Blender 3D Cycles rendering essentials | Widhi Muttaqien | Skillshare

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Blender 3D Cycles rendering essentials

teacher avatar Widhi Muttaqien, CG expert & entrepreneur

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

24 Lessons (3h 18m)
    • 1. Introduction

      3:14
    • 2. Cycles introduction

      9:41
    • 3. CPU vs GPU

      8:33
    • 4. Device and samples

      7:50
    • 5. Light paths

      9:05
    • 6. Ttransparency and caustics

      6:05
    • 7. Filmic tone mapping

      9:45
    • 8. Environment light

      10:09
    • 9. Lamp objects

      10:46
    • 10. Mesh lights

      4:49
    • 11. Principled shader

      7:41
    • 12. Transmission

      4:35
    • 13. Subsurface scattering

      5:59
    • 14. Sheen and Anisotropy

      6:59
    • 15. Clearcoat and Specular

      4:40
    • 16. Material creation workflow

      5:35
    • 17. Material examples

      12:54
    • 18. Material library

      11:33
    • 19. Working with camera

      12:15
    • 20. Rendering basics

      11:51
    • 21. More rendering options

      8:48
    • 22. Project: Fish submarine setup

      5:36
    • 23. Project: Fish submarine materials

      7:00
    • 24. Project: Fish submarine post-processing

      13:01
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About This Class

Assalamualaikum. My name is Widhi Muttaqien from Expose Academy. I’m an entrepreneur and also an academic lecturer in Computer Graphic disciplines.

In this course we will cover the essential techniques of rendering in Blender using Cycles. For those of you who new to Blender, Cycles is a rendering engine that is comparable to V-Ray, Corona, Arnold, Octane etc. Essentially Cycles can simulate real world lighting condition, so it enables us to produce photorealistic images. But unlike the other rendering engines, Cycles comes bundled with Blender so it is free and you don’t need to download or install anything separately. Basically if you use Blender then you already have Cycles.

What we are going to cover

First we’re going to cover how GI rendering works, then we move on to discussing the differences between GPU and CPU rendering. Next we will discuss about rendering samples and different rendering methods. After that, we will cover in depth about light paths and how it can help us to optimize the rendering time. Next we will cover how to control transparency and caustics in Cycles. And then we will cover how to control light range and use the filmic tone mapping. We will learn how to create environment light using HDRI images. Then we will cover more lighting techniques using different types of lamp object and then learn about creating custom shaped light by turning any geometry into a light source.

After we cover the render settings and lightings, we will then move on to materials. We will cover a lot of aspects about the principled shader such as the difference between metallic and dielectric material, creating transmissive materials, subsurface scattering, sheen, anisotropy, clearcoat, specular etc. As a bonus, we will discuss the workflow of how to create any material you can think of and then how to manage materials by creating your own material library. At the last part of this course we will discuss how to do final rendering, creating camera and how to control it. We will have a final project of creating this fish robot rendering. Basically in this project we will apply all that we have learned before, plus we will learn how to take our rendering result from Blender to Krita to create the final composition.

Now, although you can take this course directly. If you are very new to Blender. I suggest that you take these preliminary Blender courses first before taking this one:

These courses will prepare you with strong foundations, making sure you can follow all of the lessons in this current course without any problems. If you are ready. Join now and take your 3D skills to the next level. See you on the other side. Wassalamualaikum.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Widhi Muttaqien

CG expert & entrepreneur

Teacher

Widhi is an entrepreneur in creative industry. He has master degree in information technology and business management from Bina Nusantara University. Beside doing business he is also a lecturer in computer graphic related disciplines in President University Indonesia and Lasalle College International.

