Beginners Guide to Gouache: Learning Control of Water, Blending, Layering & More | Jess Chung | Skillshare

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Beginners Guide to Gouache: Learning Control of Water, Blending, Layering & More

teacher avatar Jess Chung, Gouache Artist

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

27 Lessons (3h 46m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Materials

    • 3. What is gouache?

    • 4. Getting started: swatching colours

    • 5. Getting the right consistency

    • 6. Control of water

    • 7. Thin washes

    • 8. Blending: how I get smooth blends

    • 9. Blending exercise 1: simple gradient

    • 10. Blending exercise 2: advanced gradient

    • 11. Blending exercise: mistakes

    • 12. Dry brushing

    • 13. Dry brushing exercise: clouds

    • 14. First lesson summary

    • 15. Layering: thin to thick

    • 16. Drying times: wet to dry

    • 17. Layering exercise: white daisy

    • 18. Value change

    • 19. Light values dry darker

    • 20. Dark values dry lighter

    • 21. Palette management

    • 22. Project + closing thoughts

    • 23. Part 1 painting demo in real time

    • 24. Part 2 painting demo in real time

    • 25. Part 3 painting demo in real time

    • 26. Part 4 painting demo in real time

    • 27. Part 5 painting demo in real time

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About This Class

This class was designed with my beginner-self in mind. When I first started learning gouache, I remember how confusing the medium was and how frustrated it left me feeling whenever I tried to paint with it.

Looking back now, I realise those frustrations arose from not understanding the properties of gouache and the techniques required to use the medium.

With that in mind, I structured this class to focus on understanding three major properties of gouache:

  1. Gouache can be thinned down with water and used transparently or opaquely
  2. Gouache reactivates with water
  3. Gouache changes value from wet to dry

Having a fundamental understanding of these properties allows us to then learn the techniques required to take advantage of the properties and how to overcome the challenges they bring. The techniques I focus on teaching are:

  1. Control of water to get the right consistency
  2. Understanding layering and drying times
  3. Understanding changing values

Throughout the class there are exercises for you to follow along with, so you get a chance to practice the skill immediately. At the end of the class there is also a real time painting demonstration in which I take you through step-by-step on how to paint a seascape. This is a chance for you to put into practice all the skills taught in this class.   

My goal is to leave you feeling more confident and more excited to use gouache. It took me a while to get there but I’m hoping that by sharing all the knowledge that I gathered along the way in this class, you’re able to experience the joys of gouache much sooner. Let’s get into the class!

Easy Lemon (60 second) by Kevin MacLeod

Meet Your Teacher

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Jess Chung

Gouache Artist


Hi there! My name is Jess and I’m from Melbourne, Australia. I’m a self-taught artist aspiring to turn art into my full-time career. Since discovering gouache I have fallen in love with the medium and my goal now is to share my love for gouache with others through painting videos on my YouTube channel and more recently, teaching here on Skillshare!

To stay up to date on what I get up to, you can find me on Instagram and YouTube. I also love seeing your recreations so feel free to use #jesschungtutorials if you post your work on Instagram!

