in depth about the industry standards of what is considered to be bad practice versus best practice in term of 3D modeling. We will also cover normal direction versus backface direction then move on to face smoothing techniques to make our 3D model looks great while still maintaining the polygon count. We’ll learn how to split, separate and join objects. Learn how to use the Matcap correctly and ambient occlusion for extra realism in the viewport. We will also discuss the undo system in Blender, which is very unique compared to other software.

Beside basic 3D modeling knowledge, this course also provides you with a lot of hands on projects. We’re going to revisit the previous 2 projects which are kindergarten chair and the simple table. Then we’re going to create wardrobe using precise real measurement unit. Then we’re going to model a coffee table object. After that we’re going to create a security outpost from scratch, also with precise real measurement unit. And at the last project we’re going to escape from reality to fantasy object. We’re going to create a fish submarine model from a sphere object, cylinders and several plane objects until finish.

After finishing this course, I recommend you to join my other advanced courses on Blender, such as Blender advanced 3D modeling, Blender rendering with Cycles, Blender 3D game assets to Unity etc. Join now and take your first step into 3D modeling using Blender!

Transcripts

1. Introduction: assalum aleikum. My name is really Mottaki in from Exports Academy. I am an entrepreneur and also on academy lecturer in computer graphic disciplines. This course is the continuation off the previous course, Brendel for the essentials. So if you're new to Blender, I suggest that you take that course first before taking this one. In this course, we will learn the fundamentals, yet very important things about remodeling. We're going to learn advanced mesh selection methods and advanced methods. Also on tweaking the selection. Learn how to quickly set custom shortcuts on modelling commands. Learn how to tweet, really model using a lot of tools such as the knife tool, inset, extrude, bear ful, loop card and some anymore London difference between deleting the solving, collapsing and how to patch holes in the geometry. Using various techniques, we will discuss in there about the industry standards off what is considered to be back practice versus best practice in term off three D modeling. We will also cover normal direction versus bake face direction, then move on to face moving techniques to make our treaty model looks great. While still maintaining the polygon count, we learned how to sew split separate. Enjoying objects. Learn how to use the madcap correctly, an immune occlusion for extra realism in a few port. We will also discuss the under system in Lender, which is very unique compared to other software beside basic three D modeling knowledge. This course also provides you with a lot of hands on projects. We're going to revisit the previous two projects, which are kindergarten chair and a simple table. Then we're going to create wardrobe using precise real measurement unit. Then we're going to model is coffee table object. After that, we're going to create the security outposts from scratch, also with precise real measurement unit. And at the last project, we're going to escape from reality to fantasy object. We're going to create this face submarine model for almost fear object and several plane objects until finish. After finishing this course, I recommend you to join my other advanced courses on lender such as blender. Advanced three D modeling blender rendering with cycles. Render through the game assets to unity, etcetera doing now and take your first step into three D modeling using blender 2. Project : Simple table: in this lesson video. We're going to create a simple dining table like this image. I know this is very simple, but this is the first custom to the object we will be creating in blender, and we always need to start from something simple toe will. Our foundation for more advanced lesson, although it may look simple, will cover several techniques at once from the things we've learned in previous videos such as Dimension applying, transformation, snapping, duplicating objects and also a new technique to join objects together. Okay, so let's start with determining our measurement units. First, go to the Properties Editor and then choose metric in here. We want our table Toby 170 centimetre with 80 centimetre depth and exactly 75 centimeter height measured from the ground to the top surface off the table for the tabletop itself. It should be 10 centimeter thickness to say the dimension off our cube. First up on the treaty few properties panel, by pressing and on the X dimension type in 170 centimeter press tab to go to the next input field type in 80 centimeter, then hit enter for the height off the table. We're going to take care off it later. But as I mentioned before, it is a good practice to always apply the transformation. After changing the dimension we can see, we now have known default scale values in here. These values will give us troubles later. So let's apply the transformation first so that we can press control A and in juice scale. Now the scale of values are all one, as we expect that before moving on until now, you might notice that our object is way smaller than the great. But if all the great use one unit which is in our case, one meter. So these squares at the great are exactly one meter by one meter. If you are modelling a building or large scale object, this great my be sufficient. But for interior scenes and modeling for each other like what we are doing now, it is probably a good idea to scale the grades 10 centimeters squares. We can do this by going to the display section at the treaty. A few properties and change the scale in here toe 0.1. So now the great is smaller, more prevalent to the size off our table. Next, we want to place the top surface off the table at the exact 75 centimeter position along the Z axis. So go to edit mode and make sure we are in the face mode. So, like the top face and then in the property spinal type 0.75 and then enter okay now before moving on notice. If we are in edit mode in according at values, we have global and local mode for in putting coordinate values. Global means that the coordinate off the selected elements will be based on the center off the treaty world. Local means that it will be measured based on the objects origin instead. Now currently are objects. Origin is located exactly at the centre off the world. So right now, either global or local mode in discord in that panel has no difference. Okay, Next, remember that we want then said the meter thickness for the table toe part. So select the face at the bottom type 65 centimeter in the Z coordinate in here we now have the tabletop finished. Next. We want to create legs for that. Let's create a cube change the dimension to seven centimeter by seven centimeter and 65 centimeter for the height control a and choose skill to apply the scale. Next, we need to snap this like object to the table object, using this Vertex and its Vertex as the reference. So just make sure this is set over tax and this one is that the closest? We don't need to turn on the snap button as we're going to use the control key to snap. Now, if you're confused at this point, you're probably watching this video at random order, so please be sure to watch the previous video essence in order. Okay, now we can simply press and hold the right mouse button and move or Musker sir to this for Tex while still holding the right mouse button. Hold the control key toe. Activate Vertex snapping. Temporarily noticed the leg will snap at the correct Fortis's release the right mouse button to confirm the new location. Remember, we can do this because we have released to confirm options and on in the use of Preferences Window, as we discussed earlier. Now we need to create the other leg we can simply duplicate this one by pressing shift D, and right away we are in move mode, which is school. Just move arm Oscars are at this Vertex and hold the control key were near the vertex toe. Snap it. Click a mouse weapon again to confirm for the other two legs. You can select both off these existing legs for a chef de to duplicate and then move the mouse cursor at his first X location. We're holding the control key. Click the mouse button again to confirm, and that's it. We know half a table with four legs before we end this video. I like to show you a new technique to join objects. You might be wondering, Why do I need to join these objects? Can I just use them like this? The answer is yes. You can just use them like this, but by joining them all as one object, you can select it easily. And if later you want to add it, the object you can goto added mode, toe access. All of the table parts we don't have in tow go back and forth between the edit mode and the object mode. Basically, if in the real world, the object is considered as one object. Then it will be more convenient to join them as one object also in the really world. So to join them, we must like all off the legs first. Then select the table tall. The order off The selection is important. Why? Well, it doesn't really matter for the legs as long as the tabletop is the less one gets like that. Because as I mentioned earlier, the last selected object will be considered by blender as the active object. And when joining objects, the active object place a very, very important role. Basically, when joining the objects off, the selected objects will join the active object. So these legs will join the table top object. We need to do this because the origin off the table top is already correct. We just at the center at the bottom, off the ground. So making the tabletop as the active object when joining this objects will afford us from additional work later to reposition the origin. Okay, So to join them all, we can press control J. If you forget the shortcut, you can goto object menu and just join in here. Now, finally, we have our simple table object finished and joint together as one object 3. Advanced selection method: in this video lesson, we're going toca for more ways to select objects or elements. First is the less or selection method. This method works both in object mode and in edit mode. For example, if we have so many objects in a scene like this to select objects, you've seen the lasso method. We need to hold the control key and impressed the left most button to draw the selection. Any objects that get inside the lesser Ragen will get selected when we release the mouse. The object will not get selected if the lasso selection Ragen not cover its origin location . So the most important part off the object that we want to Slyke is its origin Notice. If I draw selection like these, which is not covering its origin, the object will not get selected. But if we do something like these, just a small selection area, but it comforts the origin. The object will gets like that. We can also use the less or selection method to reduce selection to the death. We can add the shift key modifier while doing less, or selection so press in hold Schiff and Control and quick Direct to draw the selection region like these, for example, notice all of the objects covered by the selection become unsuspected. So again, control quick drag toe add selection. She of control quick drag to reduce selection. Okay, now we can also use class or selection method in edit mode. That's by stab toe. Go to edit mode goto for Tex mode and express a first to dislike all for theses control, click drag toe at these courtesies to the selection shift control quick drag to take out these fantasies from the selection, so the methods are basically the same as an object mortar. The next selection method we're going to cover is the box selection. The shortcut for book selection is be so press be notice. We have vertical and horizontal lines across the screen. After we have something like these, we only need to click drag to create the selection rectangle like these release the mouse and blender will slack objects or elements inside the book selection region. If you want to reduce the selection, press be first to go toe box erection mode and then hold shift and then click drag to create the selection. Ragen Notice. When we released the mouse. Anything inside the selection region will get the selected and just like the less or selection method. Both selection method also works in edit mode. Next is the surgical selection method. Now in other software, this method are usefully called pain selection method because basically we are painting the selection to access the circle selection method we can press, see notice the mouse cursor change toe a circle cursor just like a paintbrush coarser. If we click direct like this, anything touches the circle cursor will gets like that. We can recites the circle by scrolling the mouse up and down, scroll down to make it bigger and screw up to make it smaller. If you want to reduce the selection, we can hold shave while clicking and dragging the cursor. Or another way to reduce selection is by using the middle mouse button. So hold and write the middle. Most button like these produced the selection, and if you want to actually the circle selection mode simply right click OK. Just like the books and the less of selection Method Circle Selection method can also be used in the edit mode to select orbits like elements 4. Selection mode custom shortcut: in the short tips video. I'm going to show you an alternative method off, setting off blender shorter so later we can access or switch between MASH selection types in edit mode quickly. Now you don't really need to follow what I will do here. It is entirely up to you. But the information I provide in this video tapes will be very beneficial if you want to create your own custom shortcut for element motor selection or even custom shortcut for any other task in blender. Okay, so currently, if you're walking in edit mode toe goto for text selection mode, you need to click this button down here to go to H mode. You need to click this button on this button for face selection mode. When you are in intense modeling station going back and forth to this area, just a switch selection mode is not that convenient. There is a shortcut for these, and that will be control tab, then just the selection mode you want to use in here Oregon Press Control Tab and impress one to select Vertex mode Control tab and pressed to do so like H mode and control Deb and Breast three to select face mode, but I find using this control. That method is even more trouble, some to do then the ordinary button clicking method as we need to press two keys and followed with another key. That will be a total off three key presses just to switch selection mode. What I want to do now is off right the buttons in a mesh election Mindo. So they use number 45 and six in a keyboard, which are located above the letter R and T. Because they are near the position off, the left hand switching selection mode will be a lot more faster. You might be wondering by now why not use number 12 and three? They are much closer to the left hand, the number 45 and six. My answer is yes, you can use those numbers instead. This is because I turn on emulate number option in the user preferences, even though I use a PC with a full keyboard. So number one and three, located above the letters Q and W are already used for switching toe front and to write a few mode. I almost never used number 45 and six for a few port navigation. So these numbers are generally safe for me to use for other things. Now, if you use a full keyboard and always turn off the amulet numbered option, you may want to use number 12 and three instead. Okay, So how can we change the short cut if discussed before how to change the shortcuts by going to the farm? A new use of preferences and go to input tap. Right now, I'm going to show you a much quicker way to set up shortcut. Remember, we want to offer right the MASH selection mode menu. So open that menu first by pressing control tab on the for text button in here. Right? Leak and juice. Add shortcut. Now hover the mouse cursor over this area. Which out? You really don't want to click this input field as that will register the left clicking mouse as Vertex election mode. So again, only hover your mouse over this input field. Do not click on it. Okay, Now, when you see the world press a key, press the number of four key in a keyboard, you will see number four now displayed at the right side of the Vertex selection mode. Do this with H selection mode. Also, control tab, right Click in here at Shortcut. Hover the mouse in here. Press five. Now for the face More control tab. Right Click in here at Shortcut. However, the mouse in here press six. Okay, so now if we want to goto Vertex Mode Express for if we want to go to h mode press five. And finally, if we want to goto face mode, we can press six. Of course, as I mentioned earlier, you don't have to do this if you don't want toe. But just so you know that in future lessons I will be using the shortcut to switch between selection modes so you won't see my mouse cursor back and forth to the selection more again after each a lot of bender classes. And every time I teach this custom shortcut method, there are always some students who click on the shortcut input field, making his or her left mouse button registered s mass election mode. Off course. This is a very bad situation as we need left mouse clicking for a lot of important commands in render by default I figured that some off my online students will eventually make this mistake. Therefore, I need to explain how to offer come this problem. When it happens, let me re create the situation here in edit mode. Press control Tab toe open the mash Select motor window, Right click on Vertex. Change short cut Now You should just hover the mouse on top off this input field. But let's say I accidentally click on it. Now we have the left mouse button for a Vertex mash