Blender 3D Crash Course for Absolute Beginners | Colin Born | Skillshare

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Blender 3D Crash Course for Absolute Beginners

teacher avatar Colin Born

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (6h 15m)
    • 1. Blender 3D Crash Course Trailer

      1:30
    • 2. 1 Intro for Beginners

      43:03
    • 3. 25 New Keyboard Shortcuts

      23:11
    • 4. 0.1 Beta Overview part 2

      29:07
    • 5. 0.2 Beta Overview part 1

      42:03
    • 6. 2 All About 3D Animation

      37:33
    • 7. 3 EEVEE Lights, Shadows, Shading, Reflections, Skies and HDRIs

      45:38
    • 8. 4 Image Textures & UV Mapping

      25:51
    • 9. 5 Intro to 3D Modeling

      50:55
    • 10. 6 Rendering to a Movie File

      25:05
    • 11. 7 Simulating RigidBody Physics

      51:30
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About This Class

Blender is a POWERFUL and FREE software tool to create amazing 3D artwork!
In this Absolute Beginner Course you will learn the basics of Blender and how to create your own 3D images & animations!

  • Learn to create custom 3D models from Scratch!

  • Learn to apply custom materials and textures to your 3D models

  • Learn to rig and animate your 3D models

  • Learn to render still images or 3D animations

  • Ideal for beginners!

What you'll learn

  • Use Blender to Create Awesome 3D Art - Still images & Animations!
  • Model Custom 3D objects from Scratch!
  • Apply Custom Materials & Image Textures to Your 3D Models
  • Basic Rigging: Adding a Virtual Skeleton to your 3D Models to Animate Them Using Bones
  • Render Still Images as Well as Animations
  • Solve Common Beginner Problems

Meet Your Teacher

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Colin Born

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Hello, I'm Colin.