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1. Introduction: Hi there, my name is Jess and I'm a self-taught artist from Australia. I first discovered gouache about a year ago and I've since fallen in love with the medium. But it wasn't always a smooth learning journey. As a beginner, I struggled to understand many aspects of the medium such as control of water and layering light on dark. So I drew on all the mistakes I made and all the frustrations I experienced as a beginner and structured a class to address all those. I've poured all my knowledge and skills that I've learned from doing countless gouache paintings into this class. The techniques I focus on teaching are: control of water to get the right consistency, understanding layering and drying times, and understanding changing values from wet to dry. There are practical exercises along the way to help you practice each of the skills such as blending and layering light on dark. And at the very end there is a real time painting demonstration in which I take you through step-by-step on how to paint seascape. This is a chance for you to put into practice all the skills taught in this class. Whether you are an absolute beginner who has no idea where to even start, or you've been painting with gouache but have been struggling with certain aspects. This class is designed to address all those needs. With this class, I hope to leave you feeling more confident about gouache and more excited to use it. I really want to help you get the most out of the medium and truly enjoy the gouache painting experience. 2. Materials: If you paint with watercolor, you probably already have most of the supplies that you need for gouache except for gouache paint. So gouache most commonly comes in tubes. This is my preferred way of using gouache, fresh out of the tube. Some people prefer to squeeze the gouache into pans and kind of rewet as they need to use it. Something similar to this is the Miya Himi jelly gouache which I'll show you in a second. For now, I have here the Winsor and Newton designers gouache and Art Spectrum gouache. Art spectrum is an Australian brand so if you're in Australia you could probably find these in most of your local art stores. They are artist quality paints and I highly recommend them. I really enjoy using them. The Winsor and Newton paints are also amazing and you wouldn't go wrong with choosing either of these two. Of course, there are also many other brands out there that you could try. These are just the two brands that I own and that I really love using. With gouache it's a good idea to get a large tube of white because you'll be using a lot of white in your painting. So don't be surprised if white is the first tube that you use up. I've gone through many tubes of white gouache which is why I decided to get this really large 115ml tube. In terms of colors I have here the cools and warms of each of the primaries. So I have the cool yellow, warm yellow, a cool red, warm red, a cool blue, a warm blue. And then I have white and black. And I also have burnt umber. That is already more than enough for what you need to get started. If I were to keep it even more simple, I would say you really only just need the primaries. So a yellow, a blue, and a red, and then have a white and a black. And then you can have a burnt umber as well. And that's really all you need. I really caution against starting off with too many colors because not only will you feel overwhelmed but you also miss out on the opportunity to learn about color theory and to learn how to mix colors for yourself. This is the Himi gouache that I was talking about before. This has been gaining a lot of popularity in the past year so you've probably already seen them. They come in these 30ml cups of paint. I bought this set off Amazon. It comes with 18 colors, for the price It's really worth it for the amount of paint you get. I do have to say that I noticed a slight difference between the consistency of the Himi gouache and my Winsor and Newton and Art Spectrum gouache. I feel like I'm adding a bit more water to the Himi gouache when I'm working with it. Whereas with my Winsor and Newton and Art Spectrum gouache, they are more of a creamy, velvety and smooth texture, but just ever so slightly. So that's one thing to note. But otherwise, I think the Himi set is great for beginners apart from the fact that it comes with 18 colors, which is a lot. But if you want to practice your color theory and color mixing, then I suggest that you just start by using the primary colors only. And then once you start to feel more confident with your color mixing then you can use the other colors for convenience purposes. What I won't be using in today's class is acryla gouache. Acryla gouache is slightly different to traditional gouache in that once it's dry, it dries water resistant just like acrylic paint. So this is what we won't be using in this class. For brushes, you only really need two to start with, a flat brush and around brush. The one I have here is an angular shader, which doesn't really make a difference. You could either use an angular shader or just a regular flat brush. This one is the Princeton aqua elite in the half inch. Princeton make some really great synthetic brushes. I recommend using synthetic brushes with gouache. They work really well. And for the round brush, you can get one that's around a size six that should be pretty versatile. This one also is Princeton Neptune. Neptune, meaning that it's from their synthetic squirrel range, so the brushes are much softer. Here is the flat brush that I used to use. This one works just fine. I use them for painting my background. If you have the budget for a third brush, I would recommend getting a liner brush or a rigger brush. These are really good for painting fine details, and I would recommend this as opposed to getting a really small round brush. As you can see, the bristles on the small round brush, are very short, meaning it can't hold much water and much paint. So I find with these brushes, I'm often going back to my palette to try and get more paint. Whereas with the liner brush, it can hold a surprisingly good amount of paint, which means you can use it for a longer period of time before you need to go back to your palette to get more paint. When it comes to choosing a flat brush, I would recommend buying one that is quite flat, meaning you can turn it on its side and it can paint really thin strokes. I would caution against buying flat brushes like these which are quite fluffy so it doesn't allow you to do thin strokes on its sides. And I would also caution against buying brush packs like these. I bought this pack of ten for a really cheap price, but I soon realized that the quality of them weren't very good and the hairs would keep falling out. But not only that, I realized I really didn't need all of these brushes. Like I said before, you really only need two, maybe three brushes. So I would recommend investing in a few better brushes rather than getting ten different brushes when you really only need two or three. For paper, you have the option of painting in sketchbooks or