selection mode. If I try to fix this by oppressing control temp again, right click on his Vertex selection Command notice we don't have any change Shortcut option in here. So in order to fix this problem, we need to go to the user of preferences. Go to input step in the search box up here Types liked mode notice We have all off the custom mash select modes we specified before. If I click on this carrot button, we can see that this select mode is for Vertex. So click on this input field Yes, right now you can safely click on it. Then after you see the world press a key press number four in the keyboard. Now we have corrected the mistake we did before. Just remember this method toe correct. Any custom shortcut mistakes we've made. 5. Mesh selection methods: in this video, we're going to discuss different methods off creating selection when inside the edit mode. In a previous video, we learned how to create selection using lasso box and circle methods. Those methods are available both in object mode and in edit mode. Er, what we're going to cover in this video only works in edit mode so they will not be applicable in the object mode. First, we're going to discuss loop selection and ring selection for these. Let's create you fist fear and then go to edit mode. Make sure we are in age motor for now. Okay. To create a loop selection you need to press out and then right click on on age. For example, These age notice all of the age is connected to this age will get selected. Disconnected ages are usually called H loop or simply loop in term. Off to the modeling. So again, the Silicon Age a loop we can hold out and right click on age toe. Create the selection. Next is a ring selection. Now ring selection is almost like a loop selection, but instead selecting connected serial ages. Ring selection. We are select parallel ages to create a ring selection. We can press and hold the R key and control key together and then right click on age. As we can see, the ages that gets selected are this way. Instead, off this way again, ring selection will pick parallel ages and loop will create selection from cereal ages. Sometime we want toast like multiple loop or ring. We can do this easily with the help off shift key modifier, for example, that speak this H loop press and hold out then right, click on this age. Now we want to select this h look also above it. We can hold out then Schiff, then right Click on this age. So we know have to age loops like that. If you want to select an under age Luke, just do the same process as before. Hold out, then shift, then right. Click on this age, for example, we know have three loops Selection. We can also use shift key to add ring selection. To show you how it is done, press a first to dislike everything next whole control and out and right click to select this age ring to add more age ring selection, we can hold Schiff and control an alky together and then right click on this age and another one like these. Okay, now the shift key modifier method can also be used to reduce selection, so it's actually work like a selection. Togo, for example. Let's press a again to remove all off the selection out and right click in here to select the age loop, then press shift and out and rightly, to select this edge loop and this edge loop. OK, notice. When I hold the Schiff and out and right click on a selected age loop, they will get done. Selected right click again. We'll get them selected again. It also works with the ring selection. I'm sure you get the idea here. Okay, Until now, you might be wondering. Hiss, Loop and Ring selection only works in age mode. What about Vertex and face mode? Well, Loop and Ring also works in Vertex and face mode, but they behave a bit different. Let's see how it is done. Infotech smote first, so goto for Tex mode press a first to dislike. All holding out and right click on this age will get us these H loops Election Now you must remember. Although we are in Vertex mode and of course, we can only select for theses in vortex mode to select a loop. We need to write leak on on age. Not on the Vertex. Very important to remember. So for example, I want to select this loop up here, hold out and right click on his age not on the Vertex, because if you try to select on the Vertex blender will determine the closest age off where you click. So you might accidentally select these age instead. Now what about face mode? Well, in face more, there is no such thing as Luke and ring selection as they are both of the same thing for faces. Let me show you what I mean. If we go toe face mode, hold out and right click on his age, we will get this face group selection. Now you must remember when doing these you also need to right click on the age not on the face center. So for example, again we want just like our face loop this way vertically. Hold the alky! Move your mouse over this age, then right click to select the whole off a slew. Now, if you use control an alky and then right click on this age, you'll get the same result as using only Ault and rightly so again, to recap in face mode. There is no different holding out and rightly versus holding Out in Control Key and rightly they are both produced the same result. Okay, so just use only the all key in face mode for Convenient. Another cool selection feature existing vendor. But surprisingly, not many people know about it is the point to point selection. This is very helpful when we UV unwrapping, especially on high polygonal treaty models. Let's go to overtax mode first toe. Create point. Oh, poor insulation. First right click on an element in our case of Vertex. Next we're holding control. Right? Click on this vortex. Notice all of these fertile sees between the initial selection and the new selected Vertex will get selected. Okay, now what if we hold control and right click on his for Tex lender will create something like these. Basically, we learned two things from this example. First blender will automatically continue the selection from the less selection Which is this for Tex? Because before this vortex is the active one. Second blender will intelligently find the shortest path from the previous active Vertex to the new one. Knowing this is very important as some time we want to create point to point selection. But forget to guide the selection. First, let me show you what I mean. Let's look at a sphere from above like this. It's like this for Tex. Let's say we want to create selection around like this. If we try to do this using control and right click in here, notice Blender will create the selection straight like these, as this is the shortest path calculated by blender, but apparently not exactly what we want. So to avoid this, we need to guide the selection toe this area first. Right click in here. Well, control, then, right Click in here first at another gut Vertex selection if needed. Then finally, we can hold control, right click in his for Tex. We now have them selected as we want them to be. I know this is not the best example as you probably thinking that we can achieve this with loops election instead. But you'll understand, leader, how valuable this method is when dealing with more complex object. The last thing I want to mention in this less and video is that point to point selection can also be done in face mode, for example. Right, click in here, control. Right Click in here. Okay. And it can also be done in a motor, for example, like these. 6. Modifying mesh selection: in this less and video, we're going to explore several techniques to modify selection inside lender when working in at it more. But before we do that, I need to explain one off the most important issue when selecting elements and that is selecting hidden elements. Let's go to edit mode and make sure we are in Vertex mode. If, for example, we want to select this hole here, we can use the last source selection method, hold control and just drag around with the left mouse button. Like these notice. We cannot select the for theses at the back off the ear in a single process. Even the first assist inside prophecies one gets like that. Why? Well, this is because Blender has a philosophy in term off selection, and that is you can only select things that are visible directly so anything that is hidden from our view cannot be selected. Okay, If you come from other three D software, you will know that we need to select those hidden elements in order to model three D objects effectively. So is there a work around for them? Well, yes, there is, and that will be to make them fishable first, because if they are feasible, we can select them. There are two ways to do this. The first method is by using the wire frame mode. We can do this by oppressing Z and keyboard. If you are in wire frame mode, we can see that the first theses are not blocked by any surfaces because they are fishable within do less or selection like these and all of these virtuous is will get selected. This is my preferred method off doing selection for hidden elements. Let's go back to solid mode first by pressing Z, the second method is by turning off this option. Don't here called limits selection toe fishable? Let's turn this off. The default state for this button is on. This is why we cannot select anything that is hidden or invisible due to being blocked by other surfaces. Notice. When we turn off this option, the treaty object will become semi transparent as the further seas are all fizzy will now, by using the less or selection method we can see like all off them in one go, for example, we can select this fertile sees at the ear easily. The next method we can use to modify selection is growing and shrinking selection. What I mean about growing is expanding the selection. Ragen, So more neighboring elements gets like that to do that. For example, we already have this selection from previous example toe grow the selection. We can press and hold control and then impress the plus sign in a keyboard at the number of bad notice that we have more elements gets like that if we do this. Okay, the opposite off grow selection is shrink selection, butchering the selection. The shortcut is holding control and in minus sign in a number pad we can see by doing these less unless elements will get selected so again to recap Control Plus will grow the selection and control miners will reduce or sharing this election in lender or in any treaty saw for. Actually, a treaty object can have suffer independent structures. What I mean by that notice. If ice like overtakes on Suzanne's, I then control plus several times at some point we cannot go any further. Why? Well, this is because the eyes are on independent structure. There are no overdoses in the eye element attached to the main had geometry. We can see this clearly if we move this along the y axis. This kind of condition also applies. If we duplicate elements, for example, we can use these for Tex Control plus several times, then press shift d to duplicate and place the ear in this position. For example, we have another independent structure in here. These kind off independent structures can also happen if we join toe objects together using the control J method that we have discussed earlier. Now you must understand that we're not talking about other object here. All off, these are one object. If we go to object mode, we can see all of these geometries belong to a single object. Let's go back to edit mode again by pressing the tab key. Now in blender, this kind off structure are called linked elements to select linked elements. We can do this in two ways. First, by hovering the mouse on top off Vertex. If we are in Vertex more, that is and then impress l. That's it. No need to press any button on the mouse notice. All linked fertile sees will get selected. This method also works in age or face mode. Okay, So again, however, your mouse over these Vertex, for example, and impress L in the keyboard, Another method off selecting linked elements is by using the control l method to do this first Unitas lack of Vertex or any measure element types like ages or faces. Then hold control and impress l. We can see we get the same result as before. He won't be wondering, Why do we have to methods off selecting linked elements? In my experience, both methods are very helpful, and I used them both for different scenarios. If I don't have any selection yet hovering the mouse and press L Methodists much faster. In other case, if I already have a selection, perhaps after a certain modeling function that we performed previously, pressing control L is much faster. Also, this methods work in other editing environments, such as you fee and wrapping and texture, painting and many other tasks in Lander. I know if you are new to blender, most off these things still make no sense right now, but we will get there eventually in shallow. In many cases, we need to grow off a selection based on the angle off neighboring faces. Let me show you what I mean for these class. Create a cylinder. The let the monkey had first shift a and then just cylinder. Now scroll down here for the kept feel type. Just triangle fan, what this option does if we go to edit mode, the triangle off an option will make the top area or the kept area off the cylinder toe have this spider web like structure. We need these faces for our demonstration. Okay, Selecting fled faces only works in face mode. We cannot do this in Vertex or ages, so Goto face mode. And then it's like one off this faces at the top off the cylinder. Now hold Schiff control and all together and then press F notice all of the faces at the top area gets like that. If you ever need to use this selection method, But forget the shortcut. You can always go to the select menu and click on this link Flat faces. You can see the short cut at the right side off it. Okay. Now what if we want to select the site faces with this link Flat faces method. Can we do that? Yes. we can to do that, simply rightly on one off the faces and the side. Then hold Schiff, control an out, then press F as we can see nothing happen. This is because we need to specify the angle threshold at the bottom area off the two shelf by default, the angle threshold or sharpness in Leonard's term is set to one degree. This mean any faces neighboring toe. Our selected faces that Ben below one degree angle will gets like that. Any neighbouring faces that Ben with more than one degree angle will not get selected. So it was like all of the faces at a side. We need to increase this value. We can just click and drag in attacks field until we can see all off the side faces gets like that. Now be careful. If you increase the value too much more than 90 degrees, the top faces will gets like that also because the site faces and the top faces form a 90 degrees angle. I'm pretty sure you get the idea here 7. Adding edges: In this video, we will start discussing on various three D modelling tools available in Vendor who will focus on Suffer oh, techniques that we can use to add ages to our pretty models. First is the loop. Cut em slide command. You have seen these several times before. When I create example, models would haven't discuss it in there. The loop cut and slide. As the name implies, it's actually two commands in a single operation. It will first create a new loop cut and then, after confirmed, move on to the next process, which is age sliding process. Let's see how we can do this, just this cube and then go to edit mode to look, cut and slide. We can go to the two shelf and click on this button. Are you can also press control are then move the mouse cursor over. An age lender will create this preview off where the loop cut will happen Now. In this condition, you can scroll the mouse up and down to define the amount off ages for the loop car. If you agreed with amount off ages, you can confirm it by left clicking after left clicking. We're not finished yet, as we are now inside the age sliding process. In this process, we can move our mouths the position the newly created loop cut ages. If you want to come from the sliding, you can left click again. But if you don't want to slide the ages, you can press the right click. Most button toe can solve the sliding, so this is something you need to keep in mind. The first left click, or rightly, will confirm or cancel Blue Cat and the second left leak or right leak will confirm or cancel the sliding process. After we do Luke cut and slide, we can still access the previous perimeter at the bottom part off the tool shelf. As long we haven't done anything else afterwards, we can set the number off cuts in here smoothness. We'll make the loop, cut Baulch or stretch it in like this if we said it too negative, and we can find a sliding factor in here. Life is used to create freeform ages that will snap to any elements we wish it is able to snap covert ASUs, existing ages or even at random point on any faces to access the knife command. We can press K in a keyboard, notice our mosque er's are changed, toe a knife simmer, and we have this small green square. Whenever we move arm, Oscars are on top off a mash. This green square indicates that blender already find a surfers for the knife toe toe cut if we over over on age will get these age. Highlighting indicates that we are snapping toe that age. If you hover over a vertex, the green square will have red border. These indicates that the knife tool will cut precisely from that vertex. If I click on this age, then on this age we can see that the knife tool will keep cutting. Continuing from previous cut location, we can cut at Vertex like these or at faces like these. If we want to come from the card, we can press enter or a space bar. If we want to cancer, we can right click with our mouths. If you forget the shortcut, you can also access the knife tool Fear the two shelf can see the knife button in here. Life Tool also has the ability to snap to the center off ages and we can create, suffer or cuts in a single process. Let's see how we can do that. Let's click on a knife. But then in a tool shelf. If we want to send her the cut at the age of center, we can hold control. Key notice. Our green