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Transcripts

1. Blender 3D Crash Course Trailer: Hey, guys. And welcome to this exciting beginner crash calls for using Blend us really to create your own three D images and animations. By the end of this course, you will be familiar with all of basically using blender, which is awesome. Powerful. Three really suffer, too, and you have to praise your own three D Mobil's images on on the Masons. First, you cover the absolute basics like interface works and get something rendered into image. Then we'll talk about face off modeling in blender textures and materials to your models. And then we'll talk about animations as well as rigging. Which is any skeletons to you are speaking animating easily. Finally, put all of your new learned skills to use and model Greek and inmate. This caused S the title suggests is meant for absolute beginners. It's ideal. If your students are starting out through your sound is just interested in the field. I will not assume that you have any prior knowledge. Just assume if you are very comfortably using your computer, installing some programs like Glenda get in contact with me if you have any questions at all and open you were drawn me on this drive into the exciting world 2. 1 Intro for Beginners: under 2.8. If you're not aware, Blender is a free and open source program that you can get from a few places, including triple W dot plunder dot org's. That's the best and easiest place to get it. Blender is available for Windows Mac and Linux operating system. So pretty much just about any computer. You have to have a computer that came out since about 2012 or 2013 and that's because of the open G L. That's the graphics library support of your video card in your computer that only will support after about 2012 or 2013 or so. But other than that, you should be good. You can also get blender from Steam and the Microsoft store, so there's lots of places you can find it and install it from. It's easy. Let's go ahead and jump in with Blender first launches. It looks fairly intimidating. There's lots of sections of the screen. There's lots of buttons and menus and panels on. Everything looks really small in my screen. I'll be fixing that in a few minutes, but let's just go ahead and zoom in on that friendlies glass screen. For each new version of Blender, we get a new splash spring, and this new splash screen is based on the Blender Animation Studios latest open movie called Spring. And if you don't seem spring ah, put a link to that short animation, but Lotus Blast Green are some quick set up settings in case you want to find tune blender right away. First off shortcuts. If you're used to one or 2.79 the last major version of Blender, you can switch from using the new shortcuts to the old shortcuts. Or you can install shortcuts for other pieces of software, like three D Studio Max or Maya or other software like that. If you're used to that, and you want to stick with the same shortcuts that you already know now Blender forever. Up until this major release has selected with the right mouse button on your mouths, of course, but we've just switched over to the left mouse button to select objects in your three d scene, and that's weird for some users. So if you're usedto old versions of under, you can switch over to that the old way right away. But for this entire video. Siri's, I'm gonna be using the left click because that's the default. Also, the space bar, now by default, is the play feature for an animation. If you want to switch that over to something else, you could do that. And as of this date, there are only two themes. For Blunder under dark and blend or light. I'm gonna stick with Blunder Dark. You can also customize that to your heart's content in blenders. User preferences. Let's go ahead and jump into blunder to close with black screen. You just have to click on it. So click. So I've gone ahead and I've made blunders user interface larger so you can see it on your screen. Ah, there are lots of different parts of the screen in Blender, and these different sections are called editors. Now. This might all be quite confusing to you if you're new to Blender, so let's go ahead and let's take this user interface, and that's breaking apart and break it down one by one. Along the top is Lenders Top bar, which actually most the time just stays where it is. It has the file and edit menu and render menu. And this is where you can also change between different work spaces using tabs along the top. We'll talk more about that a little bit later. Below the top bar is Blunders Main editor. We're gonna cover that last. Actually, this is called the three D View editor again. We'll come back to that on the right side of the screen. There are two editors On the top is the outline, er, editor. And this is where you can see and also hide by clicking those little eyeballs on the right hand side. All the objects that are in your seen by default and blender. You get three objects in your scene, you get a camera Ah, cube and a light. And yes, you can delete any of those objects and add as many objects as you like. You might not use the outline, er, Editor. Ah, whole lot. But trust me, it is handy once you're scenes become more complicated as you get more familiar with blender below the outline. Er Editor is the properties editor and this is a kind of a funny editor because it has tabs on the side. And as you click on these tabs, you'll see different sections, and hopefully you can get an idea of what these different tabs air for or you will throat this video and this video Siri's. But these air for the settings for objects in your scene, as well as how you're gonna actually output you're finished, model or seen or animation, and the actual settings for your seen materials are also here. Constraints are also hear from linking multiple objects together. Your world settings are under a little globe, so this is called the properties editor. At the very bottom of the screen, there is an information bar, which is pretty easy to miss. But it's really handy because it tells you a bunch of information about your scene, including what collection you're in. That basically means what group you're in, what object you have selected, how maney vergis ease are in your object or in your seen how Maney polygons called faces. How many tries how maney objects Aaron your scene and on the left side of this information bar are things that you can currently do with your mouse in the three D View. Port will get into that more later. A little bit above that is the timeline or the timeline editor, and this allows you to make changes. Toe objects and the words allows you to animate over time and press play or play backwards and pause and change your start in time of your animation and press this record button in order to make new key frames in an animation. We'll be getting into animation in one of the very next videos in this Siri's and last but not least, is the main three D View editor, and we're gonna spend most for a time in this video in this editor window. But this is where Blunder becomes a very powerful and customizable professional tool because this interface, as we have just described, can be customized to your heart's content in terms of its overall layout and its functionality. Remember those little tabs along the top? These are called workspaces, and they are different preinstalled layouts for different editors on your screen. So the default layout eyes actually called layout, and this is for laying out basic objects in your three D scene. Once you've done that, you're probably gonna want to progress onto modeling, and when you click on this top tab, you can see that your arrangement of editors on your screen changes, and in fact, it brought us into what's called edit mode off this selected objects the Cube, which we can then start three D modeling. If you're done modeling and you want to go into sculpting well, you can jump into sculpting and again things change. But this is the same Cuban all three layouts that we've already seen so far. Once you finished sculpting, you can co into UV editing, which means putting textures and image textures onto objects. There is a layout or workspace for texture, painting, shading, animation, rendering, compositing and scripting. And by the way, these different names correspond with the general work flow of creating a short three D cartoon animation. So there you go, but we're gonna stick again with layout, at least in this first tutorial, but also know that you can customize your interface without using these tabs by grabbing the corner. If you put your mouse over the corner, either the top right or the bottom left of any of these editors on your screen. If you put your mouse in a corner, you can see your little mouse cursor changes to a little cross or a plus. Well, if you put your mouse in that area and then you left, click and drag down, you can split your window into two, or if you put your most not seeing little area and dragged to the left. If you're in the top right click and drag to the left, you can split your window into two left and right. If you want to merge windows together, you can just do the opposite. You can click in that little area next to another window, and you can click and drag into the next window over, and then it will give you an arrow. I'm still holding down, and you can decide which way you want to go. You can also change any editor type to any other editor type, so I have to three D view ports here. But I couldn't make this window or editor into any other kind of editor. That blender has raid up on the Windows header with this button right here, which lets me change the editor type. So if I want to change into, let's say, a Shader editor for editing the materials of that object that I have selected. Well, this is a shader editor, and this is more advanced for this video. Let's go ahead and I'm gonna merge these two windows together. Now I'm getting a little bit ahead of myself here. Let's talk about actually navigating and working in this three d environment, the three D editor or three D View Port window. I might call it at the top right of this editor. We have some new controls one or 2.8, including this new set of Cartesian axes. And if you put your mouse in this area and you click and hold, you can see that it spins your view around. Now this is called Orbiting. An orbiting can also be done if you have a mouse, and if your mouse has a wheel on it like a wheel mouse, you can press and hold your mouse wheel down like a button, and then you can move your mouse around, and this also allows you to orbit. This is how you've always on an implanted before, but you can now click on this little gizmo. That's what it's called and just click and drag around to see around. If you want to zoom in and out on your scene, that could be done. What This little plus button. If you click on this plus and hold and then drag up and down, you can now zoom in and out. Of course, if you have a mouse with the mouse wheel, you can scroll up and down as well. That might be easier. And lastly, if you want to see left and right from where you're currently looking or above or below where you're currently looking, you can click and hold this little hand, and it will let you do what's called pan at your view around again, either left or right or up and down and again. If you don't want to use these little buttons, you can hold shift along with your middle mouse button like orbiting, and you can do this with shift and orbiting as well. Now, one of the things you'll commonly want to do is look at your scene from the perfect front or top or left or right or side. In other words, view the way you can do that in one or 2.8 now is I putting your mouse over these little axes, this gizmo up here and clicking on one of the circle. So if I click on the why little circle you'll see it jumps me to my back. Ortho graphic view. This means that I'm looking at my scene straight on from the back view. If I click on the little why again, I can switch to the front Ortho graphic view. If I switch to the X little button, I'm going to the right. If I click on it again, I'll go to the left. And, of course, if I click on Z, it'll go to the top and again bottom if I want to switch to look through my camera, that other object in life seen. I'm upside down here. This one right here is my camera. I can click on this button right there, and that will take me into the camera that I can click on it again to jump me back out of the camera. But of course, being blender, there are lots of keyboard shortcuts to do all these things. If I press the till key on my keyboard yet, that's a little squiggly key on the top left of your keyboard. It'll bring up My mouse is in the three D editor window. It'll bring up what's called a pie menu. Why can select from any of my available of use so top bottom left and right back in front I can view through my camera here. I can also zoom in whatever I have selected. So if I want to see from the front view, I can just click on front. And this pie menu is really handy, because if I click on that little tilled key, I can quickly swipe in one of those directions. Once I'm used to it and I can go, let's say into my back view if I quickly swipe up and to the right, and if I swipe after I press tilled to the left, I can go to the left view. Or if I press it again and go to the right view or down to the bottom or up to go to the top view for whereas front it's at the top left, I can go back to my front view also, if you have an extended keyboard on your computer like you have a number pad at the right side of your keyboard. You can press the number keys to get around to your different views as well. You can press the one key to go to your A front view. This is the one key only on your numb pad, not on your top number. RO. If you press three, you can go to your right view. If you press seven, you can go to your top you so lots of ways to see your seen from different angles and also a very repressed one or three or seven. It switched us into this Ortho graphic view, which is more flat. And if we orbit, it goes back into perspective. You, which is more three D and has depth. Well, you can toggle between those two modes, no matter which angle. You're looking at your scene from using this button up here. It's called Switch. The current view from Perspective Ortho Graphic projection. It's also the number five key on your number pad. So if you press this, it'll switch in tow. Ortho graphic, which is more flat or again into perspective, which is more in three D, which again is the five key on your numb pat. Now Blender 2.8 has four different ways. You could look at your seen in this view port. Right now we're in what's called solid of you, and this corresponds with these four buttons at the top, right on the header of this three d editor window. So solve you was this one. If you click on the next one for the left, you go into what's called wire frame view. It's named appropriately, everything displays as a wire wire frame. If you go one to the right or the third option, this is called the Look Deaf mode. It's noodle one or 2.8, and basically it lets you see all the materials where all the objects with materials and your scenes, all the colors you've added an image, textures and things like that without all of the fancy final lighting and shadows and sheeting. Although it does have some kind of light on environment, projecting onto your objects in kind of a neat way so you can see approximately how your scene will look in the end. And last but not least, the fourth option is rendered view, and this is a new feature to better 2.8, at least in its implementation, because 2.8 uses its new E E V render engine, which is how it draws your frames out to render in real time. And this is a lot like a game. Engine happens really fast. And now blunder has it, and it's quite amazing because you can see exactly what you're seeing will look like in the E V. Render engine rate in your screen in real time and you can orbit around and change your view. And all just days rendered, it's amazing. You can also hide the things on your screen, like the grid floor and any gizmos you might have on your screen to move things around. And you can do that by clicking of these two buttons. This one right here hides all the extras on your scene, so if you want to see what looks like rendered without anything in the way, you can just turn off all of your extras. If you click this little button, it'll turn off all the gizmos on your screen, including those top little buttons and the axes. But again, you can turn them back on. You can also customize anything on your screen under these two menus, including all your gizmo settings and all the view port overlays. That's what they're called on the left side of the three D editor window. You have your toolbar with common tools. You'll need to transform an object in your scene and to select objects. The very first tool in the toolbar is thes selection tools, and if you click on hold on these, you can see the different options you've got. Select select box Select with a circle like you're painting and selecting with the last Sue , and the way you can get to this is you compress the W key on your keyboard, which will cycle through all of those options. So if you breast W, you'll get to the circle. Select Lawsuit tool, Which do you lets you select different objects in your seen W again gets the normal select tool, and W again we'll get to the box electoral, and these are active tool sold. As long as you have one selected, it will remain the active tool, which is a change from older versions of blender. Next up we have the three D cursor tool will talk about that in a couple of minutes. Then we have the move to a with lets you move a selected object. So if I select the camera, we get the move gizmo on that object coming off of that objects origin. And if I select my cube, you can see I can now move my cube around. I recommend that when you're grabbing ahold of these gizmos that you grab the end, the tips of the arrows, and not somewhere in this round circle, because you don't know exactly how you're moving this. I am not moving this up and down. Absolutely. Right now, that would be a kind of diagonally right now, So I recommend that you grab the tips of the arrows and, of course, you compress control Z undo. The next one is the rotate tool, which lets you control the rotation of an object that you have selected, uh, with these little hula hoop gizmos. And if you grab one, you can rotate it and you can even see how much you're rotating up on the top left there. You'll see when I'm rotating. How many degrees are rooted? That object which is really handy all on do a few times. And the third tool in this section is the scale tool which lets you scale and object. And of course, you can with any of these tools, or at least move and scale. You can move or scale on two of the axes without affecting the third access. Okay, so in scale with this one on the sea and the why without affecting the X axis with this one right there. Okay, The fourth tool in a section is the all around transform tool, which gives you move and rotate and scale all in one gizmo. If you have an object selected like the camera or the lamp or the cube, and you press either the X key on your keyboard or the delete key, which is not the same as the backspace key on many computers. If you press that key, the X or delete, you will get a dialog box to confirm that you want to delete that objects or press delete. I've gotten rid of my cube. If I had a new object, I can go up to the ad menu and mostly objects were gonna want to add our meshes. So there are plane missions, which are flat squares. If I want to move that around, I can now do that with either my move tool or the transform tool. So we'll move that off to the side. If I go up to the ad and menu and mesh Aiken, select Cuba as well. That's how I can get a cue. But there are lots of primitive, simple three D objects you can add. There's a tourist, which is like a doughnut. If I could add mesh, I can add a monkey head. If you're not familiar with this, this is Suzanne. The monkey has a primitive object that's a bit more complicated. That's always come off every version of blunder I've ever used. When you had an object into a scene in Blender, there's a couple of things that you need to be aware of. First is where the object gets put. If I move this monkey head and I goto add mesh Leno a cylinder, it gets put in my three D scene at the coordinates of this little three D cursor, which looks like a little cross hair from a gun, it's ah white and gray and black. But I could move that around. If I select my cursor tool that's now the active tool. I can click anywhere in my scene, and that's where new objects will get. Pull it. So I go up to add mash ups year. That's where the UV sphere just got put in my scene. If I hold shift and I right click anywhere in my scene, that will also move a three D cursor. This is a change from previous versions of blender, where you had just left click to put the three Crestor anywhere you wanted. Now you hold shift and you right click to place it. If you want to put that three Crestor back to the middle of your seen in the words coordinates 000 you can press shift s on your keyboard. Shift s will bring up the snap pie menu and you can say cursor toe world origin. Okay, that shift acid and Crestor the world origin. There you go. The second thing you should be aware of is that when you first had a mesh to your seen in the words that I go upto add mesh, Let's do a cylinder, you could change the basic properties of that primitive mesh in this little pop over menu that comes up at the bottom. It's very unintrusive, but before I move this object or rotate or skillet or select anything else, if I go down to add cylinder, I can change a number of vergis ese. That means the number of little points around the circle of top and bottom to make these older, more detailed or less detailed. So if I click and drag in there, I can make the cylinder much less detailed. Or, conversely, Aiken drive the other way and make it have many, many, many more sides around the outside. I can click in here and type a number like 50 and press enter, and that's how many sides it will have. And I can change the radius here. The death, which is the height, how the top and bottom are filled, which will get into in a future video a swell, a zits location in our world. So you can really affect a lot of boat. The object you're adding down here now if I were to select something else in my scene by going up to the selection tool and then clicking on something else, That little section would disappear, and I would no longer even if I went back and selected the object. I just added, I would not be able to get back to that section. As you can see, it's gone right now because I selected something else. If I were to move this this cylinder and then go upto add mesh UV sphere, I could change the segments in that object to make it more complicated. Or that's complicated. You've East years have segments which go around and rings which go up and down, kind of like lines of longitude and latitude on the Earth. I could change the radius, but as soon as I select using the selection tool something else, that section goes away. Speaking of transforming objects in other words, moving and rotating and scaling objects, there are keyboard shortcuts, little make moving and rotating and scaling objects really much, much faster in blender if you leave your selection tool enabled. But if you press one of three keyboard shortcuts, G. R and S, those keyboard shortcuts are lying to transform your objects really, really quickly. without having to move your mouse and select a different tool from the toolbar. In other words, if I select my plane in my scene and I tap s on my keyboard and then let go and then move my mouse, you can see I'm able to make this ground proportionately scaled larger, as large as I want. And you'll notice that when your mouse cursor goes off the side of one side of the view port, it comes on the other side. So you can keep going forever to make it as large or as small as you want. So I'm gonna leave it right about there. If I click, I can confirm that that transformation And if I tap G no, I can move or grab this object in my scene. Now for all three of these keyboard shortcuts G for grab our for rotate s for scale. I recommend that you do these from your different Ortho graphic views. Front side top left, right, bottom, etcetera. So if I press escape on my keyboard, I can undo my current transformation. And if I press the tilde key on my keyboard, I can go to one of my views. I'm gonna go to the top of you. And now I might switch over into my other view. Port shading moat. So I'm gonna press Z key on my keyboard. I don't think I mentioned that before. Z key brings up a pie menu with the four different view modes of your view port which allying with these four buttons up here. So I'm gonna go into solid viewed so I can see things easier. And now I can select different objects. If I tap g with e u V s year selected Aiken, grab it and move it around. And because I'm looking at this from the top of you, I'm not afraid that I'm accidentally moving this. You've east year up and down. Likewise. If I go to my front view with the tilde key and then front, I can tap g. And now I'm aware that I'm not moving this. You be sphere forward and backward on the Y axis, which is the access pointing towards me and away from me. If I tap g from the front view, I can only move it on the X and Z axes. Likewise, these three transformation keyboard shortcuts g r and s have modifier keys that you can use after you press g r or s. If I oppress G with this UV sphere selected, of course I can move it right now left right on the X axis or up and down on the Z axis. But if I want Onley, move this UV sphere up and down after I press G Aiken tap Z on my keyboard and that constrains my movement or the transformation to the Z axis. If I know, tap a number like five and then press enter. I've just moved my UV sphere up by five units on my screen. So I'll do that again. I'm gonna tap G on my keyboard to grab all tap this time X And now I can move only on the X axis. But now if I type in number like negative three m press enter, I know exactly how I move that object. This works with rotation and scaling as well. So if I select my monkey head and I tap asked to scale, of course I can make my monkey had bigger or smaller. But if I had tap five, I've just made the monkey had five times bigger and I could press enter. That's great. But I'm gonna undo that. I'm not tap s again. This time I'm gonna constrain stealing to the Z axis. So s to scale Z for the Z axis and Melican scale only up and down. And now all press 10 for 10 and press enter. And now I have a ridiculously squashed or stretched monkey head. I will press control Z to undo that. Likewise, If you want to rotate an object, you can control the degrees of rotation. If I select this cube and I tap are on my keyboard. Of course I'm rotating now in some funny direction because I'm looking at my scene from a user view that means just a random rotation of my view ports camera. So if I tap are right now, I can't really say how I'm rotating a little bit on the X a little bit on the lie a little bit on the Z axis. But now if I tap ah z on my keyboard, I know big of a tapped R and then Z that I'm rotating this cube only around the Z axis. If I now tap, let's say 45 press enter. Well, I know that I've rotated that cube 45 degrees on the sea Access If I want to clear either the scale or the rotation or the translation often object since I've moved it rotated or scaled it, I can tap Ault and in any one of those keyboard shortcuts G r s on my keyboard. So if I tap Ault are on my keyboard, the keyboard shortcut it undone. Does the rotation that done to that object If I tap Ault s on my keyboard, it'll undo any scaling. I hadn't scaled that cube. And if I tap Ault G on that keyboard that he will go back to where it was first added into my scene Just a note that there are more tools on the tool shelf that I'm not gonna be talking about. In this video. You have the annotate tool and the measure tool on. And if you go in tow, other workspaces or other modes like from object mode into edit motor sculpt mode of a mesh , you will get different options or tools on your toolbar. If I go upto modeling, you'll see that because I'm now in edit mode of a cube mesh. I have a lot more tools at my disposal that are only available in edit mode, but we will get to those in future videos. A good challenge for new Bender users that I challenge you to pause the video now and try for yourself is to make a snowman out of primitive three D shapes in Blender. I've gone ahead and gone up to file and new and general. That's how you can create a new blunder file as it comes up by default. So when you first get a new scene, the three D cursor where new objects get put is in the middle of your scene. If I go to the ad menu, which, by the way, has a keyboard shortcut, it's shift a on your keyboard. It's a handy want tohave. If I bring up the admin, you with shift A on my keyboard and I add, let's say, a UV sphere. I get the first ball in my snowman if I want to duplicate an object was a keyboard shortcut for that, too, although I could just right click on that object. That's a new option in Blender to bring up what's called the object context menu. If I have different objects selected if I right click, I get different options, depending on the context of what I have selected. So if I have a camera selected, I can do things with that camera that I could not do with a mesh but with a mesh, selective or really anything. If I right click, I can say duplicate objects and the keyboard shortcut for that is shift D. So I'm gonna duplicate the UV. Swear that I added right click duplicate object and I get a copy of it and it's automatically grabbed with my mouse cursor moving it around. Of course, I can move it up. I could tap Z to move it straight out from its original version and click to put it in place. And now, if I TEF s to scale, I can scale that one down a little bit and click it will not duplicate. I could press she have to de that was a keyboard shortcut. Or you could just use your normal keyboard shortcuts for copy and paste control C Control V . And now you get a copy, which is in the same place. And I can tap G to grab the copy, and I can tap easy to move it up and down, and then I can click and tap s to scale. So as you can see, you can create a simple snowman body fairly quickly. Of course, if I want to add something like a carrot nose on the face of my snowman, I might want to add a cone off the side of this no man's head, and I don't want to rotate it and put it in the right positions. Let me go ahead and do that. I'm gonna use my three d cursor tool to place my 30 cursor right over here. And then I'm gonna add So shift a a mesh cone. Now the cone is too big and the wrong shape. If I tap s on my keyboard, I can make it proportionally smaller. And what I really care about here is the size of the circle on the bottom. Because I can really easily now, once it's the right size. In other words, the diameter of the circle on the bottom of the comb. If I tap s and then Z on my keyboard. I can scale up and down really easily, or I could use the scale tool and then just move it that way, employing on the Blue Z axis handle. Now that I have the cone, the right size and the right shape, I might want to rotate it. So it's pointing at meat, so out from these no man's face. So to do that, I might go to my side view and again, I can use this little gizmo up here and I can click on the X to go to the side view. And so now this is the front of this no man's face. Aiken Tap are to rotate and I might tap are and then 90 for 90 or rather up undo that are the negative 90 and I'll press enter to rotate it precisely. I'll tap G to move it forward on the Y axis, and I'll go back to my front view, which I can go to via clicking on why. And then I can tap G to move it to the front of my snowman, and it's you know what? I'm looking at my scene from the back. I'm gonna click again on the why to go to my front view. And now, as you can see, if I orbit around I got the cone knows carrot nose on the front of this no man's head. So if I go back to my front view again, I could do this. In many ways, I could press the one key on my number pad. I could press the tilde key on my keyboard to bring up the pie menu, and I could go to front. I might go and add a Aiko sphere for eyeballs. So I'm gonna press shift A on my keyboard at an Aiko sphere. Tap s to scale that down tap G to move it over to the I tap three or tilled and then writes , Go to the side view. I can tap g to move it forward. And if I go back to the front view tilled and then front, I can duplicate that eyeball and I want to move it a little bit. So duplicated now, right click duplicate objects and move it over to this side. So as you can see, if I kept going, I could add buttons for the made out of ICoast years, or UV spheres, I could add mawr for melt pieces. I could make two cylinders into the tall and brim parts of a top hat on. I could make us much detail as I want one last thing in this no man example. If I right click on a selected mesh, I can make it either sheeted flat, which is how meshes are shaded by default. Or I could shade them smooth and that would kind of blend together all the shading of all the different faces or polygons on a mesh. So I'll just go ahead and select both of the other ups years and shade them as smooth as well. And you know what? I'm gonna fast forward this part of the video, but I'm gonna go ahead and add more objects to my snowman in fast forward. So now you can see I have a finished, very simple snowman. Let's go ahead and add materials or colors to these mesh objects. To add materials to object from under, you simply need to select one of the meshes and then over in the properties window. If you go to this little Circle ball looking tab. This is the material tab off the object in the properties editor. So now I, with a mess like it If I press knew, that's how you simply add a new material to a selected mesh object. If you want change the color, we're not gonna go into too much detail here. All you have to do is click here in the color color picker area of the base color, and that will change the color of that object. So if I select, say, a green color for the hat, I don't see in this case because I'm looking at my view or my view Port is displaying in solid if you port shading mode. If I switch over to either look deaf or render view, you'll see what it actually looks like and you'll see the actual color. I suggest using the third look. Dev view poor shooting mode For this step. I would also suggest that you name your materials that's done rate here. If I click in this section, I compress backspace on my keyboard. I'm gonna type hat green and press enter. And if I want to reuse that material, another object I can simply select that other object, Ramesh. And then, instead of pressing new, I compress on a little thumbnail next to it, which brings up a drop down list of all the other materials in my scene. And I can simply reuse hat green. Do know, though, that if you change the color of this hat green on the bottom brim part of the hat. It will also change the top color as well, because it's referencing the same material. Let's go ahead and add a color to our snowballs, all selected ahead. Yes, it is appearing sort of white, but it does not have a material on it, and that is something that we want to fix. So all press new. I'm gonna change the base color to a brighter color of white. If you want to make something look more shiny, orm or dull, that's the roughness value. So I don't want my my snow to be shiny. I'll turn that roughness down. And by the way, there is a little preview section here where you can preview how the material will actually look. It might be a little bit slow in here, but I believe it should work. So if I turn the roughness up or down, you should see it reflected up here. So roughness will to get rid of the reflections on a pardon me. We have to turn the roughness up to make it dull and roughness down makes the object more reflective. Okay, so this material has no roughness. Let's go ahead and add that very quickly to the rest of the snowballs, and I'll really quickly and fast forward at all the other colors, all the other objects. All right, so I finish making my snowman. Here it is. It's done. I want to render it out now to a finished image file, but I can save to my computer and even post the social media if I like. If you want to do this, you need to render out. In other words, make an image from this scene that you can save through the perspective of the camera. So if I click up here on the camera button, or if I press the tilled key and go to view camera or if I press the zero key, there's lots of ways of getting to things and blender zero key on my numb pat. It will switch me to my camera's view. Now. I could select my camera if I break out of camera view by pressing the little camera button again. I could zoom out and I could select my camera, and I could use the transform tool to move it on and rotated. But there is a better way if I go into my camera's view and I ordered it well, it will actually break me out of a camera. It won't let me move a camera while I'm in it. Unless I actually go into the camera and then select Click on the edge of it. And then I could tap G to move it around. But again, there's a better way. There's a side panel on this side of the three Deport. It's called the tool Shelf. We've talked about it. If you press t you can Hyatt or T brings it up. It's the toolbar. There's another side bar on the right side. It's the properties Borrow properties panel. He press N that comes up. I'm not sure why its end and not P for properties, but hey, there you go. And there are tabs at the side. Now you will have three tabs. I have one extra one for this screen cast keys display down here on my screen. But under the third tab view if you check under view, Lock, lock, camera to view. If you check this box, you will then be able to orbit and pan and zoom using your normal controls or even this gizmo to move your camera around. Okay, so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna zoom out. I can use this one to if I want, I can orbit around to an angle that I like. I can pan around, put my snowmen in the middle And you know what? I'm gonna press shift and, like, keyboard and add a mesh plane, and then tap s to scale it up and then move it straight down. So my snowman's kind of on the ground. Now, if I go up to the render menu and say, render image, it will take my scene a 3. 25 New Keyboard Shortcuts: I will note that in this video I'll be going over keyboard shortcuts as if you had left all of these quick set up settings on the blender. 