In his more than 20 years of experience in the CG industry he finished hundreds of projects with clients from all over the globe. He has been producing thousands of CG images and animations. His deep passion with computer graphic leads him to dive into 3D visualization, animation, game development, video and motion graphic.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: assalam alaikum. My name is greedy talkin. I am an entrepreneur and also on a Keramik lecturer in computer graphic disciplines. In this course, we will call for the essential techniques off rendering in vendor using cycles for those off you who new to blender cycles is rendering engine that is comparable toe very corona Arnold obtain etcetera. Essentially, cycles can simulate real world lighting condition so it enable us to produce photo realistic images. But unlike the other rendering engines, cycles comes bundled with vendor, so it is free and you don't need to download or install anything separately. Basically, if you use blender than you already have cycles force, we're going toe cover. How g I rendering works? Then we move on to discussing the differences between GPO and CPU rendering. Next we will discuss about rendering samples and different rendering methods. After that, we will come for in depth about light pets and how it can help us to optimize the rendering time. Next, we will cover how to control transparency and cost ICS in cycles, and then we will call for how to control light range and use the filmic tone mapping. We will learn how to create environment light using s there are images. Then we will cover more lighting techniques using different types off ramp, object and then learn about creating custom ship light by turning any geometry into light source. After we covered Orender settings and lightings, we will then move onto materials. We will call for a lot off aspects about principle cheddar such as the difference between mitali and die electric material creating trance missive materials, sub surface scattering she in a nice will drop e clear coat speculator, etcetera. As a bonus, we will discuss the workflow off, how to create any material you can think off and then how to manage materials by creating your own material library. At the last part off, this course will discuss how to do final rendering creating camera in how to control it. We will have a final project off creating this fish robot rendering. Basically, in this project, we will apply all that we have learned before. Plus, we will learn how to take a rendering result from lender toe Creator to create the final composition. Now, although you can take this course directly if you are very new to blender, I suggest that you take these preliminary blender coursers first before taking this one, as these courses will prepare you with strong foundations, making sure you can follow all of the lessons in his course without any problems. If you already joined now and take your treaty skills to the next level, see you on the other side or Salam alaikum. 2. Cycles introduction: in this lesson video. We're going to start learning about cycles for those off. You still have no ideas off what cycles he's essentially. Cycles is a rendering engine in vendor that enable us to render photo realistic images with physically correct materials. If we look up here in the info header, we can see the words bend Orender. If we click on it, we can see so far or rendering engines included in Lender. We have talked about this rendering engines briefly before in a previous material and pressuring section, and in the section we're going to focus on Lee on cycles. But before we changed this render engine mode two cycles, let me force explain the differences between Brenda Render engine and cycles. Render engine more in depth. If you have a standard startup file by default, we have these objects provided by blender, a cube camera and appoint lamp. Let's create a simple set up now Motorcycles render against Bend Orender press, shift a mash and create a plane object press s and n type 10 toe. Make it bigger 10 times. Then, before she's a again and create a monkey had object. Goto front few parts And just make sure the monkey head it's not penetrating the ground plane. Then select the cube object as to scale. Make it too. Then again, Z make it 0.1. Position it so it is above the monkey had object. The last step is to select the lamp object. If we go to the properties editor, we can see we have this lamp setting change the lamb mode from point to son. Basically, this will make the lamp behaves like the sun. Now we have a nice set up to do some tests rendering. Okay, Now make sure we still have rendering engine settle internal or Brenda render engine and then hit shift busy or click this display mode and change it to render. Okay. Now notice how Dr. Monkeys, if we go outside in the real world in broad daylight, who will never see something completely black and dark like these in the real world, lights bombs around. So if the sunlight hit the surface, for example, it will bounce off to this direction and then bones again and again until it lost all of its energy. That is why in the real world, we should be able to see the monkey object, although it is located below other object because we have the sunlight bones off the floor . Yes, the monkey had object will be a bit darker because bones in lights have less energy than the direct lights. But we should still be able to see it. Okay, now a change. The rendering engine from Brenda render to cycle surrender. As we can see, we can start to see that there is actually a monkey had object being in the box object. So essentially, what is happening here is cycles render able to simulate the physical behavior off lights while the default render, or so called bender internal rendering engine will not. The blender render engine can only process the direct lighting. We just the first light ray immediate from the light source until it hits the first object and then stop. It will not simulate flights bouncing round well, psychos. Not only it calculates the direct lighting, but it also calculates the indirect lighting or the light bounces. In general computer graphic terms this kind off light simulations are called global Illumination or G I for short. So again, in conclusion, the blender internal render engine. It's not a G I render, while cycles, on the other hand, is a G. I render. When we switch the rendering engine two cycles. Not only lights are being calculated differently, but there are also some changes on how we set material properties, on how we said the world or environment color, and also on how we work with textures. Mostly, when we switch to cycles, we will need to learn how to control things with nodes we will cover, not editor in Leader Lesson. For now, let's start with simple steps. First, we're going to see how to send up the world background materials and textures. If we have cycles as the active renderers toe obsessed, the background color in a properties editor, click on this old panel notice in a surface section. In here we have this use notes button and a color picker. If we change the color in here toe, let's say a bluish color like these. The background color will change, and due to the G I nature off cycles, the background color we pick in here will alter the offer lighting off the scene. But as you may already noticed, that we cannot control the intensity off it. We can only change the color now what? When I click this use notes button. We now have this strength of value beside the color value by clicking the use notes button before we actually converted the world or environment. Shader to use the standard cycles Shader The word background in here is actually the name off one off cycles shade er's designed specifically who generate big grown color. So you really don't want to change these two anything else If you are in the world Big round section. Okay, Next, let's see what has changed in term off material if we select the Cube. This cube is the standard startup cube, so it already has a generic material named material notice in the material panel. We also have this use notes option in here again, just like before you should click this button toe conferred the material to cycles standard material, which is basically a note based material. This is so we can unlock the full potential off psychos material, so just click on it and we have these basic diffuse shader immaterial. The few Shater is designed to mimic non reflective material such as wall or rough stone, etcetera. We can change the color in here to read, for example, or to blue or to any color you like. And if you remember that previously in the world environment settings we have big grown shader in here instead. Well, if you change this to a big round Shader, we will have this are looking flat colored object. This is because they grown. Shader is not designed for pretty models, usually for treaty models. We want to use the new all in one shader that can simulate real world materials. You seem physically based principles because it uses the real world physical principles. It is named Principal Shader. We will cover about this principle Shader in the future Lesson in shallow For now, let's focus refueling what has changed when we use cycles compared with a blender render engine? Okay, now if we select this monkey had object because this is a new object that we have created before it doesn't have any default material. Now you won't be asking how can this monkey had visible in rendering if it doesn't have any material? Well, this is because blender actually automatically apply a default material for all through the objects that don't have any material assigned to it yet. Blenders default material. Is this off? White color diffuse material. Okay, now notice. If we create a new material for our monkey had object. We don't have the use notes option like before. But out off the box we get a cycles standard. The fewest material. Why is that? Well, this is because blender detects the currently we use cycles rendering engine. So most likely if we create a new material, we want to have a compatible cycles material. So to recap, if we use cycles and we have existing blender render material, we can use the use notes button toe converted to cycles material. But if we create a new material when cycles rendering mode is already active, we will get cycles material right away. So we don't need to click the use notes button again. Okay, Max is texture when we have cycles were under active. If we go to the texture panel, something odd is happening here. We only have this brush texture option in here. There is no options for material texture, nor for world texture again. So how can we protection into our object then? Well, in cycles we need to put textures using nodes we're going to cover about pressuring in cycles, more in depth in later lesson. Shallah. For now, you just need to know that if you use cycles, you won't be needing the special panel anymore. For material and for all texture, it is still usable for several other purposes, for example, to manage brush texture, which we can use for texture painting. Or we can also create texture that we can use with modifier, etcetera. 3. CPU vs GPU: The first thing you need to set up when working with cycles is whether you should be using CPU or GPU s, the main processor for cycles to do the rendering task. Now this topic may become obsolete in a future release off cycles because in the next release, off cycles we will have ah hybrid feature where we can use both CPU and GPU at the same time to render are pretty scene now. Currently, by the time I record a video amusing render 2.79 And in this blender version, the cycles rendering engine doesn't have that hybrid feature yet. So we still need to pick between CPU or GPU toe the rendering in term of hardware. I believe most off you guys already know which one is CPU and which one is debut. But just in case you are very new toe computer graph e or new toe computer in general, I need to explain about the CPU for sauce GPO. Briefly in this lesson, if you already familiar with zebu and CPO technical terms, feel free to jump ahead to the next lesson. Okay, so basically, our computer system has processing units or so called processors processor. It's like the brain in our body. Its main job is to calculate. Stuffs are processing later in standard computer systems, we can find to processing units CPU or central processing unit and then deep you or graphic processing unit. CPU handles all common instructions, while GPU handles on the specific instructions for growing something to the screen. Basically, anything to do with graphics will be handled by the GPU, and the rest will be handled by DISIP You first, let's take a look into CPU more in them. Physically, the CPU is more or less like this, a small flat square, which is mounted on the main board. Usually, we cannot see the CPU directly because, commonly a large cooling system placed on top of it. The schooling system is important to suppress the hit off the processor, usually for desktop computers and laptops. The CPU inside it is manufactured by either Intel or a M D. If you have intell based processors, you can find the letter I in front off its names, such as I three I five or I seven. These island receive use our for desktop class processors. But we said the best top class intel also release surfer class processors such as Zone, which doesn't have any I leather at all in its name. If you have a MD based processors, you may have processors named like risen Athlone fish era etcetera. Well, the naming isn't that important for our topics. Now. What is important for Cebu is the clock speed off it, which is measured in gigahertz. For example, off four gigahertz CPU can process for billions instructions in one second, usually the more expensive the processor ease the higher the clock speed. That's making the rendering process much faster. Also, if we use it for rendering. The second processing unit in our computer is graphic processing unit, or GPU for short. Physically, the GPU is like this a big, bulky component with friends on it. Well, not all of them are this bulky. Some cheaper ones are like these. It is installed in our computer in such a way that part of it is accessible from outside for plugging in display cables. So if you see this play ports like Fiji A. D. V. I or HTM I in the backside off your computer. Most likely, that is where your GPU is located Now this graphic cards is a unique computer component. Why? Because it is like a computer inside the computer. It has small main war. It has its on ramp or memory, and then it has its own processor. We just the GBU. So the GPO is actually these small part off the graphic car again. This small square is actually the GPU on these big, bulky thing is the graphic card. But because GPU always come in bundles inside a graphic card, people usually just refer bees. Graphic cards STP you and there is nothing wrong with it. Currently, two biggest companies producing deep usar NVIDIA in AM de for best up in laptop computers. We can find NVIDIA GPU products named under de Force Bren, but NVIDIA also produced more high and GP use, aiming for a very demanding graphic calculation. Satis Tesla Titan etcetera. No days and video cards can also perform for six simulation and artificial intelligence for a M, the company. In their stop and laptop computers market, we can find Radio GPO's for more demanding workstation and surfer class A MD offers GPO's like fire pro radio Pro W acts, etcetera again. The names aren't really that important. Just like the CPU, it is the speed that matters. Usually the more expensive the GPU is, the faster it can calculates graphical data does, making the rendering process much faster. Also, generally speaking, using Cebu for rendering has a throw benefits. First, it will give us all off the rendering features available in cycles. Why? Well, it is because in term of feature the Flateman, all new cycles rendering features will be available first for CPU and then later followed by the GPU. So there will be time when certain features only available in CPU and not yet in give you second, because the CPU uses the memory or the main ram for doing its tasks. And in most common case is the main room is bigger than a graphic cards RAM. We can render much bigger sin when using CPU, compared to when you see DPU. But on the GPO side, if we used GPO for rendering. Because GPU is designed to take a graphics calculations which is more off parallel processing, it has more processing course than the CPU. So generally speaking, GPU can render faster than CPI you in a given price range for another way to say it is GPU has more speed potential than CPU for doing any rendering job. So back to our main question. Now, which one should we use? CPU or GPU? Well, it depends on your current computer. If you're computer has faster CPU, then deep you, then you CPU. Otherwise, if you're DPU is faster than your CPU, then you're Steve you instead. Don't worry. We learn how to compare their rendering speed in cycles in the next video in shallow so we can tell which one is actually faster in our computer system. Okay, now what if we are planning to purchase a new computer system? Should we infest on high end GPU or not? Well, my answer is, if you're really serious about computer graphics, I suggest that you infest on dedicated high ngp use with large graphics ram so you can rely on that GPU for rendering later. By having fast GPO to render are pretty seen. We can have our CPU do other things without distraction. This dedicated DP use will serve you well and will benefit you in the long term. Do not tempt her to purchase computer with on board GPS use such as Intel HD graphics, as this onboard GP use are not really designed for a graphic intensive applications. They are only good for office based applications or browsing the Web aspect to see a lot of problems later if you try to use computer graphics software with this kind off GPU. 4. Device and samples: in this lesson video. We're going toe cover some basic render settings that we need to know when working with cycles rendering engine. We have talked about CPU for 60 p o before in the previous lesson. Now let's see how we can actually set up cycles to use debut. We don't need to learn how to use CPU, because by default, when we first use blender and cycles, CPU is already to default. Processing device used for rendering. Okay, the first thing you need to do is to go to the file menu user preferences and then open the system tab in the cycles. Compute defies section. You will see these options none. And Cuda, if you use a m d. GPU you may not see Cuda in here, but instead you'll see open C l OK, now click on this Cuda or open CL option. In here we will see a list off gp used in here. I only have one GPU in his computer, which is these GTX 9 60 If you have more than one GPU, you can decide to use or not to use certain GPU in your system by using this check box in here by doing these without blender that we want to activate DP or rendering features for cycles and also specify which GPU will participate in rendering process. Okay, Now, if you don't see the world coulda nor open CL in this option, it means you're a GPU is not supported. It is a big chance that your computer use on onboard GPU such as Intel, SD or any other low and GPU. If that is the case, you can only render with CPU. Okay, next, just click this safe user settings don't hear so deep your rendering features always available every time we open lender. After we set the system in the use of preference window, you can open this file, which I provide for this lesson. Make sure we are in cycles rendering mode. Then go to the properties editor in the rendering tab, which is the one that has a camera I can in the device pulled on. Listen here we can see we have CPU and GPU compute Now, notice which one is faster in your system. Just try CPU and then do a render a preview by oppressing she of Z. Wait until the sample calculation reach 32. Then you can see and take note the rendering time up here, Then change the device to GP or compute and wait until all 32 samples calculated. Then compare the time result we see up here. The smaller the number, the faster it renders in the computer that I'm currently using for recording. Mr Torrey. Oh, it's Intel I seven CPU. It's not as fast as the NVIDIA GTX 9 60 GPU based on the simple task, so I will use Keep you compute from now on. For your information, the screen recording software running in the background is using a lot of CPU resources. So this could be the reason also why the CPU is much slower. The next perimeters we're going to discuss is samples. If you scroll down in a render panel, you will see a sampling section in here. We can see samples values. We have friend er and pre few values. So what is actually samples to keep things simple? Simple. It's like the rendering it duration. The more samples you have, the more it aeration cycles will render, thus making the image looks more smoother. But at the course off more time to finish the rendering. If you have low samples, the rendering will finish faster, but the result will be noisy or grainy. Okay. In psychos, we can set two different samples. The render samples on the pre few samples. The render sample value is used for final rendering, in which you can save your render. Result toe on image. We're going toe kaffir final, rendering more in depth, only the lesson in shallow. For now, let's focus on the next temple, which is pre few sample. These pre few samples is used for Render a preview. When we press xi Zi or change this display mode to render we are actually doing a preview rendering in a few parts, we can see the number 32 up here. This number is actually based on his pre few sample value in here. So, for example, if we change these 2 64 we have 64 samples for cycles to finish the final result. We looks motor or less noisy, but also take longer to finalize. Now what if we set the value to zero? If we set this to zero cycles, we'll do render a preview with infinite samples. So with this set up, it will keep rendering and rendering forever. If we don't do anything. If you rotate the few pour, it will restart the rendering alteration from simple one and then keep rendering back again . Now you might want to use zero number if you are in the process. Off look development, such as designing your material and texture, etcetera. I'm not going to do that because I have a screen recording software running in the background, so I need to keep things easy on my system. Let me change this back to the default, which is 32 samples in assembling section we can see at the left side we have these two claim values claim direct and crime in direct. This claim values is very important, especially if we have transmits if materials in arson when we used turns missy, if materials such as glass, water or crystal or any other C through materials, we often get these small white dots or spots in our render results. These white dots are called fireflies, although these fireflies happen due to a lot of reasons. But mostly transmitted materials is