square cursor will snap to the center plate to create the cut control and click in here and in here and so on. Okay, now, sometime we need to finish a cut until this point. But we don't want to confirm and exit the knife tool yet. We want to create another cuts in this area. For example, we can do that by pressing the E leather key in the keyboard. As you can see, I can start a new cart without leaving the knife to mode. You might be wondering by now How do I know about these E shortcut? When in knife cutting mode? Well, you can actually read them. Don't. Here in header. You can see in here that E is creating a new cut. You can also see other staffs in here related to knife to motor. So if you ever forget the shortcut, just look at this area. And this is true to any tools in lender, not just for my stools. Another example off a new knife toe technique that we can try just by looking at the header off the relief you when a knife to mode is this see shortcut which will make our knife plane become constrained to vertical or horizontal or diagonal direction based on our viewing angle. So I think this is more suitable for front, side or top few. Also, while in nice tool mode, we have this Z option. Don't hear that will make the knife toe cut through the surface, making the hidden mesh elements at the back side get cut up. Also, these Z option will make the knife toe walks more or less like the Bisek tour, which we're going to discuss after this. Basically, if you use any tool in lender, just try to see the options don't here and you may end up finding cool features that you never talk possible before. Have you ever imagine having lightsaber that can cut through anything you want? Well, this is exactly what I think about Bisect bisect will cut anything based on our viewing angle. Let's remove this cube and yet another one. Okay, let's go inside the edit mode now by oppressing the tab key. Now, unlike other modeling function with discussed before, bisect doesn't have any shortcut By default, you can go to the tool shelf to access it. And before we can use bisect, we actually need to select faces. Or at least age is that we want to bisect press a now so we don't have any selection clicking on the bisect button, we will result on error. Report like these selected ages or face is required. Let's say we want to cut the whole object so press a dose like off them. Click the bisect button in here and then click direct like these. Then release. As we can see, blender will cut the object like these based on our viewing angle. After bisecting an object, we can adjust the parameters from the tool shelf. This is the initial clicking, according it. The section defined the cutting plane in here. We can define whether we want to feel the hole where the cut happened. You only able to see this Phil effect unless you turn on one off this option. If we click this clear inner blender will remove half off the geometry based on our cutting plane. If I click this clear outer blender, we remove the other half off the geometry. So basically render will splash the geometry and name one side as inner and the other side s outer. We can see how feel option will take affect. When one off the side is cleared, the last one is accessed. Threshold this value. Determine whether a blender will cut along the straight plane or along the existing geometry below the distance from the plane. Basically, the higher the value off the stress hold. The more likely blender will use existing further assist in ages near the plane to create or connect the cut. It is very hard to cities affect now as we only have simple cube like this. But usually I just set this to zero as I generally won the bisect toe cut, using the plane consistently without any distortion. The less method off reading ages that we want to discuss in this lesson is connected. Vertex path. The short cut for these is J, and you can only do this correctly in for Tex mode. So Goto Vertex mode hands like this one. And then this one, for example, then press J notice we have a new age connecting these two overdoses. We can also select multiple overdoses like this blender. Well, remember the order off the selection. So when we hit J again, new agents will be created following the order off the selection. This is a very important thing that you must be aware when trying to create ages in Vertex mode. Some people may notice that they can create new Ages between 2/4 assists in there, using J shortcut or using the F shortcut. Now, I want you to understand that both off these commands or short cut are very different. J is for connecting vert asses so it will regard the existing topology between selected for theses while Elf ISS for creating a new age directly through space and ignore the topology between the two selected for theses. Let me show you the difference. If we select this for tax and then this for tax, then Press J noticed the New Age will flow and automatically detectives for Tex and connect with which is a good thing. But Nor does if I under this first then use F shortcut instead. It looks like nothing has happened. But notice when I press z toe goto wire frame mode the New Age created directly from Miss Vertex to this vertex ignoring the topology off the geometry. Let me undo this for now. This condition proved to be a problem when we try to connect Vertex on a single face or flat surface as at the glands we cannot tell whether the age is part off the surface are actually floating on the surface. Let me show you what I mean. Let's select this to focus is now pressing J were resulting this face split into two faces This face and this face This is the correct condition we generally want tohave Let me undo this again But if we use f instead it looks almost identical with the previous result. But notice when I select this face this is a single face So basically this age that we create with the short cut has nothing to do with the face below it. It's like floating on its own Mostly this is not what we want. So to recap use J to connect fertile sees with ages on existing geometry and use F Onley to create New Age where there are no geometry exists. Yet, you see the F shorter is suitable in point to point modelling, which were going toe cover in future lessons off discourse. 8. Inset, Extrude and Bevel: in this video we're going toe coffer More basic mash modelling techniques in render which are inset, extrude and therefore first is inset inset only works in face mode. OK, so let's select this cube here. Go to edit mode by pressing tab and and make sure we are in face mode To insert a face, we can select a face and impress I in the keyboard Move your mouse away or toward the center off the face to define the insect thickness broken from the inside process You can laugh Klay but if you change your mind and want to cancel the insect process, you can right click OK, you can type in exact measurement when doing insects or right afterward. For example, we want to insect this face in here 50 centimeter. Select the face press I then type 0.5, then hit Enter We know half inset face for 50 centimeter If you wonder which line is measured. 50 centimeter. Well, it is this length from here to here. Ok, now, after you create an insect like these, you can still change the many German in a two shelf Don't here provided you haven't done anything else After the insect command, for example, You want to Orefice the value to seventies in the meter we can type 0.7 or just 70 centimetre then press enter. Just remember if you want to use measurement unit make sure you said lenders Measurement unit first in the Properties Editor We've discussed this before, so we won't go over it again. If you forget the inside shortcut though I don't, you will ever forget it as I later for insect is very obvious. But just in case you forget the shortcut you can access insect from the two Sheriff in here we can see the world in set on this button All we can go to the mash menu faces insect faces Notice blender actually grouped all off the face Modeling command inside these faces may new which you can access via control f shortcut. So any time you want to access the face modeling menu simply hold control and impress half We can see the lease off face modeling commands and we can find insect faces in here. Next is extruded Although we can use extra in Vertex H or face mode Do I extra behave is different for each mash element type. For now, we'll be focusing on extra function in face more only not in Vertex or in H mode, So just make sure we are in face mode now. Two extra or face. Simply select a face and then he e in the keyboard. Then move your mouse to define the extrusion. Depp. We can have positive value, which will make the extrusion rice up from the initial surface level. Or we can also have negative value, which will make it sing from the original surface. Just like in set, we can specify exact extraction that value by typing the number on the fly or later afterward in the tool shelf. For example, let's choose this face press e to extrude, then type 0.5 toe extruded up 50 centimeter, then press enter. If you change your mind, just go to the tool shelf and change these Z number in here. For example, typing one will make the extrusion that riff iced toe a leader. If you forget the shortcut, you can access the extra command from the two shelf. You can see extra operation in here are from this extra Italy's and juice Extra Ragen in here, or you can also access it from the MASH menu. Extrude extrude region. Okay, until now, you probably already noticed that extra command comes with suffer or variations. We can see this variation in the tool shelf. When we click this extra police are from the mash menu and extrude in here or by pressing all e to access the extrude menu, we can see that we have extra Ragen Extra Ragen, Vertex normal and extrude individual faces. Let's discuss the difference between these extra operations. One by one, the ordinary extra is actually called extra Trey Jin. Why? Because you can select multiple faces and exclude them all at once by oppressing the shortcut. Now, extra Ragen may not be a perfect fit for every situation. Let me create a cylinder. Refers go to edit mode and for Luke, cuts at the site by pressing control. Are and scroll the mouse up three times Left, click and then right click OK, if we go to face mode, hold out and right click. On this age, we have this loop face selection like this in here. We want to extrude all off these faces to their own perpendicular direction. If we only use e to extrude notice e shortcut which is excellent region command can Onley extra all off these faces toe one direction only. This is not what we are looking for. If you press r e toe access the extra menu, we can choose this extra raging Vertex normal notice Each faces will get extruded together but each moving to their own perpendicular direction in computer graphics, this direction perpendicular to a face is called a normal direction. OK, so this example should explain the second type off extraordinaire Let me undo this. Okay? The other type off extra command we just called extrude Individual faces will explode each faces separately to their own normal directions. So to see this in action, press out e and n choose extra individual faces then move the mouse away from the centre off the selection. Lastly, to confirm notice how each faces extruded independently as we describe before the last modelling technique, we're going toe coffer in this lesson, video is Boever. There are actually two type off baffles Vertex Bear four NH bever. In this video, we're going to focus on H Bethel Force. That's like a cube and then go to edit mode. Because Bevel works on ages, let's select the H mode toe Advair photo on age. We need to select the age first, then press control be Move the mouse away or toward the center off the selection to control the baffle value laughed leak to confirm notice that bear full command well, supplies the age into two ages, making sharp corner become dull or a smoother. Let me undo this. Now watch when I was like all off the ages and hit control be therefore command will double all of the ages at ones in his condition. If you scroll up, the mounts will get more than two ages at the Bethel area. We can also type the bear full value, just like how we can do this in insect or extra command. And if you left click to confirm, we can still adjust the less baleful parameters over here at the tool shelf. I think until this point you should already be familiar with this blenders concept off doing things, an able to explore these yourself 9. Project : Kindergarten chair: in this project lesson. We're going to model a simple kindergarten chair like this. So let's begin. First. Goto Properties editor and go to Sin Tab measure were using metric for now. Next, go to the Treaty Properties panel on Goto This place section. Change the grid size Toby 10 centimeter by in putting 0.1 in here. Next. We don't need these light and camera objects. It will get in the way when modeling, so let's select them and lead them. We want to create the chair from this cube Select the Cube said the dimension 30 centimeter for the With that will be the X value 34 centimeter for the depth that will be the Y value and for the hype. Actually, we don't need to specify the height for now, but let's just make it 30 centimeter for now, as we discussed before, every time you make dimensional changes, you always need to apply the scale so press control a and then juice scale. Now, before we move on, there is something important that you need to remember, and that is your object should always be facing the negative y direction. So a positive Why will be the back off the object. Positive X will be the left side off the object, but our right side, a negative X should be. It's right side and left side. From our view, this is the best practice off doing any modeling in blender. Why? Because when you press one in a number of pad to go toe front, few you will actually seeing the front off the object, not the site off the object. If you press three in a number of pad to go to the right few part, you will actually seeing the side few off the object, basically, by making your object facing the negative Y direction. This will make it lined with vendors to the few defaults. Also, when later we need to access mirroring features in blender such as mirror, modifier, texture, pain mirror or are much are mirror etcetera. All of the default vendors mirroring function is based on X axis by default, not the why access so creating a model that is facing the X axis instead off. Why axes? It's like asking for troubles as you will need more additional steps to fix things up later . Next, we want to make the top area off the seater Toby. Exactly. A tortoise and the meter. I know for our doubts. Chair 30 centimeter is too low. But this is for kids. So 30 centimeter is a good number for the seat or height. Let's just go to edit mode, select the top face and changed the Z. Coordinate in here to 30 centimeter. Then select this bottom face. Now we want to thickness Toby four centimeter. I know you want to type 26 centimeter in the Z co ordinate, but I want to show you guys that blender can actually do the math for us. Type in a C chord in an input field 30 minus four and then see an M for the unit letters. Then hit. Enter. We have 26 centimeter as the result. Next, we want to divide the seater this way for three age loops. We can do this. You seem to control our shortcut. Scroll up two times left click to confirm the cut and then right click to cancel the sliding. Do this also for decide control our scroll up twice left leak and then rightly Now let's like this face and this face Notice. These faces are at the left side, not the front side press I toe inset and impress 0.16 then hit Enter. Unfortunately, the insect command cannot recognize unit letters on the fly. So every value input should be in a default unit, which is leader. That is why we need to type 0.16 instead off 16 centimeter. Okay, now press e two. Excellent. The face. We know that the height off the bottom part is 26 centimeter. So just type in 0.26 impress enter. We don't need to create the right side legs manually as we're going to use the mirror modifier. So basically, we let Brender handle the right side toe, create the right side with a mirror modifier. We're going to use the out a mirror and on we have discussed before. Yes, like the autumn mirror and on in here. And now we have to right side automatically. Okay, Now let's focus on the top area again. So let this face press. I toe insect by 0.16 excluded for 0.1 meter, then extorted again for 20 centimeter because we extrude it twice. We get one h Lupin here. Next, Like this face extreme it for two centimeter. It's like this side and I stood also around this position. We need to remove these face first, suppress acts and your face go to H mode and out. Right click On this age, as we can see, we have clipping too long. So if we move these to the laugh, it won't penetrate the mirror plane. Now go back to face mode. Extrude these side face for two centimeter like this place is at the top. Extort them for two centimeter. The chair almost finished. We only need to bend the back grass a bit and at some bevel to the corners off the model so it doesn't look too sharp. Sharp ages rarely exist in the real world unless they are knives or Swartz a tetra adding beveled ages to alter the model will make it looks more realistic. Okay, so go to the right few port. We need to select the whole upper area off the back rest, as we discussed before. We cannot do this in solid mode. On last return off the limits of action toe fishable button down here. But this require us to move our mouths and trying to find a button which is not that convenient. I always prefer switching tow wire frame mode by oppressing Z. So now we can select these whole virtuous is. We can do this by using box selection method press be on click drag like these. Now we need to wrote it. So press are to go to rotate mode, press one and then zero to wrote it 10 degree clockwise hit. Enter press G to go to move mode, press why and impress four centimeter than enter. Okay, let's go back to solid mode by pressing Z as we can see, our to the model is actually complete. But you may notice that the corners are very sharp, giving the impression that our chair is fake. It looks like a craft made off paper. There are actually two ways to fix this problem. First, we can manually select all off the ages and impress control be toe at the bear foe or the second method which I prefer more, and that will be using the bare form modifier. So go to object mode this way, you can see the effect. Better go to the modifier a panel at modifier, and then just bear full in here. Change the wheat toe two millimeters and increase the segments. Toto. And that's it. Now we have a kindergarten chair model finished. 