2.8 beat a splash screen alone. That means that you're using the blender. Short cuts and not the old, but are 2.7 shortcuts you're also using Select with left Click. Yes, but this effect what keyboard shortcuts you have available to you, of course, and you're using the space bar to play. And it does not matter what you're using for your theme, but I'll just leave it at Blender dark. So number one is the space bar. If you press the space bar and knowing better 2.8, you get the play animation feature of Under. This used to be all to a on your keyboard in one or 2.7 and before, But now I'm gonna go ahead and press the space bar again. Space bar is now play and pause. All today will do something totally different. We'll get to that in just a sec. Number two is control shift space, of course, and wonder if you press the space bar you play and you press the space bar again, you pause. But what if you want to play backwards or play in reverse? For that, you would press control shift space, and that plays in reverse is just a handy keyboard shortcut. I don't use a lot, but it's there for you. Number three is F three or the function three. Key on your keyboard will bring up search before, in about 2.7. And before, If you press the space bar, it would bring up a search window. Well, if the space bar is now the play and pause feature, they've moved the search function up to the Function three Key, which is actually the industry standard and lots of other programs. The function three g L present right now brings up the search window, and that's how you can search, so you want to know how to Or you can't number. How toe Insert a key frame you can type in. Insert on. There it is. Insert key frame. You can start here with the F three. Key. Number four is shift space for the tools Quick menu or pop over over your mouse. Off course planners 40.8 has this new a toolbar with all access to all these tools. And, of course, if you press tap to go into edit mode, you get different sets of tools. Same if your sculpting or something like that. Well, if you want to quickly access one of these tools without having to move your mouse all way over here and select it, you compress the shift key and the space bar together and will bring up a pop over, which lets you quickly select from any of the tools that you currently have in your tool shelf. Of course, if you're in a different mode like edit mode, you have more options, and they also appear. If you press shift and space bar, you get them here. You'll notice that there are a bunch of keyboard shortcuts that you can access these tools with as soon as you bring this up and so you can press, you know, shift space and then M, and that will bring up the measure tools of again. That shift and space number five is a and alter A for selecting and de selecting in previous versions of wonder if you press the a key on your keyboard with your mouse in a three D view port window. You would select everything in your scene, and if you press a again, it acted like a topical to de select everything. But now I'm pressing de select, and it's not working or a again, and it's not working. That's because the A key is select on Lee. If you press all to a on your keyboard, it de select. So now a have a single function and all teh have a single function. This is more in line with other tools and wonder like hide. If I select an object, impress H on my keyboard, it hides an object, and I wanna unhygienic object. I press ault h. It's more in line with that. So a is select an adult A is de select, but number six is a twice a A. And what that does is it kind of solves the problem of having to memorize that new A and all a keyboard shortcut. If you have something selected, I'm gonna select this cube and you double tap A. It'll actually de select everything really quickly. So now you have that same keyboard shortcut. You don't hunt with your thumb to press the bulky. You don't want to. If you select something and you want disliked everything, tap twice and everything will be de selected. Number seven is the tilde key. The tilde key on your keyboard is that little squiggly key that's been right next to your one key on your number O on your keyboard. If you press it with your most in a three D view port, you get a new pie menu, which, actually it's you select what view you want to see your three d view port from This will only work again with your mouse in this review board. But now, if you pressed the tilde key, you can go and see your top you, and it'll automatically switch by default to the top Ortho graphic view. And then, if you orbit with your mouse real press down. It'll go back into perspective. The tilde key really handed keyboard shortcut, especially for beginners to be able to quickly go into the view of their choice. But of course, it's a pie menu, which means that if you press its key and then you immediately quickly swipe with your mouse about pressing any mouse buttons toe one of the directions. It will switch into that direction automatically. So I'm gonna actually press escape on my keyboard. I'm gonna press the tilde key and then immediately swipe to the left, and it will actually go to the left view in my three TV port. So 123 I pressed the Tilke and I move my mouse quickly to the left, and it automatically went to my left. You this works for any direction, and it works pretty naturally. If I pressed the tool key and swipe up, it goes to my top view. If I press a Tilke or tilde key and swept down, it should go to my bottom view. And what else is there? Well, I could go to my back front camera to the bottom left and ah view select. That's really handy. So again, that's the tilde key for the different views that you can have in your three Vieux port window. Another keyboard shortcut that brings up another very handy pie menu is the control tab keyboard shortcut that brings up your modes options. So the press control tap on my keyboard with a mesh object selected. It'll bring me up the different most that I can go into for that object. Of course, a mesh like my Cube has object moment and it most kind of the two basic modes. But measures also have weight paint for tex paint, texture, paint and sculpt mode. So these air, easily accessible with control tab on your keyboard. Number nine are the 12 and three keys when you're in edit mode of a mesh. If I press tapped to go into edit mode of this default cube, if I want to switch quickly between the Vertex mode edge mode and face like mode that's now the 12 and three keys on my keyboard, you can see the up there change. Press one it goes to for text like mode. I can select Vergis ease on my mesh. Of course, if I want to go and select edges, I could press two and then faces. I can press three and Aiken select faces. That's 12 and three in edit mode. Number 10 is control space to maximize your current editor window. If I have a mouse in the three D if you port window and If I press control and the space bar, it'll maximize that single editor window in thunder to be almost full screen. It will maximize it to take up most of the View port, but I still have my file menu. I still have my toolbar at the top. I still have my tool shelf, of course, because that's part of a three D View port press control space again. It will bring back all of my other window, so control space will maximize any editor window. But your box is currently in, so I want to bring up. My Outlander went out for some reason to make it full screen or almost full screen. I compress control space. My nose is in that window, and it'll make that maximize and same keyboard shortcut again to UNM ax Mize. It Number 11 is control all space to a full screen, any window that your most is currently in. If I press control all space on my keyboard election, make that editor window into full screen mode and again control all space will unfold. Screen that window. This is different than last keyboard shortcut control space or I still have my file menu and the toolbar. If I press control space to UNM ax, semis that window and I press control old space that will actually get rid of that toolbar . And I can have a true full screen mode for that, and we know that I'm currently in. And as always, if my mouse in some other window and I press control all space, it will full screen at that different 1,000,000. So it's not just where that screen, so it's not just the three d of you window. It can be any window editor that your house is currently in. Number 12 is a shift in any of the function keys on your keyboard to switch another window types. If I have a mouse in the large three, if you put window and I want to switch it into any of the other kinds of windows that I have access to. Of course, you can do that manually with your mouse by clicking on this little menu in any of the editor windows, and you can change any other kind of enter window. But there are keyboard shortcuts for this, So if I press escape or just move my mouse over that and press shift and F one on my keyboard. It will switch this window because my most was in this window to a file. What it is called it a file browser window. So let's keep on going with us in this window still, and I press shift F to It brings up the tracking or movie clip editor Window Shift and F three brings up the material or shader editor. No editor window at a rest shift F three. Again, I believe it toggles between different kinds of note editors Because of letter 2.8, the node enters are now three different types. We have the Shader editor, the compositing editor, which are both notes as well as the texture note editor. Those air All three different note enters that are all Shift F three so they trouble through those three shift F four brings up the Python console, which I never use. Shift F five brings up a three d View port shift F six brings up the graph editor and press it again. I believe it switches over to the driver editor which again are separate. Windows now grafted her and drivers, uh, shift F seven on my keyboard. It brings up the properties Windows Shift F eight brings up the sequencer window or the video editor in Blender. And, of course, you can switch between thes sequence of the preview or both. So you have a video editor here, Shift F nine on my keyboard. It goes to the Outlander window, which is the same is up here. Shift F 10 brings up my UV image every window, and I believe Shift F 10 will toggle between the two different modes we have. The icons are not familiar with them yet. We have the image editor window and the UV editor window, which are now separated and newer. Release of the plunder beta. If you down a little bit of a a few weeks after it first came out, you'll notice that we have now to separated. When does out there. Both shift F 10 shift F 11 on my keyboard brings up the script editing window, and shift F 12 brings up the dope sheet, and I believe that you press shift F 12 again. It'll tuggle between the timeline and the dope sheets. That's the shift key, along with any of the function keys on your keyboard. Number 13 is control and the tilde key, and that will show or hide the transform manipulator in your three D view port window. Or am I talking about here? Well, if you're using one of the Roover rotate or scale tools, you'll notice that you get a little set of handles, whether their arrows or circles or hula hoops or little alliance with squares on them. These are called a transformer manipulator gizmos, and if you don't want to see them on your screen because I need to get in the way of what you're doing, you can press control Tilda on your keyboard and that will Hyatt. And if you press control Tilda, it will show it. You can do the same thing, like going up to the overlays menu at the top, and you can uninsulated active tools that will do the same thing. Or you can actually hide all gizmos, and that would include things like that. Little eyes display up here with all your controls, but you might not want to do that. You might just want to hide the controls that you're currently working with on the object that you have selected. So if you want to hide just that active tools gizmo again, it's control and the tilde key on your keyboard that tug als it back and forth. Number 14 a is all too easy on your keyboard, and that will toggle X ray mode if you're looking at a mesh and you want to not just see the surface of the next, but you want to see through the mesh to the other side, you might want to press Ault Z on your keyboard to enable X ray mode. Yes, you can do that. But President, this little two square button up on your menu, you just click it that will disable or enable X ray mode. But again, Ault C on your keyboard will do that for yet with a keyboard shortcut. Number 15 is all to shift Z on your keyboard to enable or disable overlays in your three D view port. If I press all to shift and Z on my keyboard, it turns off all of those overlays on my screen. If I press all to shift and Z again on my keyboard, it brings them back. So the tuggle, yes, you can do this again by pressing this little overlap circle button next overlays, and that'll do the exact same thing. But all shift's he does the same thing with a keyboard shortcut. Number 16 is Shift and the Tilke to enter fly through mode. I rarely ever use this, but if you want to go and kind of zoom through your scene like you're playing a video game , well, you can press shift and the tilt key on your keyboard, and then you're most becomes kind of a controller in like a first person shooter kind of a video game, and you can look around your scene. But as with, like a video game, you compress the W A S and D keys to move around so the W key will move forward. And I believe if you hold shift and let you move fast, so now I'm moving really quickly through my scene. If I just stop that in 0.2 in the other direction, you'll see, I'm pointing back. I compress w or shift and W to move quickly. Of course, if I want to move left and right, I compress A and D and S will also move backwards also with the shift key. And I believe if you press Q and E, they move up and down in your space. So that's the shift and the Tilke and your keyboard. You can press escape to exit that mode and you compress shift, Tilda, and you can move your mouse around just like that. Number 17 is control H toe isolate objects by collection, which hides an entire set of collections. Except for the one that you're currently in to demonstrate this, I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to add up a shift key on my keyboard. I'm gonna add a monkey to my scene, and I'm gonna use the move tool and move it over. I press em on my keyboard t move the selected object into a new collections of the M key brings up this new move to collection menu. It's a pop over menu, and I'm just like a new collection on your name. This, uh, monkey see for monkey collection and I'll press. Okay, so now I've got two collections in my scene. I'm not press shift again. I'm gonna add in Aiko Sphere moved over here, and I'll press em on my keyboard again. With that, I close your selective. I'm gonna make a new collection type S O. C for the name of that collection. So now I have three collections. I've got all these starting objects in the 1st 1 that's just named collection. I've got a monkey year. See, Ah collection. And in Aiko See collection. If I am working on that say, at the Cube and I don't want anything else to bother me that's not in the current collection. Just might default collection. I compress control each on my keyboard, and I can say hide objects by collection. And if I select collection, it'll actually hide all of the other collections and our press control h again, I can bring them back really easily, or I can just click these eyes really easily. So what control H does is when it when you bring it up, it'll actually you say which collection you want to keep on the screen by clicking on it. So I want to keep on Lee the Eiko Sphere Collection on my screen. I can press control H and selected, and it'll isolate that one. I can uninsulated or click the eyes again to bring the other ones back up. Number 18 Number RO keys on your keyboard to again isolate collections. The number keys on your keyboard Inventor 2.79 and before used to isolate layers in your three d view port. Well, layers are gone, but now, if you press the number, Rocchi's in your keyboard. Not the number pad keys, but the ones of a top your keyboard. You will isolate collections by order in your Outlander window. So with a mouse over in the three of you port, if I press the one key on my keyboard, it will isolate the first collection in this list. If I press to, it'll isolate the 2nd 13 isolates 1/3 1 and so on and so forth. So remember, keys are very helpful. If you're managing a large scene with lots of collections, Number 19 is the sea key on your keyboard to make a new collection. Now you might be thinking to yourself, the Seiki isn't that the keyboard shortcut for Circle Select. And yes, it is. If you tap see when you're mountains in a three D view port window. You get that circle on your mouth and you can school up and down and you can circle paint things. And it's not very good anymore because you now have this key up here or the selection active tool up here. So when we press escape instead, if you wanna make a new collection, if you put your mouse in the outline our window and then you press C on your keyboard, it just makes a new collection, and then you can double click on it, and then you can type a name for it forth collection, and now you're free to add any objects and you're seen to it. So again, the Seiki your muscles to begin the outlet a window for this to work to make a new collection, Number 20 is shift em on your keyboard. Of course, if you select an object in your scene and you want to move it into another collection, you compress the M key on your keyboard. But one of the cool features about collections in one or 2.8 is the fact that you can have the same object instance or reference. Pardon me. In other collections, we could have the same object in multiple collections. How do you do that? Well, right now, my monkey head is Onley in the monkey See collection. If I high it, it's gone. But if I select the monkey head and I press shift em on my keyboard, it brings up this new link to collection pop over menu and I conflict. Let's say another collection, this fourth collection. For that I am to be a member off. So if I select it, no. If I hide this fourth collection, it hides the monkey head because the monkey had is part of both the monkey. See that Number two collection in this outline, a window and the fourth collection and you know that it hides this entire monkey see collection because it's the only object in that collection. If I were to, let's say, select that collection and add another object to it. Let's say a cone and I were to select the monkey head and press H on my keyboard. It would only hide it right here and this entire collection, because again it has only that object in it. So shift em on your keyboard will let you instance or pardon me, link objects into multiple collections. Number 21 is the F two or function to key on your keyboard. If you press F two on your keyboard, it will bring up the file context menu pop up menu, And what this left you do is very quickly. Open a file or make a new file from wherever your mouse currently is in the three you deport so F, too. Will you make a new file or open different file, but also very quickly let you link or upend other three objects off under files into this blunder file. I'm not gonna demonstrate that, but here it is. It's a foul context menu. It's kind of a quick version of the farm, and you answer the most common things you can do with files right at your fingertips. Again, that's F two on your keyboard. Number 22 is F four on your keyboard. Remember, F three is search, but F four on your keyboard is the window context menu, and here you can quickly make a new window again. You could have multiple or at least two windows in butter. Click on New Window. Now it brings up another blunder window That's great. I can. F four is kind of a quick shortcut where your mouse is to this window menu. If I press f four, I also get a new main window option. I could also split my window and two so it's kind of anything to do with the view or layout of blender on your screen. Number 23. The period key on your keyboard is now that keyboard shortcut Change the pivot point of your selected object were objects Right now if I were to have two objects I'm working with , you know, press shift a on my keyboard and add, Oh, let's say a UV sphere. And if our to move that over, if I have to object selected, of course, I can hold shift to do that, like in a shift and click on something. The gizmo on my screen. The transformer at Manipulator Tool, will be in the median point between those two objects in the middle. But if I don't want that to be the case, I can press the period key on my keyboard, and that will bring a pie menu. Let me select where I want the pivot point to be the default is median point. And yes, you can change that. I'm gonna press escape on my keyboard. That menu for this is up here. You can still do it this way. But again, the period Kiiza keyboard shortcut. It'll be handy for you if, on a change, the pivot point to the active element. That means the last war, most recently selected objects of multiple objects. In this case I selected. I think the Cuba last, I think. Let's see if I try that again. Yes, and I press are on my keyboard. It doesn't rotate from the middle point between those two. That's where my gizmo is. If I move it, you'll see like gizmos right there. Let's say, if I press the puta key, what else is there? Well, I can select, Let's say, a three cursor. And now, if I tap are on my keyboard, it will rotate around wherever my three D cursor is. That's great. That's the period key to bring up that pivot point pie. Menu number 24 control page up and control page down will cycle through your workspaces in your current file. If you have an extended keyboard on your computer. That means you've got the extra lower pad and the extra little buttons like page up page down home things like that on your keyboard. This will be handy for you if you want to quickly move between your workspace tabs. You don't have to move your mouse on Lee at the top and click on them. You compress control and page down will go to the left. So I switched from layout to modeling and oppressed control page down again and sculpting UV editing. Whatever I have up at the top, it will kind of go through them one by one, and it'll loop back to the beginning again. Control page up will go in the opposite direction. It'll move left and cycle through all the active workspaces. Lots of very handy one control page up and page down. Last up. Number 25 is the W key to rotate between your different selection tools on your new tool bar on the left hand side of a three vieux port. If I press the W key on my keyboard, it will rotate between the box Select Tool, the Circle Select Tool, which is great. It kind of replaces the sea key on your keyboard on its better you should play with it. The W Key will also let me get the freeform selection tool just like that. W Key again brings me back to my basic selection tools. Left click to select things, and it'll be me Back to the box. Let tool me box like things. This is great. You'll use them all the time. That's a W key. It cycles between all the different selection tools in the new blender toolbar. 4. 0.1 Beta Overview part 2: units, units and wonder have always been a little bit weird by default. Up until now, thunder was measured or scenes were measured using the blender unit. And that really doesn't mean anything, especially if you're making models to a specific size and you want to use millimeters or centimeters or inches or feet or yards. So in blender now the metric system is default. If I go over to my properties window and under the scene tab, you can see I have a section called Units and yes, by default. The metric system is default. If you'd rather use the imperial system with inches and feet, you're welcome to. But now you have even more control, and it's areas simplified in terms of its interface of what exactly you're using. So imperial could mean inches or feet. So which one is gonna measure in? Well, you could actually change that. You can change the length value defeat if you always want to work in inches. You can do that if using the metric system, and you want to always measure every length in meters. You can do that, or you can switch over two centimeters. If that's what you want or what you can do, especially for the length, is if you want to have different measurements, depending on the size of the object or how zoomed in you're in. I'm not really sure you can change this length value to adaptive. And so now, if you're working on things a different scales, it'll adapt to what you actually want to see. So if I open up, especially my end side, that's a little plus side properties panel. You can see I'm in meters. But if I'm working on another object or maybe zoomed in, it might change two centimeters. And it might very depending on what you have selected, what you could also do when you're in edit mode. This is a cool one. This is the new overlay. If I press tab on a mesh to go into edit mode and I opened up overlays, I get even more options here. But if I was to be in object mode, you can see it's smaller, but in edit mode, I can actually enable edge length. So where is this edge link? There we go. So now I can see all of the measurements of every edge in my model Pretty cool. Hey, that's measurements and units in blood or 2.81 of the many new great features of under 2.8 is multi object ending. Let's say in better 2.7 if I had to objects and my seem to mesh is I don't go ahead and press shift a on my keyboard and I'm gonna add Oh, yeah, let's go ahead and add a mash monkey head and I'm gonna use the move tool and move it over . Let's say I wanted to edit that Monkey Heads match, so of course I would selected I would press tab to go into edit mode and I could work on it . That's great. But then what if I realized that I wanted to work on this cube? Well, I would have to press tab to go back into this monkey heads object mode, and then I could switch over and select the Cube and press tab to go into its edit mode. Wouldn't it be nice toe have edit mode in multiple objects at the same time? Yes, it would be. And it's never blood. 2.8 If I press tab to go back into object mode, and then I select more than one object at the same time. Of course, you can hold, shift and do that. You can hold, shift and click on the on the second object or as many measures as you want, or you can use the box like tool in select multiple objects. But you have more than one mess selected. You can press tab that will go into edit mode of book meshes. And as you can see now, I can select faces of both objects and I can move him around. And so now I can edit two missions at the same time, and I pressed Tab, go back into object mode of both, and now they're both still separate objects. That's multi object editing. Let's talk about rendering. If I want to go ahead and render this beautiful scene right now. My cube, Of course, I'm gonna go through my camera mode, and then I want to press either animation or render, and that used to be in better 2.7 and before under the camera tab. But as you can see, it's no longer there. So what do you do well of course, you compress the F 12 key to function 12 key on your keyboard. If I do that, that still works. It pops up with a new window by default, and they get my render, and that's great. But where else can I find this in my interface without actually using a keyboard shortcut? Well, it's up under the render menu, and I'm not sure why they got rid of the vendor buttons. I really wish we would bring them back, or they could actually bring it back up here or somewhere in the top of winners interface. That would be nice to, but they're now under Orender, so you can render image or animation if you want. Change how your render shows up or where shows up you can go to display mode, and by default, new window is selected. It's when you press F 12 or gonna render render image or animation. It will render in a new window that pops up over top of blender. If you want change that, you can change that to one of the other options. I can make it go to an image editor. So now what it will do. I think it actually takes over the largest window that you have in Blender. So in this case, it should actually replace my three D View port window with an image editor with my render . So without dress, if 12. Yeah, it changed my three D view port into my UV image editor window with the Render, and I can press escape to go back to my three D View port. So a few little things about rendering have changed, but it's not too different. Let's talk about materials, Materials and lender have gotten a lot easier, in part because of the E V render engine and, in part because of blunders, new default material. If you're using one or 2.7 or before and the cycles render engine, you would be used to the fact that if you took a new message when it actually get rid of my default cube and I'm gonna add Oh, let's say a tourists and I want to add a material to that tourist. Of course, I would go material tab in the properties window and I would press new and if I was using this cycles render engine in Bar 2.7 I would have gotten a basic diffuse material. A diffuse material is basically just a color so you can change the base color. Now it's called to a different color, and you can change your report shading to look Dev or rendered. So now I can see the color. But a diffuse material the old way in the cycles Render engine didn't have many other settings. The new default material is called a principle be SDF shiner, and this is basically your all purpose. All in one chair lets you change many things about your material, like how shiny or dull it is or really, really customize it to your liking. You can do it all in one place. Now this principle be SDF shooter is actually a PBR shader. That means a physically based rendering shader, And what that means is that it's actually more realistic, especially in the way that it reflects other things in your scene. If I were to say Make my day, donut or tourist looks smooth, of course I might right click on it and enable smooth shading that I might add under the Wrench tab, a subdivision surface modifier. And I wanted this to look like a very shiny doughnut. Well, under the material tab right there, I can turn down the roughness, and that makes it more glossy, especially valued Atmore things in my scene to reflect, but more like in the real world. And this is why I physically based rendering material really is. A good thing is that when you look at a shiny objects in the real world, the way their effect is not even up until now. If you were to use a glossy material and that's a cycles, materials would reflect the same no matter which way you looked at them. And that's not really how materials reflect things in real life. If you look at, let's say, ah, cars glossy finish Well, if you look straight into a car's glossy finish, you're probably going to see the colors and a little bit of reflection. Whereas if you were to look at the edge of your car looking at it from the side and across , let's say the hood of your car well, you'd actually Seymour reflection of other things in the background that's your house or trees with or the horizon or the sky. Looking at an object from an angle. This is also true with water. If you're standing at the edge of a lake and you look into water well, it's transparent. Most likely, you can probably see into a little bit, and you're not going to see that many reflections. Whereas if you look across the lake at the water at a distance Atmore oven angle, you'd probably not see through the water at all. You would see all the reflections. This is called the friend Nell Effect, and the joke is, everything has for now. And that's true of PBR shares. Its now in Approve It in Blender and one of the nice things about using this principle. BF GF shader is that you can switch between the easier under engine and the cycles. Render engine and your materials will stay the same and they look the same and it all just work Great. Let's talk about rendering specifically in the e v render engine. Of course, if you press Z on your keyboard, you can switch into the rendered a view port shooting mode. And then, if you turn off overlays with this button right here, you can see essentially what you're Orender will look like when you actually press F 12. But of course, you always run her through the camera. So I had to go ahead and press zero on my numb pad and I want over my camera little bit. So I'm going toe press end to bring up that side panel and all LA camera to view. If I zoom in and I press F 12 to bring up my actual render, you'll notice that the quality is not as good as you might expect from another render engine like the cycles under engine. And that's primarily because of a few things. But number one are reflections and balanced lighting, and number two are shadows. And those two things really go hand in hand in the et render engine. Yes, you're not gonna get quite the quality that you would get from the cycles Wonder engine. But in reality, the reason why this winner doesn't look as good as the cycles under engine is because of settings that you have to enable. Yes, you can make some amazing things like this and like this, and like this, and finally like this in the evening Orender engine, you can get some pretty great results, but you have to enable certain settings in your render settings. The first thing we talk about here is the fact that you don't get bounced lighting for free in the E v render engine. What am I talking about? Well, if my red monkey had was sitting on a gray floor, you would probably get some of the balanced light from the red monkey head bouncing onto the gray floor and so you could get some red other parts of the picture. Likewise, if you had on image texture or ah checkerboard tile pattern on the floor, you would see the reflections of that up on the monkey head. Well, right now, we don't get any of that, and that's because of balance lighting. How do we enable this? Well, under your camera tab, we have many settings here that we need to enable in order to get a higher quality render with more realism. So the first thing I'm gonna enable is called Screen Space Reflections, and this is how very easily. Just by clicking the check bucks, we could get a little bit of reflection in your scene, will turn it off and I'll turn it back out again. As you can see, a lighting change little bit and you can see a little bit of redness in the floor under the monkey head. Now, this is gonna be helped if I actually select the floor ultra overlays back on so you can see that I have it selected. And if I make this material more glossy so under the material tab, I'm going to turn down the roughness on the floor. And as you can see now, I get a reflection. And that's because I've enabled screen space reflections. We're gonna turn that off and then that gone again. And you could really adjust these things in both this section and also, of course, with the settings of your material. So I might turn up the metallic property of my floor play with the amount of speculative value it really comes down to along these different settings. Also, the first thing that I noticed with the TV render engine is the quality of the shadows. When you first look at your seeing us, your shadows will be quite rough. And this is because evey does not have proper ray tracing How do we solve this? Well, if I zoom out and I select 11 my scene, I can adjust its shadow properties rate in its own properties under the light tab in the properties window, just like expand shadow. Of course, you can turn shadows offer on, but what I probably want to do here is make my shadows a bit softer. So I'm not trans softness up on this individual. Lighten. As you can see, my shadows look a little bit better, but actually there's a better way. So I'm gonna turn that back down. I'm gonna right click and reset that to it's default value. Instead, I'm going to go it to the again the render settings and under the shadow section, there's more settings year that will affect your shadows and anything. That's a few different methods of drawing shadows, GSM and GSM. Back in earlier Alfa versions of 2.8, I found that there's more difference between these two, but they've both gotten better. But what I can do here is I can enable soft shadows when I do that, and only when I do that it does the size of a lamp matter because I didn't have this turned on. And let's say if I had a larger lamps turn my lamp into an area lamp and I'm gonna change the size 23 meters by three meters. You can see that this size of a lamp in a realistic situation, including in the cycles under engine, would cause the shadows to be diffused. They would be very, very blurry because that's what naturally happens when you have a large light source. I was very disappointed. See that this was not the case in the 80 render engine. But how do you solve this? Well, it's easy equal to your camera tab. You enable soft shadows A. So you can see now they've got nice and soft, and you might notice that they don't look quite as smooth as you would like. That's just because of the sampling. Any V. By devoting your view port, you only get 16 samples that mean 16 different layers or increments of your shadows. But when you render out, you can have much more so if I turned my view port even up to 64 press enter, the shadows look smoother, so you can imagine if you had 256 or 512 your render would look great. That's just do a quick test. And as you can see, the shadows look pretty decent. There's a few things missing, though. On that is the shadows under the monkey head, where its nearest to the floor doesn't look very realistic. What's happening here is we to enable an extra shadow called contact shadows. This is especially apparent when you have hard shadows and when you have something directly touching the ground. So I'm gonna get rid of my monkey had I'm gonna add a cube and I'm gonna move it up on the easy access to what's on the floor. And I'm gonna disable for a moment under my camera tab. Um, under shadows, soft shadows. As you can see, If I were to get rid of the glossy nous on floor, you can see where the shadow meats. This corner of the cube isn't realistic. It doesn't seem to match up well, well, how you can solve that with your lamp selected. What you can do is under the lamps own settings, you can enable contact shadows, and when you able contact shadows and makes an extra little shadow where your object meets the floor and I'm gonna increase the distance of this year. You can see that that helps, and I might increase the softness, the softness of your contact, shadows not affected at all by the size of your lamp. Eso you actually, if you just that one manually. But once you have contact shadows, things look a lot better. Something else you might want to do is in able ambient occlusion that just helps make areas darker. Were ambient light light from light sources is occluded. That's what that means. So it's right here under the camera tab. And if I enable that you'll see things get a little bit darker, especially our near near corners. So what I might do is I might turn up the distance of that. And as you can see, things are getting a little bit darker in here. It doesn't matter too much right now, but it really, really does help in certain situations. Let's talk about the timeline. The timeline in one or 2.8 has gotten a little bit of a makeover, and that is in the way that it deals with key frames. If I want to make an animation, of course, I can turn on my red. Actually, it's not read anymore, but it's still the record button. In other words, it's the automatic key frame insertion button. If I have this press that it's enabled, what I can do is I compose objects, and when I oppose them or move my, rotate them or skill them at frames, they'll be recorded in that pose at that frame. So on frame one, what I'll do is I'm gonna move my cube over to the side, and here you can see a difference in one or 2.7. And before in the timeline, key frames just showed up as lines and you couldn't select them and you couldn't move them . And you couldn't scale animations in order. Do that. You had to use the dope sheet window. Let's just follow through, wrote this. I'm gonna go ahead and right click and drag to let's say, frame 24 and I'm a drag mike you over. And because I have this record button turned on, I have now to key frames and I havent animation. But as you can see in the timeline, I can select key frames. I wasn't able to do that before. Of course, I'm left clicking to select now, and I can left, click and drag to move key frames again. I couldn't do that before. Up until now, you had to actually make another window. You to have a timeline in order to have this record button. I'll turn it off now, and you have to have a timeline in order. Press The play button on when I used to teach is you had to go up to the top and drag the corner of the window down to get another window, and you turn this into a dope sheet and the dope scene that you have these diamond shaped and movable key frames. But now the timeline has Those two for the Doshi has been made less necessary, although it still exists. Custom shortcuts In Blender 2.8 you can add your own quick shortcuts to a new menu that you access using the Q key on your keyboard. If you press que When your mouse is in the three D view port, you get the quick favorites menu. But by default that there are no quick favorites because this is for you to customize. If I want to add a quick favorite, let's say I need to access something in the menu and I don't want to have to go up to that menu every time because of something that I do all the time. Let's say I get rid of my cube and I press shift A and I add a new text object and I'll press tab to go into edit mode of it and all press backspace and all type foreign C g. And that's say, under the front tab in the properties window. I give this text some geometry. I extruded up and let's say I want to turn this text object into a mesh. Well, right now, if I go upto object, I can go to convert to, and I can select mesh from a curve medicine of text, and there's no keyboard shortcut for that by default in 2.8 there was in Buner 2.7 m Before I think it was Ault C. I can't remember. So if I actually want to add this to my own quick menu because something that I do all the time. I can right click on it and I can say Add two quick favorites. It's relieved that easy. You can do it with anything you confined in a menu. And once you do that, you compress que on your keyboard and it'll be right there. I can do it from this menu right here and now My born CG text is a measure of us have. No, there it is. It's a mess. I can access my vergis ease. But what if you actually want to add your own keyboard shortcuts for specific things? Well, that's easier than ever now as well if I go up to In fact, I'm not gonna go up to anywhere. I'm gonna right click to bring up my object context menu. This is a menu I can add keyboard shortcuts for these things. If I want to add a set Origin to geometry keyboard shortcut. There is no keyboard shortcut for this right now. You can see that my text, its origin is right over here. I would want to make it into the middle of this text object as quickly as I can, So I again I'm going to right Click sat origin, origin dio geometry. I'm gonna right click on this and say a sign shortcut. Now, when you do this, you put your mouse in this little press a key section and you press a key. This does not work, I think, with multiple keys or a command. So I'm gonna try t on my keyboard and let's see what happens. I'm gonna press t there you can see and now has a keyboard shortcut. So I'm not gonna do it yet. But then, like impress T. And as you can see, that little orange dump my origin went to the middle of that mesh object that was a text objects that is the quick favorites menu with the cuchi. And then you can also add your own keyboard shortcuts by right clicking on anything in a menu. Let's talk about last two tools on the bottom of the toolbar. Those are the annotate tools and the measure tools. Annotation is a new tool that replaces the old Greece pensar tool. The old free Spencer tool allow you to draw on your view port you could actually animate on your view port and what it was used for is to make notes and little scribbled drawings on top of a scene. In case you are, say, a director of a three D enemy and movie, and you want to give feedback and notes to the animator of a scene, what you could do is get their file, and then you could watch their animation of Let's Say a character and you could draw different poses. You could say, Okay, I want this carrot reposed more like this, and you could quickly draw the same thing here. If I take this tool, I can now just simply draw in life you port. And because we now have quick settings for tools up here, you can see I can change the color of that. I can keep drawing, but with this tool where it is actually draw well right now. It drew in line with the three cursor in my scene, so because I was looking diagonally at my seeing downward, that's how it drew it from my perspective up there. But you can change where it draws right now is drawing in line with a three d cursor. I could actually draw on my view so if I draw now, it'll actually sick to the glass essentially of my view port. I can also actually draw on the surface of objects. So if I go to a corner and then draw, let's say Ah, happy face. Well, the happy face gonna look pretty distorted because it's on two different sides of my cube thes Do not render. But there honey for notes. If you press end on your keyboard to bring up the side panel is a new section for this. There are layers, so if you would have different colors or separate things out, you compress the subtle plus you can choose a color for each layer. Each layer can only have one color, and then you condone draw, and each individual stroke can have its own placement. Soviet pretty cursor view or surface, so that is the annotate tool. The next tool I'm gonna go ahead and get rid of these two layers is the measure tool. So if you ever want to measure anything in your scene, let's say you're doing architecture or three D printing. This is how you can do it really, really quickly. The measure tool simply works by once you have it enabled. It's an active tool. After all, you can click and drag in your scene and measure anything. So now I know roughly this edges 1.48254 meters. Okay. How do you beam? Or exactly how do you get rid of these off of your string? It seems like it's, you know, stuck on my screen. In fact, that wasn't accurate at all. What you could do is you can, with the tools still enabled, you can drag one end off of the screen and it'll entirely disappears. That's how you could easily erase it. But what you can do here, if you want to snap diverted sees and it is in fact is you gonna hold control. But you don't do that right away. So I'm just gonna help holding control. I'm going to click and drag from that point, and that one's not quite accurate. But now if I hold control, you'll see it'll kind of stick to an edge very accurately and also snapped overseas. So now I'm holding control still, and it snapped that furnace e I can go back. Hold control and Aiken, snap this one to that for to see. And now I know that this edges exactly two meters long. Okay, so that's a really quick I'll do it one more time. You can simply click and drag. And then once you start dragging, hold control to snap, and then you can hold control still and snap. If you want to measure an angle, I'm gonna drag this one off. This is also a protractor tool. So let's say I don't want to use my cue because I know everything is 90 degrees, so I'm gonna get rid of it. I'm gonna press shift a and at a monkey head. Of course, it's a go to. If I want to measure this angle, I can just again click and drag. But I want to drag from this point to this point because I'm gonna drag the middle of my I'm measuring tool out to create a protractor with an angle. So again, I'm just going to click and drag from roughly that point, I'm gonna hold control. It'll snap to that vergis e. I can correct this one again, holding control still, and that I can drag anywhere in the middle of my line and Ah hah! I get an angle and I could hold control again. I can snap to that edge and that verte see, and now I know that this angle of 66 degrees So that is the measure tool and the meditate tool. One of the big new features of Blender 2.8 is the new grease Pencil two D animation tool. The thundercloud, actually, a few months ago, spot so that the production of an enemy of short using the new up 2.8 grease pencil tools it's called Hero. You can check it out online. I'll pull into that description area below the grease pencil tool is a fully fledged two D animation tool built into blender, and it's getting a lot of attention in the two D animation world. If I go ahead and delete my default cube, I press shift am my keyboard? I can actually add a new grease pencil object. This is actually a two D object in three D space, but it uses new stroke objects, and with this object selected, I can actually press tab on my keyboard will. Pardon me? I'm gonna press control tab to bring up my different modes. I left like draw. Now I can actually draw two D objects in three D space. But this isn't the ideal scenario. Ideally, actually, you'd have a special layout dedicated to a two D drawing into the animation. You can get this by pressing the plus button and selecting two D animation to the animation . And there we go. But I'm just gonna go up to file new and select the template for new projects called two D animation. When you do that, you get a white canvas that you can start drawing in. And you could just click and drag right away. You could animate really easily to in here so very quickly I'm gonna press controls the young, my keyboard. I'm going to draw a slightly larger rush under draw a happy face. And I'm going to do a very, very quick animation. So as you can see my happy face, don't laugh, has one frame. And if I go, let's say eight frames later or so I can pan down and I can draw maybe, ah, stretched happy face like he's falling. And I want to see the old version still, so I'm actually turn on. Where is it? It is onion skinning. There we go is actually a section for it under the grease pencil option. So now I can keep drawing there. Is that the eyes? I got to stretch out the eyes. There we go. A mouth now. Key frames in this two D animation happen, or the frames happened when you get to their key frames. So the first picture lasts from frame one all the way to frame seven, and the new picture comes at Frame eight. But as you know, if you don't any two D animation before, especially in software, that you should do in between frames so I could actually go halfway in between when I let go of the play head, I get my current frame and I get my onion skin on the next train. So now I can start drawing in between, so I'm going to something like that. That's pretty terrible and all drawn my eyes and my Melvin. So now, as you can see, I can drag through, and I had a very quick animation. I'm knocking to these tools justice, but there's a lot in here. Check up that hero movie in the description area below. Lastly, a blender now supports multiple windows. So if you're somebody who has multiple computer screens on your computer, you could actually have a different blunder window on each screen with the same file open and they work together. What I'm talking about here. Well, I'm gonna go ahead and snap this blunder window toe one side of my screen. And now, if I go up to window, I can say a new window or even new main window. But I'm just going to new window, and what this does is it opens the same blunder file in another window. But now what I can do is I can make, let's say, one window be rendered. So when you're presses, you on my keyboard switched to rendered. Maybe all turn off overlays, and maybe I'll actually get rid of my other windows here by merging them together and like that and like that. And so now I can see my my finish version over here and this window. I might have it in solid view or even all Top Z. I'll go to look death mode so I can edit my materials. And as you can see, a blender now supports multiple windows. It's a great new feature 5. 