its biggest contributor. Essentially, fireflies are pixels where cycles calculate them. Toby, very bright due to multiple light rays, happen to hit the same exact spot. One way to reduce noise in our rendering, especially fireflies, is to use cramping. What clamping actually do is cutting the light pressing process when the pixel brightness has reached a certain threshold. Now, not only clamping contributes fireflies, clamping can actually help us to reduced rendering time, because we tell cycles to stop doing calculation on certain pixel brightness level with the calf. Fear ease because it cuts the pixel brightness. It also make a rendering less contrasts. You can play around and experiment with this cramping values. The claim direct value is for clamping direct light rays or lights directly hitting the surface from the light source, and the claim in direct is for clamping. The indirect light race or bouncing light rays usually are used for for the claim Derek Value and three for the climb in direct value. Of course, this value is not set in stone. You can test and see which values are the best for your current scene 5. Light paths: in this lesson video. We're going to explore more psycho settings, and that will be the light paths section we seen here for this lesson. Please use the file I provided. After you have it open, just make sure noticeably more is set surrender or simply press shift Z for them in the Render Tap Off The Properties editor, you will find a section called Light Bats. Let's focus on the right part in here. Mostly, the settings you see in this part are for controlling how many times lights will bounce off or remove through surfaces. In the real world, we can say that lights bones around infinitely well until they lost all of its energy. But making lights bones around infinitely in computer rendering. It's just impossible to do as that will make the rendering process loops forever. There are biased rendering techniques, which basically a heck toe spiritually bounce lights infinitely, but we're not going to talk about CD academic papers in this lesson, essentially in computer to the rendering, we need to limit the number off like bouncers to a certain extent, so that the result looks believable or beautiful. Yet at the cost off, reasonable rendering time up here we have maximum and minimum values. These are the General Orry over a light bones values. If I said both off these values to zero, this will make cycles. Looks like a non global illumination. Render as there are no light bounces being calculated. Now, you might be wondering how come we still see these soft shadows in here? Well, these are not from the light bouncers. They are actually produced by the environment light. If we go to the world panel and turn off the strength of value in here to zero now we can see almost identical results With the Brenda render engine. We get this pure black shadow area, which is not real estate. Now, if we go back to the render time and change the maximum bones value toe 10 for example, we start to see the red color off this left wall affecting the left part off the monkey had model. This is still look unrealistic because in the real world, mostly we always have an environment. Lighting are seen well, unless we are inside a dark colored box. So let's go back to the world panel and turn this string value back toe to okay, back in render panel. If we set the maximum toe a Basically any life in the scene now can only bounce eight times at maximum. And this value will also limit the values off these parameters below it. So if, for example, with that this diffuse bounds value to 20 it will be useless as cycles will kept this value toe eight at render time. Okay, Now this minimum value in here determine the minimum number off lights should bounce. Setting is very high. Can clear up the noise, but at the course off long rendering time. For now, let's set the maximum value toe eight and the minimum bones a value toe three. I found this numbers Toby at the perfect point where we can produce clean results while still maintaining reasonable rendering times. Of course, you can experiment and use higher numbers if you want to and if your hardware supported. But for this course, I think these numbers should be enough. Okay, Next, let's discuss these values. Don't. Here these values are basically used to control the maximum bounce numbers just like this value up here. But specific toe a certain like bones scenario. So, for example, this diffuse value in here essentially used to determine how many lights will bounce off on basic surfaces. If you see the offer or seen gets brighter as the light bones increases, and also we see this surface color reflector from one to the other surfaces. All of these are due to the diffuse bounds, because the fuse bounds contribute a lot to the offer lighting condition off our scene. Generally, we want to set this value to the maximum, so let's set these 28 also just like the above maximum bones value. Okay, next is glossy, maximum like bounce, essentially glassy controls. Visible reflections. To explain this value better go to the solid display mode first. Then, in the outline er, we can see a hidden object called mirror in here and hide it by clicking on the ice imbo. We can see that it is just a simple V like shape object with mirror material on it. She has Z again toe goto the render few mode. Now, if we change the glossy bounce to zero notice cycles will not render anything inside glassy or reflective surfaces. They simply become black. Now watch as I increase the value toe one, we can see a direct reflection, but we cannot see reflection inside a reflection. This area is still showing pure black color as the reflection. Lights can only bounce off ones when they hit a glassy surface. It is that the glassy bones to to we can start to see the reflection in this area. But these areas are still dark. Increase it again. 23 Now we can see all of the monkey had reflections. Okay, so you shall get the idea by now off what this glassy bones do. Usually I set this value toe only for as mostly when we render common interior scene. Rarely we have mirrors facing each other right in front of the camera. Even if you do have something like that in your scene, well, you know where you need to tweak the glassy like bounce Now. Next is the transmission maximum like pass. This value is not actually for bouncing, but for determining how many times visible lights ableto pass through a trance missive materials. Now you might be asking what istan dismissive materials. Well, the simple answer is they are see through materials such as blessed crystal water, oil, etcetera. To give you a better idea about how this value works, let's go to the salad more First had the mirror object again. And then on height, this glasses object brought it the camera so that we are looking at the monkey object through these stack off glass panels. Okay, shift Z organ Togo to rendered mode. Now what? When I change the transmission value to zero in this condition, there will be no feasible lights able to penetrate trance missive materials. That is why we only see these black color on the glass panels. Okay, now what? When I increase these tow one, nothing happens. Why is there? Well, this is because when alive passed through a transmission of surface, it is considered to be a single pass. And when it needs to get out from the surface, it is considered to be an underpass. So in order for us to see through a glass panel, for example, we need at least two pass notice. If increase this value again to to we can see the monkey head through the first glass, but nothing on the second and the third glass. If we want the light pass through the second glass just like before. We need to add to values one for going in and another one for going out. So change the value toe for okay. You should already see the pattern here. If we want to see the monkey object through this third glass, we need to input six in the transmission value. Okay, Now, usually I set this value toe only four because it is rarely. I have a scene where I need to see objects through multiple layers off glasses, like in this example again, this depends on the situation. If, for example, you need to render a very large office space where you have so many rooms with glass walls , you might want to crank up this number so you can see through all off those glasses. The less value is a volume like pass this value. Determine how many times like can pass through. A volumetric object such as folk or dust or any other type of visible gas is now I will set this value to zero. For now, as we're not going toe cover any office material types in this section, let's just move on to the left part off like pat section 6. Ttransparency and caustics: in this video lesson, we're going to talk about transparency like Princess and Co sticks. In a brief US lesson we've talked about all off these values at the right side, off the light paths section. We are now going toe cover these values at the left side. These transparency bouncers are places are different from the trance missive best value we have in here. Transparency is considered to be a non realistic shader because the lights passing through transparency material will not be reflected or bended. The light would just move in a straight line without any distortion, So basically it is not meant for glass or crystal objects. But it's more suitable for non photo realistic rendering purposes, such as creating goes or hologram effects to see this value in action, let's go toe solid mode again. Hide the glasses, object and on hide the transparent object. Now, while the transparent object selected. If we go to the material panel in here, we are using a special shader called transparent GSDF. Okay, she fz to go back to render display mode, and let's open the vendor panel again, notice if he said this maximum value to zero. We cannot see anything through this transparent panels. Justice to to and we can see through these for spinal changed is too far and we can see through the second panel. And six if we want to see through that panel. Basically, it has the same light past concept, like the transmits its value in here, one best for going in and another passed for going out. But as you can see, the transparency, shader looks unrealistic. So again, it is more suitable for non photo realistic effects. Okay, one last thing I want toke offer on transparency. Setting is Theis Shadows check box in here. Essentially, the steak books will make the shadows off the transparent object become transparent. Also based on the transparency value off the objects material. If this check box is off the shadow, we look dark as it seems to be emitting from solid object. Okay, next is caustic settings for those off, you still have no ideas off. What caustic is the Tonko sticks in computer graphic is the concentration off lights due to reflection or reflections off curved surfaces. Reflection means that the light bones off the surface and refreshing means that the light goes through a surface. For example. This, like you see in here, is reflective Costea alive, expressing through from this side onto the table and go to the roundness Off this bottle glass, we get this concentrated lights in here. Another example These lights were seen here are reflected cost ICS. The sunlight hit the way for the surface off the water, causing this caustic like effect and another example in here, which is actually a three d rendering. We can see both refractive cost ICS which are these lights below the surface and reflective course sticks which RBIs lights above the surface. Okay, so I hope you understand by now what is actually cost ICS if you like caustic effects and half use are the rendering engines before which use four tones or use bi directional path dressing approach. I have a bad news for you. Cycles is not that good at creating caustic effects most of the time, forcing cycles to produce cost ICS will only hurt the rendering time so much as Kostic effects will introduce a lot of fireflies, a noises in the rendering. So my suggestion is to turn off any caustic effects in cycles more often than not, you will never need cost ICS in your rendering unless the sole purpose off your scene is making caustic effect rendering There are many methods to fake Oh, sticks. But for now, let's just turn off both off this caustic options in here. Okay? Now there is one thing you need to take note here If inside your scene you have a swimming pool are building cannot be made off glass or basically anything that you need to render, which is blocked by a trance missive materials you need to turn on refractive, caustic in here. Otherwise, those objects inside or behind that transmitted material we looked our as there will be no light ableto pass through and reach that object for this. I already prepare an object which is hidden by default called glass. That roof goto salad mode again had the transparent object first and hide these glass doors roof object now on orders. If I have this refractive, caustic option off, the monkey had looks dark. But if we have it on dawn, the like and passed through here and leave anything beneath this glass roof. So that is something you need to keep in mind. For now, the last setting we want to discuss is this glossy filter setting. I always have this value above zero, and most off the time I just set this toe one. Basically, with this option not set in zero value cycles will try to blur the material reflection that has roughness value above zero. Because rough materials already have blurred reflection, we almost cannot tell the difference. But having this velocity filter value toe non zero can help us to reduce the noise and the fireflies in rendering. 7. Filmic tone mapping: in this lesson video. We're going to dive into one off the most important concept in computer graphics, and that will be phone mapping. And then after that, we're going to learn how to use filmic tone mapping inside vendor. In the real world, lightness or brightness can range from zero toe theoretically infinite value. Zero means a pitch black rock situation where there are no lights at all. An infinite brightness value is just a theory. As for us living in plan apart, the brightest thing we can see is the sun. There is no men made life able to defeat the sun's brightness. So we have the pitch black down here and we have the sun up here. Okay, Now, if we need to capture this lightness information in tow, on image or a video, we use cameras. The problem with our cameras is that they cannot capture the whole range off existing light levels. Each camera device have different range, but none off them can capture the whole light level information. So just to give you the idea, they can Onley perhaps capture this wide. For example, in his photo, the camera can capture all of the interior objects, but anything outside the window will become over burnt toe white color. This is because the photographer said the exposure level toe around this feygin. Now, to see the outside environment, the camera exposure LFO needs to be adjusted. If you know photography. This can be accomplished by changing the I. So for the shutter speed and or the aperture basically bringing up the camera capture level like this and in the resulting photo Now the outside environment looks good but all off the interior objects become black. You want the wondering by now? How come we don't see this in the real world without on ice? Well, this is because our eyes are way more sophisticated than any camera in the world. Our eyes can adapt to different lighting conditions very well and not to mention our brain can handle this complex in major information received from the eyes. Very well also Alhamdulillah. Okay, so now we know that cameras half limitation in term, off capturing like leftovers from the real world lighting condition. But the problem is not just stopping there. Our display devices such as computer monitor, the fee smartphone screen, etcetera, even the LCD screen at the back off our cameras. They all have even tighter range off color space. Almost all off our display devices use a standard color space called S RGB, which basically only have eight beats per channel. In other words, we only have 256 levels for each off the color channels red, green and blue. Due to this limitation, when a camera captured the image in its row data, it will then compressed, format the information into on as RGB compliant image files such as J. Peg or standard PNG. So our display devices can display them without any problem. And even worse, if we print these images onto papers because we all know papers do not produce light. The brightest value that the paper can produce is its basic white color, and the darkest value is the black ink. Paper based medium, such as newspaper or magazine, can only display a tiny fraction off the real world lighting condition. Okay, so this whole process off mapping colors or light levels from ah, high range imagery toe a lower range medium is what is called tone mapping. There are so many things we can discuss about tone mapping, but we are not here to talk about that. We actually want to talk about lenders tone mapping and specifically filmic tone mapping inside vendor you for you cycles as our rendering engine. When we render a scene, cycles actually produce very highlight wrench imagery similar to the real world condition. But the problem is by default. Blender used a 1 to 1 few transform targeting our display devices, which use as RGB color space. It means it only capture at maximum what as RGB devices can display. So any light information above what as RGB can display will be ignored. Of course, this is a huge potential loss and a limitation off what we can achieve. S a treaty artists alhamdulillah since early 2017 a smart guy named Troy James Sambuca created upon mapping for Brander, called the filmic, based on the open source. Open color Io Color management. It is called filmic because it tries to simulate the range off the classic analog film ability to capture the real world lighting condition, essentially by using filmic for mapping instead off clamping and ignoring anything above the standard RGB level. The filmic few transform will capture higher range off brightness level from cycles rotator and compress it so it displace properly on our S RGB display devices. At first, our image, we look somewhat flatter or less contrasts. But mostly this is because we've been using wrong light settings compromising the old limited method overall. But using the filmy color management, the render result images will have reacher details which give us more flexibility for further waas processing. Since blender 2.79 film a color management already become on official feature inside lender So you don't really need to Don't look or install anything manually to use the filmic born mapping first, please open the file are provided for this lesson. Make sure we are in cycles rendering mode and we have surrendered display mode active in the treaty Few. After you have it open, you can see in the render preview that the top off the monkey had faced burned out. We can only see this white color dislike the floor in this area. The background you see in here is also offer burnt. We get to see only this white colors without any details. Okay, Now go to the properties editor in the same tab, which is the third tap From the laugh, you will find the color management section in a color management section you'll see for pull down lease. This one is for the remaining the color space off our display devices. Almost all display devices in the world has as rgb color space. So most off the time you will never need to change these value. The bottom one is for blenders, sequins or color space. This is for doing video everything in lender which we are not going to discuss in this section here. So just leave this option for the default which is also s RGB. The only area we care about for now is this render area to use film make in the few pulled on Listen here Just feel make right away We can see the difference in the render a preview without having to do any real rendering We can now see the top monkey head and the floor not over burned toe What color anymore also Now we can see the details in the background image Okay, we load a few transform pull down lease You can see two sliders in here Exposure and gamma . You can play around with the sliders toe turn your render brightness level and or contrasts . But I suggest to just lift the settings to the defaults, which is zero for exposure and one for gamma. If you ever need to tweak the final render, I suggest that you use the blenders. Composite ER for any post processing works are. If you're not comfortable using blenders. Composite ER, you can use extra NA graphic software that you know, such as photo shop or creator for course processing. Still image renderings and use after effects or defensive resolve, etcetera, for course processing videos or animations. We're not going to discuss all of this in this section, so let's just move on to the last setting, which is this look pulled on lease in here. We can determine additional process, called the look transform, which essentially process the level of contrasts off our end result. We can see if we set these two very high contrasts. We get almost identical results with the default on mapping, although we can still see a little bit off details in the background you've Is that this to a very low contrast we get to see more details in the image, but at the cost off. More contrast, missing from the image. Now this flat looking image is actually more preferable if you plan to do additional parts processing leader, but for now, because we're not going to cover any boss processing in this section, let's just use the default look transform option, which is this based contrasts. 