10. Deleting and patching: in object mode. When you press acts to the liton object, you only get one question whether you want to delete or not. In edit mode, However, pressing X will prompt you with so many options. We have ordinary delete operation, such as for tax age or face delete. Or we can use the soft down here. So which one should we choose? A quick, easy beginners rule is this. If you are in Vertex mode, you need to choose for Tex. If you are in age mode, you need to just age. And finally, if you are in face mode, you need to choose face. So, for example, if we are in Vertex mode after selecting, overtax or suffer over theses and hit eggs, usual juice overtakes okay. Noticed the first assist that we selected before are now removed. Now, deleting much elements with the lit function will create a hole in the geometry sometime. This is not what we want. This is where the soft operation come in handy. The soft We remove a certain elements while maintaining the integrity off the geometry. Basically, the solve will not create whole as well. It does. For example, let's pick this for Tex Press X and juice the salt for Tex as we expect that the Vertex is gone, but the geometry is preserved. We can do this with ages and faces also, for example, that's like this age. Press X. We solve age for face. Let's go toe face mode and select these three faces Press X, then the sore faces. I'm sure you get the idea here If you want to. You short card. You can use Control X to resolve any selected elements instantly. So, for example, let's go toe H mode out and right. Click in here to select the age group. Now press control X, and you can see the H. Liu is resolved. Basically, it is gone now, but the geometry is still intact. The main idea off limited the soft is the softening elements based on angle threshold limited. The soft is very useful for cleaning up geometry. For example, we already have a Q with so many vert assists and ages at each side's off it. But you notice that these virtuous is really doesn't do anything. I mean, it really doesn't contribute to the shape off the geometry. This kind of condition is a perfect example for limited this off. Let's like all of the elements you can be in Vertex or age or face selection. Motor doesn't really matter. Then press X just limited this off in here. Now we have this clean cube with only mesh elements that matters the legitimate reform. If we look at the two shelf, we have anger threshold in here for a maximum angle in vendors term. Any mission elements exists under this degree. Angle will be dissolved together to see more example for limited piece off. Let's get a new UV sphere. Select all off the elements Press X and juice limited. Dissolve notice. When I increased the max angle value, the higher the threshold, the more faces considered as flat. So more elements get the salt together. I believe you already understand the concept by now. Let's like these two faces at the top Press X and juice face after the leading on element or several elements, you might end up with whole like this in your geometry. To punch a hole like these, we can use the F shortcut, but first we need to select the fertile sees or the ages around the hole that we want to feel to select The fertile sees around the whole. We can do this using the select Luke method. We can do this either in Vertex mode or in H mode this Move your mouse cursor on top off any ages at the whole holding alky and then rightly now the ages or the fertile sees around the whole will get selected. Then we can press F toe fill out the whole with a new face. Another method off filling the hole. It's using the great feel Command. Great field will automatically we agreed, or ages after a filling the hole because it is based on quarts structure. Great field Can Onley works on court type holes to show you how it works. Let's take a look at the back off This monkey had model notice. These four faces have court structure. What I mean about quarter is that all of them are four sided polygons, one toe three and four ages. If we delete them by pressing X and then choose face, we have acquired based hole to fill it. We need to goto h more first or vertex mode than hold out and rightly on one off the age and the whole border. Now, if we only press f toe, fill it with the ordinary feel operation we get this large known quart face. Let me undo this. Okay? Now we're going to use the great feel to access the great feel. We can go to the mash menu than faces, then great feel the resulting patch is out or filled with h grid. Okay, but if we have non quite based hole this great feel method one walk, for example, we can cities face in the back off the monkeys. Here is triangle not acquired face. If it's like these four faces and create a whole, then go to H mode, sacked the border and try to fill it with great feel Render will pro us this error message This is again because one off the faces is not quite resulting the wall whole. Not based on quad 11. Merging vertices: When modeling a three D object, we often need to march for theses in lender, we can march for theses using several methods. The first method is using the March command or R M for shortcut. You can also access this command in a two shelf, which is this food on lease in here. Okay. To see this in action, for example, we want to march this Vertex and this for tax Select. This one first holds shift on right click on this one also to select it. Now, there are so far all scenarios for the March command. We can march these for theses at the center location. Or we can move the first light it for tax to the last, like the for Tex or the other way around. Move the last selected for tax to the first selected for tax. Let's see how we can do all of them one by one. Press about em and notice we have these options. At first we remove the last selected for tax to the first like that for tax and merge them into one vertex. Let me undo this again. Press all them again and choose at less this will merge the two Fertile sees just like before, but used the last selected for text location as the target. Finally, at the center option will calculate the center location between the two for theses and merged the two for theses at that position. Okay, now, March Command also come with additional two options at cursor and collapse. The cursor option will march the fertile sees at the three D cursor location. I think you already get the idea here, so I don't really need to show you how the less option is collapsed now. Collapse work best on H mode instead of Vertex mode. Basically, it's like stitching two parts and doing them together. Let's like this age and then hold Schiff and then select this one, which is parallel to this 1st 1 and then this one also. So we have three ages selected. Next press about em and then juice collapse. We can see that each selected ages now become one vertex, another merging feature that I use a lot, especially when modelling character is the breach H Loops command. This is very useful, for example, when we need to attach characters limb to the mint, also in my scene, I have this plane object and a cylinder with advert asses at the side. When win breach age loops, it is recommended to use the same amount off site or ages. So if we have ages at this election, we should also have eight ages at the selection. You can have different amount off ages, but the resulting breached apology will be a bit messy as you will get triangle faces to perform Bridge Command, select the four Faces don't here and then the face up here Now breach. Age Loops doesn't have an indirect shortcut, so we can use the mess age menu short cut instead, which is control E and in juice breach. Age loops in here. As we can see, the previous selected faces are gone, and we have new faces generated connecting both radiance. Besides, through control the shortcut, which basically opened the age modelling tools, we can also open the space CEOs window by oppressing W. We can see the breach H Loops command down here. Okay. Now beside face election breach, A two loops also works on age and a Vertex loops and also works on hole. So it is very smart and flexible to show you what I mean. Let me under the previous step, let's like these pop face and lit it goto vertex mode and select this vortex the latest also. Now hold out on right click on one off these ages at this whole also the upper edge loop by holding Schiff an out and right click on here Also, after we have both off the age loops selected press W and then juice breach age groups. Okay, there are settings also in the tool shelf that you can access to have more control over the bridge Command. I will leave the settings for you to explore them yourself. One thing that I haven't mentioned is that these less command properties at the bottom off the tool shelf can also be accessed by pressing the F sick shortcut. That is, if you prefer shortcut and a floating. We know. And this F six shorter also works in other tools in lender the rest merging commands that is very useful to clean up double for theses. In our object is the removed doubles command. There is no default shortcut for these, so you need to access it either via the two shelf in here. Or you can go to the mash menu ver thanks and choose removed doubles in here. Now, you might be wondering, how can my to the models have double for theses or ages or faces? Well, this can happen because a lot of things. For example, if you select multiple faces like these, then chef de to copy and move this around. But then you decide to cancel the duplication by right clicking the mouse button. If you do this, what you actually do is canceling the movement and not the duplication process. So what we see in here is actually double faces noticed. If I pick this for Tex and move it like so we can see the double elements, let me undo this first. Another example off double for theses that usually happens is when we select a face and extraordinary and move this up. But then we right click to cancer. What we just did is just cancelling the face movement and not the extrusion. We can see these dots in here. These are actually faces created by the extra command. We can see this more clearly by moving this face up like this. Okay, let's under the movement again. So basically, now we know that there are a lot of things can cost Double fertile sees in our model to remove this doubles simply press a to select them all. Then go to the two shelf. Impressed this Remove doubles button. Now our model has been fixed as there are no more doubles in our geometry. 12. Project : Wardrobe: in this lesson video. We're going to model this wardrobe unlike before. We're going to use centimeter for the unit for this project. Now you need to know that there is no right or wrong about which unit you want to use. Generally speaking, if you model large scale objects such as house wielding our city scene, for example, you should use meter for your unit. But if you need to model small scale objects such as furniture, books or other tabletop objects, for example, you will want to use anti Niedere instead. Okay, So first Goto Properties editor and go to CNN tab to stand the Niedere precept from up here . Or you can also manually adjust it by to see metric in here and just change the scale toe zero points or one. This will add vendor, know that you are using Santee Needle now. Next, go to the treaty Few property spend all and go to this place section changed a great size 10 centimeter by in putting 0.1 in here the lead, the lamb and the camera object Select the cube and change the dimension toe 140 centimetre for the with or the excise for a stab. Then type in 60 centimeter for the DEP press step again and type two meter for the height. As always, we need to apply the scale. Press control a and juice scale. Okay, Now notice if we zoom out so far all times at some point, the object or some of the objects part disappear. Why is that? Well, this is because by default, blender will clip the few port toe only, see objects at certain distance at maximum and then clip or hide anything further than that maximum distance. In a few section you will find this clip options, start an end, change the clip and 2 50 meter. So this way there will be no few port sleeping until we are zoomed out 50 meters away from the object. Okay. Before at previous projects, we never changed the origin. Instead, we change the pope face height to control the objects Z axis dimension. In his project, we already have the correct dimension. What we want to do is to move the origin so it is located at the bottom off the object. We can do this by going to the edit menu select the face, don't hear then used to quick origin and on to set the origin to the face location. Quick origin will automatically bring us back to object mode. Change the location off the object back to the center off the wall by pressing out G. We just a short cut for resetting precision. Now let's go back to edit mode. Press control our to do a look, cut and slide. Make for Luke. Cuts, click and then rightly movies. Look at 27 centimeter height and this one at 35 centimeter height for this Luca. We want to make it three centimetre above this one. We can just type 38 centimeter for the recording it, but let's just blender do the math for us. Type 35 plus three. At an enter, we get 38 centimeter as we expect that now for this age group type 200 minus tree, then hit. Enter. Next. We need to mirror this wardrobe object, so click the auto meter button. Okay, Now, as you can see, if we hide the modifier, our actual model is only the right side. Left side is being generated automatically by the mirror modifier. Now we want to make the site frame thickness and the center column at three centimeter. Also, just like the top one control are and hover over this age. Scroll up, so we have to age loops this way. Left, click, then rightly no. Pick this age group at the center by 1.5 in the X coordinate next for this age group within . Type in the number directly 60 sevens and the meter so that the edge loop will moved here three centimeter away from this border or used the math technique I've showed you before, but right now I want to show you another trick. First, you need to make sure that the snap element is set. The Vertex. No need to turn on the snap button as we're going to use the control key. For that, make sure the edge loop is selected. Dragged the X manipulator, hold control and move the mouse on this for tax at the border who snapped to it, then press G to go to move mode than acts to constrain it to X axis, then type minus tree and then hit enter. Okay, so that it's not a technique that you can use. Next. Let's create the doors. In this case, we're not creating any type off animation on war broke, such as opening the door or pulling the drawer. So we don't need to create the interior for the wardrobe. Just a fake gap around the doors will do Fine. Okay, so So, like this face hold She if and then these face also press I to inset type 0.3, then enter. This will create three millimeter gap. Now we want to extrude the gap. 10 centimeter will do for these press control plus toe grow the selection. Then hold Schiff right Click on these face and then right click again on his face. Then press e to extrude type minus, then hit enter, then press acts, then choose faces. Next, we need to create the handle. Let's start with the bottom drawer for a handle. We can create these from a new cube if you want precise dimension. But let's just eyeball it for now. Basically, we're going to create the handle from this face, duplicate the face by pressing shift d When we are in, move more like these right click to cancel the movement. The face is already duplicated but located at the same place with its original scale. This loose face. By pressing as then press Z to constrain into the Z axis, make it roughly dis ice. Move this up a bit, then press e to extrude type three, then hit ender. No press control l to select are linked faces. Then hold Schiff. Right Click on this face than these face at the side. Also at the side press acts total it, um juice faces. We now have this threat you shape for the base off our handle. Give it a thickness. Simply hover over one off the face. Impress l to select them, then press control. F toe goto Facemash Modeling men. You find a solidify commanding here. The solidify command will make selected faces tohave thickness. Type 1.5 in the thickness input field and press enter for the top handle. We can just copy this handle and move it up. So press el chef de to copied handle while in move mode. Press Z. So the movement constrained to Z axis press are to rotate and press. Why? To use why access as the rotational axis type 92 rotated 90 degrees movie, so they are close to the center. I think I want to make this a bit longer, So press Z to goto wire frame mod goto for tax mode. Answer like this for two assists at the top and just move this down a bit. Press Z again to go to solid mode. You can adjust the position again if you wish. You can add bear full now with EJ careful or before modifier, but I think you already know how to do these from previous lessons, so I'll just skip this part and assume our model is finished. 