0.2 Beta Overview part 1: Let's talk about this blast green and let's go ahead and zoom in on it so we can take a better look. This blast green features new badges that you can get if you join the Blunder Cloud. If you support the Blunder Fund, that is, if you donate five euros or six American dollars a month to help support new development of blender. And they give you one of these badges that you can have or not, if you don't want to on your profile so you can let others know, too, that you're supporting the development of future versions of blender. Below this blast green is a new, quick set up area with a few settings that you can change before you even jump in. And by the way, if you close this last green click and then you go back up to this little icon that you can get it back up and you can customize your settings again until you change or save any of blenders. Other preferences. What's available in here? Well, first of all, if you're coming to Buner from a different three D program like Maya or three DS Max, you can change your keyboard shortcuts that you're more used to how to get around and use blender right now, though, were in beta. So there's only shortcuts presets to blender itself and older versions of blender. Because some things have changed. Hopefully, they add to this list. But that's that. Next up, just a minor detail here selects with left click or a right click, and by default, now you're selecting with left click again. That's totally minor. We totally won't talk about that later. Of course it will. Next up is the space bar. You can now use it to play your your timeline. You can use to bring up a tools shortcut bar, and you can use it to search by default and blender. Up until now, it's been for searching andan. They try to make it in Alka versions of Blender 2.8 into a tools kind of menu. You'll see what that's about in a few minutes, but now they've decided to go and make the space bar into the industry standard. In other words, in any program where you can play a timeline like any media player software, if you press the space bar, it place that's what it does by default now. But of course you can change them. Lastly, in this section we have a theme selector, and right now there are only two themes to choose from. Of course, in later betas or the final 2.8, there will be lots of themes to choose from right now is only blunder. Dark and blender light all stick with dark for now. OK, next up is left click to select before I get there, though, I'm gonna change the sides of my interface just because everything's a little bit small for you on my screen here. So let's turn up to this is 1.35 okay, and I'll close that Nahla blender for the first time. After 20 years of right clicking to select now in lender, you left click on objects to select. Of course, if you go it to your splash tree, you can change that if you're used to right clicking to select. And that's where your muscle memory is like me. You can stay with right click to select if you want, just like that. But for new users, left Click Select really, really will be easier so they've made it the default. And yes, it's a big shock, but it's here. But there is no benefit. That's the good news to switching to left quick. If you want to stick with right click, you can. What does this mean? No, I'm gonna be sticking with left click because you get a few differences and this is gonna be teaching it from this point forward. Of course, if you left click on an object, you select it. That's great. Unfortunately, though, the way they've implemented this in some windows like a timeline is a little bit weird, and I hope they change it right now. If you expect to click on something on selected with your left mouse button, well, then a new user would be expecting to probably be able to go down to their timeline and then the left click and drag this play head. And unfortunately, they can't. You have to right click to drag a, and that's a little bit backwards. You would think that would make it consistent, but really, in this case, and there are some cases where it's different in this case, they have just flipped the left and right buttons on the mouse. And that's because when you were right click to select, you can left click and drag the play head. But now that it's reversed, well, you have to right click and drag. So I hope they revisit that. Or at least maybe give a new gizmo on this play head so that you can drag it by left clicking. So now, if you can left click on objects to select, um, what happens if you right click in your three D View port? Well, with an object selected If you then right click with your mouse, you get the new object context menu. Now, this man, you might look familiar to you if you're used to be under 2.7 and before, because this man you used to be called the Specials menu. Yeah, if I were to switch back over into right click to select, and then I were to press W on my keyboard, you get the same menu now in one or 2.7, and before you might have loses. Commonly, if you press tab to go into objects, edit mode and let's say you wanted to subdivide up your cube you might have pressed W. And then you might have selected. It's at the top now subdivide. This is that same menu. But if you're in object mode and you have different types of object selected, you get even more features now at your fingertips just by right clicking. So if I were you right, click on this mesh cube, well, I actually have to change my settings back to left Click Select. To be able to do that in order, right click on my Cube. I now have options like smooth cheating versus flat shading. So if I switch just smooth shading, you can see my Cuba's now shaded smooth, which I would probably never do with a cube so I can go back to flat sheeting. You can do things here like set the origin of your object to the three cursor or geometry or center of mass or something like that. You can convert objects here, so if you want to convert a text object into a mess, you could do that here. And yes, you can even now copy and paste objects with this menu or with control, See or control V. Oh my God, this is amazing copying and pasting objects, not just duplicating them. So now if I go to copy, object and then right click paced object, I can now grab with a geeky that hasn't changed my object and I've got a copy of it. Let's talk about render engines. Render. Engines are no longer found on the top bar in blender, and actually, I hope that changes. I think that's a good place for them, but you can now to switch between different render engines under the camera tab at the side of the new properties window. So if I click on the camera tab with the very first thing I can change is my render engine , and the new default engine is the new E V render engine. We talking about that, Of course. Later in this video, render engines have changed. Of course, we have this new one E V. We also have a new one called Workbench. This is really just an open G L engine is kind of like just rendering your view port. It's simplified. There's no shadows. There's no special effects is just how your view port looks essentially. So if you're looking at your view port and you have certain settings, you might get a very flat architectural look. It's a nice, simple engine. The workbench engine. The last engine that we have is the cycles render engine, and the cycles engine hasn't changed too much. Actually, that's kind of a lie. It's gotten better on newer, faster hardware. The cycles under engine is about 30% faster, so hey, Blender is better than ever. But it's a sad day, though. The old Blender internal Render engine is now gone that they had to get rid of it, unfortunately, because, hey, it was just really outdated and give very good renders if you were really looking to make, ah, high quality, professional looking enemy and movie or three d modeled scene. And unfortunately, this is a really sad one. The blender game engine has now been removed from the lender. The game engine was was fund. It was a good educational tool. Some interesting and well made great games were made with it, but it never got mobile platform exporting supports. He couldn't export toe iPhones, android phones, things like that. So it never really took off, and so it had to be taken off, And that's in large part because of blunders, new technology and the old technology that the old game engine used. Next up left. Talk about tools and gizmos. Blunders tools are now active, and they're found in large part over in blunders. New toolbar. You can see that when you first launch blunder, you actually get active tool enabled by default. It's actually the selection box tool and this tool, as with any other tool. Now it takes over your mouse's operation. In other words, with the selection tool you can left click on something to select it. But also being this is the box electoral. You can now click and drag and box left things in your scene. Now, as I said, tools are now active, and that means that when you select them like the new a three D cursor tool. Yes, the three Chris has been around forever and blunder, But the three D cursor tool is new. It's active. That means it takes over the functionality of your mouse. If I now click on something, I can't select it. That's because now left clicking, it means with this tool selected that I'm moving the three d cursor around. Same thing with a new transform tool. This is a combination of move and rotate and scale. When I have it up and I want toe movie or theatre scale something. I can select something with this tool as well. But I get all three options, so that's great. Yes. Before Mlynar, you could hold, shift and select all move, rotate and scale with the old gizmo selection on the header of Pretty View Port, but now is just one tool on its own. Of course, we still have moved. We still have rotate, and we still have scale. But you'll notice now that the on screen controls, in other words, the gizmos have changed. Maybe only suddenly but with the move tool. Now, if I zoom in on that object, you can see that Mike is no, no has these new squares. And that allows me, Let's say, if I were to grab this blue square to move the camera on on Lee, the X and the Y axes and not the Z axis. In other words, it's colored blue because it negates where does not operate on that blue access so I can move it around without worrying about moving it up and down the scale Tool has this to say on a scale in two directions. You could do that. You would probably wouldn't want to scale the camera, though. So all select my cube and the rotate tool. When you grab one of the three hoops, it will actually give you kind of an idea of how many degrees you're turning right there. And if you hold control, it'll snap. But you get this new set of increments that you could actually see to actually give you an idea about how much you're actually turning, um, the object that you're currently rotating. Now, if I go and press control Z on my keyboard to undo that and if I press tab to go into this mess is edit mode, you can see that my toolbar changes and we have access to a list of visual icons that represent tools that we commonly use an edit mode. Now, if you don't just want to see thumbnails here, if you want to see the name, you can just put your mouse at the edge of this toolbar and drag out. As you can see, you can have, like a column of two, or you can see all of their names. So that might be more helpful for new users if you're not sure what something does. So if I know select, let's say, the extrude region tool. It's active and it takes over my mouth so I can't do other things with my mouse. It's only gonna be for selecting verdicts, ease or editor faces and extruding. So I'm gonna go into face like Modi. No left, click on one face and you can see now that the extrude tool has a new gizmo on on screen control. So now I'll have to do is drag on this little plus icon. And hey, I could extrude and with this extreme region to liken select different regions, and I can pull out on the gizmo and extrude handy. Let's go ahead and switch to a different tool. I mean, a switch to the loop cut tool. This one works a little bit different than if you were to use control R on your keyboard, by the way. Yes, control are for Luke. Cut and slide still does work, but this new loop cut tool works a little bit different. You can hover over a mesh in edit mode to use it, and if you then click and then drag immediately, you can drag an edge looped where you want to go so you don't click and then let go and click again to slide. You just click and drag and hold down all in one motion and then let goes. That's the loop cut tool. There are some other new gizmos on the screen as well. A cool new one is four lamps. I'm gonna go ahead and select this light in my scene. I'm gonna go ahead and change it in the properties window, there's the light tabai matching it to and the area lamp with an area lamp. Or like now, as they call it, you have a new circle on the direction of the area limp, and if you drag it, you can move the way that your lamp is pointing. But also, if you get a little bit closer, you could actually mouse over and change the shape of your lamp. At least the area lamp. I go ahead and make this one a little bit bigger just over here. I'm gonna type in, Let's say one and one. So now if I orbit around, you can see that my area lamp is a square. But again, if I mouse over it, I get these controls and I could just actually manually change the size of my lamp without having to go into any settings. Now this tool, I think, is a little bit buggy right now. Um, at least I don't understand that. Maybe because it should work and it's not. But again, we have that context menu. So if I right click on the light, I could actually set its size. Both X and Y, and I just liked size it actually fix it, and it actually made it that bigger size. And it's letting me now stretch it on the X axis, and I can right click again and set the Why Aziz Well, so we have new gizmos on screen controls for tools and active tools. Speaking of tools, let's talk about tool settings. If you're using a tool now, there are a few new places that you can find that tool settings. Let's say I want to use the loop cut and slide tools going to go ahead and zoom in on my cube all press tab. I'm going to select that new active loop cut tool right there. Now, when I select it, that's what my most is gonna do is going to create a new blue cut and let me slide it. Of course, if I now click and drag, it will just put it right there. But what if I want more than one cut? As you know, if you were depressed, I'm gonna switch over to my move. Tool it already press control are on my keyboard to create a new loop, cut and slide. I can scroll up on my mouse to get more cuts than I can click and then move the mouse and click again so I can create more than one cut without loop cut tool. So how do I do that with the new loop cut tool? The active one on my toolbar? Well, I'll just undo those quickly and I go back to Luke. Cut two. Options are now just like the adobe products like photo shop or illustrator or animate. You get tool options at the top. So if I were not changed, the options for this tool, the most common ones will be up here. I can change the number of cuts over here. So now if I were, just use my tool and then click and drag. You can see that I have that number of cuts up there now. The most common options for tools will be up here in this new top bar, but I want to see all the options for any given tool. Let's say the extrude region tool. You want to go up to the top tab of your properties window. This is a new tab. It's called the I'll just hover over it so it will tell me what it's called. The active tool and workspace settings you can see here. This has sections in it. They're different for every tool. You can expand these out and you can see options for the tool that you have selected. In this case, I've got the extrude region tool selected so I can extrude based on this face is normal or I can extrude in the global X wire Z axes. Now this top toolbar is gonna come in really handy if let's say you want to a task like texture painting. In fact, I'm gonna go up to my new texture paint tab at the top. And, as you can see, like this new texture, paint Tattle will talk about workspaces in a few moments. But as you can see, I now can access my draw brushing if I'm drawing or painting on an image. I don't click on new and press. OK, actual. Change this to a white new picture. I can now choose up here. My top are the color and reuse and other properties of my brush on a paint, not with white paint. Let's say with red Alma, change the radius of my brush. I can do that, and now I can paint on that image, so there's gonna be a handy place for you to find settings for your current active tool. Next up, our workspaces workspaces are new ways of rearranging your screen and quickly getting into active tool sets to start getting into a task right away. Yes, you can still go to the top or bottom of any window and put your mouse in the quarter window and left, click and drag to split that window into two either left and right or again up and down. And you can still change any window into any window type. Let's say I change the three Vieux port into a Oh, I don't know a timeline. Yes, you can still do that, But no, I'm gonna go up and actually go to New and General. But no, you can change your layouts even easier. But again, this goes into more than just window layouts. The list of tabs at the top are called workspaces, and they're organized in a general file like you're creating a three D and me and movie when you're creating a three D animated movie. The workflow generally is professionally that you do lay out first. That means you're creating very, very simple, low poli objects. Toe lay out how a sets gonna be organized, like where tables and chairs and cars and city streets and buildings will be, And then you go into modelling. So actually modeling in more detail what objects are gonna look like, and then you might go into sculpting. If that object requires it, and then you might go into texture in like u v adding and painting or texture painting. Then you might go into shading and actually customizing the materials and the shiny nous and dullness and reflectiveness objects. Then you probably enemy, so you need different windows for that, then you probably render. And then, lastly, you might composite, and I don't actually know why they have scripting here, but they dio now that's a workflow 43 D animation. But what if you're doing a different task? Blender also has new tools that are great for two D animation and other things as well. That's why if you go to file and new, you get a list of preset templates for actual blunder files. I just use General. That's what I'll be using most the time. But it's also a preset for two D animation. And so if you go to two D animation, you get a different set of workspaces. You get the general two D animation canvas. You get a full canvas and then you get a rendering workspace. If I go to file new and sculpting, let's say you're used to Z brush and you want try that same sort of thing in blender. Well, this gives you sculpting and shaping for making objects, using the sculpt tools and changing their material. So, as you can see, workspaces are not only layouts, they're also active tool sets, and you can make your own presets. Of course, as well. Let's talk about these new controls at the top, right of the three d of you a window. This is one of the new, most recognizable features of one or 2.8. You get some new controls, which let you change your view very easily now forever. As long as I've been teaching blender, I've recommended that you need a mouse to use blender. If using a laptop you to plug a mouse in because you need a scroll wheel and a scroll, build acts like a button in order to do simple things like orbit in your seen or to zoom in and out in your scene. And then if you hold shift on your mouse and then you orbit by, of course, pressing your middle mouse button down, you can pan around in your scene. So if you didn't have a mouse, if you're using a laptop, well, you kind of had to be a second rate citizen when it came to blunder. That is no longer the case. We now have this new gizmo. Yeah, is that word again gizmo on the screen. But you just put your mouse it, and then you left, click and drag around. That's a way that you can orbit your scene. So now you really don't need a mouse. You can just use your track pad and click and drag and move around. That's great, but this little gizmo is more powerful than that. You see, if I click on one of the little balls the end of the points of the gizmo, you can point your view in that direction. In other words, if I click on the little Z ball, you can see that I go to my top view. If I click again on it, you can see I flipped over to my bottom view. You'll also notice that if I orbit around, it switches automatically between eight user perspective, you or a perspective you. And if I click on one of the little ball since I want to go to the right or left in my scene, I can go to that side and it switches into Ortho graphic automatically. So now it's easy to go from left to right. Right now I'm in right. I can click again on the X to go toe left. If I want to go to the front, are back. I can do that really easily again. Talking bottom very, very easy to do next. This gizmo are a few buttons to help you do other navigation tests. You can click on this little magnifying glass if you click and hold on it and move your mouse up and down. That will let you zoom in and out really easily, so that's great. Next, this little hand. If again, I click and drag on it up and down and left and right. I can pin my seen around. And if I want to switch into the camera view, was a button for that easily. I could get into the camera that compress it again to get out of the camera. And lastly, if I'm in a perspective, you and I want to go into Ortho graphic. That means, um, or flat view. I compress this last little button and it tumbles between again. This is Ortho graphic. It looks more flat, but it's still three D and perspective. Use those on the new controls at the top right of a three D view port window. Next up, let's talk about blenders. Improved user interface. Lots of little things have been tweets to make blender even nicer to look at and easier to use. One of the themes they went anto developing better 2.8 with was making things more consistent and easier to find for the user. The first place and notice. This is the header bar of each of the windows. Up until now, in previous versions of Blender, the header of a window that bar at the top or bottom of the window could be found on the top or bottom. In the old Treaty Vieux Port window, the header was on the bottom and some windows. It was on top. It's called a header, so that always put it on the top now, and you can always click in the same spot in the top, left on that little button to change, not windows type. Just a nice little thing here do with consistency, another major area where the interfaces that improved is over. Here in the properties window, the properties window used to have tabs along the top, and now they're along the side. Yes, these icons have been a little bit controversial. They are monochromatic, so they're a little bit harder to identify what they are. And, yes, I agree with some of that criticism. But being on the left hand side means that you can now maximize your three D view port space by making the aside panel of windows narrower. So now you can have all your tabs of the side, and you could actually see them all if you try to do that before and better 2.7. And before, if you had tabs along the top, you had to make this one to at least one enough to see all the tabs. Otherwise, you'd be cutting some of the tabs off, and you have to actually make your window wider and then select the tablet. You'd want to go into that mode of this, this properties window. Then you could make the window narrower again. Having side tabs makes that no longer necessary, just about a week ago. Also, they mean it's that you could actually not just click on a button, but you could also just click in this area and drags on. I wanna explore these tabs. Aiken. Just find one that I'm looking for. And then, oh, there's a world tab I can now let go. So that's great. Besides that in this properties window, if you go to a section, you'll notice that the sections are now reorganized, their tidied up. But they also have a single column layout before him. Letter 2.5 to 2.7. You actually have the use value input boxes side by side, and it was actually quite messy. Now, no matter what sexually go into, you'll find that is only one of these value input areas next to its description. So it's much usually go find your way around. It's just more tidy, but also this allows you to have a nearer again side properties window. So you're maximizing your three Vieux port space. In fact, well, I've gotten in the habit of doing in the last few weeks is I've got in the habit of making two of these windows side by side because you can still see everything that means you can have two different tab side by side. So you wanna have your render settings with a camera over here, Um, or maybe in this one. And then over here you'll have material settings for the object that you currently have selected. So now I can go ahead, and that's they add a color to my object Now. Besides that, another change that you'll notice is in each of these sections, or rather, in some of the sections, you're going to see some presets. Let's look at this output tab. And, by the way, they've actually rearranged the content of the Render Settings tab to exclude things that have to do with the output settings of your final render. Now, the camera tab on Lee has settings do with your scene like samples and depth of field and shadows and volumetric lighting and things like that. That's all under the Render Tab, this new output tab. It looks like a little film canister with film popping out of it now has all of your export or output settings. Things like dimensions and frame rate and start and end frames an output format, like if you're exporting to a J peg sequence or still image or a video file with sound. All those settings are now here, but these sections, all now like dimensions, has presets, so I can actually choose not just 10. 80 p 1920 by 10 80. But I want to choose. Let's say four k I can do that was simply two clicks. Now it doesn't actually go away. I hope they make this menu close. But as you can see now I have 38 40 by 2160 which is essentially four K. The last little tweak they've made is that in areas where you could enemy values, if I say go to the Object Properties Tab, you can see that I've got these new little dots next to my value boxes. What these little dots mean is that if I click on it, this is how you can add a key frame. So let's say I click on this little dot on the section goes yellow. That means have made a key frame off this object on its X access at this current frame. If I right click and drag down to frame Oh, let's say 24 and then I move that value. I could just drag in that area and then click on the key frame again. I've just created animation. I now have an animation of my box going from the middle, sliding along the X axis so I can now animate. That's a nice user interface improvement. Let's talk about blunders, preferences, blunders, preferences used to be found under the file menu, and they're no longer there. They're now under the edit menu because that's sort of the industry standard. If you used to any of the adobe programs like Photo Shop for Premier or animate, you'll always find preferences under the edit menu is just industry standard. So now we're moving towards that in Blender. I could go to the Edit menu, Select Preferences. The other change here is that now I can see there are side taps rather than top tabs. I think they're going to be playing with this idea more and rearranging some of this main preferences window space. You better be laid out for having side tabs, but here they are. You can still save your preferences over here, So if I were to let's say, go to my input tab and Howard, let's say your laptop without a numb pad and I wanted my number roto act like my numb pat, I could emulate my numb pad. I might also under interface flecked rotate around selection, and I want to save these settings for every time I use blunder. Of course, I can save preferences, but do note that if you do click on the safe preferences, your quick little settings area, your quick set up area will no longer be there. So those are blunders, preferences. Let's talk about collections and the outline our window. No longer the splendor have layers. If you think back to butter, 2.7 layers was out little grid of squares that represented layers that were kind of like layers in photo shop or gimp. But really, how I explain them were parallel universes. You could separate objects, lamps anything, and you're seeing that you could separate them into layers so you could view one layer at a time. Or you could hold, shift and view multiple layers at a time. Unfortunately, layers were limited. You could only have about 20 of them, so now I'm going to 200.8. We have what are called collections and collections, arm or versatile and their unlimited, and you're pretty much gonna always manage them over here in the outline our window. By default, you're given one collection and a collection. Is we just a group? You can move objects between different collections and you can create new collections really easily. In fact, if I select my cube and I press em on my keyboard, you can see now I'm not moving to a different layer. I'm moving to a collection and by default, we only have one collection in collection. So I can click on the word new collection. I can click in here and I can name it. I can call it Happy monkey with party hat. That's where this will make sense in a second, and I compress. Okay, so now my cube is in this ham p happy monkey with a party hat. Um, collection. Now, let's say that I actually want to make that collection, have what I say. So I'm gonna select Mike, you know, and I'm moving to a different collection. I'm going to make a new collection just by right clicking over here and saying new and ultimate click on this and I'm going to say boring cube and all to press, Enter and I'm going to select my cube tap m moving to my boring cube And now in my happy monkey with party hat collection. In fact, I'm actually gonna hide this collection the Boring Cube collection. And so now with my happy monkey with party hat collection, I'm gonna press shift a on my keyboard. I'm gonna add a monkey, and it is in that collection, and I'm gonna add a cone on tough it, and I'll tap G and Z to move that up. So now my collection is complete. As you can see, I can have a little bit number of collections here. I can group in any way objects could actually be part of multiple collections, I believe. And a cool thing you can do is you can actually add instances of collections. So if I press shift, am like he board and go to add on guy, go down to collection. Instance You can see now I can add instances of well, not like boring Cube, but my happy monkey with party hat. So now actually have a reference copy of my monkey with party hat. And if I change my original So if I left click on this hat. My press tapped to go into edit mode, are going to face select mode. Select the face. I shoot it down, hold control and Ault and click on edge there to select that edge ring. And I'll tap all T e on my keyboard and extrude faces along normals. Yeah, I went quickly there, but that that's OK. I now have a monkey wearing a witch hat, and as you can see, that changed, uh, the instance as well, because it's a reference incident. So now you can change lots of things. You're seeing it really quickly, and you can create instances of your collections. Next up, let's talk about blenders. New A three d view port window Just looking at it. In the three of you Port, you can tell things have changed little bit. It looks a little bit mawr three D, and that's because when you look at things that are further away, especially lines and wire frame models, you can tell the things they're closer to you and farther away, because lions like the great floor lines here, look a little bit more salt on thick when they're closer and a little bit more feet away as you get into the background. This is also true. If I were to go into wire fame view and look at the different wire frame thicknesses, you could just tell. Of course, there are thicker outlines on objects, but you can also just tell especially safe our to press X and delete this cube and our to press shift A and add a new mesh monkey head. You can just tell when things are closer to you on. That's great, but one of the bigger things about this new view port are overlays Now. If there are 2.8, you have control exactly what you can see in your view port. Let's say you don't want to see your creative floor well up here on the overlays. New pull down menu You can see I can really turn anything on or anything off. In fact, with wire frame mode, I actually have control over how much wire frame ice can see. If I zoom in on the Lunke, you can see these lines and certain thicknesses. But if I turn this value down, you can see I can see fewer wire frames and that might be helpful to you in some second senses. I'm not really sure. But let's say I want to turn off the grid floor. Well, I couldn't do that. I could actually turn off the axes. So I want to see those that red and green line. I could turn on the Z axis line if I want to. I could turn off the grid floor so you can really customize what you can see in your view. But also you can change the sheeting of your view port. What does that mean? Well, right now what I'm in this wire frame view, I can select either my theme background colors, what's in the background color That came a plunders dark theme. But I can also select a world color, and that means under my world tap. This is actually the render output color. I can change the color so I can go to some wacky orange red color if I want to. That's garish, and I can switch also to ah, Vieux port color, which I can actually customize for just this view port. I can change it to something a little bit more pleasant, like I don't know a light blue. Also, we have a new X ray mode. This little button used to be called limits selection too visible and now is either called X ray or show whole scene transparent. What this means. I'm going to go back into solid view that you can turn on X ray. You can make all of your objects see through simply by clicking this one button. Now, as you can see now, if I look really closely at my mesh, I can see into the background. But what I might also do is I could actually turn on a wire frame while I'm in solid view so I can see the outlines of each individual face on my monkey head and I pressed have to go into edit mode and then that say, I press ault a to deflect all. I can now see geometry in the back. And while I'm in this new what is it called again? Show whole seeing transparent or X ray mode? Aiken selecting. So I'm actually impressed. W a few times on my keyboard and get that circle select tool, and I'll make my radius of bigger if I paint now while I'm in this X ray view, I can paint a selection, and it will include faces or ver disease, in this case in the background. But if I were to undo that and in turn, this limit selection visible, that's the old name for it. The X ray button off and our paint a selection. Now it would only flecked Verte sees in this case that I can see and not any vergis ease in the back of the mesh. So that's the X ray button and the new three D View port. Let's talk about Vieux Port shading. If I have my most in the three D View port and I press Z on my keyboard, it brings up a new pie menu, and these four options are the four new View port sheeting modes of the new three D View port. By default, you start insulting view and sold view or a view. Port shading lets you see objects in a fairly plain looking white or gray color. 6. 2 All About 3D Animation: in the computer. Animation including and Blender animation is done using what are called key frames. Key frames are set down here at the bottom of Boehner's interface in your timeline, and key frames are a way for you to town object in your scene, usually a character or something else that this Q pay will use that to start, wait, tell that object to be at a certain place or at a certain rotation or on a certain skill at a specific time in your animation. So this timeline shows you time in frames, which are frame one to frame 250 by default. You can change those numbers here if you want your timeline. Where your animation to be longer, you can change. You couldn't drag in here. You can change it by clicking and typing in something like 1000 impressing Enter. You can change it back, though. We'll talk about this more later. If I go a frame, one of my animation and I orbit around so I can see my scene with the X read access going side to side fella, make this cube go from this side of the screen or seeing into this side. I'm gonna turn on this auto king, but I think this is the easiest way to animation when this record or auto king button is turned on. And I might refer to it later as the Red Record button, because an old versions of Under it used to be read. Now it's just like with blue highlight. When it's on, that's off. That's on when it's turned on and you move or rotate or scaling object. It will set that object at that exactly position and orientation At that time. This play had, by the way, this blue bar. With this handle, you've been dragged around. It's called scrubbing. When you do that, you're scrubbing around your timeline. You can drag it from this point right here. You cannot drag it on the actual bar. This handles nice and big, though, so it's convenient. So on frame one with the auto king button turned on, I'm gonna drag with the move, tool the cube over and let go, and when I let go, you'll know. So in your timeline, you've got ah yellowy orangy, gold colored diamond. This is a key frame, and it shows you that with the selected object you have told it to be at this location at this Skeel and at this rotation at this exact place at this time, if I play back were scrubbed through my timeline. I don't have animation yet because we haven't told it to be anywhere else at any other time . So I'm gonna scrub over to frame 24 24 because that's the number of frames it takes to make one second of animation by default. 24 frames per second is the frame rate of traditional movie film. It's a film projector or movie cameras, old way of recording film. And that's the rate that became the standard a long time ago. So what frame 24? One second later, I'm gonna drag the Cube over to that side of the screen and let go. You'll notice that it said auto keying on over the top, right? Just to remind you, and we've just made another key frame because auto King was turned on and we transformed the Cube. So now if I pressed the you go back to the beginning bun right there and press play. Hey, we've got animation that the Cube move from the left, the right in one second. If I scrub around, you can see all the in between fame's the computer blender made for us. Isn't that wonderful? But of course, animation is not just movement. It could be rotation or skill. So if I goes, let's say, Oh, frame 24. The last key frame. Aiken include MAWR information there, or I can change the information there. I can use the rotate tool. I don't want to rotate on this. Why the green access? And if I start dragging that handle, I can actually hold control. And it'll snap to, Ah, little five degree increments and you'll notice that up in this part of the stream when I'm doing that. So I'm gonna press control Z undo that rotation. If I grab this green gizmo handle to rotate on the Y access hold control. I can rotate exactly 90 degrees by watching up off of the top left of my screen. It says. Wrote nine degree Global. That's what I want. So now I've got animation of the Cube doing a little bit of flipping as well. If I want to make the cube scale over time, I can go to one of my key frames and I can tap s or use Thea the scale tool if want a scale uniformly, I can drag in this white circle the little one and click and drag. And now the Cuban start big, get smaller over time and rotate all the same time. So there you go. Animation is really that easy, at least to start. If you want to change the frame rate, how fast your animation goes, You should probably do that right at the very beginning. Before you start animating. I have got a one second animation here because we've got from a friend one to frame 24. If I go to my output tab. This is the properties editor the El Port Talbot. Most like a little printer printing out a picture in the first section called Dimensions. At the Bottom, you'll see frame rate frame rate of 24 frames per second is default. If you live in Europe, your television standard. If you're not putting for television eyes 25 frames per second, that's the pal standard. If you're in North America, it's 29.97 frames per second which is a relic of the transition between black and white television, which was exactly 32 color. Don't get me started. Their YouTube can play back at 60 frames per second. I think maybe even more now on you can choose even a custom value if you like. So if you change your value, U will play back at a different rate, but also export if you make a movie file at that rate as well. So now if I play back at 60 frames per second, well, this animation is only gonna take less than half of a second bam. Okay, it's not changes things, So you want to set this very early on now, In your timeline, you can move key frames and you can delete key fame's. And this is new in Blender 2.8. If I click on a key frame, just left click normal click on a key frame. It selects it. Selected key frames are this yellow, the orangy gold color. If I want to move a key frame around, I can do that. In fact, I could make this animation go from Frame one to frame 48 which means it would be at the default two frames of animation because two times 24 is 48. So now, if I play back the animation, that's what looks like it's It's half assed long. If I undo that controls E a few times I could even go in the middle of its animation, and I could, let's say, transformed the Cube and move it up on on a B or at my view and zoom out a little bit a swell. So now my animation has changed. He doesn't Little hawk. Uh, that's wonderful. I could even select multiple key frames by dragging just some. Or that doesn't have a key frame and dragging and letting go. Once I have made a box selection and I could grab, I can tap G and move those around if I want to send out my animation doesn't start until frame 25 or so. I can even scale and an animation. If I have multiple key frame selected, I can tap s and scale, and it will make the animation bigger or smaller. If the animation is bigger, it will take more time and therefore it will be slower if I meet the animation. Smaller? Uh huh. Can I can make it go really quick? If I tap s and I go, uh, you know, too far. If I crossed across itself, I can even make the animation reversed. Kind of messing things up here because animations, scaling or key frames scaling down here in the timeline happens in relation to this play head. So I'm gonna press controls the many times, undo my animation. So it goes from 1 to 20 four again. If I want to make this animation twice as long, I can go to frame one. Because if I scale right now, it's scales away from that dot play head. If I have my play head, that's the over here, and I tap s well, it'll scale away or towards that play head. Okay, So if I undo that, go back to frame one Aiken, skill the animation nicely from the beginning, you can even tap s and then tap in number. A modifier like to so s and then to enter will make the animation twice as long. Or at least it should. So now it goes from frame one to frame 47. I'm not sure why it does that it should be a 48 so I could just move it over and fudge it a little bit. Okay, so nothing. The animation plays back over two seconds, and I like it for the most part. But if I want to, let's say, have more control of my animation. And now we're gonna dive a little bit deeper into how you can control your information, have a better workflow and really find two things. When I use this auto key framing button, it is not letting me choose what kind of data I'm recording, at least by default with these key frames. So if I actually want to look and see what these key frames are actually doing well, if I were to, let's say at the beginning of this video, I am made the Cube rotate from Point A over here to point B over here by just rotating it at the last frame by 90 degrees. Remember that well, at the first key fame, I didn't tell it to be rotated in any which way, but it's still seeing that rotation. When I rotated it at the last key frame, it knew to stay rotated at that first rotation automatically. It wasn't actually automatic. It's done because you, when you use auto key framing, you are setting the location and rotation and scale every time you move rotator scale anything, even if you just want to a movement. It records the information for location and scale as well. I can show you that by making my timeline a little bit taller and then president with little tiny aero that's hidden at the side of your timeline. Hopefully, you can see that right there. If you click on it, you can expand a sidebar. Is it a key on the keyboard? No, I don't see a key. It's not the T a tool shelf. Oh, are the n key for the Properties panel. I don't know what the keyboard shortcut is for that, but it's there. There's a summary of all the key frame channels or tracks. If I expand this out, you can see that the Cubans list of you. That's the objects name. If I expand that and expand that, you can see that their heart lots of G frames or partial kind of sub key frames for location, rotation and scale Okay, so even if you just move the Cube, you're still setting its scale and rotation at that time. But what this conducive for you is it might interrupt your animation in certain ways. Let's say I want my cue to do a flip so it's sitting on the ground or somewhere like this flat. I want to flip. Maybe. 