8. Environment light: If we use cycles as the rendering engine, there are at least three types off light. Sources that we can use to light are seen. Force is the environment life. Second, the limb objects and finally, the mash lights. We will discuss each off them one by one, but for this lesson, we're going to focus on the environment. Light first. Now we actually already used and tweak some off the environment light settings previously, but we haven't talked about it in depth for this lesson. If you want to follow along, please open the file provided the environment light or the world alive or also known as the Bagram Light is unique. What makes the environment like, different from the lamp objects order mesh alights is that it doesn't have any visual representation in the tree. Few. Why? Well, this is because in Vermont, life is essentially an infinite distance light projecting from all directions into the scene. Just imagine that you have a gigantic sphere with infinite radius around. You're seeing that produce light. That is how actually, it environment. Light behaves now if you used game engines before game engines usually use a gigantic box instead off sphere to optimize the rendering speed. But these spheres are boxes. It's not a really geometrical objects, so it doesn't really need to the position or a visual representation in a scene like the other type off lights do. Okay, so to access or controlled environment light dislike before we can go to the property editor and open this Worldpanel cycles used its own shader specific for the environment, which is called the Big round Shader. Bagram Shader has a color and a string value. We've talked about these values before, so I will assume that the already familiar with these two values in here Okay, now using plain background color like this is usable. But to be honest, this is not typically what you want to use to get photo realistic rendering in the real world. If we take a picture, often object that object we see in the resulting photo actually affected by its rounding Weatherby. It's lighting condition for its reflection, etcetera. Essentially, if you want to render photo realistic image, you need to see mu it a photo realistic environment also, but creating a real treaty interior environment when we only need to render, for example, a simple flower in a vase will be an offer. Kill. So is there a better solution? Well, there is. And that will be by using actually, our images. Okay, So what are actually our images? Well, we've talked about the color range off the real world against the color range off digital devices before, right? The idea is like this. We need to capture this hirings color information from the real world so that later we can use it as the environment. Light sources in our traditions. Ordinary eight beats per channel. Images such as J. Peg or PNG, for example, cannot contain this high range light information. So that is why a new format was developed, called HDR I, which is 10 for high dynamic range image. Actually, our I files, which commonly start with dot HDR extension, can save color information more than eight beats for channel. So basically, it is able to store more information from what RS RGB display devices can handle. And because our camera devices has limited range to create an actually our file, we usually need to take several shots with different exposure levels and then combined them later in post processing and then save it as an SDR file. Okay, now beside about HDR file format, there are actually a lot off high dynamic range image formats available nowadays, such as open the X R J pic X are some hybrid PNG format variants. Some TIF format variants, etcetera. So again, not actually are is not the only image file format that can store high dynamic like information. But commonly, if you're go going around and try to find high dynamic range images in the Web, you can find that the most popular format is the dog str format, and the second most popular one is the open X are for men. Okay, so using actually are images is great, but how can we acquire them? Well, there are many ways you can do these if you know photography and you have the equipment and , most importantly, you have the time to do it. You can create your own. Actually, our images. If not well, you can always find them in the Internet. There are many websites out there where you can get str i files. You can find them easily by just searching the Internet using str i as the keywords, you will find that some websites provide free and some websites off our page. Str i files but profile free version with lower resolution. If you need a completely free HDR I files, you can try. Str i heaven dot com If you like to support Greg's L, the author off str i Heaven you can provide donations through Petrie. On second is serious guys dot com, where you can find beautiful skies for your three D environment lighting this side offers paid actually are ice sky images, but the lower s version is free. Another side is str i skies dot com which more or less like CDs skies dot com. Another one is Ashley our lips dot com, which offer some free str images. Of course, there are still many websites out there that you can explore. Okay, now what if you don't know or don't like photography, but you need a specific custom. Str image for your project fast. Well, you can actually create one in blender, but it will not be as easy and straightforward compared to making them using a specialized . Actually, Are I software for this scenario? You might want to try actually are light studio software from light map co dot UK. Personally, I never used the software, so I cannot really speak for it. I just amazed by the beautiful results in the gallery section off the software. So again, take this with a grain off salt. Okay, so after we know what is actually our images and were to get them let's discuss on how we can actually use them as the environment, like in lender using cycles rendering in the world section If we use the background Shader , we have the color value in here Now what we want to do is to offer right this color with an environment texture. So to do that, click this small dark button at the right side off the color picker lender will provide us with many options to choose from again. We want to use on environment texture. So pick this one environment texture. Okay, Now, suddenly we have this bright being color in environment. This bright pink color is just way off blender telling us that there is something wrong. Basically, we have on environment texture node creator, but we haven't specified which fire we want to use, So click on his open button and Justice HDR image file I provided. That's a disclaimer. I do not create this image myself. I don't load it from Ashley our lips dot com. The image is actually a photo off a hotel entrance in Pennsylvania. Click the open image button and we have something like these. It is basically the image we saw before in a previous lessons. And as before, we can control the background image brightness, using this strength of value in here that said, is to to for now, Okay, now the last thing we want to discuss in this lesson is how we can rotate this environment image. Well, the question is simple, but the answer is kind of complex because we haven't discussed about Note editor yet, but they're still keeping simple, most off the time. You only need to rotate the background image using the Z axis because rotating the image in other access will make the image horizon off. If you want to rotate the background image in the axis, there are two initial steps before we can do that. First click on his vector button in here and just mapping below this vector category now we don't see anything in the background. Don't worry, as this is just the first step. The next step is to click on the small dot button in the vector input fields and just generated below detection. According category. Now, our image background is back to rotate the image we can reckless Zia value in here under the rotation section as we can see the background or environment image well wrote it around . Now, as you rotate the background image like this, you may notice that cycles will keep re rendering the very few. If this is too heavy for your machine, especially if you have screen recording software running like in my computer here, you can switch back to solid few mode and breast end. Scroll down until you see the display section. Notice we have these world background check box in here. Turn this on, and now we can see the background image, even though we are in solid mode. With this set up, we can rotate the image more instantly without having cycles to keep re rendering the few port 9. Lamp objects: the next light sources we're going to discuss is the lame objects. Cordless lesson. You can open the file I provided. Okay, for now, let's go to the solid few mode to create a lamb object. We can press shift a and in just lamp in here. We can see that lender provide us with several types off ramp object. We can create point lamb, sun lamp, spot, lamb hem, Ilham and less. One is the area lamp. Let's create the first lime type, which is the point, lamb. And let's move this up a bit. Press shift Z to turn on pre few rendering. Okay, Now, if we have the point limb object selected If you go to the properties editor, you will see a special tab or a soprano that has Aiken, which looks like a light bulb with arrows coming out from it. This step is actually the data panel, and the data panel is a contextual panel, meaning it changes based on the object, we could only select already active object notice. If we select Suzanne the monkey head, this panel automatically changed the geometrical data. We can see the Aiken has changed also into this triangle shape. If we select the point lamp object again, we get to see the point. Lamb data just like before. Okay, in this panel, we can see that we can actually change the type off lamp to any other type simply by clicking on one off this radio buttons, we can easily switch the point lamb type two son spot Hemi, an area last big point again and see what this lemma can do. OK, essentially, appoint lamb is a type of flem, which emit lights from a single point in space toe alterations. It is suitable for simulating candle lamp, light bulb, one fire or came fire, etcetera. So the position off the point limb is important. But the rotation is not because point lamb should lights to any direction. Rotating this lame object has no effect to the scene. Let's see, what are the parameters off this point? Lamb first is the size off the lamp. The bigger this ice value, the soft of the shadow you will get from the lamp. For example, If I said this to one, we get these softer shadows on the floor. Let's change this back to 0.1 next is the maximum bounces in here now. This value is not independent by itself. This value is actually limited by the scene white bone setting we discussed earlier, which is located in the render panel Life Pats bonds us in here. Next is cash shadows which determine whether the lamb object will cachet does or not. Okay, next is the multiple importance sample. This option will enable more advanced sampling for indirect lights. Essentially, this option will help to reduce noise in a situation where cycles need to create. So Shea does, such as when we increase the size of value in here, it also helps to reduce noise in sharp, blowzy reflections scenario you always want tohave Reese turned on unless you have specific needs to turn it off Next, don't. Here we have the shader. So yes, she had orders not only for material or for environment light, but it also exists for light objects for lights cycles provide a special shader called a mission and by default emission. Shader has two values that we can control color and strength. I believe you already know what these values can do. Color value will determine the color off the light. So, for example, I can change the color to red like this, giving it an illusion that it is a security alarm type off life and a strange the value is used to determine the brightness level off the lamp. For example, If he said this to 1000 it's gonna be a very bright Kraft light. You get the idea. Now let's move on to the next claim type, which is the sun right away. We can see that the sun has different scale off strength level 1000 will be way to bribe. So let's change this to one. And also let's change the color toe white. Okay, unlike the point, Lim Sun Lamb produced parallel life. So it is not coming from a single point in space because off these, no matter where you put the sun lamp object, the light effects, we look the same. We can see that if we go to solid mode and place this lamp below the ground and then go back to the pre few mode, nothing change. But what is important for Sun object is the rotation or the direction off it. If we go back to solid mode, and try to rotate the son to this direction. For example, go back to the pre few mode. We can see that the shadows shapes are longer and projected towards this direction for the light parameters. Basically, the concepts are the same with the point light, although the scale may be a bit different. For example, if we bump up the size toe one, we can see the shadows become way softer than we have before with the point lamb object. Right now it looks like an offer. Cast weather condition where you have clouds everywhere blocking the sun. Direct light. Okay, next is the spotlight. Let's go back to solid few mode. First, press out our to reset the rotation so it is straight facing down the floor again and then move this up So it is above the monkey head shift. See again to see the render a preview spotlight has light level similar to point like so a very off one will be too small. That's increased these toe 200 so we can see the likely effect on the scene. Essentially, the spotlight emit light from a point, but the direction off it is constrained inside a conical shape. It is suitable for simulating down lights or flashlights and car lights etcetera. Due to its behavior, both the position and the rotation off spot lamps play important roles on how the life affecting the scene for the light parameters. Most off the settings up here are basically the same with the previous ones. But notice that we have this additional parameters that we can use to control the cone shape off the light. I think we should go to the solid mode few again, so we can clearly see what these values will do. By default. We can see the corn size in here. If you need more official feedback, you can turn on Lee's show called Option In Here. The size in here, literally in the corn angle and the blend value in here determined the blurriness off the light circular shape. Let's go back to render few mode again to see this more clearly. First, let's change the main size toe 0.5 so the shadows are more sharp, then make the call size bigger so we can see the monkey had shadow clearly inside the light circle. Okay, now notice If I change the blend size to zero. The circle of light shape is sharp. Here we increased this to, for example, 0.5 The light border become more blurred. But the monkey shadows is still sharp. So again, to recap the blend value in here, determine the blurriness off the border Life shape. While this size value in here is a more global value which will blur all shadows affected by this lamp object next east the hem Ilham. Now, for Hemi type, this is the only lamb type not supported by cycles. We can see this text down here which says, not supported, interpreted as Sanlam. So cycles will consider this lamp as a sun lamp. Now, basically, Hemi lamp behaves like the environment light that we have in the world panel. But instead of projected from a gigantic sphere, it is projected from one hemisphere or 1/2 sphere. I'm not sure why Hem Ilham is not supported in cycles. Perhaps it is because the environment light already exists. So ending. Ahem. Ilham is just redundant again. I may be wrong about these. Anyway, let's move on to the next lame type, which is the area lamb now Ariel M. ISS one off the most important lamp, especially for interior rendering. Essentially, the aerial M simulate light emitting from a rectangular shape. It is suitable for stimulating lights coming out from television, computer screen, the fact the project are, and most importantly, lights from the window, etcetera. Due to its nature, both the position and the rotation matters. For this type off lamb by default, the area shape off this lamp is square. I think we can see this better in a story. A few mode notice every bump up the size value. The area that is actually emitting the lights will be bigger if we change the ship to rectangle. We now have two values for the size, size, X and size. Why, this can be very helpful for placing area limbs on windows or openings. Okay, the last setting I want to mention is this portal option in here. If this is on, we can see that we cannot control the color nor the strength of value anymore. Why is that? Well, this is because the portal option will make the area. Lamb works on behalf of the environment like we have in the world panel. Basically, it becomes the agent off the environment light so it doesn't actually produce its own lights. Now you might be wondering, Why do I need a portal light if I already have environment Life exists in a scene. The answer is Porter. Light was never meant for producing lights. Its main purpose is to direct the Lightpath dressing calculation in rendering process. This is useful for interior scene that has small window or minimum openings to the world. By placing porter lights on this windows or openings, cycles will concentrate shooting out the environment lights on the area, making the rendering process more optimum and reduce the noises. 10. Mesh lights: in this lesson video. We're going toe coffer, the last type off light sources. And that will be the mesh light before in the previous lessons with discussed environment light and then the lamp objects. Okay, so what is actually a much light? Basically a mess? Light is an image object that we turn into a light source toe, create a mesh life. It is actually very easy. Simply used the emission shader inside the material. So let's see how we can do this. If you want to follow along, please open the file I provided for this lesson. Okay, In this scene, the only light source we have currently is a simple flat gray color and vitamin light. Let's say we want to make this pipe object glowing like neon. To do that, let's go to stolid mode so we can see which object gets elected. Select the pipe object upon the material panel which is located in a properties. Any dinner notice that this pipe used a diffuse shader. Now click on it and change the shader from the fuse to emission. Go back to render a preview mode and we can see the pipe object is going now. Okay, So basically, the emission shader we have in here is the same shader we saw before in lamb objects. We already know that this is for changing the color, and this is for changing the light strength or the brightness off it. Let's change the color to a bright cyan color. Let's bomb up the string value in here are the three this to make things look more interesting? Okay. Now, because the lighting effect from mesh light is actually controlled by shader, which lives inside the material, we can use multi material technique to specify which parts off the model glowing and which parts are not blowing. For example, in here we have this big wall object. Let's say we want to make this interface area Toby glowing to do that first, go back to the solid mode, then press Steptoe, go to edit mode, make sure we are in face mode and none off the faces are selected. Select this interface in the material panel, Click the plus sign to create a new material slot, then select the slot and clearly a sign button. Now this rock already assigned to this face. But we have in create any material in the slot, so click new in here, rename it toe, neon box or any other name you like. Then change the shader in here to emission. Go back to render few mode. And as we can see, we have only this inner part glowing and dress off this wall model. It's not okay. The last thing we're going to discuss in this lesson is adding texture to offer right the color off the emission Shader Before we've been using emission shader when using lime objects. But we only deal with its Fred color. What we have on discusses that we can actually add texture to replace this color. The concept and the process will be similar to how we change the environment light. What makes this object different? Though this object needs proper UV mapping in order to use a tax shelter, well, the environment don't need any UV mapping as by default. It is already has a spherical projection mapping. So let's just at a quick planner projection mapping for his face on Lee go to solid mode, but I stepped to go to edit mode, select the face, then press three to go to the right few press you and in justice project from few bounds. This will make the face fill out the entire texture. Space. Goto Perspective. Few. Now let's go back to object mode and go back to Durant a few mode so we can see the preview rendering in a material panel. Make sure the second struck where the neon books material located is selected. Click the smaller dot button at the color parameter, then choose image extra right away. We can see the bright pink color indicating that there is something wrong. Basically, we need to pick a texture file. Click on this open button and Big B's light, flexible PMD file. I provided for his lesson. Click Open Image. Now we can see the texture is growing, but I think it is to deem. So let's increase the strength. Oh, maybe about five will do. And there you go a my slight with texture on it. You can use this technique to create my own box or computer screen, etcetera 11. Principled shader: in this lesson video we're going to discuss about principle. Shader. So what is exactly Principal Shader To make things simple Principles. Shader is a PBR based shader that can be used to simulate all real world materials. Because it is based on PVR principles, you get photo realistic result by default. We don't having to tweak too much settings. We've talked about PBR before. So just for a reminder, PBR stands for physically based, rendering PPR become very popular since around 2015 when Disney and Pixar use it in their animated movies. Okay, you might be wondering by now why it is named a principled Well, the name was not made by vendors developers. It was actually Disney who name it that way. The idea is that Disney wanted to create a shader that is physically correct by default, but still gives room for artists is to tweak or exaggerate as they need them to be. So they made these five principles on how this Shader should look and controlled. This is where the name principal came to be before Principal Shader, existing lender. To create a certain material, we need a lot of shader combining process using the note. Any terror. This is somehow doable and actually fun to do, and you can still do that now. But for most people, this was not that convenient, especially if you compared cycles toe. Other known rendering engines, such as Very Corona, are north, etcetera. These rendering engines usually already have a super material that can do all sorts off things in one place. So for some people coming from these other rendering engines, it was a setback for them. Well, those days are over. Since the principal shader officially released in Vendor, the less advantage off half in PBR based material is structure compatibility. Essentially, we can now exchange textures easily across different software, and this is a huge thing because other truly software and game engines use PBR workflow. Nowadays, we can see more and more. PBR Potential resource is available on the Web. Practically. You can now pick up any PPR texture, and when you render it in cycles, you will get almost identical photo realistic results. Compared to what you will get from other to be software or game engines. We're going to discuss about this more in depth in later lesson. For now, Let's see how we can use Principal Shader and some off its basic parameters. If you want to follow along, please open a file are provided for this lesson. Okay, To create or to use principal cheddar is very simple. Let's say you have a new object which is this monkey had object to select the object, Go