13. Good vs bad geometry: I believe you already know by now in blender, through the objects are not actually solid object. They are hollow. If we delete a phase or any elements from an object, we can see the faces on the other end. Now, this behavior is not only restricted toe blender three D objects in almost all truly software are hollow. For example, in three DS max, my, uh, model lightwave, etcetera. This is also true in all treaty game engine, such as unity on riel, God or etcetera. All of them use the same Hello to the models. There are two the applications that use solid through the object model, but they are categorized as manufacturing or industrial design software now see G or computer graphics already exists for a couple of decades. New technologies are being developed rapidly, and our workflow is an artist needs to evolve also, to keep up with the new tools and new standards. In terms after D modeling SED artists, we need to understand the global standards off what is considered to be a bad practice. First, us the good or best practice. These standards will ensure that our treaty model looks good when subdivided later when deformed in animation process when converted or exported toe. Other to the application. Our when we need toe, print them using pretty printing devices. Basically, if you follow these rules that we're going to discuss in this video lesson, you will help yourself from getting into troubles later. Down the road, the first rule in truly modeling, it's always try to create Quad Polygon. What I mean about court polygons, our faces. That has exactly for ages why this is important. First reason is that later, when you do subdivision on the object, the object will look smooth. We don't any noticeable normal painting effects. I know we haven't discussed of deficient yet, but you'll understand later when you use subdivision. The second reason selecting age loops only possible if our model are based on court faces. If we hold out and right click in here, we can just like the whole age loop like this. But notice if I select this 18 here and this age, then breast X, then just the solve aging here. When we hold out and select this age, the selection stop at this point on this point because, as we can see the intersections in here and in here is not court intersections anymore, so blender cannot continue the selection now. Sometimes you may need to break this first rule as you need to use triangle faces or faces that has more than for ages, and that is totally fine. Basically, this first roll is not a mass. It's just something that it's nice toe have. If you break this first rule just a little here and there, your treaty model is still considered as acceptable. The second rule of pretty modeling is always try to create many fault pretty objects. Okay, so what? This many fault objects? In short, many fall through. The object is a three D object that can exist in the reward we've talked about. Three D models in Blender are actually hollow, right? They are not solid. They are like paper craft glued together. But when doing modeling, we need to imagine that they are a solid object. Basically, the surfaces off our tree model need to be watertight. No holes and there should be no face intersection. Also, there should be no age is or for theses floating around without faces attached to them. If you have known money fall to the object and then try to export and print it with a three d printer, it will produce error message as the structure is just impossible. Toby exists in the real world. Let's see several examples off what we're talking about. We have this cube now. This cube is many fall. It can be exists in the real world. Okay, Now, if we go to face mode So like this face and impress acts at an juice face, we have whole now in our geometry, our object now categorize as known. Many fault We have exposed a flat zero thickness surfaces in here, which is impossible. Toby exists in the real world. Even papers in real world have some thickness. While these open faces have a complete zero thickness, these kind off non money fault will get you error when you try to treaty print the object. But for use age other than three d printing these kind off non many fault is acceptable. I'm talking about still image rendering animation are exporting it toe game engine. This treaty object is fine. Okay, The next non many fall is face intersection. If I select these age and impress e toe extrude. We know half three faces intersecting on a single age. These kind off model is very, very bad. It is not acceptable at all, whether for three D printing or for any other usage, basically, on age must always have maximum off two faces attached to it, so you should avoid this kind off non many ful at all costs. In my experience, these kind off non many fall happens a lot when importing model from sketch up because in sketch up, when you create lines that loop, it will create a polygon automatically on that loop, resulting ages with more than three faces. Intersection. So this is something you need to be aware when importing three D models from sketch the next. Non many fall is floating ages and for the seas, for example. If we go toe Vertex mode, then select these Vertex hold control and laugh clicking here than in here and so on. We can actually create a structure off ages and for theses without any faces at all. It is possible to do this in Blender and his feature, also quite useful in modelling process, but you should never exported remodel like this again. Don't get me wrong here. You may use faulting ages and for theses but Onley in development face not for the final product we're going to go for how to utilize floating ages and virtuous is for modeling in future lesson. The last known many fold we're going to discuss is a single vertex that holds two or more non linked geometrical structures. For example, let me create a new Cuban here, go to edit mode scale these on the axis control our click on right click. Now, if we press X and induce age collapse will have something like this one. Vertex holding two structures This kind of geometry is very bad, and you must avoid something like this in your three d model. Not alter the models that we create this for three D printing purpose. Most often, we need them for still image rendering animation or exporting them to external game engines such as unity or unreal, for example, for the scenarios. There is no problem at all if we have these two types off non many fold and they are flat faces and offer lapping geometry. So, for example, if I create a plane object like these, then create an object. Let's say you face fear, which is intersecting the plane object. Okay, this fret plane object doesn't have any volume, so it is actually known. Many fault and his fear object intersecting the plane object like this, which is actually known. Many fold also, but this objects are completely acceptable in animation or in Gambia flagman. So you don't need to fix anything at all. Sometimes we need to work as a team. I need to import other people's three D models. Unfortunately, the treaty models that we import are not always perfect. Finding known. Many fall problem in a treaty object manually can be trouble. Some Alhamdulillah blender has a method to select all known many fold 30 assists provided the objects we want to check out. A joint s one object in here. I have an example three D model, which was important from sketch out. I also add some non many fall problems in this model on purpose just for the day. More sake. To check for known many fold for theses. You need to press a first toe on select all mesh elements, then go to select menu. Jews, like all by trade, choose non many fall are you can use the short cut as we can see in here she have control out M As you can see, all non many fold for theses are selected automatically. 14. Normal direction: I mentioned about normal direction before Basically normal direction is the direction perpendicular toe face plane. Let's create a plane object on movinto disposition. This plane object, which consists only a face element, has a normal direction, which is up the world's dizzy axes. This cube, however, consists off six faces each off this faces has their own normal direction. This face normal direction is up towards the Z axis, just like this face on a plane object. This face normal direction is this way towards the negative. Why axis you get the idea Now? The question is what happened if we look the face from the back side, not from its normal direction. If he wrote it, the few to see the bottom part off the plane. As we can see, there is not much of a difference except blender. Color it a bit darker, the site where it is the opposite. Off the normal direction, it's known as back phase. If we select the cube and goto edit mode and lead this face, we can see the back faces off this cube colored much darker than the faces at a normal direction. You might be wondering why knowing this normal direction concept is important. There are at least two answers for these. First, If you are planning to export your to remodel toe game engines, you should know that most game engines used back fast cooling by default. If you don't know what back first calling is, it is basically a rendering method. Toe optimize performance by not rendering the back face is so big faces will be infeasible , as if there were no faces at all To give you an idea of what back face calling is, you can goto pretty few properties and scroll down until you see the shedding section. Turn on this back face culling in here. Notice the inner side off the cube now look transparent, are invisible. The faces are actually there. They are simply not being rendered at all. If we wrote it a few poor and see the bottom part off the plane object, we will see nothing. Also, this is the default behavior off many game engines again, this is mainly because performance optimization to render bake faces. The game engine will need more processing and system resources, which may not be a wise option, considering most back faces are never be feasible anyway. The second reason why knowing normal direction is important because later we're going to learn about normal map. Essentially, normal map is a special texture that use already be colors toe ben, the normal direction off the surface, giving an illusion off complex depth or bumpiness on that surface. For now, let's focus on how to fix normal problems on a geometry when important to the objects from other people or other application or doing some complex point to point modeling. You may occasionally encounter objects that have flip faces in some part of it. In lender, we can fix this issue. You see manual method Are automatic method TOEFL. If certain faces normal direction, you need to be in face mode and select the face you want to flip and then go to the tool shelf Jews, the shedding You fi tab and then click this flip direction button noticed the faces. No change. It's normal direction. It will look darker from the rest are if you turn on few put back first calling, it will look invisible from the other side. If you need to flip it again, simply re select the face and click this flip direction again. You can also go to MASH menu normals and click this flip normals in here. The faster way to fix normal issue is by using the automatic method. To do that, we can select all of the faces and click this button in the two shelf, called recalculate. You can also use the shortcut control and are you can go to the MASH menu. Normals and Justice command recalculate outside. If you need to recalculate the normals with also flipping the surface, we can use control shift, and instead, this way, the surfers will be facing inward. I finally shortcut, very useful, especially for creating walls for interior scene. 15. Face smoothing: by default when you create really object in lender blender will assign flat star shading to the treaty object Notice. If I create a you face fear, for example, we can actually see off the individual faces Clearly. Another example. Let's create a cylinder. You also can see these faces at the site off the Syrian dinner. Now, when winter D. Modeling this flat shading is perfect because we can see the geometry clearly. But when you need to render it mostly, you want the shedding to look small. In lender, we can switch between flat and smooth shading or object basis to do that first, like the object you want to change. For example, this sphere goto the tool shelf and in shedding section, click on the smooth button in here. Notice this fear no, looks smooth. If we want to turn it back toe flat shedding style, we can click this flat button. Switching between these two modes will not out of the geometry at all. The geometry is exactly the same before and after. Blender only change How shadows are being calculated. Orender throughout the surface, off the object. Okay, Smoothing Spheeris Nice. What about smoking the cylinder if we selected and in just moved in here, the cylinder looks awfully wrong. The side should look smooth, but these ages, which is the border between the sites area and kept area, should not be smooth at all. Can we fix this issue in lender? Yes, we can. We can notice automatically or manually. We can fix the cylinder smoking behaviour using the order smooth parameter. First, just make sure the cylinder is selected Goto Properties editor and open the data panel. Then turn on these out or smooth option in here and make sure this angle value in here is a 30 degree right away. We can see the cylinder looks so much better now. What this out or smoothed us is applying automatic smoking on adjacent faces if the angle between those faces are below these 30 degree angle. Otherwise the flat shedding will be used instead because the face at the cylinder cap form , 90 degree angle with the faces at a side and of course, 90 degrees higher than this 30 degree threshold we have in here. That is why the ages at this corner used flat shedding instead off smooth shading. If we drag this angle trace hold down. We will get all off like shedding eventually. And if we direct this value up until passing the 90 degree threshold will get this ugly over a smart object again. Now, something you need to keep in mind is that these auto smooth checkbooks and also this angle threshold value will have no effect at all If you said the objects shedding type toe flat. Okay, so again, just make sure you set the shedding style to smooth first before using this. Awesome. Both option in here in the Properties editor. Now what if we want to control which ages are sharp and which ages are smooth Manually, we can do this by going to the edit menu and make sure we're in each mode. For example, we want these ages to be sharp for that First, like these three ages at the tool shelf in a shedding youth a tab. Click this sharp button in the age section. Now, as we can see, these ages look sharp. Another example that's like this sphere go to edit mode. It's like this h Luke. Then this h a loop known here click this sharp button again. Nothing happened yet as who haven't turn on other smooth for this fear. So go to data panel in the properties editor and turn on the out awesome or check box We can now see these ages are being displayed as sharp ages. We can also control the smoothing for for tax basis and are her face basis with these buttons up here, the workflow is basically the same with age sharpness. So I will let you explore these yourself. So to recap, we can manually control face moving by defining age sharpness. We can also use for tax and face to control the smoothing dis. Make sure that the objects shading style is said to smooth in here and the auto smooth is on in here. If not, this manual sharpness assignment will not take any effects. If you brought the Web, you will find some people still using the old method of controlling face more thing. And that is by applying a modifier called age split modifier at a glance. This modifier produced the same result as the Auto Samoud feature before, but under the hood it will actually alter the objects geometry. It will spread the ages at the position off where we mark the ages as sharp to show you what I mean, Let me turn off this auto smooth option for this fear. Notice we don't have any age sharpness again at this age Loops now go toe modifier panel and add modifier. Does age split? We can see the ages again, which we mark a sharp before the way this modifier walks is actually split the ages in this area. So, for example, if we apply this modifier and go to edit mode, we can pick these Vertex and move it like this. As we can see, there are double ages and further sees at this area. Although this is the old way off controlling face moving the age split modifier still has some uses, especially if you're working in the game industry. Why? Because some game engines do not support complex face moving. They either be smooth or flat. Using this age, sweet modifier will make sure some off the ages look sharp as we intended them to be. But for those off, you use a unity game engine these face moving technique with EJ spirit money, fire. It's not needed anymore. unity. We recognize the face moving properties generated by the outposts Muth option without any problem. So again, most off the time, you don't need to use thes edge split modifier if you want to export your treaty models to modern game engines such as unity. 