0 180 degrees. Well, right now, I've got it jumping and only rotates 90 degrees from this point to this point. And there's this rotation key frame in the middle. Well, if I were to go to my last key frame and a rotate 90 degrees more so if I rotate 90 degrees , I'll hold control down to snap and go to 90 and let go. Of course, you can type are why and 90 and enter to using modifier keys. But now, if I look at my object data here with the Cube selected, I'm rotated 180 degrees. But if I look through my animation, I want you to see what happens. The Cuba only rotates from from zero degrees to about 45 degrees, 47.9 between the first and second key frames in the first half of the animation and then the second half animation. It rotates a whole lot, so it's not a nice progression of animation because of the way that it recorded key frames and play this back. You see, the rotation is slow at the beginning, and it speeds up at the end. I don't want that. Well, I could go back and modify these key frames. I could select all three rotation key frames of these three right here by clicking and dragging, and I could press X four delete on my keyboard and then click on delete. So now it only knows rotation, the start and the end key frames, and now you'll see it rotates much more evenly. It rotates kind of progressively incrementally from frame, one different 48 over the entire rotation. Maybe I want the same thing with scale. Maybe I want to scale from small to begin. Or maybe very bigot the beginning to, uh, small at the end. But maybe this middle key frame is getting in the way. Maybe it's not really stealing at the right proportion, especially if I were to make it bigger at the end I've got auto King still turned on so it's still letting me seki frames be. I want big in big at the end and it's getting small in the middle for some reason. Well, I can delete those key frames as well. Okay, so you have lots of control here. Now, this isn't the best workflow. Maybe you want to Instead Onley insert the type of key thing that you want. This is where and I'm gonna delete this objects all press x with it selected, I'm gonna turn off auto keying and I make a new object this time ya'll just Adam Mesh Cube again. And maybe my cube only should have movement animation to do this, I'm not turned the recorder auto key frame button this time. Instead, I'm gonna set key frames manually by pressing the I key on my keyboard. So I'm gonna use my move tool, move. My cute where I want to be, I'm gonna actually tap G and Z and one and enter to move it one up on the Z axis, sitting on the floor G and C than one enter. And there are no key frames yet. In fact, not even at the right key frame, so are framed in my timeline. So I'm gonna frame one. And now I want to insert a key frame of this cube here. After I've put it there, I can tap I on my keyboard foot letter. I will bring up the insert key frame menu, and these are all called being set skiing sets. Allow me to record different types of data to a key frame. If I only wanna have location, I could Jews just location. The default is with the auto keen button. I tap I. It is local roots scale. There it is. That's the default for the auto keen button. If I just select with the ikey location when I go on, look at the key frame data of this cube. You can see we now just have three tracks, not nine like before. If I goto later on my timeline, let's say frame 48 I move the Cube over again. We don't have animation. Until I tapped I up here and say, the kind of king informational keying set that I want location. And so now I have just the animation, and now if I change the scale or rotation over the same thing as I did at the beginning of this video. At Frame 48 I've rotated used to rotate tool on the Y axis 90 degrees just like that. But now, because even if I insert a key frame of rotation on fame 48 well, there was no information recorded their like before. So now it's going to be rotated like that throughout the entire time. I have to manually control, and that might be a better workflow for you. So you were actually controlling things and doing things intentionally. If I tap our right now on frame one r and then why and then negative Maggie. So are white Negative. 90 Enter on my keyboard and I tap high rotation. I've just rotated negative nine degrees, answered that key friend so I can now have a rotation animation in my key frame. I just set those free three key frames. Those three manually just okay, so hopefully that makes sense. This might be getting a little bit more deep in your ready for at first, but it is a good thing to keep in mind if you want to use our will continue going on here. If you want to use the auto keying button and you want to have it, just do let's say one of those things. That's and not Moak wrote scale by default, you can go up to, uh, keeping this is on the header of your timeline keying and choose an active keying set. I'm gonna actually make a new cube because it tends to work better that way on add shift A to bring up the admin you add Mesh cube. I'm going to change my king set to one of those options, Aiken keep scrolling down on my most well. I'm gonna choose just location now it will if I use the eye key right now if I have a keying set deliberately chosen. If I used the auntie on not say I move my cube over here and tap by U unless that it didn't prompt me with that long insert key frame menu anymore. It only does that if you have not set an active keying set in this case. When I tapped I I just did it again. It on Lian started the active being set key. So location key frames that I can change at any time that I want. I can choose anything else if I go to a later time. Like at Frame 48 on. I moved the Cube over and I tap I on my keyboard. It won't give me that menu again. It'll just insert the active keying set now. Funny enough, I'm gonna delete this cube and had New Cube. And if I want to do the same thing with the auto King button and I've set my king set right here, turns out your okey button does not use this active king set by default. And I don't like this part of blunders in your face. I hope they change it. There's this button right here. There's no name on it. It's pretty keys. That's great. This button if I hover over it, it says. Auto key frame insert keying set Auto Matic key frame insertion. Pardon me using active, King said. Only that's hard to find. It's not very obvious they should put up here, I think. But if you have that button selected around as Blue, this record button, the auto keen button will use your active king set so I've got it set I've got to do. But none of auto King turned on and I got a frame one movie cube over and check out what key friends that made. There we go. It only made location. Even with this bun, I don't have to press I every time on frame 48. If I move the cube over two seconds later, it only made those key frames okay. Before we go any further, though, I want to talk a little bit about the timeline. The timeline is your space to look at your friends in animation and room in, edit them and delete them as you choose. But it's only 250 frames long by default, and you might have an animation that's 1000 key frames from 1 to 1000 that actually corresponds with your output settings. If you're out putting rendering frames out to your computer or a video file out to your computer, these numbers change when you change these and vice versa. So if I change it to that's a 500 press enter, it changes right here. That's really nice, but what if you want to only focus on one little bit of an animation. Let's say 1 to 50 and you wanna have it play back and not just keep going. So if you press play, you know it keeps going and it just keeps going, and I can get annoying. You want to be a loop in a smaller preview area you're working on right now is character animation takes a lot of looking at it and playing it back and wanting to see it again and again. You don't have to change these numbers. You can use what's called a preview range, and a preview range happens when in this timeline and her window. If you press p on your keyboard, the letter P you'll get these little dash lines through your mouse. If you then click and drag and let go. You're setting a preview range, and also it looks like if you let go, you will brown out of much of what they chose. Brown Ah, part of your timeline and this little stopwatch timer button turns active. This is your use preview range bun. So now if I play back my animation, it's only gonna use the preview range of 0 to 55. And that way I can check this animation on, watch it again and again to refine it and work on it and just play back. That one's own. If I turn this button off, I'm no longer using the preview range. If I'm using the preview range, I want to clear it out. I can press all to pee my mouse down here. All tapi will clear your preview range and turn it off. That's a really anything in blender it'll happen on. You'll want to use that more often than you might think when you're just starting out animation it it is truly handy. Okay, so getting into mawr technical parts of animation If I were to use that preview range, I'm gonna press p again and just watch my animation of my cube from 1 to 50. Or so. Uh, you might notice that the cube is not moving at an even increments throughout the animations, not moving at a constant or linear speed. If you're thinking about this motion on a graph, in fact, there is a graph editor we're not gonna quite get to yet, But I'll show you it and show you what's happening. I'm gonna split my timeline window into two. So I've got a nice and tall If you put your mouth over the top corner of a window, you can get these little put a little plus mouse icon. If you drag left or down from the top, you can split the window into two. So I like that I'm gonna change this window type into a s is how you change it. This button to a graph editor. Uh, there this graph editor will show you in, like, mathematical X y z curves. And if I got a view, if you all just off the home key on an extended keyboard, you can see everything this red access corresponds. And the direction that he was being corresponds to this lying in terms of a cubes movement . So if I were to play this back again and again again, you might notice that this spa speed of a cube changes over the time that it moves. The cube starts off a little bit slower than it speeds up. It slows down again. I mean, I just let you watch that a few times through you notice it. It's very subtle it's called ease in and ease out. It's one of the principles of animation on it, something a blender does by default because the default interpellation type interpretation means how it makes positions key frames between or frames between your key frames. Also. Then again, how it calculates and positions he frames, it puts in there for you. Between your key frames. Interpretation can be controlled by you. The default Is this Bessie A. It means you have these handles that you can adjust. We'll talk about that later. But if I go back and let's say select my first key frame and I press tea on my keyboard t like the letter T, uh, memos in this window, you'll get this papa but comes up. There are three kinds of interpolation, constant, linear and busier. Busy is a default includes easing in an easing out. If I change it to a linear just with this first, he frame the first key fame controls. The timing read after it. So until the next key frame. So now if I go and play back its animation in the preview range again, you'll see that the motion has been mawr scientific or mathematical or even there's no nice , you know, starting from a slowing and speeding up and slowing back down again. It's just that kind of a constant or really all in your rate and in my graphic her. You can see that, too. You could see it just moving from point A. It's time and distance traveled or motion on the up and down, accessing in your graph. So, yeah, it's just moving at a constant rate. It's not really constant. It's linear. If you were to select that first, you from again press T and select constant constant means. There's actually knew interpellation at all. So from frame one, if I press play, there's no motion until it gets to that last key frame. In other words, if I looked at my graph, there it is. The X direction or access movement doesn't do anything doesn't change its location until it's told to do so at fame. 48. This is actually good for camera motion. If you want to switch between different camera angles without blending between and having your camera fly around really quickly on a change of the Q back to, uh, busier. So now it goes from one to the other and inter plates in between. I think my camera viewing and make this a bit smaller. Eso if I press the camera button, I can do that. I'm gonna make the camera easier to control. I'm going toe press in to bring up my side properties panel and then view under view. I'm gonna select lock camera to view. When I do that, I can then orbit and change my camera view on my screen, looking through my camera. If I don't have that check, it just breaks out of the camera. That's a good thing to know it's the end properties panel or this little arrow up there as well. Okay, so I'm gonna position my camera on fame zero. I've got my no king button. Turn on, Actually, which is a little bit dangerous. What might Yeah, I'll leave it on for now. I'm gonna make a wide shot of my whole scene. And if I scrub through on actually look at my cameras. He framed. I'm gonna select the camera. You can see on frame zero. It's been told to be at this location and then of the auto king turned on. If I got a frame, let's say 20 one. I zoom in, I'm panned down. You can see that it made a key frame of my camera at Frame 21 it flies in it. It zooms it. I don't want that. I want to switch camera angles to be like a jump shot. So it switches from this camera angle and it stays at this camera angle until frame 21 that I want to zoom in. In fact, you will do is all orbit around, so it kind of gets a fly by shot. There we go. So my cameras key frames are. And by the way, the timeline shows the object key frames that you're currently on. We'll talk about that in a moment, but so if you want to the key frames for the camera, you have to select the camera and then you see the defense for that and you want to the cube. Select the cube. OK, it's what shows the key frames of the object that you're currently on. Um, if I deflect my cameras, key frames, its inter plating Now, from this camera angle wide to change, I'm not sure Let's change it back on frame zero. And oh, you know why? Cause I'm using my auto keying set. I'm gonna select look wrote scale, huh? So at frame Well, I'm gonna tap I in fact, turn off my king and make sure local at scale is set there. And then it is gonna be right about there, and I look wrote scale just to make sure I'm getting all my types of key frames. So I don't want to do that. That's a really not nice camera motion. So I'm just like, my first key frame top tea and select Constant. And therefore now my camera was jumped. That other nice camera angle. Okay, so that's what you can use that for. I'm going to get rid of all the key frames. I'll press a and then x a flex. All X will bleat all those key frames and I'll jump out of my camera. Okay, so that's a key frame interpellation. You've got three options with the tiki. No matter what kind of animation editor time minor graph editor you're in, you can press t and get constant than year or busier before we move on to talking about the graph editor. Really quick, if you will be able to see multiple objects key frames at once. You let us that. You know, I got to objects in my scene. I'm gonna add a mesh, uh, say a, uh, UV sphere, and I'm gonna animate that. I got selected you, Melissa. I don't see the key famed or even my Cuba listed anymore. But if I want to let say happened, go past each other on frame one, maybe thes fear, go back there and on frame. Who? 48 or so. I'm gonna have the sphere be over here and how they got Collide. Yeah, sure. Why not? Um if I want to see both objects at the same time, I can not do that. In my timeline. The timeline is only for one object at time. Unless you select old shift up here and select multiple objects at the same time, which could be a little bit annoying. In blender, you can make another window, another editor on your screen, So I'm gonna split my three d editor window into two. I'm going to grab up here and drag straight down. I'm gonna make what's called a dope sheet window or editor. The dope she editor is like a super timeline. And no matter what you have selected, you can see all your objects listed. If you turn this little button on which may be on by default, it'll only show you the selected objects. Key frames like the timeline. But you can turn it off and they don't show you everything. And you can see everything all at the same time. And you can zoom in on your different frames or have a big wide shot of all your whole 500 frames of animation looked like and then zoom in on your timeline. So that's kind of nice going back to our graph editor, though, if I select my cube and then if I expand in this graph editor window all the different tracks of animation I've got everything on here. Look, wrote and scale. And I want to be able to understand what's going on here. I'm going to get a little bit bigger. I'm gonna hide this sidebars to leaving less cluttered. I'll make this a bit near. We're over here if I want to. Only focus on that. Say that left right, the X axis motion of my cube. I can hide everything that I don't want to see. So location is the one that I do want. So I'm gonna just click and drag and hide all those with the eyeballs. And I can click on this line or one of the key frames rather to to show it the type of interpretation that my cube currently has on this first key frame. If I pressed T is busier. That's what has and busy gives you access to our called busy a handles. And you can adjust them on both key frames there these circles with the orange lines that you can drag around to manipulate the curve, which is actually the interpolation between different see frames. So if you want to exaggerate the easing in and easing out in other words, the slow down and speed up of your animation well, you can drag these handles out and I've got a middle key frame to which again might get in the way. But if I play my animation now, you'll see that the animation and I'm gonna actually get rid of that middle key frame just for the sake of seeing what's going on here. You'll see that theano Imation starts even slower and it speeds up, and I'm gonna make this one more exaggerated as well. So if I pull these handles and called busy handled out, you're gonna see what happens. It started really slow. It sped up, and then it slowed back down. It took longer to slow down. If I were to mess with the Zohan said, I do that and all that say I do that well, this up and down access in my graph is distance traveled or amount changed of that track and the left and right access is time. So in this first bit of the animation, the Cube doesn't or does move a whole lot. It jumps, lunges forward and in the middle of the animation it it kind of doesn't move a whole lot, and then it moves a lot in the end. So if I play this animation back, the interpolation between our first and last key frames is very different. I could make it the opposite like I had before I could stretch out and make it last very long with very little motion of the beginning. and I have all the motion up the end. That's what this is like. What happens? Ah, so you can really play. And this is what professional animators do in order, really kind of coax and refine their animations as they're going from different stages off blocking the animation out in its rough motion to making a polished and final. These key frames in your graph can actually be changed in terms of how this busy handle behaves. If I click on one of these key frames in the graph editor and I pressed the wiki, the letter V on my keyboard, I can set the key frame handle type. I'm not going to get into these. I just want you to know that there, there, there. So if I select something like free, I can then even have you know, a very much more control of this busy handle and, most busy handled now is kind of broken into two. It's not in a straight line anymore. If you select one on tap V, you can select a line, and that might do something that it didn't only do. Yeah, I'm not going to get into this amount of control in this video. I just want you to be aware the wiki is on an option for you, and you can really precisely control things. If you're more familiar with vector graphics programs like Escape or Adobe Illustrator, you might be more familiar in here and adjusting busy handles. But animation doesn't necessarily just happen with location, rotation and scale with three D objects in your view port, you can anime settings and properties over on the right hand side properties window for an object if you notice before with my Cube selected in the object tab, it's this one in the Properties editor. Thes value boxes for transform became different colors as I sat. Key frames. If you have a value box, has a number in it or even we'll explore colors as well in this video a little bit later on your most, the colors change and you might notice there are dots near some of these value boxes you can animate thes. If I were to go back to the beginning of my animation and look at the Cube, this box has turned yellow because there's a key frame at that frame after this time and I can actually adjust things over here as well. I do not have audio King turned on right now, So if I adjust, let's say the location of the Cube at that time, it does not have a key frame right now. I can actually right click on this box and say Insert, keep him or a place key frame. I can actually press this little diamond here, and that will make sure that is a key frame. Their trends yellow. I If I want to make rotation happen on this issue, there is no rotation right now. I actually don't need to do it up here with my gizmos and controls. I can actually go back to that key frame and rotate here. That's they are. Rotate the Cuban. You can see it rotating over there as I drag in this value. If you want to set a key frame, I can right click, insert key frame or just click on that little dot. It'll turn into a diamond. I get a key frame. I can go later on to frame 48. I can change that value, and I can set a key frame. I don't have auto keen turned on right now. So as I change these, I have to manually do it right. Click, insert key frame or press the little dot so you can control any of these value boxes that have one. These dots. Sometimes you can do it without even one of these little dots and or or diamonds. If I go, let's say to the color of the stick with the cube and I add a material to this object I'm gonna add with the material tab selected, oppressed new, I'll choose a base color. I'll make it. Ah ooh ah, Blue Cube. I can't see it yet, though, because I do not have my view port set to ah view type of shading that I can see colors. There are two that you can material view port or material preview this option right here. It used to be called Look Dev in Buner 2.80 Now in 2.81 it's called material preview. You can see the colors or of course, in their rendered Vieux port sheeting. Okay, I'll stick with material preview. You can see it's blue on this frame on frightened 10. I can actually right click on this box and say Insert key frame and you'll see a material, uh, track down here in a shooter tree and red, green and blue and Alfa values come up for the different primary colors of light on your object. So if I go later on, uh, it's a frame. I don't know 28. Sure, I can change this color. I'll make it red and I will right click and say Insert key frame. There's no little dot there a diamond even if I make this whiter doesn't exist, but I can still do. Animation Aiken Transition between colors. I can work my key frame sound here. It's really simple and really great. It might not transition the way you thought it went. Maybe across that circle or adjusted for each of these values red, green and blue eso might not go between the exact colors that you like, but again, you can control occurs of that to your heart's content. But which is actually a lot more, I think picky and advance that I'm gonna get in this video the last thing I'll show you before we get into how you can move on progress in animation is you can change the settings for different types of objects If I go up to my add menu and I add a text object which is not a mesh object texts into the admin you gives me this two d special. Non mesh is not a match is a text object and it has a text or an object data within a on a tab. And if I press tab to go into edit mode, it hasn't innit mode. But it has a cursor liken, delete and Aiken type what I want. I can press tab to go back into object mode, So I'm gonna make Born C G and press tab under this object at a tab for text. I can change the paragraph settings so I could make it, you know, centered. And if I go into geometry, Aiken extrude the text to make it three d 7. 3 EEVEE Lights, Shadows, Shading, Reflections, Skies and HDRIs: I'm gonna click on the splash screen, and the first thing I'll do is I'm gonna jump into my camera view, so I'll be looking through my camera and I'm gonna go up to render and render image the default render engine in butter. 2.8 is E v. So the render the finished picture with calculated light and shadows it came up pretty instantly and it looks pretty mediocre. We to give this cube some context, though, so I'm gonna put a ground object in so we can see what shadows look like. So I'm gonna close the render window, break out of my camera with zero key on my numb bat, and I'm gonna press shift eight with my mouse in this three d view editor window. So shift A will bring up the admin you and I'm gonna add a plane mesh. That's just a square flat surface. It's too small right now, and it's too high up. So I'm gonna tap s unlike keyboard to ah, move or scale it up. And I'm gonna move my mouse out until I've got a larger ground and I'll click to confirm that new scale. And now I'm gonna use the move tool to remove my ground with its selected If I dragged down while holding the controlled G. So hold control and click and drag down on the sea access. It'll snap to these increments, which are actually meters. Uh, that's the new unit of measurement in blunder by default. Thes ground squares are meters. So our cube, by the way, is two meters by two meters by two meters. Okay, so we moved the ground down hopes I went down one too far. Hold control and dragged up. There we go. Let's go ahead and renders will go to render and render image. And as you can see, the lighting and the shadows especially, do not look great. So let's take a look at the lights in our scene. First off, of course, when you start a new blunder file, you get a camera, you get a cube and you get a light object. Ah, light object, like any other object, has its own object data tab in the side tab bar of the properties editor window. So if you have a match selected, it looks like a little triangle, which is a face or a polygon with three vergis ease at each corner. If you have a camera selected, it looks like a little camera, and if you the light selected, it looks like a light bulb There are. If I go into the light bulb tab, there are four kinds of lights and blender. There's a point light, which is one basically sphere that can be really small or as big as you want to be that emits light in all directions in three dimensions. So it's a big glowing ball or a small glowing spec. If you want. There is a sunlight, which is exactly as it sounds. It's, Ah, light that emits light in one direction, but from everywhere in your scene, so it doesn't like job filling in an entire world that you make. Ah, spotlight is contained to a cone, By the way, I spoke to go into rendered view up here in these four buttons for all of these, so ah, spotlight will limit its like to a cone. Ah, shape and a son by default is actually way too bright. We'll talk about that in a second and last but not least, is an area and an area light is my favorite kind of a light because it takes up ah, flat surface that it emits light from and not a speck. So it is directional by default. It admits light in one direction. All of these lights have a power, and three of them the point. Like the spotlight in the area light. The power is measured in Watts, just like ah, lightbulb in the real world, a normal incandescent light bulb, generally an old fashioned one, is about 60 watts. Now all of these three lights are turned up to 1000 watts. Because our scene is very big. Remember that this cube is two meters by two meters by two meters, so this light being far away, would need to be that powerful in order light up the way that it is right now. But the sun, as I mentioned before, is way too bright because it's acting almost like 1000 suns. So I turned down toe one and press, enter Ignace, click and type and press enter. And there you go. You have a light. I actually think this is too dull or not, not strong enough so I might turn that up to about, I don't know, three or so. One of the nice things Employer 2.8 are new gizmos attached to lights that let you change properties about those lights really easily. This yellow little don is actually a gizmo that if you click and drag on it, lets you change the direction of a light or which way it's pointing now. It might not be too easy to control which way I'm pointing right now from some random three D view of some quite far away. That's why it wasn't working too well. It's not easy to tell exactly how I'm controlling and right now, because I'm looking at my scene from some random three D view. So I might want to press the accent or the tilt key on my keyboard in the top, left above the tab key on my keyboard, next to the number row to bring up this pie menu for my different views, and I might go to my right view. And then if I grab this, it's easy to control or from my top view with the seven key on my numb pad, which way the sun is pointing okay, a point light can have a size of emission before alternates power back up to ah 1000. Its size is controlled over here in its object data AB, we can change its radius to make it a bigger light. But something that you'll notice about the TV render engine by default That will learn how to change momentarily is the size of the light in E V does not affect the light in the scene, which is not how likes normally behave. If you have a bigger light or a smaller light, the light quality and the shadow quality, especially would change, will learn how to fix that. In a moment. Spotlights can have a radiance that means that they can have a bigger size or a smaller size. But more importantly, they can have a cone shape that you can change using this new on screen gives. No, it's little arrow. That's, Ah, aqua color. If you drag on it, you can make the cone narrower or ah, wider, which is really great to have it on screen right here. Or, of course, you can change the size, are right here the same way without using the gizmo. The area lamp has a new control gizmo on screen. If you hover your mouse over it, it's a rectangle by default. But if you hover your mouse over it, you get these controls so you can make the area lamp bigger. Really big if you want, or small if you want. There are even different shapes, so there's a rectangle shape. I'll make this bigger so we can see there is a square. So if you only want to control one value on, make sure it's always square. You could do that. There's a new disk shape, so it's a circle, and there's an ellipse, which is an oval, so you can have it in two different dimensions like that. But I'm going to stick to a rectangle. But as I mentioned, when lights are different sizes in a scene in the real world, your light quality and your shadow quality will change. If you have a very small light in a scene, your shadows become a sharper and less diffuse in your scene. That means that when lights are small, the shadow edges are very sharp and crisp on. That's because you're very, very hard light, but if you have a large light in your seen the lights coming from mawr space and therefore light becomes softer or more diffuse and the shadows become blurrier. How we could enable this in the E V render engine is under the render tab, which looks like the back of a little DSLR camera, and these air where all the scene render settings are. If we go to the section called Shadows and expanded out, and if we check in their soft shadows little check box next to it, we will now get soft shadows in our scene. Now I've discovered a new bug in Blender 2.8. I'm not sure if this is on my computer or everyone's, but you can see that it's not working properly. So what I'm gonna do, eyes actually split this window into to This might not happen for you, ever. But if it does, you can just put your mouse in one of the corners of the view port and click and drag to split that window into to. Of course, your mouse turns into a little cross when you go into the corner of a window, and that means you can drag it to split it into two. And now if I go into this three D view ports rendered Vieux Port shooting mode, you can see that it's not doing that same glitch. So now I'm gonna merge these two windows together by again, dragging from one corner into ah by clicking and dragging into its neighbour. And then you get an arrow, which means it will take over that other window. So now we have a non clatchey three D view port. That's a bug it might be to do with my graphics drivers on my computer. I'm not sure, but we now have a soft shadow, but it's fragmented on, and that's because of the samples in my scene. So if I look up at the top in my properties editor window in the render tab, but there's a section called sampling If I turn my view, port samples up to match the render samples. So 64 all press enter to see that my shadows will now calculate out mawr generations. If I turn this down to two, I get to it orations of my shadow. So the more you have the self, it'll be if you turn this up to say Ah 1000 press enter Well, your shadows will be very, very smooth, but it will take your computer longer to calculate that out. What I might do is leave my view port at 32 but turned my render up to 500 or so. OK, that means that when I go to render out to image, it will take a little bit longer than in my view port. But that's OK, but I'm gonna make this a lightens area light a key light in my scene. So I'm gonna make it smaller. And that'll mean that it'll have sharper shadows not so blurry. And one of the other things in most with the ego under engine is this area right here. It's missing what's called a contact shadow. And the reason you can tell that is because it's kind of to light in this area. It doesn't look right, so we can fill this area and specifically wherever ah, light should be stronger where there's a corner on nearest where the light is being cut off . So how we change this is it's a setting in the lights, actual option. So with light selected, I'm gonna go to its light object at a tap and in the shadow section. And by the way, you can turn shadows for a light off if you want. I don't know why you might do that, but it might be something that you do. If you expand that section out. There is a secondary section in there called contact Shadows. And if you enable that, did you see any change there? Actually, Wasif, I turned off. Look right there, and I turned back on again. We get a little new contact shadow That's added. Now it's way too small, so I'm gonna turn the distance value up. And as you can see, we can fill that area in now. It doesn't look quite right because it's not soft enough. And that's because contact shadows don't use the same Ah, soft shadow property. So we're gonna change the softness manually so you can just click and drag in there to turn it up to whatever looks about right. And there you go. That solves the soft shadow or contact shadow problem in our scene. Now, the next issue why are seeing doesn't look so great is because of this solid gray area where in the real world, in a shadow to space, you would get darker areas where there are crevices or tight together areas where light rays when bounced down into a smudge. So especially if I hide the overlays in my screen with this bunch, which gets rid of my ground grid, there should be some way we can see that edge there, and it should be darker in some places. And later in some places, that's called ambient occlusion, ambient meaning ambient light in my seen bouncing around and occlusion meeting. Hiding so hiding light. Um, we can go up to the or Render tab and check ambient occlusion to solve that. And now, as you can see, this area gets a bit of shading. And, of course, there are options. If I expand this out, I can change this distance. I recommend that you turn up. As you can see. Now it looks considerably better if I turn up the factor. You can only drag the factor upto one, but if you click, you can type in a higher number, like five and how it's obviously way too much. So now I can turn it down on adjusted to my heart's content. So maybe I like something, uh, like that. Okay, maybe the distance I can make bigger, but the factor I might turn something that I like. Like that. Okay. Now, a cube is very limiting for us right now, because contact shadows and ambient occlusion doom or than just deal with areas between two objects. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select my cube. In fact, turn overlays back on so I can see what object I have selected. I'm going to delete my cube with the X key on my keyboard, and then I'll click. That was the letter X to delete. And I'm gonna go up to add and mesh, and I'm gonna add a monkey head to my scene. This is Suzanne Blunders built in primitive monkey head. It's a permanent primitive primate. Get it s so I'm gonna make this monkey head smoother because it's very block you right now . So I'm gonna right click on it, and this will bring up blenders, new contacts, menu, and I'm gonna say shades smooth and it still looks blocky. Although now the faces air kind of blended together. So if you're not aware you can smooth the mesh out by adding what's called a modifier under this wrench tab. And so if I go to the wrench tap with the monkey had selected and add a modifier called subdivisions surface, ah, modifier is basically ah, procedural change to an object usually a mesh and the subdivision surface or subsurface for short modifier takes a mesh and its sub divides the mesh up. Each one of the faces or polity gone up and it smooths out everything. And you can change those options here for how much it smooth this so I might turn both render smoothing and a few ports moving up to. And now it looks quite smooth. I don't go to my side view with the three key on my numb pad and I'm gonna rotate the monkey head. And so it's sitting kind of flat on one of these grid lines and I'm gonna go back out to a random view on fact not going to go back to my side view and move my monkey head down to this line of my great, which I know is where my ground is. So there we go. If I select the monkey head and hold shift and click on my ground to select it. I might move them both up so they're both sitting or the ground is level with my ground create. That might look next year for me. So if I hold control of my keyboard and drag up with both object selected, I can move my objects up one on the C axis. So now if I hide my overlays, you can see that my scene is looking pretty good. I have dark areas where objects get closer together. That's because of ambient occlusion and contact shadows into working. If I turn those off under, um, you render Tab Aiken turn off ambient occlusion so you can see what that does. I'll turn off. Mike gives most for a moment so you can see what that looks like. A ambient occlusion. Not only effects where two objects that close together, like under here but also under the monkeys, cheekbones and in the crevices around the eyeballs. Okay, so if you little's those things, they are important. Of course, the distance and the factor will affect those as well. If I go and select alternate might overlays and gizmos back on. If I select my light and go to its properties and I go back and zoom in and turn off contact shadows, you can see what happens. Uh, contact shadows make a big difference. And I might play with those values a little bit. Okay, so softness and ah, distance will matter here pretty considerably. Okay, let's talk about reflections in order. Talk about reflections, though. I need to add materials to my objects. So I'm going to select my ground and I'll goto Materials tab in the properties editor to make a new material on object. I'm just gonna press new. And this adds what's called a principled be STF material to this object and its base color . It's color is basically white right now, but I'm gonna change it to owe me just very light blue. Okay, I'm gonna make the monkey head so well selected. I'll give it's a material and I'll give it a base color of an orange. Now by default in ah e v, you don't get any light bouncing, causing reflections. And in the real world, if you had a bright orange monkey had sitting on almost white kind, of Bluey ground floor. There would be definitely some orange light bouncing onto the ground because light bouncing your scene would bounce off the monkey head and then orange, like within spill onto the ground. Likewise, you would see some blue reflecting up, especially on the underside of the monkey head. To enable this, I'm gonna go to the Render tab. This is called Screen Space Reflections. I'm going to enable it, and right away you can see what's happening. I'm getting especially a lot of blue reflecting up here into the shadow area. And if I really look closely, I'm sure a little bit of orange, especially if I make that orange even brighter, would reflect down onto the surface. And you can improve the quality of reflections by uncheck ing. This half reds trace check box on bat's gonna come into play, especially when we actually see reflections in a moment. But what we're gonna do is make our materials more reflective. So I'm gonna select my ground floor and I'm gonna go to its material tab, and I'm gonna turn down the roughness of this material which will make it more reflective. And once I do that you'll see. I've turned all the way down to zero roughness. You can see a very faint reflection of the monkey head in the ground. Likewise, if I select the monkey head turned down its roughness, you can see it becomes more reflective. I can see some reflections of light in my scene. Aiken, Seymour sharply the reflection of the ground. If I turn up speculator, that'll make their reflections mawr intense. Or if I turn that down, it goes entirely away. So I'm gonna do that for the ground as well. Turn up, speculator. And what I might do is I will slit my monkey head and make it metallic Now. Apparently, metallic should either be zero in the words off or only upto one so on, and you can't have something partially metallic, although in blender you can slide that to your heart's content. Now it's more like a mirror. It's made out of polished metal, so you might like that. So one of the things about screen space reflections that we've enabled in the Render Tab is that you don't see reflections from parts of objects that you don't see. If I were to make my ground more reflective. I'm gonna make it. Let's say metallic just for now. You do not see reflections of the underside of the monkey head or the back side of the ear or the back said that we don't see of the mouth point extending down from the monkey's head because we don't see those on the screen. That's what screen space means. If you want to enable that we'll cover that in the future video. It requires some additional objects and techniques, so just be aware that that's a limitation of the IV. You render engine, so let's go ahead and turn off. I don't like my ground being metallic, so I'm gonna turn that off. I might turn, uh, this metallic a little bit down, even though apparently you're not really supposed to have it part way in between for for realism. Um, one other thing that we can enable is called bloom and Bloom is another word for glow, and I used bloom in the E T render