to Monetario panel and create a new material for it. If we have cycles as the rendering engine immediately we get this nephew Shader out off the box To change these two principal shader simply click on it and in just principle, to be SDF in here, we can see we have a lot of parameters that we can tweak in here for this lesson. We're going to discuss some off the most important parameters that you need to know. And in an exit for lessons, we're going to discuss the rest off the perimeters. Okay, so the first parameter we're going to discuss its this one called metallic. As the name implies, this value determine whether the material is metallic or not. We've discussed about metaphor sourced electric materials in a previous material section just for a reminder in the real world. We can categorize materials in tow to big categories metal and insulator. Example of metal materials are iron, gold, copper, chrome, steel a CETRA. They are all good electrical conductors. On the other hand, insulators are also known as the electric materials are materials who are bad in transferring electricity materials such as wood, fabric, glass, rubber blasted etcetera. Basically, anything that is not metal are considered to be the electrics. Okay, so the correct way who set up the metallic value is to set it to zero. If the material is the electrics are set it all the way to one. If it is a metal, there is no value in between. If you are aiming for photo realistic rendering Now the question is why in the world we have slider in here and not on on off checkbooks. Why can we set this to, for example, 0.5. But then it will be wrong physically. Well, this is because, as you have discussed earlier, one off business principles is toe have physically correct default values, but still give artists freedom to bend the laws as needed. So again, in his metallic parameter, if you're aiming for photo Realistic result usually either choose zero for one. Okay, The next parameter is thes based color value in here. Basically, it is used to define the color off the material. For example, we can change this material to read are to blue a CETRA. This is a very basic stuff, but there is something I need to mention about. The base color of value in here is that it will serve as different purpose depending on a metallic value. If you said the material as directory, this based color value will be used as the main surface color or also known as albedo. If you said the material s metal and that will be setting the metallic value toe one in this condition, the base color is not actually used for albedo, but rather 14. That reflection, as we discussed earlier, all metal materials don't have any albedo or refuse colors. It is simply impossible to see the metal color due to its reflectivity. What we see as yellow in gold, for example, is actually a color reflection off its surrounding. So again, metal materials have the ability to colorize or 10 the reflection, and in order to do that using the principle cheddar is by using the base color value in here. The next important value we need to discuss is roughness. In theory, roughness value controls the amount off microscopic heels and values off the surface. Higher roughness value will make light ways hitting the surface to bounce off in random directions, while low roughness value means that the light ways will bounce off in more predictable manner as the surface is more smoother. Essentially, if we set the roughness value to zero, we will see clear reflection and sharp highlights on the surface. And as we increase the roughness value in here, we will get more blurt and less reflection on the surface. If we said the reference all the way to one, we will have appear diffuse surface just as we are using the deaf you shader. 12. Transmission: in this lesson video. We're going to talk about transmission inside the principal cheddar. The transmission value in here. It's useful to make our material become a Citro materials or also known as refractive materials. With these, we can simulate materials such as glass, crystal, emerald water, ice oil, etcetera. Let's see how we can do this. But first, make sure the base color is that a pure white and roughness is set to zero. And now let's increase the transmission value in here. Although it one we can see we know have this nice looking glass like object. Okay, Now, while the material is in transmission mode like this, you really don't want to turn the metallic option on in here. Why? Well, notice infants at this metallic value, although it one we will get this solid chrome like material. This is because all trance missive materials are the electrics. There are no metal material who happens to be a trance missive material at the same time. So again, if you use transmission value down here, you should always avoid turning on the metallic value up here. That is, if you are aiming for physically correct result. Next we can control both the color and also the transparency off the material you see in the base color value. To do that, let's click on the base color so we can have the color picker window opened like this. If you have your material in transmission mode when picking a color, it is better to use the H s fie color model. Why? Because each off these HSV values controls different aspect off the material force, the value or the the parameter. In here intense missive mode. Setting this value up will make the material more transparent. And setting it down will make it more Orpik and also darker. We can see if this is set to zero. We get no trance missive effect at all. Okay, let's bring this back up all the way to warn again. Next is the S or the situation value. The situation value will serve as the tinting strength, so zero will make it clear like pure water. And if we direct this up, we can see we get more color attending on the material. Now this object looks like a ruby. The last one is the age or the hue value, which basically controls the tending color, for example. We can make it grin like these. So now it looks more like an emerald for the last one, which is the A or re alfa value for transmitted material. This offer value has no effect at all. So any offer value you choose in here will not matter. Okay, Now we know already that trance missive materials are like bending materials. We've talked about this before in the light paths lesson basically light race. We'll turn their direction when they get in and get out off this material. What we haven't discussed is that the amount off, like bending for each material in the real world, is actually different. Light will ben differently when pressing through a crystal compared to when it is passing through a water, for example, scientists is already studied this behavior and even already measure almost all transmitted materials exists in the world. These light bending value is called Iot era, which is stand for index off refraction. In the principal Shader, you can find the Iot era value in here. Now if you need to know the i o. R. Value off a certain material, you can search for it in Internet quite easily. For example, here are the Iot air values off most common materials you can find every day. Almost all of them have quite similar values. So, in my opinion, you really don't need to change these value as no one will ever notice it. There is one fact that you might be interested to know is that the i o r. Value off one is equal toe air essentially changing the Iot era toe one will make the material non refractive because, well, let will not Ben if moving from air to air. 13. Subsurface scattering: in this less and video. We're going to talk about the next parameter off the principal shader. And that will be these parameters of here called subsurface. Okay, so what is exactly subsurface in computer graphic subsurface are also known as sub surface scattering or sometimes just refer toa S S s or a triple s is a type off trance missive phenomenon. But unlike pure trans music material, which will pass through a light from end to end in straight line, a subsurface material will scatter the light rays that penetrate its surface. This is because a subsurface material is not a see through material. It is the same my solid material, which has many particles inside it. Usually we can only see these sub surface scattering effects when the light is strong enough, If the light is too weak, it will lose its energy bouncing around beneath the surface and we'll never get out. Now, when the light is strong enough, it will first scatter inside or a below the surface. And when it finally comes out, it will also brings out the color off the particles inside it. So then our eyes can see that color several example off the subsurface materials are human skin. UNext own thin plastic soap bars, candle or wax etcetera. What we can tell right away is that these materials are not metal. Okay? So again, there are no metal material that has subsurface scattering effects. They are all the electrics to see this effect in the real world. The easiest example is to put a flashlight behind our fingers or someone's ear. If you do that, you will see bright red color. These red color is actually the color off the blood beneath the skin. Let's see how we can use these subsurface parameters in a principal shader. If you want to follow along as always, just download and open the file. I provide it for this lesson. Okay, so to use these values unit tohave the stop subsurface value above zero. So again, these radios values in here and also the subsurface color in here will do nothing if you set this top of value to zero. Now, if we go to salad mode, we can see I actually already put a light source behind this monkeys here. This is so we can see the subsurface effect better as I mentioned earlier. Commonly, we need strong light source to see the subsurface effect. Let's go back to the render a preview mode again. For example, let's make the subsurface value toe 0.2. We can see the subsurface scattering effects on the ear. It is reddish because we have a color in here. If we change the subsurface scholar toe green, for example, we get something like this. Okay, Now for the radios, these three values in here are not actually exploit and Z rather, they are RGB values. This is the radios value for red. This is for green and this is for blue, basically the bigger number in here, the further the light will scatter through the object, for example, we can make all off these already be values toe 0.1 To do that, simply click direct like this from top to bottom, then type in 0.1 Notice all of the values are changed. Toe 0.1 Now you can actually use this technique to any input tax or ciders in lender, for example. We can do that in here to change the location off the object, but I don't want to change any off these values, so I'll hit escape for now. OK, notice in here we have almost no noticeable subsurface scattering effect. Let's like all of this again and change it toe five, for example. We can see that currently we have a very strong subsurface scattering effect. Now you might be wondering. So what is the difference between this value up here and his value? Well, these value is much more global as it affects all off the surface, not only surfaces hit by strong light rays, and so, to a certain extent this will affect the overall color. We can see using 0.2 value in here. We'll make the color off our material not pure blue, but slightly tinted toe green. If we want to make the offer or color still blue and localize the green color on Lee only area in here, then what you need to do is to turn down his value and increase these radius values are so , for example, we already have the radius values quite high in here. So the only thing we need to change now is thes subsurface value. Let's change this value toe 0.5 Okay, now we can see that the overall based color is still blue and only the area where the lights are passing true become green. Okay, guys, before I end this lesson, I need to warn you that although making subsurface material is fun, you need to be aware that sub surface scattering effect is expensive, meaning it will slow down your rendering significantly. So just don't offer do it and you see it only if you really need it. 14. Sheen and Anisotropy: Let's continue discussing the parameters we have in the principal Tater. In this lesson video, we're going to call for Shin and and I, Satrapi, as always. If you want to follow long, just download and open the file I provided for this lesson. Okay, so what is actually Shion? Well, Shen is a visual phenomenon that can be seen on fabric are 40 objects were surfaces that are more facing away from our feeling. Direction appears to look brighter. For example, if you look closely at this image off a velvet, you can see that the surface is in here are a bit brighter than the surfaces in here. Okay. Now, to actually use this effect in a principal cheddar, there are suffer or things that you need to prepare first. All she materials are the electrics, so just make sure the metallic value in here is set to zero second. All shin materials have full roughness and therefore no reflection. Third, usually she any effects are more obvious on dark colored material. Yes, it exists also on bright colors materials, but because she and effects have bright colors, if it happens on top off bright material, our eyes hardly can tell the difference. You get the idea. So let's make the base color Weighed our car. Okay, for now, let's make the shanty in value to zero. We will discuss about this Shenton later. Okay? Now we can bring this shin value up to one notice that we barely see the difference. Why is that? Well, if you compare the rendering side by side, you will actually see the difference. Yes, the difference is very small, because in reality, you actually don't see this. She in effect that strong either. So the value off one is the maximum machine effects that you can see in the real world. Now, what if we need more? Well, this is what's so great about the principle cheddar. It helps you to achieve realistic rendering, but also provide you a way to exaggerate and break the rules to make machine effects stronger. You can actually type the value in here above one. So, for example, let's go crazy with this number and type in 10. Now we get to see this Cool. She and effects. It is far from realistic, but still looks cool. Okay, Next is the stenting value. This value will colorize the she in effect using the base color. If it is set to zero, Lucien color will be wiped. The higher decision tin value the closer machine color to the base color. If we set this to one, we can see the color is still almost white, and this like the sheen value. We can exaggerate it. So let's a 10 for example. Now we can see this odd looking material. Yes, it doesn't exist in the real world at Miss none that are visible to our eyes. But I think we can use this effect to render microscopic objects like blood cells or bacteria or viruses, etcetera, basically things that can be seen using electron microscope. The next parameter we're going to discuss is a nice or property to keep things simple. Essentially, a nice Satrapi is the effect off highlights stretching now in the real world, there is actually no such thing as highlight, and furthermore, there is no highlights stretching what we see as highlights in objects. Surfaces are actually the reflection off the light sources, and what appears to be the stretching effects are actually microscopic tracks exists. On the surface. We can see this in the real world, for example, on brushed metal surfaces such as on the back off the cooking pen and another example on CD or DVD surfaces. Okay, No, to try out the anisotropy effects in our object, I actually have prepared a cylinder object which is hidden currently, just hide the monkey had object and none Hide the cylinder object. Make sure the selected create a new material for it. Off course you want to use the principal cheddar. Okay, Now there are suffer or things that you need to set up if you want to use the in I sort o p effects first is the material type now, although in I saw property is not exclusive to metal materials, but the effect looks more obvious on metals due to its strong reflectivity. So let's just use metal for now, Okay? Second, it needs to have a roughness value above zero. Why? Well, this is actually makes sense because a nice Satrapi is essentially surface roughness, but with uniform pattern. So again, you need to have a roughness value. Just a small value like 0.2 will be enough. Okay, Now we can increase the A nice. A tropical value in here at one notice. Even with a value off one, it is still too weak to see stronger. And I saw Tropic effect. The physically correct way to do this is by increasing the roughness value. But as before we can break the rule, we can exaggerate the A nice or topic value instead. Toby on one. Let's just increased this again to 10 for example there, so we can see the effect more clearly. Okay, the last parameter we're going to discuss is the and I saw topic rotation. These value controls the direction off the stretching. Right now, we don't see any stretching on the site off the cylinder because the rotation is set to zero, which basically stretch it this way horizontally. Now, you need to understand that this value is like a 3 60 degree. Well, so one value in here is actually equals toe 3 60 degree, which means equals zero. So zero and one in here are actually the same value. Now, if is that these 20.5, there is no noticeable difference Also because this actually rotate the stretching to 180 degree, which basically the same horizontal direction. Only it is the opposite now. So if you want to turn it 90 degree, then you need to type in 0.25 because 90 degree angle is 1/4 off. 3 60 degree. Right? I'm sure you get the idea here. 15. Clearcoat and Specular: in this lesson. Video. We're going to continue discussing the parameters inside the principal cheddar. We're going to cover this clear court values in here and any speculative values up here. We discuss these two parameters the last because they are the least common parameters you will be using when walking with cycles. Okay, let's discuss clear coat first. So what is exactly clear coat? We use clear coat to simulate additional ear off glossy surface on top off the base surface , such as wax or thin film. Clear coat will add another layer off reflection on top off the base material layer in practice. Mostly, we need to add clear cause effect on car pains and rarely another type off surfaces. Okay, So to use clear coat, we can simply increase this clear coat value in here. Let's make it all the way to one. Right now, we actually have two layers off reflection and speculator one layer which is controlled by the main roughness value in here, and another one which is a layer offer laid on top ofit controlled by this clear court value. I know the difference is very sap toe and almost unnoticeable. Okay, just like the other parameters in a principal cheddar. We can amplify this very also Toby above one and wrecked the rule off photo realism. Let's try changing this to 10 for example. Now we can see that the additional highlights are speculators on the surface are really pop out. The clear coat roughness were you in here is similar to the main roughness value we have in here. But this one is used only for controlling the clear court layer and will not affect the base layer. So the more we bring this value up, the more blurry the reflection on the clear coat layer. Okay, Next is the speculative value to see this speculative effect more clearly. Let's turn all off the clear court values back to zero. Okay, so what is this speculative value? Due to make things simple, this speculative value is used if you need more speculative or reflection strength on dialectics material. The key word here is electrics. So essentially, this value will do nothing. If your material is in metal mode. Notice if I set this material to metal and then change this speculum back and forth, it won't do anything. Okay, Let me change this back toe a die electric mode when creating materials inside cycles. In most cases, you only need to use the roughness. Will you in here to control the glassy nous and just leave the speculative value to its default, which is 0.5. Well, unless you really need tohave scientifically accurate result, the default value off 0.5 is actually equals two glass speculative e for water. Water actually has toe have value off glass speculator, so it should be 0.25 In the real world, there are actually objects that have more than one speculative value. For example, Diamond has 2.15 speculative value. Now, you might be wondering, How do I know this numbers? Well, honestly, I don't I just looked them up in the blenders online documentation page. In this speech, we can see the formula to confirm the i. O. R. Value to speculative value. Honestly, I never used this formula, and I believe most through the artists don't do this also. So again, you will be fine using 0.5 speculative value for every electric materials. And if you ever need more precision, just use the formula. Okay, the next. And the less perimeter we're going to discuss in this video is the speculator 10. This value will colorize the electric reflection using the base color of value. Yes, I mentioned earlier. Only metal has colored reflection. Die electrics have colorless reflection. So essentially having this speculative value above zero will make the material physically incorrect. There is. Why should be avoided if you are aiming for photo realistic result. 