16. Project : Coffee table: in this project Lesson. We're going to model this coffee. Tebow. We will start by making sure our measurement unit is Satel Centimeter said the grid scale toe 0.1. And let's delete the lamp and the camera object as we will need them for this project. Let's select the cube. Change the X dimension toe one meter, the wide dimension toe 60 centimeter and a Z to a five centimeter. And as always, after changing the dimension, we need to reset or apply the scale so control a and choose scale. Here we know half the tabletop base model. Next, we want to move the top surface. Toby, Exactly at 35 centimeter from the ground, we've learned different approaches for these. Let's try a new one. Now. We need to move the origin first so it is located at the top surface. Go to edit mode than face selection mode. Select the face on top. Use the quick origin and on just like before now type in Z co ordinate in here 35 centimeter, then hit. Enter Next. We want to create the table leg goto front. Few poor she, if a and just plain object Right now, the plane object is facing up so we can always see thin line from the front. Few part. Click this align toe few button in a two shelf to make the plane object facing our direction. Go to edit mode by pressing tab skel these two approximately the size, then go to a gym mode. So, like this stop age, we want to align these age. So it snapped to the bottom for tax off the table top. To do this, make sure the snap mode a set of Vertex drag this age using the Z ero whole control key and move the mouse cursor So it's nap to the Vertex down here. So like this age, move it to the right while holding the control key until it snapped to rece. Vertex also and lastly select this age and then changed according it to global mode, said the sick ordinate 20 Next, select the face and then breast acts to delete and Jews Onley faces. This option will deliver only the face but leave the ages and the further sees select these for tax hold Schiff and select this one. Also, we need to bear for both off. The further sees now. President Control B is for baffling ages. Toe bear feel for theses. We need to use shift control. Be okay so press she have control. Be move the mouse away and scroll up several times. Just left click for now. Next, let's change some parameter stone here for the amount, Make it five. This will make the length between the original point to this 0.0.5 centimeter and next for the segments, Change this value 26 Okay, let's rotate the few. Now press A to select all press E to extrude press. Why then type five left click to confirm. Noticed that most off the face normals are flipped. Let's fix that by pressing a to select all then press control. And next we need to add thickness to this object. Goto face mode. So, like all faces, press control F and choose solidify in here, then type in 1.5 centimeter in a thickness field. I think it is to take Let's just make it one centimeter. So, like all of them, move them in the Y direction. Hold control and off the mouse cursor. So it snapped with this for Tex Next we need to mirror this leg so we have the curves at the left side. Also, we can use the auto mirror at on just like before. Turn on, apply mirror option and then hit out on mirror button. Next. We want to mirror this leg to this direction. So we have two legs for the stable. One thing I need to explain now and this is very important. Is that the auto mirror at on and a mirror modifier? Well, most modifiers, actually they are all work in local co ordinate preference, not on global co ordinate. So at a glance, we have the original leg at negative y direction. But this is based on the global access reference. Remember that we wrote that the plane object at the beginning. Well rotating object will change the local co ordinate. If we change this to local, we can see that this way is actually positive z not negative. Why? So at the tool shelf in the auto Miral section, change this to Z and this one toe positive and then we actually want to apply the resulting modifier. So turn on these apply button in here, then click on this auto meter button. OK before we joined these two objects we need to add bear full at the table toe object first, then at the legs. Select the tabletop objects Goto Modifier panel at modifier and juice Bear. Four. Change the value toe to millimeter and hit the apply button for the legs. Let's add one millimeter before the process is practically the same at bear. Full modifier changed this with value toe one millimeter, Then apply the modifier. Next, select the legs, hold shift and just the tabletop object. Remember, you need to select the table top the last one. Why? Well, because we have the Lexx local according a rotator, while the orientation off the table top or its local co ordinate east e o the default Z axis pointing up soared. Israel safe us from additional step later to reset the orientation. Press control Jay to join the two objects. Next, we need to put the origin to the bottom off the object which is currently at the centre off the world. We need Toby in object mode. For this shift, see to send of the treaty cursor, then go to the tool shelf. Click this set Origin just origin Toe treaty cursor. The last step is to fix the smoothing issue with the table leg clicks moving here, then Goto Properties Editor in the data tab, Turn on auto. Smooth, I think 30 to 40 degrees. Good number for the angle. Trace hold s initial to accommodate the bear. Fel in the legs cut off area and that's it. We have a finished coffee table model. 17. Splitting and separating object: in a brief theist lessons, we learned how to join objects. Now, in this less and video, we're going to run the opposite methods. And that will be how to split faces into independent link structure and separate an object into multiple objects forces splitting faces. If we have a monkey head like these, we can select this face and move it away. Like these notice, least for ages, will stretch as the fertile sees in his corners are basically in the same further sees. Now what if we want to detach this face so we can move this face independently? We can do this by using a command called split to split off phase for a select A phase Are several faces like these then pressed? Why notice this face can now be moved independently. If you forget the shortcut, you can go to the mash menu, were attacks and then click this split commanding here. Okay, Now splitting will result on independent structure meaning none off the fertile sees in his faces are linked to the other geometry. So in this way, if we press eight once like everything, then however our mouths toe one off the face in here then press l we get linked a selection like this We've talked about how to select Cling to face us like this before. So I want to explain it again in this video. The next thing we're going to discuss is separating object spreading faces like we did before. We will separate face or faces into its own independent structure but they are still contained in the same object. Now, if we want to make them not only split but also separated into a new object we can use a command called separate To use this command we need to select the face or face is that we want to separate an empress. Be then just the first option which is selection notice. We cannot select these faces anymore because they are already become another object. So to select them we need to go to object mode First we can see we have this object and we have this object. They are two different objects now. Okay. When we hit the shortcut to separate object, we get this option. We know we know about the first option selection which basically separate currently selected faces. But what about by material and by loose parts. Well, we haven't talked about material. Yeah, but this option will split object into multiple objects based on their material assignment . The less option, which is by loose parts, were separate objects automatically by its linked a structure. For example, this monkey head has three loose parts. The main had the left eye and right eye. If we press b and interest by loose parts noticed if we go to object mode this I is one object, this one another object and the head is one object also. 18. MatCap and AO: in this video we're going to talk about so far enhancement on the treaty few so we can see the ship off our pretty model much easier. This is, in my experience, very helpful in a three D modelling process and or a sculpting process. First, we're going to talk about Matt Camp. Madcap is basically an image mapped onto our pretty objects. Normal direction. It bypassed the real material shedding node. In a few parts, it is useful to see our pretty model better, especially for sculpting or modelling complex organic objects. To use madcap first opportunity few properties panel by pressing n scroll down until you see the shading section. Then turn on this madcap option in here. Notice we get this madcap material preview in here when Mac up option is on. If we click on it, we can actually open the madcap presets. We can see various default madcap materials that we can use just tried them all and just the one you like. Personally, I like this one the best, as the color mimics the look off clay color madcap in Z brush sculpting software. Now you might be thinking that using madcap can hurt your GP or performance. The answer is no. Madcap is actually very easy or cheap on system performance. What madcap actually doing is mapping these images you see in here to our to the object based on their normal direction, projected from our eyes Or, in other words, from the angle we see the three d object. So this sphere presets you see in here they are actually just to the majors. So, for example, let me pick my favorite one again. This color in the center will be used by the treaty few part toe color, any faces that has normal direction facing us, frontal. The color in here will be used for the faces that are facing this way a bit towards the top and right direction. These colors at the border will be used for faces that are facing almost perpendicular toe our line off site. To show you this more clearly, let me click in here. Schiff, A mash unjust UV sphere. Let me change the shading style too small. Okay, now, if I change the madcap image to this one, which looks like a gold medal notice If I wrote it around a few parts the imagers are exactly the same following our viewing angle. I hope you understand by now how madcap actually works after the small demonstration. The last thing I need to point out about Matt Care is that it only works in solid display mode. So it is a solid display more only feature if you go to a wire frame mode or texture mode or any other display mode. Besides, solid madcap will not work in term off interaction mode. Madcap only works on object mode, Edit mode and Scott mode. It wouldn't work on these three interaction modes, basically anything that has to work pain on it. Okay, so that is something you need to keep in mind when you see madcap. The last thing we're going to discuss in this video is a all or Ambien or collusion in theory, immune occlusion, ourself, shadows you'll find in corners, crevasses and objects in their sections. You might be wondering why this effect is called ambient occlusion. To give you the illustration, imagine that you have objects lit by soft uniform lights, which come from all directions. Now this kind off light are called Indian light. The surface off the objects will get uniformed life except tight spaces such as the corners and CREF assis. The tighter the space, the last lights able to get through, so therefore, the darker the area will be. So this is why it is called occlusion because the shadows exists due to the occlusion off the Ambien lights. This is how a real ambient occlusion works. However, tracing lights from every direction is expensive. What I mean about expensive in the world of rendering is that it needs a lot of processing power. So a new method off faking Ambien occlusion was de flopped called screen space Indian occlusion. It was first there, flopped by a smart guy named Flood Inner Cage. Elin, I hope I spelled the name correctly. This method can produce ambient occlusion like effect in real time because it is not as expensive as the ordinary rate raced ambient occlusion. But enough off the theory. If you look below the MCA presets, you will see an option down here called Ambien occlusion. If you turn it on. As you can see, it improves the realism off the objects rendered in the treaty. Few. It adds this darkening effect or soft shadows at the crevices and corners you might notice . Also, if you turn on this option, you'll get more parameters down here to control the Ambien occlusion. The strength value in here controls how strong the Indian occlusion effect. If you increase this value, it will make the shadows become darker. Let's set this to to, for example, distance. Determine how far the effects will spread from the initial corners or crevices distance of value. Use your seeing measurement unit. Next is attenuation. This value controls the kerf off, how steep or how fast the shadow effect will disappear. And the last one is samples, which basically controls the quality off the shadows. Higher samples value will make the shadows less noisy and are smoother but at the cost off . Mater GBU processing. So yes, unlike madcap, which is a very cheap effect, a O is a bit more expensive as it requires more processing power off your system. When modelling organic objects and scouting, I usually turn on mad Cap and use this precept. Then I also usually turn on back face culling so I can spot normal errors easily and also reduced a few port load of it and lastly, if I have a simple scene, are modeling just one or two objects. I turned on the Ambien occlusion option with all the default parameters except the strength toe to and change the distance value according to the scale off my 30 object. 19. The undo system: Blender has a unique under system that might be a bit daunting and are confusing for some beginners. What unique about blenders under system is that each interaction mode has its own under history. If you use other software, almost all of them have a unified history system, so we can do suffer all operations and then go back all the way to the beginning. No matter in what more you are in in lender, however, because it's interaction mode has their own under history. You should never press a new in the object mode unless you are undoing a transformation or any other object mode base interactions. You should never try to undo much editing, operation or texture, painting, operation or any other interaction mode in the object mode. To give you a more clear idea about these, let's do suffer operations first, so we have something in the history list, rest a toe and select all press a again to select all press X and too glib. She's a and create a new cube. Then move this up a bit, so it is not penetrating the ground plane. Okay, now let's go to the edit mode and then choose face mode. Let's do suffer all extrusion in here. So, like this face extruded like soul, then this face extrude it also. And finally, this face at the top. If we are still inside the edit mode pressing control Z will undo or move us backward in history lease To redo our move forward in history Lease, you need to press control Shift Z. Now. What if we want to see the A new history lease? Can we do that? Yes, we can. We can press control out Z. You can see all of the things that we've done, such as selecting on extruding faces in this list against, like any off this history lease to move us back to the state directly. Let's go back to our final state. Okay, so everything is school if we keep inside the edit mode. But notice if I pressed them again. So we are back in the object mode and impress control off Z toe access. The under history least we can see we don't have all those extra steps with it before. In the edit mode, we have the original object pressing a and pressing a again, then delete object at Cube Translate and that's it. We only have these toggle at it, More history in here. So in object mode, all of these individual face extra oceans are considered as one step. Therefore, if we press control Z, all of the extra oceans before are gone. And we only have this original cube If this ever happened to you, don't Penny just press she of control z again to redo. Now we have the rest cube. We add it before, but one thing you need to keep in mind If you do undo and redo in the object mode all off your undo history least inside the edit mode are gone forever. Notice if we press tab the impressed control off Z our a new history leads in here is empty . So pressing control Z won't do anything now. This unique under behavior also applies to all interaction mode, not just edit mode. So Scott mode, texture, pain mode and so on will only become one under state. If you go back to the object mode, for example, let's go to Scott mode. I know we haven't discussed sculpting, but this is just an example to show you how the under system work. Let me turn on dynamic topology here and just do some simple brush. Let's do several off them. Okay, Although we have suffered all brush sculpting strokes in here, If we go back to the object mode, press control Z ones, all of the sculpting brush strokes are gone. You can think of it like these. The master or the global under system is in the object mode. And all of these interaction modes are considered as local undo history system. Okay, so to recap, just remember this one big rule when doing, undo or redo in lender. Always press undo inside your current interaction mode Not in the object. More unless what you really want to undo our object operations, such as creating object, the leading object transforming object and so one. If you just remember this rule, you should be fine. Inshallah, 20. Project : Security outpost part 1: in this project lesson. We're going to create a simple security out boss. We're going to model the wall first, including the windows and the door than the floor. Do we knows glass? And finally the roof first. As always. Make sure we have the right unit for this. We're going to your centimeter again. As the size off the outpost is fairly small, said the great Toby. Pretend Centimeter scale. Next removed lamp in a camera object. Hands like this cube. Let's change the dimension off this object for our outpost building. We're going to set the size Toby three leader with and 2.5 meter dep. The height will be 2.7 Leader. Okay, now notice if he resumed away, we get this few port sleeping in our treaty. Few, as we discussed earlier. This is because by default, blender used few pork leaping or also known as distant culling to reduce few port load to control the scraping. We can go to the treaty few property, spinal and just change the end sleeping value toe higher value. For example, 50 meter. Now we have enough room