engine to make my letter keys glow when they lit up from my intro keyboard animation. The way you enable Bloom is really simply under the render tab and bloom there is the lighter objects in your seen the lighter ones or ones that are emitting light will glow. And if I turn that off and on, you can see it happen a little bit. But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna add another object to my scenes. You can really see this. I'm gonna press shift a on my keyboard to bring up the admin. You and I'm gonna add a UV sphere and I'm going to move the U V sphere up. And, as you can see because it's white, it's the brightest thing in my scene. It's getting this fog around it. If I turn bloom off, that fog goes away. If I turn back on, of course it comes back. I can turn the threshold down or up to enable or change which brightness of objects get that bloom glow around them. I can change the radius amounts of on a short little glow or a big low. I can do that. I can change the intensity of the glow and notice how, because this fear is darker on one side, it's only glowing on the bright side. If I would have changed this fears material by default. It has nothing. I'm gonna press new to add a principle, be sdf shader. But if I change this shader into one of blunders, other options like an emission shader, which is right here in mission, means glow, and it basically makes the ball into a light. So now it's ah like, but it's pretty dull. So I'm going to turn its strength up in the shader options to, let's say, five and press enter. And now we have a glowing light with fog or bloom around it. Now, just a word of caution. Here, Bloom is a new thing, and that means that people are gonna over use it a lot. So if you have bloom in your scene, especially if you don't have a light in your senior just using it and turning it on, don't over to it. I would strongly recommend turning the threshold up and turning the radius down and playing with your options to make it a very, very subtle effect. I'm gonna go ahead and leave it on, but I'm gonna turn or get rid of this saw UV sphere. I don't want that light in my scene. The reason I don't want that, like in my scene is because I'm gonna set up a standard light set up now for my scene. I've got one light object here. It's fairly small. Of course, if I change the light size, it will affect thedc wallet e of the light and shadows in my scene just enough that if you have a small light because it's now a harder light, you will see more definition on your objects because you will get more distinct shadows like around this eyebrow area. If you have a very large light pointing at your subject, the light shadows will be much softer and therefore the definition we'll get a bit more muddy. So what I would recommend is having a few lights, one that's quite small, that is your key light and what they often do in the movie industry within our lighting. Ah, seen with actors in it or for an interview on television, is they'll do what's called a three point lighting set up, and that means you have three lights only a press seven to go to my top view, and I'm gonna put my first light, which is called Mikey Light aside my camera. So my cameras right here. I'm gonna put my lamp all selected and press GT grab it. I'll put it right about there, and I'm gonna rotate it. So it's facing my monkey head. And I think I want to turn up a little bit to about 1500 watts or so. Maybe only with a little bit, uh, closer like that. So that's gonna be my key light. I'm going to duplicate this light so all press shift d on my keyboard or I can right click and say duplicate objects and the duplicate copy will get stuck to my mouse grabbed in other words, until I click. So I'm gonna put it on the other side of the camera. I read about there and I'll click. Now I'm gonna rotate this What's pointing at my monkey head? So now I've got lights from two directions, but they're both the same strength. What? This secondary light is gonna act like it's gonna act like a fill light without it. If I were to delete that light, I'm gonna undo that in a sect. But I'm gonna delete the second light. We've got 1/2 of my character's face in shadow Too much shadow. So adding that second light I'm gonna edit Um, undo that deletion. I'm feeling that shadow in but this light I don't wanna have such harsh shadows. Otherwise you might getting or start getting what I call the ice Capades effect where you get shadows from multiple directions or three directions, which is what you see in figure skating. If there are multiple spotlights pointing at someone with harsh shadows, you get shadows in all directions. Ice Capades. OK, I hope you get that reference s so I'm gonna make this feel light dimmer. So I'll turn its power down to say, Well, 600 or so. So what's filling in some of that shadow? And I'm gonna make it bigger to create softer shadows. So hopefully those shadows mostly disappear. I would recommend that you don't just get rid of shadows on any of your lights, OK, lastly, I'm gonna create a back light. This is also called a rim light. In the industry of cinematography, a rim light will basically be go behind your subject or actor, and you'll rotate it to point it at the back of your actor and you might put a little bit lower, so I'll rotate to point up and then move a little bit lower. I might make it a little bit smaller as well on DMA. Move it up. Kind of like that. And if a character has hair or if they're outline is dark and their background behind them is dark, you want to create kind of a glow or a rim on their hair slowly the audience comptel where they stop or what their shape is compared to their background. So hopefully I'll get some nice reflection around the top of a monkey's head. I'm gonna press size zero to go back through my camera, and I might orbit my camera a little bit. So I'm going to press N on my keyboard to bring up my side properties panel, and I'm gonna go to my third tab down. I have one extra one for my screen cast keys recording at on down here. But if you go to your third tab and check luck camera to view, then you can orbit your camera around eso. You can move your camera just by looking through it and orbiting. Okay, so I'm gonna orbit my view around to maybe something like, Ah, fat or so Maybe like that, And I don't like that. I can see the reflection of this light down here, So I'm gonna grab that light just by clicking on it, and I'll tap G and then Z on my keyboard to move it up just out of frame. And now I might go to my side view and rotate it down. So it's pointing at my character, and now let's see how it looks. I'm pretty happy with that. So this is a three point lighting. If I press am my keyboard to select everything, you can see how things are pointed now. What I might do here is I might now change the colors off my lights to get some more interesting things going on. So if I select a light and go toe its object on a tab, I can change the color of that light. This is called color temperature in cinematography. I might make this light a little bit pink. Don't go too far. That's over doing it. It's a little bit will do a lot, so I'll make pink and then maybe I'll go to this one and make, uh, wrench or yellow. And maybe in the back one, I'll do, uh, green or blue or something like that. Okay, so if I look through my camera, my scene looks a whole lot more interesting. And if I press f 12 it will not take too long to render out when you start enabling all these things like ambient occlusion and bloom. Yes, it will take a few moments to render, but 8.13 seconds. A lot better than 30 seconds or three minutes to render out something similar in the cycles . Render engine. Now, one major part of lighting that I've totally ignored in this video so far is the sky or background or world material that actually does cast light on your scene. Right now, I've got this default gray material. And if I want to change that in my world, especially, you can notice it with him without any overlays or gizmos on my screen. This cream material actually is casting light onto my scene. Which means if I go to the world Tab and my properties editor Aiken, turn this color down to black and there will be no light coming onto my scene, which will make everything a bit darker, especially. You'll notice this, uh, you little said, especially if I turned all the way up to white. Suddenly, my scene becomes a whole lot brighter. The floor is now brighter. The monkey had his brighter, um and everything just got changed just by that one little setting. So environments do give you lights. If you make the sky color, let's say you're making a cartoon and you wanna have a blue sky. Well, if you make a blue sky, let's say something like that. You'll notice that this blue light is now bleeding blue onto your entire scene, which you very much will not want most likely, especially if you've made your materials look a certain way with a certain color. Suddenly everything will be Louis or get purple E s. So how do we fix this? Well, this become a little bit more complex because now we have to start editing the material of a world in a more complex weight. And this side panel allows us to do in the properties editor. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna split this part of my screen, the three d view editor into two. So I'm gonna put my mouse up in the top corner to make it into a little plus or across, and I had drag it straight down. So click and drag like that and I'm gonna turn this three d view port into rendered report shading like that so it matches. But I'm gonna turn this editor window. I'm gonna change its type into a shader editor, which is how you edit materials using what are called nodes. Now this shooter editor in butter 2.8. If I click here, I can change this windows type. This shooter enter is a new window in 202.8. It used to be called the node editor window, but they've split it into a few things. At least the Shader editor and the Where is it? The composite Her window are separate windows, which used to be just called the node editor window. OK, so that shader editors we want to go to here and it looks pretty empty right now because I have not had nothing selected. If I click on a mesh object ultra or relates and gizmos back on. If I select a mesh object, you can see this. This Shaner editor showing me the materials that make up, um, the materials of the object, these air cult notes and nodes together when you connect them with what are called noodles , make up materials. Now we don't want to change the material of objects. Right now we want change the material of our world, this blue color. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna change this shooter editors mode from object mode into world mode with this menu So world, and as you can see we concede are blue color right here. This is called a background Shater note. It's a little bit different than a shooter on a object. It's four environments in worlds and we have a world output note, which is how, uh, you actually finish any material or world material, you need to have that one. You can't get rid of it, but we can add more notes to make this more complex. And the reason why we're using this window at all is because we wanna have one color of world that we can see in our view port and through the camera and when were you render, which is blue. But then what we want to do is we want to separate the color of the light That's actually hitting everything in our scene to be a different color. So I'm gonna have two different worlds. Essentially, I'm gonna have a background cheater that I can see and I'm gonna duplicate this note. So I'm gonna select it. Make sure that you may be click somewhere else. If you've got multiple selected, you can click somewhere else to un select all your notes If you select just this background feeder impressed shift D on your keyboard Can you right click? Yeah, you can right click and save Duplicate as well. So now I've got a copy that's been grabbed. I'm gonna click to put it right below. And I had a mix them together. Okay, so I'm gonna press ad and I'm gonna add a new shader. Uh, and under shader is we're gonna say mix, I'm gonna mix those two backgrounds together. Now we got a new mix, Shader. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna change one of these backgrounds toe white or essentially white, so I'm gonna click in the color picker. I'm gonna make it, uh, light in the middle. Maybe I'll turn that all the way up to one, and I'm gonna drag this mix shader into this noodle. Yes, noodle is the technical term on when I do that, it'll connect itself in the middle of this noodle. You'll notice that this mix shader has to input little dots. They're called ports. And what I can do is Aiken drag from this output port from this shader and click and let go on the input port there. So I'm connecting output port to import. And no, I'm mixing together blue and white in my world following so far hopefully, the reason why we're doing this not to make, uh, it's not to make a blue light world material. It's because we want to change this factor to a special value and use it to control this blue light that it only goes into our camera and for our view, port and make the white light on Lee hit are seeing and actually light up are seen with white. To do that, yes, you can actually do that is a note it's called Ad is under input and it's called Light Path . And this is how you can control what light properties air going to. What objects? So I'm gonna add that that was at input Lightpath. And this note looks really intimidating. But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna plug is Camera Ray the first option. I'm gonna click and drag it into the factor of my mix. Shader and let go. Okay, Did you see it? We've actually got the wrong we got it the wrong way around. We've got blue light hitting my seen. Therefore it's lighting. Everything blew up, but we're seeing white in the background. We want to see blue in the background and have white hitting everything in the scene. So I'm gonna switch these two around. I'm just going to click from this port and drag and let go over the other one, and that will switch those two around. So now if I make this window smaller, in fact, I'm gonna rearrange these. We now have a blue world with white light casting on it. If I change this color to, let's say pink, we now have pink light coming onto our scene. But we see a blue background Still again because of this node set up in our shooter editor . Okay, I'm not change light in my scene. To would be a little bit, um, yellow. We just very, very slightly and I'm happy with that. But the last thing I want to show you is how add an h d r I image into your background. That means high dynamic range imaging. Ah, world globe or spherical texture. It's actually taken from the real world into your three d view port, which will actually let your seen very dynamically blunder actually has some of these HDR i world texture maps built in. If you switch your view port shading, I'm gonna make this bottom window smaller now Will come back to it in a moment. I'm gonna make my view. Port sheeting set from rendered. I'm gonna go into the third mode, which is look deaf. Look, Dev actually has each dear I textures built in looked at does not render your seen. It does not show proper shadows and you're seen from your actual lights. But it does approximate lighting using built in HD rise. Which is why we can see that there are now trees reflecting in my world even though there are no trees and there is no environment texture in my scene. If I click on this little arrow when I'm in look deaf mode, it will show me the view port shading options. And this is actually a global sphere, a steer I sphere texture from my world. And that's what's projecting the trees into my world. Thes will not render out. We're only in looked at mode here. Okay, but if I click on this, fear is actually multiple options that I want an indoor scene. Well, now about an indoor scene and there's less things to reflect, But you can see some things aren't really there. There are some windows you can see. OK, this is just to give you an idea of what you're seeing might look like within hdr I and with some lighting in your scene. But there's lots of options here that you can change. If you want a blue sky and a field with grass, you might try that. And now you can see things reflecting in my monkey head. Uh, okay, So how do we actually get this endorsing? And where do you get these HD right Image textures from Well, there is ah website called HDR. I haven dot com and this is a website with free un compressed, full size, high quality beef. Dear i images, they are patrons supported. So please keep that in mind if I click on aced your eyes on the top There are different categories, but you can see what you get here. Get thes spherical images that will wrap around a scene nicely. The reason why they're called HDR I high dynamic range imaging, um is that they have lots of information about color. They're not just J pegs the standard cell phone digital camera. They have lots of information in the bright areas and in the dark area. So you get much more ranges of light pouring onto your senior letting up your scene. Okay, I've actually downloaded this one. If you click on the thumbnail, you can download different qualities. I recommend a lower quality for something that's just for practice. So I got a two k version. It ends in dot hdr. It's not a J. Peg. Keep that in mind on. I've saved to my desktop. So on my desktop. I've got that file ending in dot hdr on my desktop. So that's going at this back to my shader editor. I'm gonna go back into rendered Vieux Port shading mode. Eso that temporary looked at hdr goes away right now we've got a blue sky and white light. I'm actually gonna simplify that. I'm gonna get rid of this mix, Shader. So I'm gonna select it and press X and delete 8. 4 Image Textures & UV Mapping : What we're gonna do here is take our cube object and create what's called a UV map. A UV map is kind of like taking origami and ah, using a knife on that origami to cut. Ah, long seems and make scenes by cutting along and then taking those scenes and unfolding the three D mesh object out flat onto a surface so you then, if you want you have it laid out. You can export that layout is called a UV map out to a separate paint program, again like photo Shop or gimp or critica or paint net or affinity photo or pixel meter. Uh, and you can paint that texture and then bring it back into blender. And you can put that image texture onto your three D model. How do you create seems and create a UV map? Well, if you have another window on your screen, which we're about to do now, I'm gonna grab the top right corner of this window and get that little plus mouse cursor and drag straight down to split my window into two. I can change one of my three d a view editor windows to using this button to what's called a UV editor window. When I do that, I get a flat surface where I'm gonna lay out the polygons of my cube. Yes. We're just gonna use simple cube in this video. Of course, you could do this process created. You came out for any mess you like. It's a bit more complicated, but you could do it, of course, but this is pretty basic for this first video. Uh, if I then go into edit mode of this cube So if I have the cube selected, I pressed Tab on my keyboard. You can see actually a pre mate UV layout that I already have thes air all the faces. Actually, these are the Verdecia. Because I'm in Verdecia. Select more. There are Vergis E or Vertex like mode edge, select mode, face select mode, an island select mode. That's the whole connected surface that are connected. So that one that one are not connected. I guess, for some reason, uh, this UV map we're not gonna use cause it's not in the layout that I want. Instead, I'm going to create seems from edges. So I'm gonna switch into edge select mode rate here Or you could press the two number key on your top number row on your keyboard. That will switch 12 and three to is for for edge. And I'm gonna click and select edges that I want to create into. Seems so you can create any seems that you want, But if you don't create the right number of the right layout, you'll get a wonky UV map layout. So what I'm gonna suggest I'm gonna go into a wire frame mode here is you select the same ones that I do on those are the top three or three. It is in the top that for my you doesn't matter which three you do as long as they form a you. And then if you hold shift still and you select the bottom three a matching you directly below your upper lower case, you and then you connect the two edges up and down that connect the two tops of the use. So I got a cold shift and get those two. So I've got 123456 and seven and eight. It is selected, and then you hold shift and you click on one of the bottoms of the of the used to sell it to de select it. So I'm gonna hold shift and click on this upper bottom of the U. And so now I've got 1234567 edges selected Monitoring these ones or mark thumb as seems If I right click in this window right now, I get my edge context menu. I can say Mark seem Do not confuse that with Mark Sharp Mark Sharper is totally different. Mark, seem is right there. I could also up to edge and mark seem again not Mark Sharp. So Mark seen And when you mark and edges of seem it turns red ready orange. And if you press A, you can select all to a to de select all and they'll still be marked red So now I've got Ah 1234567 edges marked It seems if I press a again, my UV map hasn't changed begun. I need toe unwrap again or re layout re unfold this mesh into my UV editor window. So down here I'm gonna select everything with the A key. I'm gonna tap you on my keyboard you bring up the UV mapping menu and I can say unwrap. I can also do that under UV and unwrap okay? And lots of places to do things in blunder. Ah, when I select UV unwrap, it will use the seams, cut the mesh in those places kind of virtually, and then lay and unfold the UV map or the mesh up here. Now my t happens to be rotated this way. Yours might be diagonal or maybe the right way up for a capital T. It doesn't matter, because you in this window can use all the same transformation and select tools that you're used to. So I press a with a mouse up here, I can select all all to a t select all. If I have everything selected, Aiken tap are to rotate, okay and G to grab and, uh, s to scale. So I'm gonna undo a few times with Control Z. What I can do is I can tap are and then all type negative 90 for negative 90 and all press , enter or return. And now if I top g, I could move it up and I want to fit and I wanted to fit in this square. So if I'm a little bit off, I'll be cutting off some of the top of the T. So I'm gonna tap asked to scale it down just a little bit and click and then top G and move it down. So I've got a little bit of buffer. You want to lay everything out inside this square? Okay, because this is gonna be our image size for our texture. OK, so we have a UV map now that's great on Everything in here is selected with the A key. If you tap a it selects all. If you double tap a, it deflects all. So I want everything to be selected here. We want to know, Take this layout this UV map and export it out to a picture foul on the computer on my keys on my desktop and then open that image file in a paint program. We're gonna use gimp, But again, you're welcome to use any of the graphics programs I mentioned before. And we're gonna paint the ah, the sides of the Cube, including the use of a wood image texture as well. So with everything selected here, are gonna go up to UV. I'm gonna say export UV layout, and this is going to export it to a picture file. Ah, PNG on my computer. I want to go to my desktop. I want to save this as cube. You ve layout on all type dot PNG myself manually. And I want to specify in these settings down here, uh, one thing in particular, I want to turn that this fill opacity setting down. I want to turn it from 0.25 down to zero. Okay, that's because those faces in that capital t that I have I don't want them to have any feel inside those faces. And by default, they have some transparent gray in them, so I just want to turn that off. So my images that's exported only has the lines that I can use the guides. Okay, so you'll see what I mean in a sec. Eso I've got it on my desktop. I'll click export. UV layout s. So now I can go to my desktop and I've got this cube UV layout that I just exported. There it is. And the checkerboard pattern means transparent, which is gonna be handy because I'm gonna use thes as guides now onto gimp. I'm using the newest version of gimp 2.10 as of this recording date. I'm not that familiar with Kim. I'm a Photoshopped person. So all kind of he fumbling along here a little bit? Use the graphics program that you're most comfortable with. There are free options like gimp. Gimp is free and open source and available for Windows Mac and limits computers. If you want to spend 30 year, $50 this pixel meter on the Mac, there is the free paint dot net for Windows computers. Maybe I'll put some links down in the description area below for at least the free tools that you can use to be the cheap ones you can use as well. I'm not sponsored by any of these tools. Okay, File and, uh, open. I'm gonna open that UV texture from my desktop. And there it is. Cube. You re layout just so we can see it better. I'm gonna had a new layer. And if you don't have a layers panel in gimp on by the way, this is not a tutorial for how to use gimp by any means, you can go up to the windows menu and you can say Doc Kable dialogues. And these are all of the tools or windows or doc panels that you can have. So if you're missing your layers window, you can goto windows and Doc Kable dialogues and layers and ah, there it is. And I can undock it and make it bigger if I want. Okay, I'm gonna make a new layer with this button on. Asked me what I want to put in that new layer. I'm gonna say, not transparency. I'll say white just so we can see what's going on out Press. Okay, This layer is now above my original layer with lines, so I'm gonna drag it below. So now you can see the lines. That's great. I gotta use these lines as guides. Which means everything I paint is gonna be below that layer. Now I want to use a texture image of wood and I got the texture image that I'm gonna use for the image texture. I'm going to use this one. I got it from textures dot com. They're not a sponsor at all. I just like them because you could get image textures that are high quality for free. There are pained options. This is a freemium website where you can get a limited number of downloads. I believe in a lower quality for free, but you can pay more for higher resolution images. I just went down to wood as a category and I went to find wood. There's 82 images here. I believe I showed seamless textures only if you wanna have the texture repeat across the three D model. And I believe I used this'll. One rate here, which is called Where is the name of it? It is seamless. Would zeros You're 18 Okay. Uh, yeah, it's that one right there. Okay, So if you want to go and get it, I'll put a link for this page in the description area below. You need to make a free account. Download it, and you could only down up the smallest revolution, which is what I have so in. Ah, gimp. I'm gonna go to file and open and get that picture into gimp on Go to select all and I'm gonna copy control, See, on my keyboard. I'll go to this image. And when you paste in gimp warmly eccentricities of gimp is it. When you paste into a image control V to paste, it makes a floating selection layer, which is not a real layer. I believe I can still transform with scale tool. All the transformed tools, like skill and rotate are all separate in gimp, which is kind of weird. Ah, I can drag the corners and hold shift to make it bigger. So it takes up the entire height of the picture and all press enter. And this is still a floating selection pasted layer. So if I right click on it, I can say to new layer and that will make it a proper layer, and I can see my lines on top of it still. So what I'm gonna do now is use the text tool, but it looks like a little A to make letters and numbers on the cube. If I click somewhere, I can type all type the letter capital. A. If I double click over the A with the text tool still selected Aiken Select. It hasn't yellow outline on. I can change the font. I believe I have to type here, Comic Sands M s bold. Everyone's favorite front. Please don't dislike this video because I use comic sans just that everybody has it. And I'm gonna type in 200 for the font size and I'll use the move tool and move it up. And there we go. There's my letter. We're gonna make it blend in with the wood in a moment, but what I'll do it actually is. Make a brand new, transparent layer. Eso I'll click on the little plus new layer button and change it to a transparent Phil layer. And I'm gonna use my selection tool. There are no shaped tools in gimp, but what I can do is I can use the rectangular selection tool in this new empty layer and feel in a selected square. So I'm going to do that. I'm gonna hold shift and, uh, and move my mouse to make it a perfectly square selection. And I can use the paint bucket tool with red and feel that in. And now what I can do is I can make a smaller, perfectly square selection. I'll just guess to meet something like that and I'll hold shift again. And Aiken select an area and delete it with the delete key on my keyboard. So now I have my outline for that layer. I've got a text layer and a colored outline. I'm not gonna do this entire process in the video because this is not a tutorial how to use gimp. But this is some basic knowledge for you. If you're not familiar with while I would be doing to make the texture for this, I need to make both these layers blend in so you can see the wood texture through the colored paint. So I'm gonna change the blend mode of these two layers by selecting it and then this mode section here, this menu, let's you change how the layer blends into layers below it. Photo shop and other programs have this as well. I'm gonna choose. Soft light is the one that I like the most. And so now the color kind of shows through, or the wood shows through the color. You can experiment with which one of these blend modes works best. So soft light again for the the text layer, which is still an edible text layer. So now if I duplicate the text layer. I can right click duplicate. Layer this to them now so you don't see it blending as much. I can use my move to will move it over. I hold control. It'll slide in one direction only. And if I used the text tool again, Aiken double click to select that letter and Aiken tap be foreign to ABC and 123 And I'll do the same thing for my outline layer So layer or I can right click on, say, duplicate layer and I'll move it over and I'll hold control to slide it in one direction aside. Decide only now I wanna make, um, organizes layer. So this is the two layers for the B. If I want to change the color, I can double click on the letter with the text tool. So I double click right there with text tool I get. If I zoom out, you could hold control and scroll to zoom out. Gonna change the color of the text, uh, to let's say, oh, uh, blight blue, sure. Or let's make it kind of awkward color. Okay, I did it the text color first, because text color is a little bit trickier to dio with selecting the text in the editing it and you don't see the color until you change the color, and then then it shows up after you press, enter or click away. I want to change the hue, the color of this outline to match the be. So I'm gonna select that layer. I can high it to make sure I'm getting the right one. And if I go up to colors Aiken, select the hue saturation tool And this let me slide the color of the selected layer. This outline so hue saturation. And now I can slide this Hugh slider around to pick any of the 256 colors that a computer screen generally can display on. I could just find one that's pretty close to, ah, the one that I already have. So I like that all press. Okay, I'm gonna speed this part of it. You up. I'm gonna do a B C and 123 and we'll do that in just a few seconds. Okay, so I finished the texture I have now a gimp image file that has lots of layers in it. If I go up to save right now file and save It will not save to a format that Blunder understands. Gimp in particular, has its own layered image file called a XY F file. That's the file extension, and if you say that and try to bring it into Blender, it will not work. I actually believe that Photoshopped files dot psd probably or may do work in newer versions of Blender, especially 2.8. But in this case, it's not. I've already checked, I believe so. I'm going to save this as a cube texture creditable because I might want to say this so I can edit it layer later and have the layers accessible to me. So I'm gonna save that. What I need to do is exported. So file and export to a P and G or a J Peg or some sort of image file format that most programs, like thunder, know how to actually view and use. Um, gimp just lets you type in the extension that you want, so PNG is there by default. PNG's are compressed, but they're not lossy. They don't get those artifacts, but they are bigger and file size, so they're higher quality than J pic, so we'll use that so cube texture dot PNG on my desktop, I'll click Export. This file will not have layers in it, of course, because it's a normal image file. And that's why we're making a second copy of the exported version. OK, it had some options there for the compression and things like that of my PNG, but I just use the default. Okay, So back into Blender 2.8 in Blender. What we're gonna do is we're going to add that image texture back into material on our cube . So we don't actually need this UV map editor window too much. So I'll make it smaller and we're in wire frame view here, so I'll go into material of you poor shooting or the look deaf mode, as it's called right now, um, and all press tab to go back into object mode. What I want to do here is actually create another window on my screen so we can edit the nodes, which is a new concept for this video series of the material of the Cube. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna grab the top right corner of this window and I'm gonna get my little plus off my mouse cursor and I'm gonna drag, click and drag to the left to split this window into two side by side. What I'm gonna do here is I'm gonna customize the material of my mesh not using this editor window over here because this is good. Not really for complex materials, I mean, you get a lot of options here, but if I want to put an image texture on the mesh instead of this base color, they're better and more professional. Workflow is to use what are called nodes and node Zara visual way of seeing what makes up a complex material that's better to use them. This side panel. So in this window, we're gonna change this editor to a shader editor window. This used to be called the node editor window in under 2.7. But they split the note editor window into to the shader editor window and the composer editor, um, and those air for two different things now evenly. Both look similar and both use nodes. So we're gonna use the shader editor And with the cube selected, you're gonna find that you currently have these two things. These air nodes. If there's one there, I'll move it over and one there, and I'll make this bigger s so we can see it in more detail. There we go. These nodes are connected by what's called a noodle. Yes, that's the technical term. And this is a visual representation of the material that's currently on the Cube. All materials have what's called a material output note. You need this final node in a very complex set up of lots of notes, perhaps that make up a single material. You need this material output know that acts as kind of the final output for that material . But right now our material is the default principle. Be sdf shater, which is represented also by this note here it has all pretty much the same settings that you have over here. But what you can do with nodes is create lots of nodes that you mixed together to create a more complex material surface. In this case, I don't wanna have ah base color. That's just a color. I can click in the color box and choose, you know, a blue color to make it blue. Instead of that, I want to plug another node into this port that's gonna bring in an image texture. So we're gonna bring in an image texture node that we can then use to open an image file from our computer. So I'm gonna go up to this node menu at the top header of the the Shader editor window. And if I go to the ad menu and I go to the texture category and I go to image texture, this will add an image texture node into the material. So add texture, image, texture. There is my image texture note. I can click to place it and what I'm gonna dio. I'm gonna move this one over. By the way, you can scroll to zoom in and out. You can hold your mouse wheel down like a button kind like your orbiting down here. But you can do that up here to pan around and you can drag nodes around. We're gonna connect this image texture using this color port into the input of the base color. And what you'll see is that because we have not yet specified or opened on image texture, using this texture. Note. We have black on the surface of the cube in older versions of under used to show up as bright purple or magenta because that let you know that you weren't actually putting an image texture. You're putting nothing on the Cube. In this case, we get black. That's the new way of showing it in 2.8. So I'm gonna use this image texture, node and open a file from my computer. I'll go to my desktop all show as thumbnails. There's some different display options up here. I've got some other textures for other video series, but I'm making in the good oh, game engine. But we're gonna use this one on my desktop and I'll press open image. And as you can see, we have the image texture on the Cube. It's upside down enough because of my UV. Lay out what I could do it. I could just rotate this cube around. I could tap are to rotate and then x R X, and then 181 80 and then enter to rotate it around. And so now I've got letters and numbers on all sides of my cube the last thing I might want to dio, and I'll zoom out so you can see this set up here. You'll make this a little bit taller on my screen. There is my node set up so you can copy it if you want a pause. The video of the color of the image texture is plugged into the base color, replacing it in the principal shader. What I want to do now, most likely is that I want to save this blender file. It will still be a separate blender file from the image, texture, the image texture. If you don't yet, it will no longer show up on the Cube. So this in his texture file on my desktop. This follow rate here is pretty vulnerable. It's kind of sitting there, and if I move it to another folder, suddenly my blender file, if I save it, will lose the reference to it. So what I can do is I can goto file and save the splendor file onto my desktop. So all called us que board a letter number cube, and I'll click on save blender file. What I can do is actually go up to file and external data and pack all into blend. This will take any other files that your blunder file needs for reference. Like image textures. It'll pack the ones and zeroes of this image texture file. Ah, the image. File the PNG into the blender file itself, meaning that under file actually get a little bit bigger on when you say that it'll be a bigger file. But that way you can send the bundle file to somebody else or put it on a USB drive or email it and you only two to attach that one blunder file and the images will come along as part of the blender file. So all goto file external data and pack all into blend and down at the bottom, and the information bar is has packed one files. OK, so if I save this file, it is safe. And if I want to spend a little bit time, I could light this cube. It does not have any bumpiness or roughness to it, but it's a simple material with an image texture, and that's how you can do that. One last thing. If I go into this cubes edit mode on, go to the UV editor window. I could actually see the faces lining up with the image texture. So if I take, let's say, the entire island, I'm in island selection mode. This last one and I May it mess up or change my UV map. You can see what happens now. The faces do not line up with the image texture, and I've messed it up. So you probably shouldn't change UV map once you've had a material to it, unless you're willing to reorganize your texture as well. 9. 