16. Material creation workflow: in this lesson video and then the next two lessons. After this, we're going to cover the workflow off, creating materials from scratch and then learn how to store and organize them into our own material library. Imagine the scenario. You have created a lot off materials for a project. After that project is done, you didn't move on to another project. And at this new project, apparently you need to create the same materials that you have created before in a previous project Off course. If you re create all off the materials from scratch, that will be a waste off time. The ideal woeful will be that you only need to create the material ones story in a library and then use it again and again. For every projects you need to handle, the more projects you finish, the more materials you have in your library, the faster you can handle new projects. Okay, But before we learn how to create a material library, first we're going toe coffer, the material creation workflow and how to name material effectively. Essentially, this material creation workflow is just a guidance for you to create any materials using cycles and principal cheddar. The workflow goes like this. The first step that you need to do when creating a new material is to determine whether the material is metal or not. Okay, now, if you're materialise metal, the next step is to determine the color, and after that we need to determined roughness value, and that's it. Mostly we are done. But for certain materials, we can add additional effects such as clear coat or a nice Satrapi, if needed. Okay, now, if our material is the electric, then the next step will be determining whether it is a trance missive, material or not. Next, the color off the material. And then after that, the roughness property That's pretty much cover Come on dialectic materials. But in addition, for some materials, we can add effects specific to the electric materials such as subsurface, scattering and sheen. And then, after that, we can add more general material effects like clear coat and an eye. Satrapi. Yes, I mentioned before. This workflow is just a guidance. It is not a requirement least set in stone, but by following this workflow, you will get general constraints automatically. If you are aiming for photo realistic rendering For example, you won't be able to use transmission nor subsurface scattering if your material is metal. So just remember this workflow in creating new material, especially if you are aiming for a photo realistic rendering Now, before creating any material. When you build a material library, you will be handling hundreds off materials, so you need to carefully think about the naming convention for all off your materials. If not, you're going to get confused quickly. Now you can use any naming convention that you or your team like to use. There is no right or wrong about this subject. But this Mac Scher that the naming formula you use is easy to understand, easy to memorize, and most importantly, you and your team will be able to use it consistently. Usually, I used this naming convention for all of my materials in my material library Formato Materials, because metal is much fewer than the electric materials. I used this naming formula metal dot material name doc roughness dot additional effects. So, for example, a glossy gold material would be named metal, not gold dot glass for brushed metal copper, for example. I would use this name metal, the copper dot Ralf, look in I saw. Okay, so that is the naming convention for metals for electric materials. I used this naming formula. Material name dot dance massive value dot color dot roughness dot additional effects. For example, a plastic material can be named like this plasticky that solid not blew the glass. Not as s solid means it isn on trance missive. I know it should be topic or something, but the world or pick is just too long. So I use solid instead. And the world s s s is actually stands for subsurface scattering Another example. We can name crystal material toe crystal. The trends not read that glows the court friends means it is trance missive and coat means it has clear cause effect. Now, sometimes I don't at the world solid or friends into the name off the materials that obviously only exists in non transmitted form such as wood car pains and porcelains, etcetera. Okay, again, the names are not important. It is the concept that you need to understand here in the next lesson, we're going to use the workflow in the naming convention to start creating materials for our material every 17. Material examples: Okay. Now let's put the workflow with discuss. In a previous lesson in action, we're going to create Sephora materials and in store them in our own material library. In this lesson, we're going to create these materials in this list goat, copper mirror, aluminum, plastic, rubber, glass, crystal, porcelain, car pain and fabric. I know we already create some off them in the previous lessons, but we haven't stored them inside the material library. And also the goal off this lesson. It's not actually to create the materials themselves, but to explain the mind set off how to create material from scratch using the world floor we have discussed in the earlier lesson four Star Just open the file. I provide it for this lesson. Essentially, it is just a monkey head object with an educator. I in Vermont light. You can use or create your own file if you want to. Okay, so based on our list in here, we need to create a gold material. First, make sure the monkey had object is selected goto material panel and click this new button. Change the shader toe principle. Be SDF rename this material toe metal, not gold dot glass. Okay. We all know that gold is metal. So said the metallic value all the way to one. Change the color to yellow, then roughness value toe, 0.1. Okay. Now, before we continue, I want you to know that the roughness value in here it's not actually tied Togo material. What I mean by there in the real world, we can use the same good material to create both glassy and rough surface object. It all depends on a surface street hman when the object is created. Okay, so you can have gold with high roughness value, but since our material are named glossy, we'll stick with 0.1. Okay, Now that our gold material is done, we can move on to creating next material, which is copper. But before we create that material, we want to make sure that this gold material is saved. Meaning later Blender will not arrest this material even though there are no object using it. We have discussed about these in the material section before. Essentially, we need to click this F button in here. This button will add a faith user to the material. The user term in material is object who used that material and fake user means. That blender will pretend that there is an object using this material, although actually there aren't any. When we save and re open a file, Brender will usually clean up the file from any garbage data. The material without a user will be considered as garbage by blender, and therefore we'll get the leader. So with faith user, this growth material will be saved because it will not be considered as garbage. Data. Know that our gold material is safe. Let's create a copper material because copper is almost like gold. Instead, off creating the material from scratch. We can just copy the gold material and take it from there. Tocopilla Gold material We can click this plus button in here. Now we have a duplicate material from the gold material. We can see the name Mysterio similar, but it has additional numbering +001 At the end of it. Let's change the name, toe metal, the copper look gloss. Copper is metal as we all know it, and we want to make it glassy also, So most off the settings is already correct. The only thing that we need to change is the color just the color toe reddish brown color. And that said, the couple of material is done just like before. We need to press the effort button in here toe. Add fake user to this material before we can move on to the next material. The next material in the lease is mirror now because mirror and chrome are almost identical in term. Off their look and settings, let's just name it as chrome and use it for both mirror and chrome. Duplicate the couple of material rename it toe metal, chrome the glass changed the base color. Tope, your wife and roughness to zero. Okay, now you might be wondering, Why do we consider chrome and mirror Toby the same material? Isn't it chrome? It's Mato and mirror ISD electric. My answer is no. Both are metals at the surface. Lef. Oh yes, mirror has aggress layer and glass is electric material, but the reflection off a mirror is not coming from the grass plate. It is actually coming from a metal. She exists on the other side, off the glass. Usually the metal sheet in mirror is made off aluminum and some expensive mirror use seal for a photo metal. She it. My point is, when designing a material, just focus on what is visible to our eyes. If you really want to make an accurate representation off mirror, you can add clear coat on top off metal based material to simulate the glass. Moreover, you can even model two objects, one for the glass and one for the metal. She it. But trust me, these are just to offer cure for the rendering process well, the result. Well, not show any significant differences. So again, using crow material for a mirror is enough. Let's press the F button again, just like before. Next is aluminum. Create a new material by copying the crow material. Rename Ito metal, not aluminum, not Raph. Aluminum is meto so. We don't need to change the metallic value in here for the color that said it Toby off white color. So it is slightly towards the great color. And although high gloss aluminum exists, but mostly the aluminum we see every day are produced as compounds and exhibit some degree off roughness, usually for aluminum. I used roughness of value around 0.3 to 0.4. Okay, press the F bottom again. Let's move on to the next material that we need to create an alias, which is plastic. For now. Let's start with a fresh new material. So click this X button toe. Close the material or handling the material from the monkey Had object. Create a new material. Changed the name, toe plastic that solid dot black dot glass Change the Heydar toe principal cheddar. We know that plastic is not a matter, so the metallic value should be set to zero because this is that the electric material we need to specify where the list is. Trance missive or not. Now there are different kind off plastics in the world, and some off them are trance missive, like the bottles used for mineral water or even some eyeglass lenses are made off plastic. For now, let's just say we want to create a non transmission of plastic, so we live this transmission of value to zero. Next, we need to specify the color. Let's make it a black color plastic, but I don't want it to be a pure black, so it is slightly towards gray, and for the roughness we can set this value between 0.1 to around 0.3 again for plastic. The roughness value can be very also depends on the finishing treatment, so there are very high gloss of plastics, and there are also very rough plastics. But we want to create a glossy of plastic now, so 0.1 to 0.3 will be a good starting point. Press the F button again, as always. Okay, guys. Next we need to create a robber glass, crystal and porcelain. The workflow is identical with what we have used so far, so I will just speed up the video for now. Currently, I'm creating a robber material name. Ito. Robert got solid that black, not half for the roughness value, usually for robber. I use a 0.5 to 0.8 value. Next is glass named material toe glass, dock trends that white gloss off course glasses, trance missive. And for clear glass, we need to set the color toe. Pure white color roughness is zero. Next for Crystal, let's name it crystal. The trends dot white dot gloss. The settings are mostly identical toe glass only. The ire value is different. for crystal. I usually use higher IRA value such as two or pre okay. Next s porcelain named the material toe porcelain dot white but gloss porcelain. It's actually part off ceramic material, so it is not metal. It is never transmits, if that is why I don't put the world solid in the name and porcelain vase. Color is always white for roughness. Because porcelain are very glassy, I think we can set this to around 0.5 toe a 0.2. In the real world, when you see color on porcelain material, they are usually added on top off the original porcelain base, and then a glaze or some kind off clear coat layer applied after that to protect the color . So, yes, you may want to add clear core properties on porcelain, but I won't do that for this material to optimize the rendering performance. Perhaps the F button again, just like before the next materialise carpeting material. Now most people think that car pain is metal. This is actually common misconception. In the real world, there are different types off car pains. There are known italic are pains, and there are in italic are pains, but the most common car pains you see in the road are actually nonmetallic. Are pains or so called solid color car pains? Why? Because metallic our pains are more expensive. Usually metallic are pains. Used aluminum powder mixture to create the metallic shine. For now, let's create a salad or a nonmetallic are pain, so create a new material. Rename it tow car pain, not read that glows the coat. Use principal trader. Set it to the electorate. There is no trance missive. Car pains. That is why I skip it in a material's name. Change the color to red Now for off nous. The base pain for car is actually not that glassy. So I think 0.3 roughness is enough. In the real world, after the based color is applied, additional Laker quote or also known as Clear Coat is applied. We can simulate this with a clear court parameter. I thing of value off one is too weak. Let's make it two. And there you go. A car pain material off course. This is a chip. Most common car pains you can find easily on the road if you want to make a metallic are a pain. You can use metal as the base material. For now, I think this is enough. Press the F button again, and let's move on to the last material, which is fabric. For fair break. There are white variety or fabric materials you can find in the world. In this example, we just want to create a generic fabric. Let's create a new material. Rename it toe fabric, not yellow dot Ralf, not shin. Change it to principal cheddar. February is not metal, and it is not transmits. If also, let's set the color to yellow, said the roughness Old way toe one. And for machine that said it toe to so we can see it better on yellow color. And there you go a generic yellow fabric. Press the F button again and see if the file in the next lesson, we're going to transform this file into a material library that we can access and use from any locations or from any external blender files 18. Material library: in a previous lesson we have created suffer all materials with fake user. So if we open the material panel and click on this pulled on lease button blender release all off the materials exist in a file. We can see all of the materials have f letter in front off them indicating that they have fake user assigned to them, which is a prerequisite if you want to convert this to a material library now because we named them correctly, we can lose searching way easier using these search box down here, for example, let's say we want to search metal materials. We can do that by typing metal in here. We can see that vendor instantly filter the least toe only shows materials with work metal in it. If we want to search all transmitted materials, for example, we can type friends in here and we have all turned SMIs. If materials filtered for us or another example, we concert black colored material by typing black, you'll get the idea. So again, naming convention is important as this will help you along the way. Okay, Now all those sorting material with the search box is great, but this is not the material library that we want to create. Okay, you might be thinking that creating theory library is way more complicated than finding material locally like this. Well, the answer is no. It is actually very simple. Essentially, the term material library we use in Lender is just unordinary lender file. So this file will be our material library. It is that's involved. But in order to make use off this file as a material library, optimally, at least we need to do two things first. First, we need to create data previews for the materials. Okay, So what is exactly data refuse? Well, data previews are essentially thumbnail images generated by blender. So that later when we browse this file from other external file or other blender session, we can see better. These were representation off the materials. This will greatly improved the speed when accessing the materials. So to generate the data previews, we need to go to the file menu, then just data refuse, and then click on this. Refresh data block Refuse command for several seconds or minutes. Depends on the amount off materials blender will freeze. This is normal as it is rendering off the preview images in the background. Okay, the next thing we need to do is to save the file to a location where our team can access it . Of course, if you're working alone, you can simply safe the file to your own local drive. But this pretend that we are working with a team for now. If you are working with a team in a physical office, then you might want to start the file toe a shared folder in a server if you are working with a team, but remotely, perhaps you are in the US and you have some off your teammates in Europe and some in Middle East and some in Asia, for example. Then you can make use online storage surfaces like Dropbox or one drive or Amazon drive etcetera, to share and seeing the file across the team. You can also make use project management software, which provides online storage such as base cam or asana orzo ho, etcetera. Anyway, how to set up your local surfer or these online tools are outside the scope off this lesson . Norby scores. So we will just assume that this thing already done and we saved the file already to share folder. I will save this file locally and name it material library. Okay. Know that we have the fire set up correctly. Let's start a new file and let's duplicate this cube several times. Make sure your cycles for the rendering engine and to add lighting toe are seen. Let's just add on actually air I file as an environment life go to the world Material didn't change the color Noto environment, texture and just use any Each year I file you have okay, if we go to the render a preview mode, we already have this basically box us now imagine that this is a project you are working on and you want to add materials from your material. A very For example, this box will be gold. This box will be plastic, etcetera. There are two ways to access and use the material from on external material Library for us by using a pen. And second is by using link a pen. Will sensory take materials from an external blender file and an copy toe our Koran file so the material will have no connection to the original material library file link is different. If fueling a material from material library file, that material will always be connected to the original material library file. This way, any changes made in the material library file will get reflected to all off the file connected twit. Let's see how we can upend material. First, tow a pen material. We can go to the file menu and to supplant in here. Browse to the material library. We have a safe before. If you already save the material library file to a sink or shared folder, you may want to bookmark that folder so later you can access it faster toe bookmark a folder. Once you open the folder at the right side, you can click this plus battle in here. You can move this folder, bookmark up and down using these buttons. And if you change your mind and want to remove this bookmark simply selected and hit this minus button. Okay, What's so unique about vendor files is that they are actually compressed off all doors. So if you select a file which is our material library file, we are moving into folder. We can see some folders which are basically asset categories, so yes, We can also create library system for brush through the objects, texture, etcetera. We are interested on materials for now, so click on the Material folder and we can see our materials we created before are all listed in here to see their pre few Tom nails. We need to click on this button up here and there you go. The material previews. Now. If we previously didn't generate the data refuse. All that you can see in Istanbul's mode are just generic paper. Aiken's with data refuse generator. We can see more of visual information about the materials. I know it is not the most realistic refuse you ever see, but at least we can see the color right way and also the roughness of it by looking at how blur the speculators on it Because we use naming system, we can type up here metal, for example, and render will filter the materials toe only show the materials with the world metal in its name. Essentially, it is like the search filter we see before in local material. Lius. Now let's say we want to import gold, plastic, rubber and Carpinteria. We can click on any material for example, this gold material Hold shift and then click on plastic, rubber and then carpet material and then click t a pen from library button up here. Currently, it looks like nothing has happened, but notice if it's like one off this cube and go to the material panel. If we click on this material pulled on lease the materials, we important are all here so we can set this one toe gold. Select this cube, and instead it tow car pain and this one. Let's make it blast eight and finally this one. Let's make it a robber. Okay, if we hit Shift Z to render a preview, we can see the four cubes are using or previously created materials. Okay, now let's discuss about linking pulling a material. We can go to the file menu and into slink in here. Basically, the importing process is identical to a pending, for example, that speak the yellow fabric material and then click this link from library button. Okay, now let's select this cube and open the material panel again. When we click the materialists, we can see the linked material has this unique L and F letter in front off it. El is actually stands for Link an F for fake user. If we use this material, we can see that we cannot change the parameters off this material directly. All of these parameters are great out. This is how linked material work. We can only change it if we open the material library far directly. And if we do change the material in your regional material library file, the changes will reflect to all over the files using that link material. Now, this feature may be useless or even inconvenient for one person and a simple project, but we'll definitely useful. If you have large Tim and doing Big Project, for example, you and your team are doing a movie, and in that movie the main character has a car or red car, for example, for each off the shots in that movie, you have one lender file, so you have hundreds off blender files in the project. Now imagine if in some point in the production process, the art director decided to change the car pain color from red to blue. If you don't have linked material system in place, that will be a nightmare because you don't need toe open each off the file, hundreds off them and change the carp in color one by one. That will be a total waste off time. Right? But if you have a link material system in place, you simply need to change the master file or so called the material library file. And automatically, all those hundreds off files will get updated. So you understand now how this link material can be useful. Okay, Now, in some cases, you want to change this link material to local material, just like how a pendant material works. Essentially, you want to change the material here and there, and you intentionally wants the material to lose its connection to the original file. You can do this by clicking on this button in here that has paper and arrow. I can on it if I click this button. The material now become local material. Therefore, the parameters are now accessible for you to tweak further. Okay, guys, I think we have cover enough about how to set up and to use material library in lender 19. Working with camera: in this lesson video and the next lesson. After days, we're going to discuss how we can create final render in Lender. Previously, we only