to zoom out before the creeping start kicking in If you need more distance, just adjust this value as needed. After setting the dimension, remember to apply the scale transformation by pressing control a and then choose scale from the least for a stab to go to edit mode. So, like this Alberta fees and change the Z Co ordinate toe 2.7 meter. Select the button face places at zero in a Z co ordinate Next at two loop cuts by pressing control are and scroll up ones last week. Then right click out and right click On this age, the selected age groups type Z co ordinate to 100 centimeter. Then this loop up here chance the Z co ordinate toe 200 centimeter. Next, we're going to concentrate on the front window. We need to create a line in here which exactly 15 centimeters distance from this corner. To do that First control are in here left leak and then rightly we need to set the snapping to overtax mode, select the whole H loop and move it in the X axis direction Whole control, while doing these, tutor on snapping temporarily moved the mouse until touching the vertex in the corner like this then press G press X and type in minus 15. Then enter for the left part. Just used the SIMA tries Command Press eight is like all rest w then why? For Sema, thrice, their intention is to positive acts to negative X. Now we have symmetrical object. From this point, I think I want to make the object. Always show the ages even in object mode. To do this, go to the properties Editor in Object Panel. Turn on this wire and roll ages Options Don't hear next. Select these two faces Press P and two selection to separate the selected faces from the main object, go to object mode by pressing tab. Select this object price step again to go to edit mode. We can use out a mirror, or SIMA tries again later, so it's just focus on the right side. So, like these two faces impressed I to inset by five and then enter. Select the center H loop and change the X coordinate value to 50 centimeter, then press control be toe balefully. We want the wit Toby five centimeter total. Now bear ful will calculate the length from the original line to its side. so we need to input half value or five centimeter which is 2.5 centimeter. But trying to calculate the half value off what we are trying to achieve is not that convenient. So it's changed the bear full input method from offset to it. This way, what we input in here will be used for the total with not half of it. Okay, so type five, then press Enter the ladies to interfaces, then use Sima tries to make it symmetrical, though, eh? Thickness to our flight frame object. We can go toe face mode, press a to select all off them press control f toe access, face modelling tools and choose solidify type 12 centimeter in here and press enter now, in the real perfect world, we actually want this frame Toby aligned exactly with the wall surface. So this is actually already perfect. But in architectural visually she ation, for example. Sometime we need to emphasize the geometry. So later the shadows will be more defined in this area around the frame. Sometimes this is needed as we want to use the final, rendering the communicate the design. So let's move this back. About one centimeter press d impressed Why? And then pipe one, then hit. Enter. Yes, we have hole in this area now we'll fix the world thickness later. For now we're going to focus on the side window. The process and the techniques is fairly identical with the front window. Except we will have only one bar in here instead of two. So let's get to it. Control our make it to age loops. So like this age loop move and snapped this to this corner. Press g. Why? And type in 15 Enter. This one is the same move and snapped these to this corner First, move it the y direction in minus 15 centimeter. Okay, so like this face in here crispy To separate the face to a new object, go to object mode. Select the window object. Go to edit mode inset press five. Then enter at Alucard Bevel the ages and set it to five centimeter. It's like these two faces and let them so, like all control f solidify. Make sure in the settle 12 centimeter it is already correct. As blender usually use the previous value as the default value. Select all of the faces Now press G and then X, then press minus one, then enter. Go back to object mode, goto out a mirror section in a two shelf turn on apply mirror, then hit out of mirror. So, like the main object, then out a mirror also to get the whole at the left side. So we now have windows at both sides. Next we're going to focus on the back side and this is where the door will be Forest like this middle aged loop snappy to this age at the right rest G and move this 90 centimeter toe the laugh We just the X axis then create an age loop. Using control are move and snap it to the right side, which is the age we moved before movies along the X axis. For one meter we're going to create a door using these two faces and a window using this face. So select the three off them press be to separate them from the main object. Go to object mode. So, like this object move this in Why access for minus one centimeter, then go to edit mode. So, like these two faces press I toe inset type in five centimeter. Select this face at the bottom press X and in juice face. So, like this age and move it. So it's Annapolis bottom verdicts for the window. We can do the same thing. Just select the face and impress I toe insect press five than enter. Now we have double frame bar in here, mostly in real world, we only have and only need one bar, which is the frame for a door. So select this face and unrelated. So like the age Move it and snap it to this Vertex. Next, select this interface and the lead for the interfaces off the door. We're going to need them later. So select them and press B two selection to separate them as other object for now. Okay, Now, if we select all of them and run solidify command will get this ugly looking result. Why is there Well this is due to this vertex attach to the doorframe. While this for tax is not we can fix this by creating new ages and then march them. But I think it is easier to just split them into differently elements. So, like these three faces and impress why so like all of the faces control f solidify. Okay, we've got the frame. Next is the door. Go to object mode and just this door. Object past G and move this in. Why access for minor stance and the meter go to edit mode. Now we actually don't need this age, so it's like this age impress acts Jews, the soft age goto face mode and select the face extra duties for two centimeter for the handle. We're going to create a simple U shaped handle to do that simply she f d and then right click to cancer scale these all the way down until about this size, scale it again now only on X axis. Most days to the laugh you can adjust it again as you like. Press E to extrude about this high control l to select the holding object, Then hold shift right click in here in here, and finally this one at the bottom. No press X and choose faces. Press L and then Goto Facemash modeling by pressing control F, then to solidify Type two in a thickness input field, then hit Enter the door is finished. In the next video, we'll add the floor and at taken us to the wall at the glass for the window and also the roof tiles 21. Project : Security outpost part 2: Let's continue our project. We already have something like this from our previous session knowledge at a floor for the floor. We're going to create it from a plane object, so make sure we are in object mode. Shift a and just plain. Go to the Dimension panel, put four meter as the excise and also for meter, asked the Y size. Then forget to apply the scale, control A and just skill. Go to edit mode and select the face e to extrude and type in five and then enter the floor is complete. Next, let's add some taking us to the wall object. Select the object and we want to focus on this object without being distracted by other object. We can do this by going to local mode, and that is by pressing the four Slaski in number pad. By doing these Onley, currently selected object will be feasible and all other objects will be hidden. Go to edit mode and then goto face mode. We won't be needing this top part faces, but we can use this later to create the glass object. So select one face, press she if control out an F to select all of these top part faces and then press B two selection to separate these to a new object for a bottom faces. We won't need them anymore. So select one facing here. Press she if control out and f then breast X juice faces now go back to object mode before we've been using solid. If I we just basically a mesh modeling command in lender. There is also a solid if I function in a form off modifier. So that's used that for now. Goto modifier panel at modifier and then to solidify in here 5 12 centimeter for thickness and turn on even thickness option in here otherwise will have tilted corners like this. Usually I always turn on even thickness. When using solid E five money fire, apply the modifier. Okay, we have nice looking wall already with some thickness. Now let's go back out from the local few by pressing forward slice key again in number pad . Select the top object. We separated before. Move it up so we can see it better. Goto few part Go to edit mode and scale this a bit. So the outer lines we have here are inside the window frames. We're going to create the glass object from his object. For each side, we only need one glass piece. It's also like this age, this one, this one and finally this one we have for ages like that. Press control I toe in first the selection than X juice ages Goto for tax mode and then just move this Vertex So it is slightly inside the frame. Just duties for the rest off the sides. I think the left side and the right sides are already correct. Okay, Now press a just like all of the elements press e to extrude and impress Z. So the extrusion constrain dozy access on Lee move it down like these until it penetrates about timeframe. Now, some off these faces maybe flipped. We can see darker color on the face. If they are flipped. Select the flip faces goto shedding you feet up in the two shelf and click this flip direction button. Basically, we want all faces normals facing outside, not inside. Next. Go to front view and use the wire frame few mode so, like the top parts and moved them. So they are inside the top frame now for the front counter. We need the grass, Toby slightly higher. So we have space for people. Interact with the security guards. So select this age, said the coordinator Toby. In global mode, just type in the Z co ordinate 120 centimeter and hit enter okay. To make the rendering later, more realistic. We need to give the glass object some thickness. So go toe modifier panel and add solidify money, fire Make the thickness toe once and the media. We don't have any turning faces on our geometry. So even taking us here has no effect in this case. Just apply this modifier. Usually a security post is where people exchange their i d with guest egg. So we need a hanging counter at the front window. Go to edit mode, control our click. And rightly, it's like this age loop. We want the hanging counter, Toby 15 centimetre thick. Now we already know that this line is exactly one meter high. So its place these age Lou at 85 centimeter forest according it Okay now, So like these three faces and press e to extrude type 20 then enter. Finally, we're going to create the roof off this building. The roof will be tilted orbit around five degree angle. But we're not going toe. Tilt it until later for the roof object. But Skopje from the existing floor Object Don't hear so selected for a chef de to duplicate press Z to constrain it to Z axis and move it to about this position Just the Z dimension toe 30 centimeter then enter. As always, we need to apply the transformation After setting up dimension press control A and just scale for the front area. We want tohave small covering toe Cover the roofing by later So control are click and then write this two front roughly this far click again to confirm we can adjust This again are Just eyeball it for now. Okay, Next select This face extraordinary is for six centimeter. Our roofing tile will be roughly three centimeter high. So it's six centimeter cough ring. We at least have some safe space around three centimeter for the roofing. We're going to create something like this. Basically it is a metal roofing and with off H roof loop will be 30 centimeter. If we observe this image, we can see that the interlocking happens were three loops, and this one happens for four loops. But for our project, let's just make it for one loop. Just to make things easier, we will start with the plane object she if a mash plane moving up against the X dimension toe therapies and the meter apply the scale transformation. As we can see in this reference image, each plate will be interconnected with other neighbouring plate. We can model something like this easily by using a modifier called Array. Basically, Ray modifier will create copies or instances to be more precise off the original object based on specified offset value. Let's just see how we can do this. Make sure the plane object is selected movies to left side off the roof object goto modifier panel and add array modifier. Okay, now we can see there are two types off offset, constant offset and relative offset. Relative offset is based on the percentage off the original object size, so one value in here is equal to 30 centimeter. We just do with off this object. If we put you in here, this is equals to sixties in the media. If we put 0.5, for example, this is equals toe half off the whip, so it is 15 centimetre. You'll get the idea constant offset. On the other hand, use Israel measurement unit. So if we put pointing here, it means 20 centimetre as our measurement unit is in centimeter. For now, let's use constant offset and said the X offset to 25 centimeter. So we have around five centimeter intersection. Make the count amount to 14. For now, go to side view by pressing number three Press G and move this roof played to the front covering. Make it slightly penetrate the covering. Go to front view. We can see that we need more instances. So changed the count amount toe 16. Then reduce the constant offset toe 24.6 centimeter. I think we need to see the ages off this roof even in object mode so we can clearly examine the topology. Better go to the object tap in the property spent all turn on wire and row all ages in here . That story is also for the roof based object and the floor object. Select the metal plate roof object again go to local mode next go to edit mode. If you are in edit mode and you don't see this every result this Mac Shirley, small button in here is turned on this button. We will preview the modifier result even if we are inside the edit mode. Press control are toe add several h loops. Make it eight. Cuts Scalise up in X direction. So, like these two faces and move it up. Select this face on Lee in local according it. Make it three centimeter high. Just a just this intersection area until we like what we see. Okay, I think it looks good now. Control air. I had two cuts. Scale these on X axis a bit and move it up slightly. Okay, I think it looks nice. We know half the plate modeled correctly if we feel this from the front side. But if we see our roofing from perspective, you, as we can see the length of it, is still not correct. Now, if you create Spain style roofing or slate roofing or something like you don't need to take care of the interlocking system from the side. Few also because metal roofing tile is quite long. I'm not sure how long it is, though, but let's just assume it is long enough that it covered the whole roof. We don't need to create the interlocking system from side fuel just to give things simple. Select these virtuous is on drag these two disposition at the back and okay, now our roof is flat or volume lis. If we need to model this roofing for far away objects in the scene, I mean it will never show up near the camera at the final render. Then this frank roofing is enough. You don't really need to add thickness to it. Otherwise, if we need to render it close up, you need to add thickness by adding sorry. Five modifier. Let's just add thickness to it at solidify money fire, turn on even thickness and change the thickness value to three millimeter. Applied your a modifier first. Then apply the solidify modifier to join this metal roofing object to the main roof object . Make sure it is now selected, then hold shift and selector off object. Then press control J, who joined them both from the right few poor. We need to rotate the whole roof. Object five degree clockwise to do that Press are type five and then press enter. Finally, you can readjust their of position. So all of the Kabul area are all covered. Alhamdulillah, our security outposts is finished now. 22. Project : Fish submarine part 1: in this video, we're going to model this submarine that looks like a fish. Originally, I was inspired by this pride drawing by an Internation artist named humbly result. So kudos to him. Of course, you're not going to create exactly like this image. We're going to modify the look of it here and there. This is the brief you off the final three D model that we're going to create in this lesson . Before we begin our lesson, you might notice that my you I is different from what I usedto have where the U ice elements are all there. Same like before. Only the colors change so big, different color theme. You can goto file menu and just user preferences and then teams. You can pick any team in a precept in here. Just try them all and used the one you like. The thing that I used currently is this soft blend team which resemble the color skin in a truly software called soft image. But I turned off this shaded option in a two section so all of these two buttons become flat. Also, I went to the three d few category in here and changed the active object orange color before the selected objects. And the active object used the same white color, which is not helping us to differentiate between the tool. We cannot tell which one is the active object that way. Okay, so that is how you change the you I theme. If you want to reset your team to the default team, simply click this reset to default him down here. Okay, Now let's start modeling for the unit. We're going to use meter Goto three few properties panel and turn on Mad Cap Babyface calling an Ambien occlusion. Let me pick my favorite madcap image. Okay, Now let's press a twice to select all of the objects X and lead. We're going to start from a simple youth is fear object suppressive A and in juice, UV sphere. Let's change the segments. 