5 Intro to 3D Modeling : lender actually gives you three objects when you start up a new blunder file. If you go to file new in general, that's how you get what I have on my screen. You get a camera object, a cube mesh object and a light or lamp object, and that this cube object by default that all objects are by default. They are in what's called object mode and object motors. How you could actually move around objects and work with objects as whole things, but with a mesh object selected. If you go up to this moment, you will see there are lots of different modes, including edit mode, and that's what you go into. If I go into that, their notice. A few things change on the screen. Number one they match looks a little bit different because right now we can actually now see it's ver deceives the points where edges meat at the corners of faces of that mesh object. You can also see our toolbar has changed at the side of our screen, so now have a bunch more tools. If I go back in tow object mode and by the way, the junk between edit mode and object mode. It's really handed keyboard shortcut. It's the tab key on your keyboard tab. We'll go into the other one and then Tabal toggle back. So Tab is really good for switching between those two. But in object mode, your toolbar at the side of the three d editor window eyes quite short. You get your basic tools, but if you press tap to go into edit mode, you get a bunch of modelling tools and we're gonna go over again. Four of these today, we're gonna go over extrude and all of its variations, going to go over the loop cut tool and it's variations. We're gonna go over the bevel tool and how to use it in several different ways. And lastly, we'll go over the inset faces tool and how you might use that in a productive way. Now, working with a mesh object in edit mode requires that you jump between. This is one thing that you also knows when you go into edit mode. These three buttons will appear right there there for switching between eight, your three different selection modes. The first mode is a Vertex selection mode and a vortex again is the point where two edges meet at the corner of a face most often, and so if you click on a for text, you can select it. Then you can use any of your move tools. Really, Just move for one Vertex in order moving around. In fact, if you don't wanna have to switch from your selection tool to your move or rotate or scale tools in butter 2.8 there are overlays that are are disabled by default. Up here is a gizmo menu, and if you click the little arrow next to it, you can turn on move in a rotate and scale gives most those are those on screen controls, and that way you'll have those on your screen, even if you just have the selection tool enabled. So I like that a lot. So with a Vertex selected, I can move it up. I can move it around. I could, of course, use my keyboard shortcut G on my keyboard and move it around. Great, you get it. You can't rotate of Vertex, though that does not work because it's just a coordinate in three space on the X Y and Z axes and you can't scale. If I tap s on my keyboard, nothing will happen. But if you have more than one Vertex selected on by the way the plural of Vertex is for sissies. Although I often call one for text of urgency which isn't correct, you might catch me doing that in this video you can tap s to scale them towards each other and Artur would work with them. And of course, you can use your gizmo as well. The next election mode is edge selection more. I think you get it at this point, if you click on an edge, you can move it around. And of course, you can scale image because it has a size and you can rotate it as well. And last but not least, is face selection mode where you can select a face and move it around, okay? And you can skillet, of course, and a roti it and make whatever object that you want. If you're happy with your object, you're done editing. You can go back into object mode and there you have it. You're finished. Object. Now, a few more things that you could actually go into all three modes at the same time. If you hold shift on your keyboard and click on all three, you can select faces or single vert disease or for a text and edges as well. And that will work just fine. If you want to jump between these three selection modes in edit mode very quickly. If you're in edit mode, you can use the number ro keys on your keyboard with one key will jump into Vertex election mode. The two key will jump into edge select mode, and the three key was up into face election mode. That's super simple and really, really handy. If you don't move your mouse all the way up here, you can just use 12 and three. And lastly, if you're working with Verte sees that is their faces. And maybe you have a one or more selected. If you right click, you'll get a context menu that's specific to the selection mood that you're in. So right now I get the for Tex context menu up, and I get very common things that I might want to do with for disease. Same thing. An end selection motive. I haven't edge selected and I right click. I get different options here because you could do different things on some of the same things with edges and faces. Work the same way to If you're in all three selection modes, if I go into all free with the shift key and clicking and I right click, yeah, it's pretty impressive. I get all three context menus at the same time, but a Q was quite limiting as a mesh because a cube object on Lee has six sides. It's like a dye or dice from a board game, so you only have six faces toe work with, and it only has therefore eight Vergis ease on the top and on the bottom and only has 12 edges for around the top and four on the bottom and four around the sides. So how do you get more? How do you get a more complex object? What's where these mauling tools come in? What I'm gonna do is actually press tab to go back into object mode, and then I will press the X key on my keyboard. Yet the letter X will let you delete selected objects All affiliate, and I'm gonna go up to the ad menu and add a new mesh cube because a cube object is, ah, great object, a mesh object to start any object pretty much with its cold box. Marling, you start with a box and you can make really whatever object that you want, including that house it will make later on in this video. So to go back into edit mode, I will press tab on my keyboard, and the first tool we're gonna look at is called the extrude Region tool. It's this tool right here, and to work with this tool, I recommend strongly that you only work with faces, although it will work with editors and Verte sees as well. So with ah face selected, if I just click on a face, you'll notice that with this tool enabled, I get this little yellow gizmo handle the plus on it. Making an extrusion is the same as making an extension extension is the same, basically word as extrusion. If I grab its, it'll handle and click and drag out. I have just made in extrusion or an extension out from the Cuban. So now I no longer have that top face in the middle of my mesh. If I go into X ray mode up here, I can see that it's no little dot There's dots when you're an extra road on the faces. There's no little dot on that face, but I've extended out the mesh. So now I have five of my original faces, plus five more on the second Cube. So now if I wanted to all turn off X ray mode, I could go back to selection mode, and I could, with my extra gizmos, turned on with the modern screen. I can now work of my faces. I could work and pulse and edges, and I could do a little bit of pushing and pulling and make some sort of a custom three D model. But using the extra tool is really powerful because once you can extrude ah, face outwards, you can start to grow the shape into whatever object really that you want at least a very blocky version. And that's okay because those ways you can smooth it out later. So if I go and select the extruded region tool and I start extruding out, I can grab the handle and just pull if I hold control on my keyboard, it will snap to the increments off my scene, which are the same as the grid increments on the floor, which are actually one meter by one meter increments. Because that's the default unit meters of a new blender file. Now, if I keep going, if I drag this little plus handle again and hold control or even don't hold control and I'd let go, what I can do is adjust the operation that I just did. In other words, I used the extrude region tool by going down to this little pop over window that only shows up rate after you complete pretty much any operation in this window. If I expand this out, it's as I just extruded our region and moved it, and I tit and I moved it on the normal Z axis. That means I extruded out in the same direction of the face, was pointing. That's called the normal direction, and away from the face is called It's normal Z direction. The normal implies the direction that the face is actually facing, so feel weird. It's not the global direction. So if I change the Z access value you can see I can change it and I can type. And there too, because of default. Cube is two meters by two meters by two meters. I'm gonna keep going here and actually create a simple four legged chair. The back on it, Yes. Let's keep on going If I select all three faces at the same time and I x truth, um on I'll hold control to extrude out on even two meters again. They extrude as a region, and that's why this is called the extra region tool. If I were to go back, control Z on my keyboard and extrude each one of these out at the same time, that is much different than extruding them as a region. Because now if I go and use my move tool and move these apart, you can see that I have faces in the middle of my geometry. I've got internal geometry when they're all together. If I undo that, those movements and I go into a wire frame mode. There are two faces between each of these extended cubes, and that's not a good thing. I don't wanna have faces dividing up my shape. I wanna have all three of those extrusion attached together. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to undo those three exclusions, select all three at once. Grab my extrude region tool that I can pull out and, of course, hold control. Now, if I try to move any of those faces, it is attached and I undo that and go into a wire frame mode. There is no dot in the middle of that section or over here. It's It's what I wanted to solid shape. So let's keep going. I'm gonna make my simple chair on this lengthy three faces use my extrude region tool. Pull out and hold control. There you go. I can extrude the four legs of the chair out. So all get those four. Actually, if I hold shift, I can just get the 2nd 3rd and fourth legs and they are separate and we're using the extra region tool. But in this case, that doesn't really apply because they're not next to each other. So if I extrude out, they just extrude as you would expect. And now if I go up to the top and extrude these three in a row and I pull up. You can see now I have my simple for leg chair and I'm happy with it, like Impressed Tab to go back into object mode. And I've got a simple chair. The next version of the extra tool is actually hiding under the extrude region tool. That's a little arrow pointing at the bottom of this button. And if I click and hold this button, I get the four versions of the extrude tool. So the 2nd 1 is called extrude along normals and demonstrate what that does if I go back to just using extruded region and I select two faces, So I'm in edit mode right now. If I select two faces on around a corner and I dragged the extra region handle, you'll see what happens. It extrude those two faces together as a region, but it has to decide which direction to go. And so what it does is it averages out the direction that the top face is facing and the side faces facing. And so it goes, dying Italy. But what happens if you want to extrude the top face up and the side face out, but still have him attached in the middle. That's where the extrude buying normal tool comes in. If I undo that and I go into the extrude along normals tool, so that's called extrude along normals on. I dragged those cases out. There is no gizmo with this tool, unfortunately, but if I click and drag, uh, the other way, you'll see what happens. They become attached, but they still both go in their normal direction as well. Now it is a little bit skew e the top isn't level and the side isn't level. And that's because we can enable an option down here. In the recent operations pop over Window, it's called Offset. Even so, if I enable that that's the fix, it's pretty simple, and it's really handy for making extrusion out in different directions. But all attached on your mesh. The next version of the extra tool, if I keep going, is called the extruded individual tool, and that does pretty much the exact opposite of what we just did. If I want to extrude, let's say this face and ah, hold, shift and select this face and this face, but not as a region, because I want to work with them separately, after I extrude them. That means I basically want three ah pillars coming out of my shape. Well, I could do that. So if I used the extruded region tool again, there is no gizmo here for that. But I just click and drag. It looks pretty much the same, but in this case, they are actually separate. If I click in the scale and click and scale and click and scale with the s key, of course, then I get three separate areas and maybe that's what I want. The last tool is called the extrude to cursor tool and this tools a little bit cumbersome. And probably not one that you're going to use a whole lot unless you like making random shapes. If I go into this tool, I actually can no longer click to select a face. And right now, by default in this new cube, I've got everything selected. So just a keyboard shortcut for you. If you press cult a cult a will de select everything in your mesh so alter a will de select everything the a key will select everything. So a an adult A to select and deflect everything but to use this extruded cursor tool actually, to go back to my selection tool and select the one thing that I want to extrude. So all select that face. I'll go back to the extruded cursor tool, and what this is is it will extrude your selection toe every click. So if I left click out here, it looks true to their. If I zoom out, I can just click and click and click, click and click. And as you can see, I could order in my view. And I could keep going whatever direction I want. But there's not a lot of control here. Unfortunately, there's no operator pop over, so I can't adjust where I went or which direction I went with that tool, at least not in blood and 2.80 s. So I don't find it that handy. If I were toe, undo that, uh, and then go to a North a graphic view in my scene. Like if I pressed this little green dot in my axes to go to the front Ortho graphic view. That's where I am right now. What I can do now is actually you know what? I'm gonna go to my side or the graphic view so I can see the selection I have about face from the side. If I now click and click and collect. At least now I know that I'm not moving. You know, forwards or backwards or side to side, not depend on which way you're thinking of your scene and they're not twisted at all. Okay lets the extruded to cursor tool. The last way you could extrude in blender is by using the keyboard shortcut the letter E on your keyboard. If I go to my selection tool and I click on a face of selected and I tap E on my keyboard, just tap E and then move your mouse and click. You just mean extrusion. So this is really, really fast and handy. If I select to face tap E and click and click, I can make extrusion. Be warned, though, that new users might get in the habit, especially older versions of blender, because right clicking was common. If you tap E and then you right click instead of left click, your extrusion will snap back down, and it's actually still there. If I zoom in and I move that face up there is a hidden extrusion there, but if it's flattened, it's actually giving us. Ah, bunch of edges in the same spot, and a bunch of verte sees in the same spots was actually to Vergis ease there, which is not a good thing. It's called having doubles in your Seen Double for dis ease. So you really don't want that, So be careful with that. If you have more than one face together selected like these two side by side and I tap E, they will extrude as a region. If you want to use the other versions. Except for the cursor version, you can tap all T e on your keyboard. Alte will let you extrude faces together or extrude individual faces or shoot along normals so you can do that with Alti on your keyboard. I'll select those to alter e extrude along normals, and I can do the exact same thing, and I can use these options down here. Of course, after I do that rate away, so all use offset. Even the next tool is called the Loop Cut tool, and it's right there, and it's for actually making new edges. If I select it, you actually see what's happening. It's for making new edges in your existing mesh. So that's Cuba, of course, only has six sides, and it only has therefore four plus four plus four on the sides edges what has 12 edges. But if I want to make mortgages so I can push and pull those and extrude from those, this is how you can do it, at least in one way. So if you have this tool active and you hover over your measure, object in edit mode, you can see that it'll put a cut this yellow line through whatever edge I have my mouse cursor most closely to so that one or that one or that one. And if I click, it'll actually put a new edge loop cut all the way around the Meshal's all the way around. If you have a loop of edges and I go into the selection tool and because I still have those gizmos turned on, if I you know, I actually had to select that again. I'm not sure why Mike Gizmo didn't show up before. If you, by the way, if you don't have anything selected so if I press Ault a on my keyboard, if you want to select a whole edge loop like all that one and that one and that one and that one, you don't have to do what I just did play selecting all with the shift key and then let go of shifting orbiting around. You can actually just all press alter 80. Select all. You're gonna hold the altar key on your keyboard and click on any edge, and it will select when you're on edge. Select mode. If you hold all and click on edge, it will select all of that loop of edges all the way around your mesh. Now, yes, the loop cut tool makes how loop all the way around your mesh. But now, if I have them all selected, you know, I could scale that I could rotate that and I could make whatever shape that I want. I want to make more loop cuts. I could just go back to that tool right there and I can click and we'll make one in that direction to So with a cut in all three directions in the middle of my cube, I go back and use my tools like a ault, right click on edge and scale that one up called the same with this one scale that one up after I selected it all. And now my shape is a lot rounder. And now I go into Vertex like mode and grab and push and pull and make the shape that I want. The next version of the loop cut tool is called the Offset edge Loop Cut tool. And you use this by actually grabbing an existing loop cut or on edge. So in this case, I'm gonna grab my boob cut tool and just make a simple cut like that. And if I go into my offset edge loop cut tool, what I can do with this tool is actually spread this or make new copies of this edge loop next to the existing loop cut. So if I just use this offset edge loop cut tool, I always forget that even that Ah, and you click and drag with edges already selected away from that and you can split it into two. It'll leave the middle one there and now I've got two new edge loops toe work with. That's pretty handy. I should go back and mention a few more things about my a loop cut tool. If I make a new cut, there are options for that cut. If I go down it to my operator, pop over, I can actually change the number of cuts that I just made. So if I didn't want to make just one cut there, but I wanted, you know, a bunch of cuts I could to that I wouldn't necessarily make that. Many are probably making me two or three at most. And that might be very handy for you. You can also change the settings for the cut that you're about to make, because boost setting here is for the tools anyways is only for the cut that you just made . But if I make another cut, it made just one cut so you can actually go over. If I undo that to the tool settings tab in the Properties editor and you can change some of the settings for the tool for its default for every time you then use it. So if I turn this number up to three and then I make a new cut it ah, it put three there. I should also mention that you can click and drag with this tool to put the cut wherever you want along an edge. So if I turn this back down to one and I get my normal Luke cut tool and I hover over my object and I click and hold in drag, I can put the cut wherever I want and just click. It'll go in the middle of the edge that you're hovering your mouse over. Now, if you don't have to always go over to this tool tab in The Properties editor, you could actually bring a tool. Settings bar up in better 2.8 at the top of your three D editor window. This is a new feature on Blender, if you right, click anywhere where those buttons or anything, Anywhere where there's an option in this header of your three D editor window. So not right here. But over here, if you right click, you can add things or change the options of your header. And so I'll go to Header and I'll say show tool settings and it'll bring up this new a tool options bar on the top of three editor window. So now if I'm using my loop cut tool and I wanna have more cuts, I can just go up here and change. Number of custom. Let's say eight and I don't need to have this open anymore. This shows the same thing as this. That's why they kept that hidden so I could go back to my, you know, render settings or L put settings or something. And now if I make a Koch, let's say right there Well, I've just made eight cuts. Okay, I don't know why we wanted that, but there you go. The last way you can use the loop Cut tool is actually by using the keyboard shortcut, which is a keyboard shortcut that gets you to what's called the loop cut and slide tools. A little bit different, but it's almost the same. I don't go back to my selection tool and all press alter A to de select Everything in my mesh. If I press control are on my keyboard, control are will get me into the loop cut and slide tool. And so, just like with Luke, cut tool. If I hover my mouse over the mesh, it will make it cut. But in this case, I am just gonna click, and it's not gonna make a permanent quite yet. Let's say I put a cut right there. Well, that just confirmed which direction it was going in. And you can move your mouth now. I'm not holding anything down. I'm just moving the mouse around and you can tell where to go. And so if you want to go over there, I can click, and that will make it permanent. So this requires you to click twice and not just click and drag to slide it so that again I will control are on my keyboard to bring up the loop, cut and slide tool. And then I will click and that go and then I'll move anos and click. And there you have it. If you want to put your cut in the middle of an inch, so undo that one. I'll press control are and then you can click to put it along wherever you want, and then you can right click and right click will snap it to the middle of that edge, okay, and you can even use the equivalent of the offset edge loop cut tool. Actually, just learned this recently. If you have an edge loop selected and you press control shift, our it will do essentially that offset edge loop cut to and you can move your mouse apart and it will split that edge loop into two, and it'll make offset edge loop cuts. So that's control shift our and then control Large is formidable. Loop cut and slide tool. Let's go ahead and put those last two tools together. The loop cut tool and the extrude tool Quickly undo those cuts. And I'm gonna use the loop cut tool, and I'm going toe cut my cube rate groups. I don't want to use multiple cuts. So all turn that down, Teoh one and I'll turn the new ones down to one as well. So all undo that. And then control are and click and drag and control are in click and drag. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna make a little boxy looking tree like a very Minecraft ish tree. So I need to make a smaller face on the bottom of this bushy tree and I'm gonna extrude the trunk of a tree down. So I've got to cut's gonna do two more this time. I'm going to use the loop cut and slide tool So all press control are on my keyboard Now. Do the same thing that click and then click and then control are and click and click. And now I've got a face there that if I go into face election mode and select that face and go into the extrude region tool, I can just pull that down, and I've got my simple little boxy tree. The next tool is called the Bevel Tool, and it's right there. There's no variations of it, but there's many ways you can use it if I have it active and I go to Ed selection mode and I select an edge on my cue if I click and drag with that selected edge. So if I click and drag, it will turn that one edge into two with a surface along that corner, so you're essentially beveling or champ Fring. Theis edge, kind of like the edge of a picture frame. Now there are lots of options with the devil tool. If I want to smooth that out into a rounded corner, that's what lots of people want to do with their their objects. That's called the number of segments, so I can turn the number of segments up after I do that operation and you can see I can make around a corner. I wouldn't go too dense because that might slow down your computer on That's unnecessary. You can also change the profile. That means not just around even kind of shape. But you can make it, you know, more of a sharp round. Or you could even go almost flat or even in words. So it's really up to you. Of course, you can change some of those settings before you even do a loop cut, Uh, or part of the used the double tool. And so I'm gonna undo that, and I'm gonna change some of the settings up here. I'm gonna make us my bevel always have, Ah, say six segments and the normal profile. So now if I use the bevel tool and click and drag, it will give me that automatically so I could just keep using it again and again. And there we go. But keep in mind that this requires some planning, because if you want. Oh, round out lots of corners in your object and there some edges that are next to other edges , like this edge. Well, you can see now that it's gonna be a lot harder for me to drag and make that edge smooth after already made some of its next door neighbors smooth. So if you want to make all of the edges are rounded, especially around, ah, up face. You might want to actually just select that face so I can go into face select mode and, yes, Aiken devil out a face. So if I click and drag from that face, it'll do all of its edges. So you couldn devil faces, which means the edges around that face or individual edges you can even bevel. Vergis is if I go and undo and go into Vertex election mode, and I select, let's actually do all of the Vergis ease and then I click and drag away from it. It looks exactly the same, but that's because there are some options here. One of them is called a vertex on Lee, and if I check that box, look what happens. It beveled each vertex as an individual Vertex. I mean, that we got a nice round corner, kind of like a dye or dice in a board game. And so if I repeat that if I go and select, in fact, I can just select ah face do this, actually, and I click and drag and then I check for attacks only I can get, you know, a die object, which is kind of cool. The other thing you could do with the bevel tool is you can split apart and existing edge or edge loop. So if I a press control, are to use the loop cut and slight tool and I make a cut, let's say right, uh, up there. In fact, if you use the control are devil tool, you could actually scroll. I didn't mention this and make multiple cuts and then click and then slide them and click. But if you for this example, just have one and you have it right there. If you use the bevel tool and you click and drag away from this edge, it will split that edge into the number of segments that you have specified on your top bar . So if you only had one and you beveled out. You would split that edge loop into to edge loops. And the difference between doing it this way and using that offset edge loop cut tool is if I were to use that tool, it would make the same two cuts adjacent to my original Luke cut. But it would leave the original loop cut there, the bevel tool. If I use it and you write that apart, it doesn't leave that middle one there so you can decide which option is better for you. But the good news is that when you use this tool, this cut here, if I go into my edge, selection most that one and that one. They are equal distant, the same distance apart from that middle line or where that middle line waas. Now that's a keyboard shortcut for the devil tool as well. It is control be on your keyboard. So if I go into edge selection mode and select an edge, if I press control, be on my keyboard and move my mouse out. Aiken Bevel and I can specify just by moving my mouse. If I school with my most wheel, I can bevel that at work, add segments and make it around. If I click, of course, I still get all of my options. And I believe if I have Verdecia is selected and I press control shift. Be on my keyboard control shift. Be as opposed to control. Be will bevel, just vergis e. So it's control Be and control shift B. The last tool is called the inset Faces tool. And to use this tool, you have to be in face selection. No, because it's called inset faces tool. And so if I going to face like mode and select a face and I click on that face and dragged towards its middle, I could make what's called a smaller inset face. That means the face inside of the size of the original face. And as you can see, it's kind of like making a picture frame or a window. Or, let's say, if I undo that and I want to make ah square Cup, or at least a hole in the middle of this cut that goes down into it. Well, I can select the face and I can with the inset faces tool, click and drag and make a smaller face inside, which I can then extrude down into that shape. So if I tap E on my keyboard, I can extrude down, and then I can click when I'm happy. And if I were to undo that and then go into a wire frame mode, I could see actually what I'm doing, like a tap e and go down. And that way I could see where is inside of that shape. That's the inset faces tool. It's really simple. If I want to use that with a keyboard shortcut, all turn off X ray mode. I could use the aikido letter I on your keyboard. If I tap it, I can move my mouse and click. And one of the handy things about the insect faces tools that you could make it in, set around a corner. So if I have to face is selected and I tap I look what happens. It makes an inset, but it bends it around a corner. That used to be really hard to do in blender before this tool came into blender. And it's actually not a tool that has always been in other programs, like Maya or three D Studio Max, a swell. So people actually switched over to blender in order to use just this tool. I heard about that for at least one video game company that was making us and models for their game. How used to be able to have to do this is if you would use the extrude tool because you can do this kind of with the extra tool. If I tap E on my keyboard and then I right click to put that face back where it was, which is dangerous because now there's double for disease. If I tap s now, I can scale down, and that's really the same as an inset. But if you that around the corner. So if I undo and do I have no OK, it's good if I have to. Face is selected around a corner and I tap e and I right click on my tap s Well, that's kind of what happens. And yes, those ways you can fix that, and you can put your three cursor in places and scale toward your Tweety Kurtzer. But if I would just move this up and move this over, you can see that I have almost the same thing, but now that edge is thicker than these ones on that one to stick to, and that's not what I want. So if I undo that and, uh, just making sure you're getting under one more time there we go. And then I tap I on my keyboard. I could inset, and it'll be all nice. And even it might not be even though, because as an option that I already have checked. If I uncheck offset, even which might not be on by default, you can see what happens. It looks all kind of wonky again, but that's the little check box to fix it. And the inset tool can even do in setting outset, kind of like extrude. There's lots of ways many things of doing modeling to make the shape that you want in blender. Okay, so it's time to go ahead and make that house that I showed you in the first part of this video. So I've got a blank, empty scene with just a camera and a lamp and my three cursors in the middle of my scene. And that's important because, of course, that three D cursor is where new objects get added to your scene. If you've her whole held shift and you've right click somewhere else and you've moved your three d cursor around. If you press shift s on your keyboard with your mouse in this window, shift s will bring up this pie menu where you can say cursor, toe world origin. And that's how you get that back to middle of your scene. Now, if you go on ad and Mish Cube, which is how we're gonna start making that house, it'll go to the middle of your scene. So that's press tab to go into edit mode. And first thing I do is I'm gonna make some loop cuts around my Cuba actually Know what I'm gonna break out of edit mode back to object mode and I'm gonna hold control and drag up this cube So it's sitting nice and flat on my ground. It's one meter downs what's halfway through the ground by default. So back to an emote tap And I'm gonna press ultra HD select all. And I'm gonna muse the cut tool and I'm gonna make a cut up and throw it through the middle of my house essentially cause I'm gonna make an edge for the roof that I can pull up. So just so you know, um, this red accesses the X axis and your scene, I'm gonna consider that the side to side access on my in my world and the why green access will be the front and back. So if you're modeling with the why so I decided just know that years might look a little bit different than mine. So let's go ahead and make a cut there with a loop cut tool, so click for it right in the middle. Now, if you were to go into the selection tool and select the top edge and drag it up, you get a roof to your house. But what that will do for later on is if I were to make another loop cut, I may be used control our this time I'm gonna try toe flip back and forth between the tool and the keyboard shortcut version in this last part of this video. So if I use control, are I make a loop cut? Look what happens. It's not straight across, and that's gonna make it hurt and make the bottoms of windows and and tops of doors and things like that. So I'm gonna undoing a press escape to get out of this tool. That's how you do that. And I'm going to press control Z on my keyboard and that will move that back down. I'll use the active tool again, and I'll make a loop cut by clicking and dragging like that. And this is gonna be the top of our garage, and this will stop that diagonal edge from happening. A top of the garage is going to be right there. In fact, I might undo that and just click and drag and put a little bit lower down right about there , probably, but both the same place. Now I can go and use my selection tool and select that and that edge. But you might notice that, and I thought they had solved this in the beta versions of Blender 2.8. But I can't seem to click through the circle of my gizmo, so if you zoom in, you can then see and select beside your gizmo. And that makes sense. I couldn't select things in here. I don't know why that is. Still I thought they fixed it so I can drag that up now. Or you can press G and then Z on your keyboard and move your mouse and click. So I like about like that. So the garage is gonna come out of this side of the house and in order to make the garage, it doesn't quite hit the front of the house in the back of house a little bit shorter or narrower. So I'm gonna use control, are on the keyboard to make a loop cut rate around there, there, and I'm gonna click and then right click to put it in the middle. And because I don't need right now an edge in the middle of the garage actually know what I will because I'll have a roof running down the middle of my garage that'll be appointing to move up. I was gonna use the bevel tool with that edge loop selected, but you can see that if I scroll down, it leaves, actually know what? I could just leave it like that. I can use the Bible to underst scroll, so I have an edge left in the middle of it. That's great. So I'm gonna put the front and back of my garage. I'm looking at the edge is going to go there and there. I'm gonna move it to read about. They're kind of like that. Let's go ahead and extrude out the garage. So all select faces grab those two faces, use 10. 6 Rendering to a Movie File: to make this ball bounce. I'm going to add a couple of key frames. I'll make my timeline editor a little bit taller. I'm gonna add a key frame on frame one in my timeline and our frame 60 and we're gonna use a special interpretation effect. So to make animation, I'm gonna turn on my auto king button. I'm gonna go to frame one. In my timeline, the auto keen button will insert a key frame of the object that I move or rotate or scale at whatever key framework frame I'm on in my timeline. So I'm gonna grab my move tool. I'm going to move the ball straight up to about their looks. Good. When you let go, when you have the record button turned on where the auto king button turned on, you get a little key frame. I'm gonna go to a frame 60 and I'm going to move the ball straight down. In fact, I'm going to go and click on the little green circle in this axes here. The green circle will get me to the front view in my scene. There we go front view, and now I can move the ball straight down and know when it hits the ground. So now I have two key frames, a start, which is higher up and an end on fame 60. It doesn't look like it's bouncing, though. I could take time to animate this and space it out and make sure it all looks realistic. But there's a shortcut. If I click on the first, a key frame. In fact, I'm gonna press Ault a time. I was down here all to a will de select all, and I can click on the first key frame to just select yet with the first key frame selected . If I press the T key on my keyboard, it will bring up the set key frame interpolation. Their mouth has to be down here. T and Naina choose the dynamic effect called Bounce. Bounce will automatically give it Ah, bouncing animation. Look at that. There is no squash and stretch, so if I play, it looks like it's a very hard like a bowling ball. It wouldn't squash or stretch a lot, but there you go. I find that it doesn't quite hit the ground properly, at least not on the first bounce. For some reason, but I'm okay if you we look through our camera, we can see it on. And it will be good enough for the sake of this video. If you want to see how that animation looks with that balance effect, you could split your timeline up into two. I could grab my timeline at the top right corner, drag it over, change this editor into using this button the editor type button to a graph editor, and now you can see what that balance effect does. It automatically creates this set of curves in your Z axis of that selected object. Assuming you already have two key frames, you can't adjust these very well. But it's a fun little effect. Okay, so we're gonna render out this to a video file If I go up to render the menu at the top and say, render animation, that's how you do it. But if you were to do this, it would not give you were the result that you want because the default output format in blender is a still image file. That means if you render out your timeline well, you're gonna get your whole timeline in this case, 250 frames on, and it will just be a bunch of picture files and whatever the default location is. So if I go over to my properties editor and I go to the Output tab, which looks like a little printer, before I even think about rendering, I set some settings up. I should know what my L put resolution is. The pixels sighs left and right and up and down. The default is 1920 by 10 80 which is good because that's a common video format. It's called 10. 80 p, also known as full HD. Other common video compatible video size formats are available under dimensions. It's little preset button, and you can choose one that works for you. There is 7 20 p HD TV. That's good for lower quality but still semi high definition videos. There it is 2160 p, which is called four k or ultra high definition. It's up to you. 10. 80 p is okay for basic projects in 19 4020 or so, you should know where your animation starts and where it ends. Ours only goes for 60 frames, although I'm gonna end my animation at E frames or just type in 80 there, and when you change it here, it changes it in your timeline settings as well. Okay, you should also know. Of course, your frame rate 24 frames per second is fine. It's pretty standard. You might want to choose 25 if you're out putting for television in Europe. If Europe putting for television in North America is 29.97 24 is sort of a happy medium for the unit. It's more like traditional film. Next, we have to think about our output format, and if you want to output to a bunch of still images, you can leave it on PNG and walks. You talk about why you might want to do that a little bit later, but if you want a video file, you'll want to select under output file format. There are a few. There's lots of image file formats. There are a few video options, but the one you want to pick is called FF MPEG video FF. MPEG is actually a separate open source video encoding program that had nothing to do with Blender. Up until a few years ago when Blender, I think, for version 2.79 decided to integrate this separate video and quarter program because it was so good into Blender to replace what blunder usedto have. So if you select FFM pick video, it's not one kind of video. It's a whole sub program that when you select it, you can expand this new encoding section. It's a subsection when you only have that one selected and you get lots of video settings. Now I'm gonna break these apart into three sections. ASB Under does. There is a section for the container. The container of your video is essentially the rapper of video file. It dictates a few things, including the file extension off the video. In other words, do you want a quick time movie file that ends in dot M. O V? That's the file extension, Or do you want an A B i a dot FBI or a dot MP four or dot org or dot fl a. An old flash video file. You can choose the container, the rapper, the file extension for your video file here. I'm gonna select because it's the most common these days, MP four MPEG four. Next up are the video and audio Codex Ah, Kodak is an algorithm for compressing ah stream of media like video frames or audio sequence or sound in your animation. Ah, video. Kodak common ones might include h 0.264 That's the most common these days. There's also Huff Why you ve d of X, also known as MPEG four. There's many, many more. Again, the most common these days is probably h 40.264 So I'm gonna select that one. That's what YouTube uses. That's what most dreaming video services used these days. It's also what Blue Ray discs use as well. Audio Codex include a A C, which is the most common these days, a C three and MP three. You probably heard of em Petri before, but again, the most common these days is a C thes air, all just names that correspond to different ways of compressing that stream of information . And when you have a video file with a container, it has two streams and audio stream and a video stream, and they're both compressed differently. What? The video file plays them back at the same time. Hopefully in sync If you don't want to think about all those things that you can use an encoding preset. Once you've selected FFM picked video, you couldn't go to encoding click on a little preset button, and I would suggest that you use H 264 in MP four. It's by far the most common these days, so select that when you click on one of these presets, it doesn't hide this window. It just changes your things down here. If you select something like XVID, it'll change a bunch of things. If you select aged six foreign and before it will change a lot. Other than that, you might wanna think about changing the quality in video. Does a bunch of default quality presets, medium quality lossless, low quality? It's up to you and an audio. There's bit rate and the default 192 which is fine. You could change it up to 256 if you like, although 192 is just fine, in my opinion, So we're almost there except for one minor detail. Where we saving this video file that's under the very top under the output section in your output tab. This temp folder is not where you want to go, So I'm gonna press the folder button. And in Blender 2.81 this is a new feature compared to 2.80 You get this new pop up save dialogue box, and it looks more familiar as compared to other programs that you ever used that aren't blender. You get a bottom bar, which is where you put your file name. The top bar is where you currently are on your computer. There are, of course, shortcuts along the side. It might be hidden by default. The little arrow to show this side bar. I'm gonna go to my desktop. I'm gonna save this file as a bouncing ball V one dash. And I'm putting a dash at the end because when you output directly to a video file, it will add the frame numbers to the end of the video file, which is a little bit annoying. But it does that I'm not sure. Turn that off. So he put the dash there. It'll it'll hopefully work a little bit better and be easier to read. So I'm gonna press except and Now, all I have to do is go up to a render an animation, and it'll make a movie file on my desktop. But hold on a second. Why are we making our video file? Have an audio Kodak when we don't have sound. Well, thunder doesn't have sound unless you and it. So on my desktop, I've got a MP three file, a little piece of music called Mr Turtle, which is a free music file that you can get if you Google YouTube Creator audio library. And you look up how to get free royalty free music for online purposes that you don't have to pay for. This is Mr Turtle. Okay, that was Mr Turtle. I'm gonna go ahead now and add Mr Turtle this music file, Mr Turtle, into our blender animation before we even export or render from thunder into a video file. We could do that because blender actually has a video ender built in. Now, if you're using a default blender project, chances are you don't have one of these workspaces that's available to you window layouts with presets for video editing. But if you press this little plus up here at the end of these workspace tabs, you can select video editing, video editing. I'm not sure why there's to their, I guess there's two options there. So video editing, video editing and you get a new workspace, which has lenders Video Editor, which is called the Sequencer. And there's two types of sequences there's The window is actually called video sequence er , and there's two of them. But then there's two modes. The sequence er and the preview window. Which the video and in the sequencer or the timeline. This is basically a timeline for a video editor. You've gotta play head. You can add video strips in and you can have audio strips in. And you can just use this as a video editing program. If I go up to in the timeline part of a sequencer upto add and I add in ah sound. I can go to my desktop and find that Mr Turtle MP three and I'll have that sound strip and it'll add it to wherever or to start wherever might play head is this display is kind of weird. I don't like it. This this displays your timeline in your sequencer in seconds. So this is three seconds here. I don't like that. I'm gonna go up to view and uncheck show of seconds. So now it shows me knife frame numbers and in fact, I want to see the way forms of the audio. So if I goto view, way, form, display way forms on now, I can see the way form display. I also want to move this stripped down to the beginning to frame one. So I'm gonna click on it, tap G g for Grab, and I'll move it down and I'll click when it wants. That says one at the beginning. OK, I'm not gonna bother trimming this audio file because it'll just stop when the render stops because we've got are in frame set to 80. So if I go back now with my sound in my sequencer timeline to lay out my original workspace , I want to make sure that under the output tab under the bottom section called post processing down here, if I open up, then scroll down. I want to make sure sequencer is checked because when you have this checked, it'll use things from that sequence or timeline in your final render. And if you just have sound there. It'll render out the sound with your three seen render. OK, get it good. Let's go ahead and go up to render animation and it's gonna render out and I'll speed this part of the video up. Okay, so it's finished rendering out all 80 frames. I can now close this render window. I might do a control s to save on my blender and then I'll minimize Blender. And on my desktop, I've got bouncing ball. Version 1-000120080 Those are my frame numbers. And it did it nicely because I put a dash at the end of a name. And now if I double click on it, it will open up in whatever media software I have set as default for dot MP four files. I'm using V L C, which is a very common media playing movie playing software for both Windows and Mac. I'm not sure but Lennox, but it's very common if you double click on the video file now through the name of the file will display in VL see at the bottom. But it's not actually in the video files. As you can see now, if I mute the audio and press