use preview rendering to render our sin, which is essentially just changing a few porch eating mode to render or by pressing shift Z as the shortcut. This is great for quick previewing or seen, but we cannot save the output as image. Unlike refuel, rendering using final rendering, we can save the render output as image or a movie, so that later we can use these images or movies outside blender. But to create a final render blender will require us to have a camera object. So therefore, in this lesson, we are going to focus on how to work with camera force. Then in the next lesson will cover how to do final rendering. Okay, so what is camera object? Well, just like in the real world, camera object in Lender is used to direct the few so blender know what to display when doing final rendering. If we create a new default seen in lender, we actually already have a camera object, which is this pyramid like object with triangle have on top of it. So feel the scene from the camera point off you. We can press zero on the Phnom Penh. We are now feeling the scene from the camera object. If you forget the shortcut, you can go to a few menu cameras and in juice. Active camera in here to go back to the three. A few mode, we can simply rotate the few part you sing in the middle mouse button. Okay, so I repeat, press zero on the Phnom Penh so few from the camera angle and just throated the few part using the middle mouse button to go back to the free few mode. OK, in lender, we can have multiple cameras in one scene to create a new camera. Simply hit Schiff A and induced camera in here. A new camera will be created in a treaty cursor location, and it will be oriented to our current fueling angle. We can see it is pointing that way. If you want to reset the orientation off it, just like with any other object in lender, we can select it and impressed about our to reset the orientation. If we reset the orientation, the camera will be facing straight down like this and the triangle have will be facing towards do I access Now you might be wondering what is the function off this triangle shape ? Well, the triangle heads function is to indicate the local up direction off the camera object. Okay, Now, having multiple cameras like this is useless unless we actually use them to direct our few in rendering process. If we press zero again, notice that we are feeling the scene from the first camera, not the second camera that we have just created. What is that? Well, this is because the first camera is still the active camera. We can tell which one is the active camera of easily. By the color off the triangle hats, the active camera will have a solid color triangle like this one, while the known active camera will have hollow color or only showing wire frame like this one in the old liner, we can tell which one is the active camera. By looking at this, I can in here the one with white circle is the active camera. Okay, now, what if we want to make this camera as the active camera instead off this one To do that, we can select it first and use the shortcut. Control zero. The camera now is the active camera. We can see that in your Kleiner and right away Lender will feel the scene from this camera . If we're what? At the few parts we can see. This camera now have solid triangle help on top of it. Well, this one is not so again to set an object as an active camera. We need to select it first, Then hold control, then press zero on the number. Okay. Now, what's so interesting about blender is that you can actually set any object as an active camera. For example, if I select this limp object and then press control zero now we actually feeling are seen from the lamp object point off you. I know this is kind of strange, but sometimes this is useful too. Soft lighting issues, for example, to study where the light is casting shadows, etcetera. If he wrote it out a few again and then change the transformation orientation to local, we can see that blender We'll use the minus Z axis as the default feeling angle. This is also true for camera object. Notice if we select this camera. The camera actually looking at the local minus Z axis direction now, although you can have any type off object as an active camera for final rendering. But of course, this is not recommended because only camera object half the complete parameters to tweak the camera behavior. So let's see those camera parameters. Make sure this camera object is selected. Make it the active camera by pressing control. Zero. Okay, if we have a camera object selected in a properties editor, we can see a camera tab in here. We can see a bunch off camera parameters that we can tweak. We will come for only the most important ones. For now. At the top, we can set the camera. Toby Perspective or photographic perspective will have vanishing points just like how we see through the objects in the real world. While Auto graphic or also known as Isis Elementary will display the treaty seen without any vanishing points, this is useful for creating isometric game artworks or isometric Aikens etcetera. Panoramic option in here will create a 3 60 degree render, which is useful for creating Skyway grounds for game engine, for example, or for creating high dynamic range back plate images. We're not going toe kaffir panoramic images. In this lesson, let's focus on perspective mode, as mostly this is the mode you'll be using for two D rendering. The most important parameter is this focal length in here. By default, it uses plans millimeter equivalent with the real World camera for those off you not familiar with cameras Focal length. Essentially, this perimeter controls the with off the camera a few angle, the smaller the focal length, the wider the few that's making the perspective distortion stronger. The larger the Focal Inc value, the narrower the fueling anger does, making the perspective distortion less noticeable. If you don't like to use cameras focal length value and just want to control the feeling anger directly using a degree of value, you can do that by using this field of view parameter instead. Again, the function is similar to the focal length of value, which essentially controlled with off the camera view. But it uses angle degree instead off lens millimeter value. Very helpful, especially for those off us who don't have any experience in photograph E before the shift value is useful for shifting the camera from its original position. The X value will shift the camera horizontally, and the Y value will shift to camera vertically. This is mostly useful for creating camera vertical shift effect, which usually needed for architectural rendering. But this will be an advanced copy, so we will have to escape it for now. Next is sleeping values. These values are useful to hide objects that are too close or too far away from the camera . Essentially, the camera will only render objects that are located between the start and the end values Notice. If he directly start value up at certain points, some part off the Cube will be creeped out from the rendering. Let's change this value very low, like 0.1 Okay, the next techniques we're going to discuss is the camera navigation or camera transformation, to be exact because in camera few mode navigating the scene is essentially transforming camera object. Okay, now, if we are in the free few more, we can select a camera and move it or rotated easily, just like any to the object. And this release. Ensley changed the camera view, but mostly when we want to render, we want to tweak the camera right inside the camera view without going back and forth to the free few mode. So to do dead, let's press zero force to go to the camera a few more. Okay, now, in this mode we can move and rotate the camera. But first you need to make sure that the camera is like that. Otherwise, nothing will happen in this few mode to select the timber object. We can right click on this border notice. If I press, a vendor will answer like everything. If we rightly on the border again, it will become highlighted, indicating that the camera object is indeed selector. So again, just make sure the camera object is selected like this. To move the camera horizontally or vertically, we can simply press G, then just move the mouse around to reposition the camera. Okay, To move the camera closer or further, we can press G, then ze and XE again. If you honestly pressing G will activate the move mode and pressing Z twice, we'll make the movement restricted to locals the access in this way we can move back and forth based on the camera orientation in cinematography, This camera motion is known as Dolly Okay now, to rotate the camera to look up and down we can press are Togo to rotate mode and then press X twice pressing X twice will make the rotation constraint to local X axis in cinematography. This is often referred as camera tilting. Okay, if we want to look left and right, we can press or again for rotation and then press Z once and finally, we can use our and impress Z twice to rotate the camera on the Z local access. If you learn cinematography before you may already know that this kind off camera rotation is often referred as camera roll. Usually it is used for flying or racing animation, etcetera. The less technique we're going to discuss in this lesson is aligning the active camera toe , the current free If you let's say we are in the three a few mode, and after rotating a few and adjusting the zoom, we happen to like a certain few angle, and we want to use that few for final rendering. Remember, Final Render need a camera and right now we are feeling the scene in free few mode. We don't any camera, so essentially we want to make the active camera to reposition and align itself to our conf You. To do that, we can hold control out and impress. Zero are. If you forget the shortcut, you can go to the few menu, then align few and then choose this command. Align active camera toe few, as you can see now the active camera has changed, and it is now fueling the scene like we see the scene before in a free few mode. 20. Rendering basics: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss how to do final rendering in vendor. As we discussed earlier with final rendering, we can say if the output as image or movie files so that later we can further walk with these files on other graphic software outside lender. If you want to follow long, you can just use this file. I provided for this lesson in here I have a monkey had model that I attached toe a base cylindrical object to make it looks like a trophy. I have a sun lamp object and the camera object because, of course we need a camera for final rendering. Also in this file, I already set up on environment life. Okay, now, if you press zero to go toe camera view impressed Shift Z for a preview rendering. We can see that we already have a nice multi materials set up in our model here. Now everything that I used here are materials we already have created before. This is the copper material. The eyes are using gold material. The cylindrical based MASH is using the car plane material, and his center tax plate is using the robber material so there is nothing new here to discuss one thing that may interest you in the set up. Perhaps, are these reddish or purplish speculators all over the model? Well, this is actually not because off the material, but because off the sun lamp settings, if we select the sun lamp, you can see I made the color Toby like purple like this and make the size of value toe to which is quite large compared to the default size. If I hide the sun lamp object, we can see that the purplish spectaculars are now gone. Okay, let's turn this back one. Okay, so to do final rendering, we can open the render panel inside the properties, any terror, and then click this render button. Or you can use F 12 for a short cut. Could only blender is rendering. We can see the rendering progress up here. If you want to cancel the rendering process, which is in progress, you can click these X button in here, or you can also press the escape button in the keyboard. Commonly final rendering process takes more time to finish them, pre few rendering process because it calculates more samples than the preview rendering notice in a sampling section in here we have render value and preview value. We have discussed this before in the earlier lesson. Off this section, we can see preview rendering only use 32 samples. That is why it is faster to complete but still have a lot of noise. The random sample of value in here controls the quality off the final rendering. Currently, we use 128 samples, which is actually very low for common final rendering scenario. But still, it is way bigger than the pre few render. Samples are usually never use samples lower than 512 for final rendering. But because we only have fairly simple object to render in our scene, 128 samples will be more than enough. Okay, now, when we do final render like these blender will automatically open. Or should I say, switch the three few editor to the UV image editor? As we can see, this is not the very few editor we have before. This behavior is due to the setting we have here, which is said to image editor. If you don't like this behavior, you can change these toe keep you. I, for example, miss will prevent blender from automatically switch the editor to the UV image editor again when rendering. But I will live this as the default. For now, after the rendering is complete, we can say if the image, by clicking on this image menu and then save as image in here to go back to the pretty few we can do this manually by clicking on the editor released, Pull down in here and just pretty few. Or you can use shortcuts for this. Mostly I do this with shortcut. We can press shift f, then toe open the UV image editor where we have our end result and then she have five toe open the treaty few editor. So again, shift f then for the render results and then chief a five for our three days in few. Okay, let's focus on the render panel again. Up here, we can see three buttons render animation and audio. We already know what render is now. The animation bottom in here is like the render button, but it is used for rendering animation, meaning instead off putting one image animation render will render an output suffering images based on the start and the end frames setting stone here the audio button is used for are putting audio only if we are working without your files in Renders Video sequence. Editor In this lesson, we're not going to touch animation nor audio yet, so we will stick with just doing single image rendering. Okay, next is the feature Sepp. But the fall it is said Toe supporter, meaning Brender will only display parameters off features that are already in stable status . If we set this to experimental, we can access the flow hidden features, which are considered to be not stable yet. I recommend you to just use the support of option in here unless you really know what you are doing. Because experimental features are mostly still prone to bugs and so more likely to crash blender for device option. We already talked about these in the early lesson, so let's just move on to the Resolution section inside the Dimensions sub panel. In a resolution section, we can define the render size X value is for the wit off the image and why value is for the height off the image the larger the output image, the longer it takes to render it below the image size values we can see size, percentage value. This percentage value is useful for rendering small version off the image before we render the full size image. So if we set this to 50% it means blender will only render half off the resolution we set up here. If you really want to render in 1920 pixels by 10 80 pixels output resolution, then you should set the percentage of value all the way to 100%. Okay, now, this resolution setting is also important to guide the camera frame size ratio. We haven't talked about this before in camera lesson. For example, if I drag like this to select both off these values, then type 1000. Because the width and height are the same, the camera frame shape will become square. If I change the height Toe 2000 for example, then we get a portrait size ratio. I'm sure you get the idea here. Let me change these toe four off 80 pixels for a steb and this one toe 7 20 pixels, step again and then scale the value old way to 100%. Okay, next is the aspect ratio. Just for a quick explanation. In the early days off television technology, the pixel size often analog chip based television is not actually square, but slightly wider. Therefore, we need to compensate this behavior if we want to export video files from computer to these old devices. Ah Hamdullah. Nowadays, most digital screen devices and also the digital broken standards are all based on square pixels aspect ratio. So essentially, you really shouldn't change these values to anything other than one. Okay, next is these two options down here? Border and crop. If we have a complex scene which takes a very long time to render and we want to adjust only a small portion off that scene, for example, I just want to adjust the material and rear ender Onley the left eye off this month he had model. It will be inefficient to render the whole image right. This is where border rendering come in handy. Essentially, we can tell vendor to render just a portion off the image to do that, make sure our mouth is in a TV. A few editor then hold control and then press B and then just direct like this to draw the border. Now, as we can see, we have this rectangle in a camera view and we also have this border option active in here . If we press f 12 to render blender will render only this rectangular region not the whole image in the camera frame notice. After a finished rendering, we still have these remaining areas from the original camera frame. This issue useful if we want to overly rendering result on top off the previous render. But if you don't want any off this remaining areas, you can turn on crop in here with this setting, After the rendering is finished, blender will not add the remaining areas. Okay, let's press chief of five to go back to the city. Few we can turn on or off this border option as we needed. If it is off, it will render the full camera frame as usual. Okay, now turning the border option off Well, not actually clear the border frame. It simply just not using it. If you really want to clear out the border frame, you can use the shortcut control out. Be noticed the border region is completely gone, or if you forget the shortcuts, you can always go to the few menu. And we have this control being here for creating render border, and we have control of being here for clearing out the render border. The last setting we are going to discuss is the transparent setting. As you can see in the rendering result. We have this environment background visible most off the time. We don't want to see this background image because we want to compose the rendering result with different backgrounds in photo shop or any other external software to remove the background image or the environment texture. We can go to the film section and notice we have this option called transparent if we turn it on and hit F 12 again to render we get them sparing big grown like these now to save the render resource. With transparency like these, we need to save it in PNG file format or any other format that support off our channel. 21. More rendering options: in this lesson video. We are going to discuss Sephora important topics about final rendering, and that will be the render tiles material over. Right and the noise. Sir, if you want to follow along, right way just opened the file I provided for the previous lesson where we have this monkey had profit model. Okay, when you do final rendering, wanting that you may notice right away is the difference off how blender process the rendering. If we are in a camera view like this and impress Shift Z Togo to render a preview mode, we can see that the image is rendered progressively from a very noisy image, toe cleaner and cleaner results. But if they press F 12 to do final rendering instead off defining the whole image progressively blender now render the image by focusing on this small tiles at once. This behavior is due to the setting we have in Render Panel, which is down here in the performance section where we have this Kyle's option. Now you're probably wondering why Blender treats pre few rendering and final rendering matters differently. Well, there is a very good reason for this, and that is because for four months, but using cows to render the scene, we can leverage the multi threading capabilities off our computers. So, for example, if we use CPU to render a scene and we have 16 course in our machine, when we render, we will get 16 tiles rendering at once. If we use GPU rendering and we have four GP use installed in our computer, for example, then we will have for rendering tiles working at the same time. Okay, the number you see in here is the tile size in pixels. Generally, if you use GPO for rendering, you want tohave bigger tile size, such as 256 pixels. But if you use CPU for rendering, the new should use smaller tile size, such as 16 picks sauce now the exact optimized number for each system. My different and you really need to test it to find out. But mostly 256 for GPU and 16 for CPU is a good starting point in a future release off blender. You won't really need to tweak the power size again because blender will automatically set it to the most optimum size based on your system. Okay. Now what if we don't want to render with tiles For some reason, we want to render with progress if refinement, method dislike how preview rendering works. Well, you can do that by turning on this option. Progressive. Refine if this is on and we hit F 12 again to render, as you can see it immediately display all off the image area, but noisy. And then we find the image progressively, just like how to render a preview works. But I must warn you, though, that this method is slower than using the default render tile method. So I will turn this off and just use the default tiling method instead. Sometimes when we had lighting to our seen, it is hard to see how the light interacts. If you already have too many textures going on in our scene, it will be very helpful if we can make all off the material, become white or gray so that we can focus on tweaking the lights. We don't any distraction for this scenario. We might want to use the material off right feature in lender, but before we can use that feature, we actually need to create the material that we want to use as the overwrite material. And so, for this purpose and for the purpose off the next topic, we are going to discuss. Let's create a plane object First press as to scale and type for dose carried up for times control A and apply the scale. Go to the material panel and let's create a new material named the Material Base, not white or any name you like. Okay, now, if we go toe camera few and impress shift Z toe previewed Orender, we already have this white the fuse plane object toe overwrite the host in materials we need to go toe to render layer panel, which is the second type from the laugh in a properties editor. You'll find this material option in here. Click on it and into is the base, not white material we have created before. Okay, Now notice. Net material override does not work in preview mode, But if you press F 12 to render the scene as we can see, all off the materials are now off a ridden with the based white material. If you want to remove the overwrite material, you can click on this X Aiken in here. This will bring back all off the original materials and textures, just like before. Now, I actually want to override the scene materials back to the base white material because we are going to cover the noise er after this and it is easier to see the noise on non glasses surface. Okay, The next render setting we are going to discuss is the noise, sir. So what is actually the noise, sir? Well, we already understand about render noises before, right? Essentially the hired rendering samples, the cleaner, the result will be and the lower the samples, the noisier the result will be but off course. Rendering with more samples means more times needed to finish the rendering. Using the noise, sir, can greatly help with the noise problem in our renderings. Basically, the noise er is an additional image processing applied under rendering result that blurs out all of the noise. Is it? It's like blur filter in photo shop or gimp Orc Rita. But it is way smarter because blender uses the treaties in information to guide the noise blurring process because it is an additional process using the noise er well, actually at more time to the rendering process. But the resulting image is way cleaner. So at the end, the resulting image is comparable to rendering it with a lot more samples. In many cases, with the noise, sir, we can have similar clean results with only one per eight off rendering time needed compared to using the higher simple settings. Because off these, I always have the noise er turned on all the time. Okay, So to use the noise er is very simple. Just go to the render layer tap in the properties editor, We can see the noise ing option. Don't here just turned this on and that's it. You can expand the settings and display around with these values. But I found out that this default values already worked best for more situation. So you really don't need to change anything in here if you hit Render. You may notice that for each tile blender will actually do to calculations. First is the three D rendering process, which generally takes a long time. And the second calculation we just heard the noise ing process which generally much faster than the force face just for comparison. This is our sin render using suffer or different settings assumed each off them, so we can clearly see the noises. In this video, the left image issues ing only 64 samples, but with the noise certain on, it only took 32nd to render in my machine. The middle one is 256 samples. We don't the noise, sir, and it took 32 2nd toe finish. As we can see, it is still a bit noisy compared to the first rendering. And the less one uses 512 samples without the noise er and this one took one minute and three second to finish. As we can see from this example how the noise er can greatly help us to cut out rendering times. 