12. Then the rings toe eight. And for the size, the size is already correct, which is one leader. Now, you should know that this size name might be a bit misleading, because if you see in the Dimension section the starts off. This UV sphere is actually two meter. So the size in here is actually the radius size. I think I want to make the wire show up in object mode. So goto object tab en turn on wire and row. All ages in here Now, when modelling an object that has a direction we should always created Facing the minus y axis. We've discussed this already in a kindergarten chair project. So let's press Arturo T. X. And in type 90 this will be the front direction off our fish submarine press as to scale press Why? And in just type one going to to make it 120% size off the original? Why dimension? Okay, After scaling in rotating the object mode, we must reset the scale and also the rotation off this object. So press control a and use rotation and scale in here. As we can see now, the rotation and the scale of values are all set to default again. Next, go to edit mode goto Vertex mode and hold out and while click on on age near the end. Then hold control and press the pool. Assemble in a number to grow the selection, but not until the middle age loop. So if we reach the middle age loop, hole control and press. Minor symbol to shrink the selection again. Move all off these ages About 20 centimeter to the back. To do that, press G. Then why? And then type 0.2, then hit. Enter sharing the selection again. Press G. Then why? And then type 0.4 and hit Enter. Now this part area should be smaller. So that's press as to scale it. Then type 0.8. Nope. I thing 0.9 should be good. Okay, Now all of these numbers are just My personal preference is because our model is a fantasy object. You can freely use your own numbers and or a Justin leader to your liking. Okay, No. Grab these Vertex at the back and move it forward slightly. Next, select the age group at the center and then move this back a bit. Then press control. Be toe Beverly about the size. Okay, Now let's move on to the front or the head area. So, like, edge loop in here. Grow the selection until it reached the original middle aged blue, we want to separate the head from the main object, suppress B and select selection go to object mode and then select the newly created had object. Go to edit mode. We need to split the top part with the bottom part we can notice in several ways. But right now I want to show you a technique called H Spirit. To do that, we need to select the Center for Disease or Ages in here. Hold out. And while clicking here, then hope shave and out. And then right click in here. Okay. Now, to split ages, you cannot use the y shortcut because the Y shortcut is actually for splitting faces. If you try to do this on vert assist or ages, it will just duplicate them to access edge splitting command, press control, e first toe, open the mash menu, then choose age split in here. Or you can also press the letter D in here as this is the letter that has underlying on it . Okay, Now, if we hover over this Vertex the impress l we get this top geometry as an independent structure, crispy, and then you can either choose selection in here or by loose parts in here. In our current situation, both off. This will do the same. Now, if we go to the object mode, as we can see, we know half three objects the main body, the top head and lastly, the bottom head. Now let's focus on a top area, select it and then go to the modifier panel at solidify modifier and then type five centimeter in a taken US input field. Sorry, I think this should be minus five centimeter. Turn on even thickness. As always when you see the solidify modifier, then hit the apply button. Let's move on to the bottom part off the head. But before we do that, I think the greed is interfering too much without three D model. So let's hide it. Goto this place section in the treaty few properties window and then turn this off. And I think these acts and why access notation also as currently our model already showed a sense off direction. Oh, yes. Another way to do this is by clicking this button on Lee render in here. As you can see, all off the grid and access notations are hidden this way with the problem is also the selection highlights. If this is on, we cannot easily tell which object is selected and which one is not. So we're not going to use this option for now. Usually this option is helpful for doing sculpting for any other task that don't require object. Highlighting now set the bottom part. Object press as to skeletal type one going to No, I think this is too big prospects. Space ones and then type one. So we have 1.1 scaling hit. Enter. Okay, let's press s again and impress. Why Type 1.1 again and then hit. Enter. Sorry. I think this is too much. But under these and try again. Press s why? And in type 1.5 and then hit. Enter. I think this is the perfect size because we do scaling an object mode, not in edit mode. We need to reset or apply the scale transformation press control a Then Jews scale in here . Next flats press three to see the object from the site fuel hold out and wild clicking here on the border ages press R and then type then movie slightly towards the end. So it covers the whole body. So like and write this corner of our tax toe about this position slightly below the original location and backward a bit. Then she fried clicking here, press e to extrude and move it. Here, adjust this vert assists as you like. This is where the joint off the jaw will be placed later. Okay, guys will continue this model on the next lesson video. 23. Project : Fish submarine part 2: in this video, We're going to continue modeling or a fish submarine object. This is what we have before. Okay? Now we want to add it on the bottom. Had part for these. We only need to create the left part off the object and will use mirror or Sima tries later for the right part area off the object. Go to H mode. Right. Click in here. Hold control and right click in here. So we get these three ages like that press e to extrude on impress Z and just move this up about this high left click to confirm. Now to make these agents sharp, we can do ed to collapse using the delete menu. But we need to split these ages first. So each ages up here become independent. So the deaths like this age and this age control e and choose age split. Okay, Now, this ages are actually become independent due to the fertile sees off. These age is not connected to other geometry. So, like these three ages, we should pick this manually one by one. Press acts toe open the delete menu and just these age collapse option as we can see each off the previous selected ages become one Vertex. And so we have the teeth. Next, we can see that the front area has a lot of triangles. We've discussed before that the best faces are caught polygons To fix the apology. We can select these two ages, press acts and choose the soft ages. Now press key to use the knife tool clicking here and clicking here. Press Space bar to confirm. Go to overtax mode and pick these Vertex. Move it forward slightly and just adjusted until the flow looks better. Okay, we're going to make this Joe object becomes symmetrical. Let's use the auto meter at on. Turn on, apply mirror first, then hit auto nearer in here. Next. Let's add the solidify modifier. Make it then say the leader taking us enter known even thickness in here. Apply the modify era for the doors joined. Make sure we are in object mode. Create a cylinder. Make the fertile Sisto 10. The radius toe 20 centimeter and a depth toe. 2.3 meter press are why and type 90. Enter Reposition the cylinder so it looks better. But don't move it on the X axis as this will change the position off the object. Toby. Not at the center anymore. Schiff. Select the Main Joe Object and Control J. Who joined them together. Let's focus on the eyes or the window. Now we're going to create a surrender in here and readjust its orientation. So it is facing our few port. Because of this, the first step is to rotate the few port so that our line offside is blind to where we want the cylinder Toby oriented. I think this is already correct. Next, left clicking here to move the precursor at this location. Remember, blender will detect surfaces when we left Click so that really cursor is actually on top off the surface Now. Next, she if a juice cylinder change the radios toe 25 centimeter, then the depth to 20 centimetre. Lastly, this is important. Click this align toe. Few option in here our cylinder is now facing are a few instead off the Z axis. Now you may need to adjust it a bit, but the line too few feature already did most off the work for us. The move these objects so it get inside. We can either just local in here and and grab the Z axis manipulator to move it. Our that we changed this back to global. We can also press d Togo to move mode and impress Z and then z again. So we press z twice notice the access constrained notation is this way lined with the object, not the world. This way we can move the window object back and forth like this after you like what you see , we can move on to do we know detail Go to edit mode and select this face in set piece for about six and a meter, then extruded minus two centimeter. Okay. Now to make this objects symmetrical will be a bit tricky. Why? Because the origin off the object is not at the center off the wall anymore. And also the orientation of it is not aligned with the world access anymore. You can center the origin and then reset the transformation. But I think it is just faster to join this object to the stop had object. So hold the shift on right click in here Control J who joined them, used the auto mirror toe make it symmetrical. Next we're going to model the propeller, Schiff, See to send on the precursor. Schiff. A juice. You ve sphere, go to local mode. Make sure the segments is 12. The rings iss then and set the size to authorities and the media. Go out from the local mode. Move this back breasts are X and type 90 hit, enter. Adjust the wiper season. So the middle age loop slightly penetrating the faces at the back off the fish scale and impress why and then type 1.2, then enter. Apply the scale transformation. Okay, Next, we're going to create the propellers. Blades go to side. Few create a plane object. Make it aligned to our If you move it to this location, why a frame mode direct? These were tax to this location, then these vertex adjusted for theses. Basically, we want to create the base mash for the propellers blades. Okay. Now, control are in here, then in here. So we have additional fertile sees toe. Make the curve smoother. Just move around these fertile sees as you like. I think I want to supplies the center age with before select the H loop control. Be toe carefully and let's adjust them again. Okay, Now rotate the few to see the blade Exactly from this position like this. So I call off the verte sees and then hit are two. Wrote it, Make it slightly tilted like this. Go back to object mode and then add solidify modifier by three centimeter in thickness field, then hit. Apply now. We want to make the other two blades first. Make sure the treaty cursor is at the center off the world changed the pivot point of precursor shift D to duplicate right clay to cancel the movement. Press are then why? And then type 120. We can notice again for the last blade. Shifty right flick press are why and then 120. Enter. Select all of the propellers blades. Then select the center sphere Object Press control Jay to join them all. The propeller object is now finished. The last object we're going to create is the top thin. But before we begin, let's at the pivot point back from 30 cursor to median point. Okay. For the thin, we should model it from the side. Few so pressed three to go to side few. Then she if a juice plane lining too few. Then move it up to about this position. But I stabbed to go to edit mode press Z to goto wire frame mode. Make sure we are in Vertex mode. Directness left bottom vertex to disposition. Then this right bottom one toe about this position for these top fertile sees Just move them So they are all slightly above the bottom ones. Okay, No press control are And create an H loop at the center in here. Adjust this Neuvirth asses so they move a bit to the back side Goto age mode. So at this age and press e to extrude place it in here so that these age on extra again, just like before Place it here. And a look cut again in here and another one in here. I think we have enough for Texas. Now let's tweak the photo sees position So the fence shape looks natural If you need guidance when tweaking his fertile sees, you can hope the leather key and then left click to draw like this. This is called grease pencil In vendor there are many uses off Respond so but for now, we only use it to do free sketching. We remove it after we are done with this line strokes, we can guide the fourth assist position better. Okay to remove the Greenspan so we can go up here. I noticed we have this Greenspan so layer selected in here. Just click this minus button to remove that layer. If we go back to object mode and rotate the few to go back to perspective mode, we can see that the thin is flat to add thickness to it. Let's add solidify money, fire entertains and the media for the thickness of value. You may notice that the thickness is going on Lee to this direction. This is due to this offset value in here. Is that negative one With negative offset, the thickness will go to the back face direction. If we use positive values, the thickness will go to the normal direction. So I think you can guess it by now to make it at the center. Just input zero in offset value. Apply the modifier. If we're going to use this model inside a game engine, we need to join in separate objects, depending on what we are going toe any minute later inside the game. If, for example, we don't want to any make the job, But we do want to enemy the propeller, then we need to final objects first, the body object, including the head, the Joe and a fin. So that will be one object peace, and the second object is the propeller. By having the propeller as a different object, we can any meat. It's rotation using script inside the game engine later. So let's do that now. Select the thin the top head the Joe and finally select the main body. Ask bless one control Jay to join them all. We already joined the propeller object before, So basically the three D model is finished. Now the only thing that we need to do is fixing the face something. Let's do that now. First goto object panel and turn off the wire and a draw All ages option in here. Go to the two shelf and turn on smooth option in here. Then go to the data tab in the properties panel. Turn on others. Muth in here changed the threshold toe 80 degree right away We can see much nicer looking for the model I think all of the front area already looks great, but I actually want this age loop and it's a Jialu. Toby Sharp. So go to edit mode. Make sure we are in age mode. So, like this age loop and then his age, he looked also go to the shading you fit tab marked these ages as sharp. Okay, now go back to object mode. It's like the propeller object and just do the same thing we did with the body object. Make it somewhat shading and turn on the out of smooth option and change the angle threshold to 80 degree. And that's it. Ah, Hamdullah, our fish submarine 30 model is finished. 24. Next step: congratulations. You just finished the course. I really enjoy making the scores, and I hope you feel the same way when learning through these cars. Although you've learned a lot in his scores, there are so many to the skills in Render that we haven't covered yet in his cars. If you like to advance further, I strongly suggest that you take the next step course designed to be the continuation off discourse, and that will be blender, basic material and texture. In these course, we're going to explore different three D modelling techniques. Using the information tools in Blender, we'll start exploring the proportional editing mode, which is a transformation mode that allows us to transform its object with fall off influence. With this, we can transform complex mesh object easily and organically. Then we're going to call for a feature in lender Call overtax group and how to utilize it further with the formation modifiers. We're going to cover, twist, modifier, paper and stretch. Then we're going to learn in their on how tobe en masse correctly using the bend modifier. After that, we move on to lattice modifier where we can deform object using a set off box like control points. And then we're going to discuss how we can deform object with more flexibility, using our own custom mash as the controller with mashed before modifier. The rest deformation technique we're going to cover is curved before modifier, which loves us. Toe deformity object along a cough object. After discussing all off the techniques, we're going to create a project which is modeling a coconut tree suitable for real time rendering, such as for game assets. Orphee are we're going to cover several methods, tips and tricks that will be very useful in the actual production workflow. That is all from me again. Thank you for taking the scores. If you have time, please write a good review about these cars because that will help me a lot. I really hope that this course will benefit you with Salam alaikum