play, we've got our rendered out animation and looks and hopefully sounds good. But you probably actually do not want to render out directly to a video file from Blender. Why, Why would you not want to go out to a video file? Well, chances are you rendering on something that takes longer than it's bouncing ball animation . It's bouncing ball. I only took my computer about a minute to render out using the e T render engine. But if you have a more complex scene with MAWR lighting set up, and perhaps you're not using the new ET render engine, which is very fast, perhaps using cycles and every frame takes a long time, chances are there's a good chance your computer might not work as expected for his lungs. It takes to render out every frame, and if your computer crashes or just blender crashes or your computer turns off where you want to use your computer for something else in the middle of rendering, well, you don't want to be stuck with half of the video file or a partial video file and have to start all over again, so I actually suggest that you render out to a folder of still images on your computer and then take those still images every frame that are numbered, automatically frame by frame as image files and then stitch those together into a video file. When you do it this way, you can not only save yourself time by avoiding interruptions when computers or when blender crashes. You can also use multiple computers to render out different sequences of frames and then put those all together into one sequencer in blender. And if you're lucky enough to be on a computer network with a shared folder between multiple computers, you can actually render out from two computers to the same network folder, and the two computers will actually skip each other's files. And they'll just render all the files that you need into one folder and not duplicate any work. It's great. Let me show you how to set that up. If I go now in the same file, we've already got our animation. I got turned off my record button. I always forget to do that. I'm gonna go through my animation. There it is and what I'm gonna do now is go to my output tab. Instead of choosing under output a f f MPEG video file format, I'm gonna select either J Peg or PNG. These are both the most common kinds of image files. Many people would not recommend that you use either of these. Many people suggest that you use tiff images, but these two J pegs and P and G's are very common, and they're compressed image file formats. J pegs I would not recommend they are the most common and standard, I would say kind of image file format, but they are compressed, and that's good. But the compression that JPEG images used is called lossy. Lossy means that it loses quality them or you compress JPEG image so you get what I called artifacts which make your image look worse. The nice thing about J Pegs is that you can shrink or compress the image into a smaller file size, and therefore you save storage space. So if you're saving out to a folder, images on a solid state drive doesn't have much space. Well, you might want to choose JPEG and leave the quality at about 90 or 95%. I recommend saving out to PNG images, which are still compressed. They're still fairly small file sizes not compared to J pigs, but they're still pretty small. But P and G's are lossless. That means they have lossless compression. You do not get artifacts, the quality is still great and they're still compressed. And P and G's also support transparency. So if you want a composite still images that have a transparent area over top of another video or a sequence of images, you can do that later. We're not gonna cover that in this video. I'm gonna select PNG as my file format output type with P and G's. You don't get very many settings. You can select our G P A. If you want an Alfa Channel. That's what the red, green Blue Alfa means. In this case. We don't want that Alfa, which means transparency, so I'll just go with red, green and blue. If you are rendering out to a network folder from two computers, this is what you dio, you uncheck overwrite. You do not want each computer toe overwrite the image file to the other computer just rendered out. If you're wondering out from the same following two computers. Well, you want them to skip or leapfrog over the frame that the other one is rendering and go to the next frame automatically. This will do half of that job other than you need to do is check placeholders when you check placeholders. What it does is when a copy of blender on your network starts rendering a frame. It will put a dummy picture file in the output folder in the your folder that you create, where both computers air rendering out to our all computers are rendering out to. And so all the other computers will see that dummy picture file and go Oh, I'm not gonna overwrite that. I'm gonna skip over that. It'll go and render out. Or they will go under out the next frame or frames in the sequence of ah frames for your animation. So uncheck overwrite, check placeholders and you should be good, but we're rendering out to still images in a folder, and we're gonna have to make that folder now. So I'm gonna press the folder button next to output. I'm gonna go to my desktop on my desktop. I'm gonna make a new folder with this little new folder plus button, I'm gonna call it bouncing, bouncing ball frames v two, and, uh, I'm happy with that. So all press enter and I'm gonna go into that folder now All double click. And so now this is where all the images will be saved. I don't want to give these images any name because it'll automatically name as bunter vendors out these images to their frame number as the file name. So 0001 dot PNG 0002 dot PNG and so on and so forth. So if I press except right now inside that folder, that's where they will go. Let's go ahead now and render these out. I've still got my resolution set. I've still got my frames 1 to 80 my frame rate and PNG. And let's go ahead and render out this animation again. Okay, It's finished rendering out. Let's go ahead and check out that folder of PNG images on my desktop. Here it is. If I double click to go in it, There they are. There's my folder of still image files all numbered in blender. Now I'm gonna make a new project. So I'm gonna save this blunder. File control as to save. I wanna go up to file new and I'll select a video ending template for a blender. This is new and 2.8. You don't have to make a general three D new file. And under a project, you can go up to file new and say I want to make a video editing project and it will give you a different list of work spaces and a different default workspace in this case. Hey, this is for video inning. It's good. We don't even have a three D v port. That's fine. I'm gonna go now to my sequencer. You've seen this before? Basically, I'm gonna go up to add on the header of the sequencer timeline ad. This time I'm gonna select image slash sequence. I'm gonna bring a sequence of images on my desktop. I'm gonna go into that folder we just rendered out to bouncing ball frames. Version two. Here are all of my images. I'm gonna press a a with my mousing here will select all and I'll select add image strip when they're all selected and it'll add a video strip, but it's actually ah, bunch of images in a row in a sequence and it'll auto detect what were they should go in based on their file name. So here we are. We've got this strip. Let's go ahead and change the view to uncheck show seconds. I'm also gonna bring in my sound file. So under add, I'll bring in the sound file, Mr Turtle, from my desktop and and sound strip my play head Waas here at 57 Soul select it, Click on it, Tap G, Move the stripped down to start at frame one And there we go. Let's go ahead now and change. This is a new file, so I have to make sure my resolution is the same as my out put it PNG's, which was 1920 by 10. 80. I want to make sure my end frame is at 80. Just like my frames that the frame rate should be at what I wanted, which is 24. And I'm gonna set the output location and use a video file again. So under output and file format, I'm gonna select FF MPEG video and under encoding. I'm just gonna pick a preset here. H 26 foreign mp four and I'll leave almost everything the same. But when you use the preset, it actually does not give any audio. So I'm gonna select a a C as my audio Kodak that should work. Great. So I think I'm good. I've got my audio and video again. If I want to see the way form of my audio, I can go up to view and, ah, wave form displaying and way forms on. And there they are. I don't have to worry about trimming anything because it will end at frame 80. I'll go up now, too. Well, where we help putting too. I'm gonna go to my folder button and go to my desktop. I'm gonna call this bouncing ball version to handle Just rename this file diversion to when you wander out from the sequencer. It does not add the frame numbers like when you render help from a three d file I've discovered. I'm not sure why. So all press except and now I will go up to render render animation, and that's done. It does not take very much time for blender to render out frames of a movie file. If you already have them rendered from PNG images, it's not like rendering from three D. You're just taking picture files and putting them into a video file. Let's go ahead and see where we are. If I go to my desktop, I've got a movie file. I'm gonna play it. Okay, there is the finished videophile, rendered out pretty much exactly the same, but we had an intermediate step of going out to a folder of PNG images. I just that you render out your animations that way and then convert them into a video. That's the better way to go. 11. 7 Simulating RigidBody Physics: we're gonna see late. Not this Cuba object All selected impress ext Italy it on my keyboard and I'll click on delete. I'm gonna go up to add and I'm gonna add a new mash object. Let's use a monkey hit because monkey heads are cool and they're better looking. And they have mawr geometry, more faces and edges toe work with which will make the simulation of the object bumping into other things more interesting. In order to set up a rigid body simulation or rigid body world, you have to enable physics on an object by object level. So if I select this object and I press play on my timeline, well, nothing happens. It's just a mess, just like normal. But if I pause and go back to the beginning, this is important. You'll get into the habit of using this back to frame one button. Ah, lot in this video, if I select a mesh object, I can go up to the object menu and then all select under rigid body. I'm gonna make this object be added to my physics simulation as an active object and active object will fall with gravity and it can bum pinto. Other objects, any kind of object, in fact, get pushed around. It can stop when I hit something that's heavier, or a passive object will talk about that in a minute. But an active object is basically a real world object. If I select that well, this object is now part of my rigid body physics simulation, and if I go back to frame one and I press play, it will fall. In fact, it'll keep falling. My scroll down. There it is, and you'll notice that there are no key frames on my timeline, like recording or showing you how that movement works. But there is this orange bar. This orange bar is there. Whenever you have an object that's a rigid body object selected and you're seeing the monkey head is selective. This is called the cash, the Memory. Cashman's memory of your simulation. This cash is part of a blender file, and it represents where or stores where that object is and its rotation and scale on everything on a frame. In fact, even more than frame by frame in that scene from frame 1 to 250 which is your default timeline length. If I pause, I can then drag the top of my play head around, and I can look at any frame in my simulation. The thing that kind of trips new blender users or new users tobe under 2.8 especially up is that if you are somewhere looking at your object in your Ellen some random frame if you try moving your object, I'm just gonna keep my selection tool. But I'm going to use the keyboard shortcut G. She is grab. If I tap G and the movie object and then click well, normally, it would stay where I click. But if you're in the middle of your cash, that cast will go hate. No, I'm not gonna let you move that object because I know that it's supposed to be where I have seemly it to be, which is, well, it's in the middle of falling. The problem is that it actually did move that object and invited 2.8. This is something that I hope they fix or solve or let you know what's going on, because if you then go back to frame one, look what happens. It kind of erased the simulation and it actually put it there so you won't actually see your movement until you go back to frame one or frame zero. Which means that you should go back to frame one or frame zero before you make any changes of any objects in your simulation. Okay, get into the habit of that. That will lessen the frustration of editing or moving things in your simulation. And it'll get you in the habit of knowing that you have to rescind late once you change anything. Okay, So if I don't want their I compress ult G Alter G will do the same as clear the location. All TGI does that it'll put it back where it was and then on because I'm on frame one or frame zero. I can then move or use the geeky to move that object up. And I could then press play to re simulate OK, but I don't want the monkey had to fall. I want Teoh and keep going. I want to hit the ground, so I'm gonna add a mesh plain, and a plane object is just a mesh that has one surface but four sides. It's basically two triangular some polygons. Essentially, in my words, if I tap s, I can make this bigger by moving my mouse, of course. And I can click. And if I press play from frame one, it should simulate. But that ground is not yet part of my rigid body world. Every object needs to be added. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning again, get in the habit of using that button, and I'm gonna select my ground up to object. And I'm going to go to rigid body and say Add passive this time. Passive objects, our physics objects. They aren't part of your simulation. But passive objects do not fall and they cannot be pushed or influenced by other objects. They're kind of rock solid objects like the Earth. They can't move their glued down. So this is now a passive rigid body object. I'll go back to frame one mixture. I'm their press play and now the monkey head will fall. It'll hit that object and it will react and basically land on the ground. And as you can see, it looks pretty good if I kind of scrub through where I have that cash on the on the monkey head or in my whole scene, you can see it lands it tips over just like it normally would. And it comes to a stop eventually. It's kind of doing a little bit of rocking back and forth. Great. Are we done? Is that it? Well, no, there's actually a lot of things you need to know at least a fair amount of things you need to know in order to keep going with physics. Beyond this basic knowledge, this way, going to object menu and selecting objects and changing them into active objects and passive objects from rigid body isn't the best way of going about things. Generally, you want to have more control and that more control is over here in your properties. Editor, this editor has lots of tabs at the side. Of course, one of the times that we haven't explored yet in this 2.8 tutorial series is the physics tab. It looks like a little I'm actually not sure what it supposed to be even supposed to be like an earth with a moon going around it, or an Adam with a nucleus and an electron going around or the sun and the earth. I don't know. It's one of those things. Maybe something else. But that's what looks like to me. If you select it and you select a mesh, there will be a bunch of options for you here. I'll make a little bit bigger on if you haven't yet added it as an active or passive object , you'll see. Basically, that's nothing except for these buttons. This is where you could enable different types of physics. Rigid body is just one of the types. If you click rigid body, that's the same as going upto object. Rigid body. Okay on doing it as we did before again, I should go back to frame one before I do anything like this. Okay, you can change the type here once you select rigid body from active to passive or whatever you like. You can also change the mass so you can make something act like a heavier object. Keep in mind that this scene right now is gigantic. Every one of these squares in my create floor is one meter by one meter by default. That's really huge is the gigantic very light as a balloon monkey head, so I turned this upto. Let's say you know, uh, let's say 10 kilograms and press enter, and if I re simulate it will act a little bit different. It'll feel a bit more heavier. At least act like that in my scene. Okay, there are a lot more settings, all right. Now this monkey head is not actually bumping into other things. Using the shape of its own mash, it's using what's called a convex whole. Ah, convex hall is basically ah, low Polly shrink wrap around your mash that's not using every single Verdecia edge. It's, ah, Low Polly version that you can't see, and that just helps speed things up. You'll notice that when you simulate, if I go back to beginning and press play, if you were a simulate, that's actually just move something a little bit, that it has to re simulate that you were playing back at a certain frames per second, and it should be playing back a 24 by default. It's going slower than that for you. It's because you've got a lot of things in your CNN. It's has coming to calculate things out, but the fact that this monkey head is a convex hull is helping it out because the complex whole is lower polygon. If you want to use or singly your objects in a simpler way, you could, let's say, change the collision shape, toe a box and therefore it'll just use a six sided collision bounds. And if you simulate from the beginning on frame one with a box shape, it'll act just like a box and you'll land just like that. In fact, you could do this a lot. You have a lot more monkey heads, and it wouldn't slow down as much. I'll duplicate this one shifty, and I'll tap Z on my keyboard to move it up and down on the easy access, and I'll move it up and click. Maybe I'll move it over a little bit, and if I simulate, they will land on each other flat, so they will act like they are just boxes. You don't actually see the boxes when you render out a frame or a an animation, but that's how they interact with one another. Okay, if you go back to beginning on frame one and you change them both their collision shape to , let's say, a sphere then they will act like spheres. They will roll around. Be careful, though at least east years are intersecting. They're overlapping, so I might want to move them apart. And let's see, I take my ground and I rotate it. Pardon my, uh maybe l change the size, the text size of 24 or something to make that smaller, so it's not quite so in the way. Good. Okay, if I rotate the ground, that's just my screen. Caskey is at on so you can see what he's impressing. I wanted the ground and now seemingly and their spheres. Well, they will, uh, roll down. Okay, Not too bad. Pretty easy. Pretty effective. Looks realistic. I'm gonna undo that rotation on a frame one. And I'm gonna get rid of this second monkey head if I want the objects to interact when they touch a little bit differently. In other words, you want the monkey had ball this fear to bounce Well, there are more settings under the physics have for each object. One of the categories is called surface response. If I open that up, you get to settings, friction and bouncing us. We'll leave friction for a minute or two from now. But if I play with bounciness, it goes from 0 to 1. If I turn it up to, let's say, 0.9 and I pressed. Enter well, if I go back to frame one and I simulate it doesn't quite actress, you expect. It's not exactly like a bouncy ball yet. That's because both objects that are colliding need to have at least some bounciness. And that's little bit weird. I know, but I'll turn the floors. Valentin s up to 0.9 as well, and I'll go back to beginning and I'll simulate. And now it it bounces the way you might expect. Sometimes it still lacks a little bit weird, though I find it might just keep bouncing, especially between them, all the way up toe one for both objects. I wouldn't do that. That's what I chose your 10.9 okay, again. Sometimes things just act a little bit weird, and not as you expect in the simulation engine. I'm going to turn bouncing is down on both objects to illustrate this. And I'm gonna add another object. I'm gonna add a cube and I'm gonna make the cube of a bit bigger and I'm not happen s and then Z to squash it down like a flat kind of platform. And I'm gonna move it up a little bit. If you double tap are they are rotate. Keep tap it twice. You can then rotate it around kind of freeform. I'm just doing this like in rotate a little bit off kilter, and I'm gonna add it to the rigid body. Seen. I'm gonna make it an active object, but I'm gonna make it be a box or have a box collision shape. Okay, so it'll stimulate more easily. This box is pretty big, but its only one kilogram and it's gonna land on the floor now because it's an active object. The monkey head is 10 kilograms. I'm gonna turn that up to about 40 kilograms, which is quite heavy, and I'm gonna seem late from frame one or frame zero and let's see what happens. Ah ha, Good. It did what I want, which is actually not very good. It pushed because the monkey head ball is heavy. It actually pushed that light box rate through the floor. Now there's a few ways you could deal with this. And by the way, the floor just kept falling Once it, uh, it went through the floor. Now is a few ways you can deal with this. The first way is you could make your ground into a box. In other words, you can make your ground thicker. And therefore, maybe if the box that was on top went into it, it would get pushed back out of it upwards and not downwards, Okay, because it actually would have volume or perceived volume in that solid object. The other way we can fix this is under a different tab. In the properties window, we could go to the scene tab and the scene tab has a section called Rigid Body World Seen Tab Looks like a cone object, and a sphere objects. And I think I'm supposed to be a little light. It's the settings for your whole scene. It has a rigid body world section. And if you don't want any simulation where you turn it off, you can check this check box that will disable any physics simulation and you're seeing. But this is worth settings for your whole world is in terms of physics simulation one of the settings is called steps per second and set a 60 by default. This setting is how often or how rapidly Blender calculates where the object should be in a rigid body seen so it doesn't use the 24 frames per second to figure out where the object should move to the next frame, it uses kind of in between a smaller increment, which is good. It'll be more accurate. The higher number of this is, at least theoretically. If I want my son to be more accurate, I can turn this up higher. I like doubling it or tripling it to 120 or 180. Let's try 120 I'll go back to frame one. If I now play the same exact scene with same locations at the beginning, let's see Ha, it works. It works a lot better. So I have bounciness turned up under my physics tab on anything Still, no, it just was a little bit bassi. Sometimes things don't act quite like they should have. You could try turning under that scene tab again. The steps per second, maybe 180 might work better. Maybe 300 or 500 work better for you. It all depends on blenders. Mood. Have time, really, or what's in your senior? How it's moving are the locations are their settings. It's all variable. You can try what you like. Sometimes things actually work better with 60 but a higher number. Okay, so that steps per second. While we're here, let's talk about the cash settings right now. This cash is orange. It's filled up, assimilated the scene. But even if my timeline, if I change it to be a longer timeline like 505 year zero frames and I press enter so I could actually keep playing past 250 it would not let me simulate a longer assimilation, even if I wanted my animation to be longer. If I press play well, it'll you know the ball. We're gonna keep rolling, and, uh, then it'll just stop and won't even let me see the light more. That's because of my cash settings. The cash is only set to go from 1 to 250 If I expand this section out again, this is under my seem tab. You can see my cash start and end values. I actually can not. I couldn't change it. So I'm not seen leading right from the beginning. If I don't want to. For what? Isolation To start after a little while. I can change that. But I can also make it go longer. If I want 500 I can type that in or drag in this little value box on Make whatever I want. Okay. Now, if I go back, impress play, it will keep simulating and the ball will fall often because the ball's heavy, it'll push it at the lightbox, and it'll keep going. It will probably fall off if I medical far enough. Okay, so that's your cash simulations. Starting end if you want a longer simulation than the default. 250. Okay, let's go ahead and make a little bit of fun Scene now and let's talk about animated objects interacting with simulated objects. I'm gonna delete both of these objects. All slept both, and press delete and I will add all press shift A to bring up my admin. You. I'm gonna Adam mesh Q. This is gonna be a dominant. We're gonna make a lineup of dominoes that are gonna fall over. And we're gonna make an animated object like a little finger object that pushes all the dominos over. So this domino needs to be a bit different shaped. I'm gonna move it up and go do tap. In fact, I'll use my scale tool. I'm gonna make it a little bit thinner on the red X axis, and I'll make it a bit taller on the Blue Z axis. So roughly the shape and I want to be a physics object. It's just a default mess right now, so I'll go to the physics little Earth Moon tab and I'll make it a rigid body. Just go back to frame one. Otherwise, it'll act kind of weird, and it's gonna be a lighter than that because you're a 10.5 kilograms number. This is really big. So we're not really doing very well on our innovation front here. And, uh, or at least our accuracy in terms of scale front here. This needs to be an active object. It is. It needs to be simpler so we can simulate tons of dominoes if we want. So I'm not gonna use a convex hole. I'm gonna use a box shape. Okay? That'll seem like very easily. The box on Lee has six sides and 12 edges and eight for diseases. It's very easy for to simulate and I'm gonna duplicate it, so I'm going to keep my move tool up. Actually, I'm gonna move it over right about there. Maybe I'll start a little bit above the ground, so has to fall a little bit. If I play it right now, it'll kind of land and we go a little bit. And from frame zero. If I duplicate shifty and I tap x shift, these duplicate and then if you tap exit alone that you move with the copy on the X axis. So be like that. In fact, I'm gonna go impress the little green dot right there to go to my front few. Exactly. So it's straight on so I can see what I'm doing. Okay, so I'm just like both and I'll duplicate both now to make it faster shift d and then X and move it over me over a little bit more. I'll grapple for with the shifty and shift D and X and I like that I like having eight and I'll make the ground, although one bigger with the s key. OK, if I go back to frame one or zero and I press play, it'll stimulate. In order to make them fall over, though, I could just from frame one go in my front view. And that's the one key on your number pad, by the way, or you can press the little green dot Not the one with the Why on it to go Your front view , if I tap are I can rotate this one and therefore it'll fall over if I rotate it enough. And if I simulate, of course, it'll knock all the other ones over, and I got a pretty cool little scene. You'll notice, though, that things were sliding around a whole lot. And this is where friction comes in. And I want to show you how to copy Ah, setting that you change for an object from one object like friction, and I want you to be able to update all your objects at once to have that new, updated friction setting. So I'm gonna go back to frame a zero, and I'm going toe select all of my dominos year now you must, as I select more and more with the shift key held down the last one that I select is this lighter orange color and all the previous, like good ones are still selected, but they're darker orange. That's because the last the most recent one you select is your active object. And that's what you see the settings off over here. So this one is now the active object They're all selected. If I change the friction, I'm actually gonna be only changing the friction of the active one, the most recently selected one. So all type in your able to drag this to some random number like 10.685 If I were to select just this one, it would show me a 0.5 because I haven't changed this one or any of the other months. Just this one. In order, copy the settings from the active physics object over to the other ones. You can go up to the object menu and go down to rigid body and say and select copy from active, and that will let you change your settings really quickly from one object copy of over to the other one. So we're all the other ones that are selected as well. So object, rigid body copy from active click. And so now this one is Ah, is your 10.85 friction? This one is also now they're all now 60.685 Okay, I'm gonna change the friction of my floral turn up as well and from frame one all press play. And now the dominoes aren't sliding around so much. So they catch each other more and fall over a little bit nicer. Okay, let's go ahead and add an animated object that influences air scene and show you how to do that. So I'm gonna go back to frame one, or fame zero, I'm going to get rid of. Or actually, I will alter our alter our or object. Clear rotation will clear the rotation of that object because I want to stand straight up. I'm gonna a sphere, and we're gonna make it into, like, a finger shaped really quickly and make it an immediate and make it push over the domino. So shift a on my keyboard will bring up the ad menu at a UV sphere there it is. I'll make it a little bit smaller by tapping s. I'll grab it and put it over here. I'm gonna Skillet. We'll use my scale tool and drag it to make it skinnier longer on the X axis. And I wanna animation. You know that this auto king button is the easiest way to insert key frames. I'm going to go with the auto keen button turned on to frame on. This is still stimulating, but I know that this domino was right on this lying in my grid. So I'm gonna go to frame 30. I'm gonna ignore how that's that's looking there and on frame 30. I'm going to move My in fact, all just used the geeky. I'm gonna put my finger rate year not quite yet pushing the first domino and I've got auto clean turned on. So that means the finger has a key frame and we've told it to be there at that time. I'm gonna go to frame 40 and move it all top g so that it's gonna hit where that line is the domino and has a key friend there because autumn kings turned on. I'm gonna frame 50 and move it back. So all used G and just went back. So I got three key frames it's gonna be before not hitting the first domino it's gonna be than moving forward and intercepting where that dominant was was gonna come back. And by that time, hopefully this one at least, has been pushed over. Let's go ahead and go back to frame zero. The simulations kind of messed up. Now, if I select it, yeah, it's kind of not working. But if we start from zero and press play, that's going to see what happens. You know what? I need to go back to the beginning and, uh, do I just wanted to leave that one? Yeah, and I'll just duplicate this one shifty and then X and, uh, yeah, I'll just put their okay. I had auto keen turned on by accidents. Will turn that off and I'll delete my key frame. Make sure you don't put any key frames on objects that are gonna be seemingly okay. That will mess them up. So I have no key frames on any dominoes. I got key frames on the finger. Let's go impress play, and it simulates but the finger went through the domino. It didn't push it over. We need to make this finger object a rigid body physics object. So I'm gonna go back to frame one. I know with my finger selected, I'm gonna make it a rigid body object. The key here is to enable animation making an animated, rigid body object. If I don't, if I believe it as an act of object, it'll just ignore its key frames and eldest fall. And the key fans will mean nothing. If I go back to the beginning and enable animation, it will now no longer really act like an active object. It'll still have its shape. It'll be a convex holies by default, but it will not fall. It will not be able to be pushed around. So really, it'll act like an enemy, a passive object. And for that reason, I mean this will work. If I press play and I seem late, it'll push the dominos over quite nicely. But if I change just a passive, it'll do the same thing. But I think passive makes more sense to me. Unless you want to actually animate this value and turn an immediate often on. I think it makes more sense to make your animated objects passive objects that are animated rather than active objects that are animated. Nothing. It makes a huge difference, but it makes more sense to me. So from frame zero, I'm gonna press play. I'm gonna simulate it's gonna knock over the dominoes. And that's how you make animated objects part of your physics scene and use their animations. That's great. I will note that if you have your scene settings in for my scene for this scene, for some reason, if you use a steps per second that's different. You might get it acting kind of weird. I think I prefer for this scene 60 the default steps per second. So that's under the seeing the tab again underst rigid body world settings and I press play . I go back to beginning and press play. Now it will re simulate, and I don't know if that looked any better, but sometimes it does. Okay, just keep that in mind. Okay, let's go ahead now and make our last kind of many project of this video, which is that chain wrecking ball seen knocking over all the Jenga blocks. Let's go ahead and delete some of these objects. We don't need any of our physics objects except for the ground. And so I'll select all those and delete those. And let's go ahead and add a new cube. Be a Jenga block. I'll go to add mesh Cube and ah, Jenga Block is three times as long as it is wide. And that's because they'll need to speak three wide and three deep, especially in the stack of three by three. And each alternating stack row layer is turned by 90 degrees. In order Make all these stringer bricks were not going to duplicate manually and place them all manually. We're gonna use a modifier called the array modifier Before we get there, though, let's actually scale this down. So I'm going to tap with the Cube selected s and then Z and I'm gonna Skeel it up and down . I don't really care how tall it is. That can be up to you. I am going to skillet on the Y axis now, so I'll tap s. And then why to skillet only like in that direction lose time. I know I'm gonna wanna type after s. And then why? 3.0 three and press dinner? That's because I know I want to be exactly three times or a little bit more than three times longer here, then Ah, here, because they're gonna be twisted and in layers and stack in that way. So a good practice year is to apply scaling before you enable physics are an object. I'm not sure that you need to in one or 2.8, but if you steal an object, I would go up to object, apply and Skeel. And that means. And it'll tell Boehner that that's really the actual size of the object. Again, I think Impenetrable eight. They've solved this. Um, I just be an unneeded precaution, but it's not a bad idea. So this is just a mess right now. I'm gonna go to the physics tab and enable it as a rigid body. I need to go back to frame one. So it's not playing with me and weird physics the ways, and I'm gonna turn the mass down to zero point five. So it's lighter. I might as well move it a little bit closer to the ground. It's a little bit above the ground a little bit over. And I want there to be three in a row, and I'm not gonna duplicate these manually. In fact, before I change anything, I'm gonna point out that I have a convex hole here. It would make more sense for me to have this as a box. And after I make all my Jenga breaks, I could fix thumb the way I changed all my settings at once of my dominos. But I'm just gonna fix it right now. So box, Okay, that's better than convex hull. If I want to make more Jenga bricks, I'm going to go to the range tab, which is how you add modifiers modifiers if you're not familiar because I haven't covered these in my previous videos in this trial, Siri's modifiers are ways of procedurally changing a mesh or adding to your scene in a way that again is a procedural that means, like mathematical or using an algorithm, not editing it manually. These modifiers another wrench tab. You could add a modifier. Two different objects. One is called the array modifier under the generate column. So, under the wrench tab at modifier array, an array. If you're a programmer, you know, and and raise And a ray is a bunch of copies of the same kind of an object usually ordered or in a row. There are multi dimensional arrays of basically arrays of arrays. In this case, with physical objects, you have offset numbers, which is how many or how spaced out the objects are. In a physical space, you have account number. How many objects? Copies of the original in that you want. So if you turn this number up 3456 you get more and more copies. Don't worry about this extra bounding box. The offset is how spaced out what they are. So you can see that's what it looks like. You can space them out. In fact, I'm gonna space them out. This is a relative offset amount, and these three columns are for X, y and Z. So if you change these numbers, you can make like staircases and you can make them go in different directions. I want zero and zero for y and Z. I want the relative offset number be a little bit higher than one like 1.0 r. 1.1 And that means that there's a little gap between each one, which is good. That means they're separate. And I only want three eso three, including the original, which is three. Okay, so we've got our three in a row now. The thesis Eddings for the three are a little bit weird. The bounding box, the collusion shape is gonna be little off will fix that. But I'm gonna press apply, okay? And that means it's gonna be one mesh, which is a weird if I press tab, they're all in the same mesh. Don't worry. It will fix that later. Before we do, I'm gonna make another array of these three so we can have them all in a stack. So I'm gonna have a modifier. I'm gonna make it an array. This time. I'm not gonna offset on the x axis. All click and type zero and press enter. I'm gonna make them go up on the Z axis. And I don't want just one copy or two in total. I want to have probably 12. Okay, The reason why I want 12 and them spaced out because we're gonna have a duplicate stack and we're gonna turn them that by 90 degrees on the Z axis. So they're facing 90 degrees differently, so they're all alternating just like the game Jenga would be. So I'm gonna make these based out by 2.3 and press enter, and that way they'll be spaced out just enough. That ah, whole duplicate stack can fit each a new broken fitting between one with a little tiny gap in between. That's good. Don't worry about this bounding box. That's run will fix that. But I'm gonna press apply. When you apply a modifier, it makes it permanent. And so now we have a permanent mesh that's gonna actually weird. If I try to simulate this, Yeah, it will work very well. So don't worry about that. We'll go back to frame zero, and we're gonna duplicate this so I don't go to my top view. If you press the seven key on your numb pad or you press the little Z circle up here, you can go to the top exact Ortho graphic view, and I'm gonna duplicate my Jenga block stack. So shift D on my keyboard and I'm going to right click to put it right back where it was and I'm gonna tap are from a top u R minus zero enter or are and then Z and 90 enter if you're looking at it from some other view So now they're turned the opposite way. But I want to make thm lined up and I wanna have it so that they are alternating. So there we go. I tap G and I'm fixing that now. If I zoom in, I can get that right. I don't want them to touch at all. And I didn't do quite a good job there a little bit longer. Lengthen with three side by side. That's okay. This video. Okay, It's going toe just from the front and the side and their week. Oh, I'm happy with that. Is there spacing all the way through? I think there is. I'm gonna select both with shift and I'll join them all together in one big, ugly mess. All tap after I slept them both will shift all press control. J Control J will join the two measures together. Now I've got this big, ugly mesh of a bunch of separate Jenga bricks all in the same mesh. It's really easy to separate them, though, and that's what we're gonna dio just press tab to go into edit mode. And then I'm gonna press the letter p. The letter P brings up the separate menu and on a select loose parts. And so all the bricks are loose parts from one another that actually attached. So if I click that they will all now be their own mesh. But notice that I'm in edit mode still of one of them. So I'll press tab to go back into object mode. I've got them all selected, which is great. If I tried to simulate right now, it's gonna act really badly, and that's because it might do different things for you. And that's because all of the origins are all the little orange dot, which marks where the object kind of is are all in the same spot that all in the origin of one of your Jenga bricks. So even though I select this Jenga brick, it thinks the origin of this one is down here and the collusion shape is based on where the origin is. In other words, they the assimilation thinks that all the jingle bricks are overlapping rate year and that's pat thing. So I'm going to press one to go to my front view or you compress little green dot up there and I'm gonna use my box selection tool. And I'm gonna select all my jingle bricks and doesn't matter which one is the active one. Because we're just gonna fix the origin and put the origins all to the middle of each gender break Really quick. To do that, I can right click with all the bricks elected and I can say set origin. I'm in object mode right now, by the way, set origin to geometry. And that'll put the origin to the median point of the average of the geometry of each separate object all at once. So origin to geometry and look. Now all the dots are individually. The origins are where the actual bricks are. So now if I simulate from frame 01 Ah ha Look, it's good they bounce a little bit because a they all have to fall a bit, But I like it. OK, so they go back to the beginning and let it play. There it is. How could I fix that balance. Eunice, I'm really not that sure about that. Actually, you might get less bounciness will make sure that there is onto the physics tab. No bounciness on the floor or anything. But that also might be fixed by changing the a rate of sampling which I showed you before under the scene tab. I've got steps per second set to 60. Let's try 120. And, uh, but Jenga Brooks wouldn't do that a little bit, especially if you have them all spaced out and all go at once. They would be some bouncing. That would happen. And that actually looks better. 120. Okay, if I turned that up, it might actually happen less. I'm not sure you can try that for yourself. So we got aging a tower. I'll make my ground in a bigger by the way, I'll click. And then I'll go back to beginning to make that permit. OK, let's go ahead and make Carter our chain and our referent ball. That's pretty easy. I'm gonna go and add a tourist. A default mess. Tourists add mesh. I'm in object mode right now. Add mesh. A tourist is like a doughnut it's gonna be we're gonna use to make every link of Arquin. Now, when you add a tourists don't select anything else working Jenny thing, just follow along with me because we need to edit this Tourists. There's too many polygons here, and we're gonna actually use the measure of this as a simulation because that will work best to edit this number of rings and details in this tours and to make it a bit thicker. I'm gonna go down this ad. Tourists pump over and expand it. If you don't have add tourist one. It means that you have selected something else where you tried moving it or something. Don't do that. Opened this up first. If you've already moved it, Julia at a new one. Uh, let's go ahead and change the number of major and minor segments and the raid E I s o major segments or the ones that go around just too many of them. I'm gonna click and make 24. So it's a lower polygon donut and I'll leave them minor segments, which are the ones that go around 12. That's find the major radius, and the minorities will dictate how big, how thick it is and how big the hole is. And I kind of like that.