22. Project: Fish submarine setup: in this lesson video and the next several videos we are going to do a project which is rendering this fish submarine model who have created before in a modeling section. We are going to start by polishing the elementary to look nicer in rendering and then tweaking the render settings and in camera and light source and then render it and compose the final rendering in creator to follow. Long just opened the file provided for this lesson. Okay, the first thing we are going to do is to fix the surface shading and an ad before modifier toe the corner ages to make it looks more solid. So let's select the model in a tool shelf initiating section. Just smooth in here, then go to the data panel and turn on the outpost. Smooth option. Then make sure the angle threshold is set toe 37 degree. Okay, now we have better looking surface shading in our model. Now let's takes the corners by going to the modifier panel at before money fire. Now, by default before modifier will add their force to all off the ages. In our model, we can see this if you press z toe. Go to the wire frame mode. We can see all of these ages become doubles. Now, off course. This is not what we want. Wes Press busy again to limit the bear. Fall only on certain ages that have certain angle. We can click on this limit angle option in here and type in 80. With these settings, only ages that form angle above 80 degree will be barefoot. They just that form angle below 80 degree will be ignored. And let's set the bear full with toe one centimeter Noticed If you press busy again. Only ages at corners will get barefoot. Okay. After we fixed the geometry, let's discuss the render settings. First of all, make sure the render engine up here is settle cycles. Go to the render panel and make sure also the with is set to 90 20 pixels and height is set toe 10 80 pixels, then said the percentage scale value down here all the way to 100%. Scroll down until you see the sample settings and change the render samples toe 256 for the light bats. Just leave them. Ask ISS. We already talked about this in depth before, so I won't go over it again right now. In a film section, make sure the transparent is active. We want to add custom big grown leader in Quetta. Okay, now let's opened. Render layer panel. Make sure that the noise ing option is on. Next. Go to the scene panel and just make sure the filmic bond mapping is enable and the look option in here is that toe based contrasts. Okay, now that the render settings are done, let's create a camera and add on environment light before we create the camera. Let's rotate the few around until we like the orientation. This is important because we are going to align the new camera with our current few. I think this few it's nice. We get to see the propellers core and slightly the left eye off our model. You can have a different view if you want. Oh, okay. To create a camera, simply press she if a and in just camera, then to align the newly created camera called Control than out then zero on the NAM pad. Our camera guys know ready if somehow you need to adjust the camera just as we discussed before. Make sure this frame distracted, which actually means that the camera object is selected and then press G to paint a camera around for the lighting less just at a simple environment. Lighting using on actually, are I file. If you go toe next year, I haven't not come in the or urban section. You will find a file named Skylight Garage I like this past year. I file because it gives this nice squares reflection on the model. But you can pick any off these files as you wish. There's click on them and download the smallest version off it. You may want to download the high resolution for an actual project. Just be aware that bigger, actually are. I file will require larger memory also for our lesson purpose. The smaller size version is enough. If you don't want to, don't let yourself simply use the one I provided for this lesson again. As a disclaimer, I do not create this myself. I don't load it from each year. I heaven dot com after you have to file downloaded, let's go back to Blender and open the Worldpanel measure. We are using cycles. Note and this is set to background. Then change the color node in here. Toe environment texture No. Click the open button and pick the HDR I file. We don't load it before. If we press shift Z, we can start to see the shape off our model here. I think this is still too dark. Let's increase these string value up to two. I think this is too strong. Let's try 1.5. Okay. I think 1.5 is enough. 23. Project: Fish submarine materials: in this lesson video. We're going to continue working on our fish submarine project. Previously, we fixed the geometry to make it look nicer when rendering, and we also tweak suffer a rendering parameters. Now we're going to add materials to the model. Let's start with red color material, as this is the dominant material exists in a model. Select the fish model and go to the material panel. Click new a nameless material toe plastic, Not read that gloss. Change the shader toe principal Cheddar. Change the color to red but slightly off to the orange side and finally changed the roughness toe. 0.1 and that's it. So see the material in pre few rendering mode. Make sure we are in camera few mode and then press Chief Z Okay, next, let's create the doctor a material. We will use this material for the Joel and the propeller for these because we will start to have multiple material in one object. We need a new material sort. So click this plus button quick newme a name, this one metal. But I agree not wrath. Change the shader toe principal cheddar as always. Currently we want to make matter material, so make sure the metallic value is set all the way to one change. The color would agree. I think around 47 rightness is good. Then change the roughness value toe 0.5. Okay. Now, to apply the material, we need to go back to the solid few mode by pressing shift Z again Go to edit mode by pressing tab. Press a first to answer. Like all. Make sure we are in face more However, the mounts on the mouth or the Joe's area. Then press l rotate the few to see the propeller area hover over the propeller scorer, then press l then the bleeds. Now for this back area, however, it amounts to this area and then breast l again notice. All off the face is in the main body becomes like that. Now don't panic in the two shelf. Don't. Here we can see the world seems in here. It means the linked selection will be constrained by the seems Now Just change this to sharp. Why sharp? Well, because this sorry in color ages are actually ages that are marked as sharp. So the selection will fill this area and closed by the sharp ages. We have discussed about this before in a modeling section. So let's just continue, however, on this area and impress l again. Okay, after all, off this face a selector, goto material panel and just the second slot. Then click on the assign button in here. We can see the model in preview rendering mode again, and you can tweak the material again if you want to. Next, let's at the light Grey metal material, just like before. Create a new material slot, new material and name. It mattered not gray low craft dot an. I so changed the material toe Principal Cheddar. Let's assign these material first to the model Goto Solid few mode. Go to edit mode and press a first to answer like all press our to select the jobs join Then press fell again on the right I faces and the left My thesis. Okay, make sure that the material is selected quickly Assign button in here, go back to the object mode and into camera view and rendered few mort again. Okay, now let's change the material to metal by dragging the metallic value in here all the way. It one change the color toe almost white. Perhaps around 80% brightness will do for the roughness. I think 0.3 will do then for me in I Satrapi. Let's type in three. And for a nice a tropic rotation, let's put 0.25 Okay, I think we already have a nice gray chrome like metal material. Next, let's create the orange material for this material. We want tohave identical characteristic with direct material. We only need to change the color to orange. So for these, we can just create duplicate from the red color material. First, let's create another material slot. Then let's open the red color material. Now off course, we don't want to change this material scholar toe orange because if we do that, it will change the color off this material. Also, What we need to do is to duplicate this material force so it becomes a new independent material. To do that. Click this plus button in here. Now this material is on independent material. Renamed is Toe Plastic, not orange, not gloss. Then change the color to orange. Okay, now let's assign this material to the thin faces. Just as before, Go to edit mode. Press L two select these faces hit the assign button and it is done. We can pre few render and tweak the material again if needed. The less material we want to create is the center I material now for this material. Let's just use the light green material as the starting point, but then change the color toe bluish color. So, just like before, create a new slot. Open the light Green Material Force. Click on this plus sign button to duplicate the material. Rename the material toe metal dot blue dot ralf dot an I. So then change the color to light blue color. Select the center face off the ice by right, clicking on it and then hold shift and right click again in here. Assigned the material foodies faces and we are done. Let's do a pre if you render again. Okay, I think the materials already look nice. If you want to tweak these materials further, feel free to do that. In the next lesson, we're going to render the scene and then use creator toe ed custom background 24. Project: Fish submarine post-processing: in this lesson video. We're going to continue working on our fish submarine project. Previously, we already fix the geometry, tweet the render settings and at materials to our model. In this lesson, we are going to render it and then do a simple composition in an external graphic software . Now, although we are going to use creator for this lesson with the concepts we're going to discuss are mostly identical with using other graphic software such as Photo Shop or GIM etcetera. This is not a comprehensive course about creator, and so I will try to mention other graphics software. Also in this lesson, it is recommended that you already know the basics off the software if you want to learn photo shop or creator from scratch, I do have courses for these, but feel free to learn them from any other sources that you like. Okay, we already set up everything before, so all we need to do now is just render the scene So press F 12 to render aid blender. We render the seen and the noise ing it. I will speed up the video so you don't get bored after the rendering is finished. We can save the rendering result by clicking on this image menu and then choose safe as image now because we have transparency in the image, we need to safe it as BNG for format notice. BND for former support off a channel RGB A in here means red, green blue in our far RGB controls the color and offer controls the transparency. Of course, there are other file formats that support off a channel such as Targo in here and teeth. In here, we can see the RGB option is available when we select this far format. But if you just, for example, J pick the ordinary J pick not the Jay Peak 2000 format we can see Jay Picked does not support off a channel. We cannot see any RGB option available for jailbreak file format. OK, so now we know that there are several file formats support off a channel or transparency, but which one is actually the best format? Well, to start image with offer channel, I will have to suggest PNG s PNG is the most modern and the latest format released compared to the other image file formats. Essentially, PNG has more features compared to the others, and also it has automatic lossless compression. Lossless compression means that the farm is smaller, but the original image quality is maintained. Okay, so just used the engine here and make sure it is said toe rgb a eight beats per channel for colored app. And just leave the rest off these settings to the defaults. Next, make sure you're browsing the correct folder where you want to save the file. Then up here, we can name the file to any name we like. I will name this file Fish Submarine Render 001 and just like the safe as image button. Or we can press enter twice and we are done with blender here. Next, let's open critter After we have created Open, go to the file menu open and find a file fish submarine render 001 dot PNG that we have created before in vendor. As we can see, we have this nice, transparent area around the fish submarine image. To add a background click this plus sign in the layer Doctor. This will create a new raster layer on top off the original layer to avoid us from confusion later. Let's rename this layers Double click on the name off the first layer and change it toe base, for example, and then double click on this layers name. Rename it toe big ground, for example. You can name them with any name you like as long it makes sense to you Now for the background layer. Of course, it should be below the base layer to move this layer down. We can just drag it with our mouths. Or you can click this down a row button in here. So now the base layer is on top off the background layer. Okay, so fill the background layer with blue color force. Make sure the layer is selected up here in a color selector. Docker, choose a blue color or any other color that you like. OK, notice if you be color in here with the left. Most button. We actually change the foreground color, which is this small box up here. Now toe. Feel the active player with the foreground color. We need to hold shift and then press backspace. Okay, now let's add opinion effect. If you don't know what Senior is. Basically, 10 years is a really camera phenomenon, where darkening happens on the corners off photographs. Usually it happens on all cameras and today's cheap cameras to create the senior effect. Let's create a new raster layer first by clicking on this place button free, namely slayer toe senior. Then, because we want to make the under laying layer become darker, changed the blending mode in here to multiply. Next, choose an airbrush brush preset from the brush presets panel up here. Change the color toe dark blue almost to black. Zoom out of it by scrolling the mouse. I usually use my drawing tablet when working with Preta, but currently I'm just using my mouse here because I don't have any pressure sensitivity. Let's produce the opacity. 20%. We can use the I and the old shortcuts for this I to reduce the opacity and oh, to increase it. So press I several times until we get 20% opacity. If you need to change the brush size, you can hope sheriff, and click and drag to the left and to the right side. Okay, now just do suffer a brush, strokes on the corners and at the borders around the image. If you want to erase. You need to press this button up here or cross E for shortcut to change the brush mode to erase mode. If you want to pain back again, remember toe press E or this button again toe the ECT if it the razor mode. Okay, I think this is already looks good. Let's add suffer off strokes again below the fish so it looks like a soft shadows coming from on offer guests sky. Okay, The next step that we are going to do is to make the fish looks more cohesive with the background. If you use for a shop before you may already know the clipping mask concept in greeter, there is a similar concept called Inherent Al far, but you need to have the layers encapsulated inside a group. So to do that, first select the base layer, then press control G or, if you forget the shortcut, you can right click on the Layer group and in just a quick group in here, we can see our base layer is now inside this layer group. Let's rename this layer group toe based group okay. Now select the base layer and create a new layer on top of it, renamed this layer toe shade and change the blending mode to multiply because we want to make it darker. Essentially, we want to add bluish darkening on the bottom area off the fish. Now, if we just pain like this with the brush tool, it will pain all over the place. What we actually need is to pain on Lee on top off the fish, not the background image to constrain this shed layer with the transparency off the layer below it. Within the same group, we can turn on the are follow, which is this I can in here that looks like an off a symbol. Notice. The pain color will not be visible outside the fish image area. Let's redo the painting to erase all off the pixel information in a layer in crater. Simply select the layer and then press delete. Use the brush tool again and just drove suffer strokes at the bottom off the fish like this , just like before. If you want to erase, you can use E shortcut to do that. The last thing we need to do with our competition here is to add more contrast to it now I actually already like the contrast off this image, but I still need to show you how we can add color adjustment or filter in creator comfort toe for shop and gimp. I think Rita has the most advanced image adjustment methods in Creator. We can have three different methods. Toe add image filter for us. We can do this destructively by applying image filter directly on a pink sauce. Second, we can create filter earlier with this filter layer, we can easily move the adjustment up and down in a composition which makes the whole color correction process much more flexible and also known destructive for the shop also support image filter layer, but in Photoshopped it is called adjustment layer. So in creator, it is called filter layer were in photo shop, it is called adjustment layer. And what about gim? Well, unfortunately, by the time I record this video, gimp still don't have any adjustment layer feature. Based on the Games roadmap adjustment layer will be available in version three. Okay, The third method off adding filter is through filter mosque filter. Mosque is almost like filter layer. It is known destructive, but it is tied up toe a layer instead off being an independent lier. Now this method is not available in photo shop unless you convert the layer toe a container called smart object in greater. This filter mosque works right off the bed toe ed a filter mosque toe a layer. First, you need to make sure the layer is like that. Then simply click these correct button in here. Remember, not this one, but this small character button or a triangle button in here. Then choose Filter Mosque. Next, we need to select what type off image adjustment we want to create for controlling contrasts. We can use careful in here or color adjustment kerf in here. For now, let's just use this one. In most graphic software, these type off adjustments are called kerf. These line represent the color brightness spectrum. The left bottom area is the dark colors. The top right area is the Bright Colors area. We need to make the dark areas even darker, so grab this curve to create a load in this area and drag it down. Then, in his mid tone area, we want to make it writer and lastly, this one to make the highlight colors. Even right there, you can adjust these curves to your taste. After you finished, just click the OK button in here. Now, as we can see, the filter mosque is locked. Toe this layer, we can expand it, collapse it or hide and show it. Okay, guys, this is very basic, but I think it is enough to get you started to save our work. We can save the file as a dot craft file format, which is the native creat our file. And if you want to use the image outside Creator, you can export the image as common file formats such as JP or PNG, etcetera.