on separate pieces of paper. when it comes to gouache, I'm not too picky about the type of paper I use. I've tried a few sketchbooks I can recommend. I like the Moleskine 165gsm. You want sketchbooks that can lay completely flat so you can paint on both sides of the paper easily. And this is one that I can recommend. The Hahnemuhle one is also a great sketchbook. So I would recommend anything that is at least 165gsm is good enough weight since we don't use too much water when it comes to gouache, so it's not a huge problem. I also like the Strathmore visual journal. This one was 300gsm. As a beginner, I recommend that you start off just painting on paper because you can find really affordable options. And that way you don't feel guilty about wasting pages in a sketchbook and you feel more free to just experiment and play around. The Canson XL watercolor and mixed media paper are both great options. The main difference being that the paper texture of the mixed media is a little bit different. Of course, you can also use higher-quality paper if you want. This is the Arches watercolour paper. Basically any kind of watercolor paper is suitable for gouache. For a palette, I recommend getting one that is nice and flat, so it gives you plenty of space to practice your water to gouache ratio. The one that I use has these little black stops on the back, so it doesn't move on my desk. It's also a Mijello palette. But I didn't even know that was the brand when I bought it. I was just looking for one that was nice and large and flat. I recommend this as opposed to these kinds of smaller palettes that have the wells in them. This is what I started off using as a beginner. And I found that I just struggled to practice my water to gouache ratio because with the wells, they would sometimes limit me. If I put too much water in one of the wells, it would just pool up and it just didn't help when it came to practicing control of water. So I recommend getting a nice flat palette that will give you just a lot of space to practice with. The Himi gouache palette is really great. I really like this one. It's just something flat and simple. You don't even have to go out and buy one. If you don't have one of these flat palettes you could just try the lid of a container or something if you find that you are struggling with those palettes and those wells, try something different and see if that works better for you. You will also need two jars of water. One for cleaning off your brushes and the other for clean water to dilute out your paints. For that one, I'm just using a yogurt container. I like this because it has a nice big opening, which means I can more clearly see how much water my brush is picking up when I go in to pick up some water to dilute out my paints, since I need to be quite precise with how much water I am using. I also recommend having a spray bottle. I used this to mist the paints on my palette so that they maintain their creamy and buttery consistency. When I'm using the Himi gouache I mist the paints a lot so that they don't dry in the jelly cups. And when I'm not using the Himi gouache, I also spray it every now and then and then close the lid to make sure that they're still remaining nice and wet. Lastly, you need something to dry your brushes off on, I prefer using a cloth. You could use a tea towel or anything similar. You could also use paper towels, but I just prefer this because it can hold a lot more water. So I'm not worrying about how much water is getting soaked into this cloth. Whereas with paper towels, I find that they just get soaked through really quickly and it's just something else that I have to worry about. And using this cloth just means you don't have to throw a lot of paper towel in the bin each time you have a painting session. A palette knife is optional. I like to use one only when I'm using the Himi gouache as I like to keep the colors nice and clean. So I'll use the palette knife to lift out the white and any other light colors like the yellow. 3. What is gouache?: So what is gouache? Gouache is most commonly known as an opaque watercolor, but it is used very differently to watercolour. Gouache has its own unique properties so there are different techniques that you need to use to get the most out of the medium. The similarities between gouache and watercolor in terms of use is that you can use it in thin transparent washes, just like watercolor. However, if you add less water you can use it in a more opaque consistency. This makes it possible for you to either work from light to dark or you can work from dark to light, which you typically don't do in watercolor. For this reason gouache is much more of a forgiving medium than watercolor. If you make mistakes you can generally fix or cover up the mistake by waiting for that layer to dry and then layering more paint on top. I want to focus this class on understanding three major properties of gouache and the techniques you need to use to make the most of it. So the three properties that this class will primarily focus on are firstly, gouache can be diluted with water to achieve thinner, more transparent washes or with less or no water at all for thicker opaque layers. This means that your control of water is absolutely essential to getting the most out of gouache. Secondly, gouache is resoluble, meaning it can be reactivated with water. So layering and drying times is very important. And lastly, gouache changes value from wet to dry. Typically light values, dry darker and dark values dry lighter. So this can make it difficult to match colors. This is what the bulk of our class will be focused on as I go through the different techniques to help you make the most of gouache. 4. Getting started: swatching colours: Before we get into talking more about the properties of gouache, it's good practice to just swatch out all your colors. Especially if this is your first time painting or if you just got a new set of paints. This just helps you become more familiar with the colors as it can be very overwhelming, especially if you have a lot of colors. And for this reason, I recommend that you only get a few colors to start with These are all the color swatches that I've done each time I've gotten a new set of paints. So I have ones for my poster colors, my watercolors, acryla gouache, my gouache. After I swatch them out I usually stick them to my wall or I place them somewhere where I can easily refer to them when I need. This helps me to quickly become familiar with the colors and before I even squeeze out colors from the tube, I already know in my head what they should look like. So this exercise is fairly easy. I like to also paint a black strip so that way I can test the opacity of the paints at the same time. And to paint that black strip, you can either use black acrylic paint or black acryla gouache since both of them can't be reactivated with water. So that way you won't muddy the paints you swatch on top. I designate a different brush to my acryla gouache and acrylic paint brushes because they're a little bit more harsh on the brush. So I prefer to keep them separate to my gouache brushes. After you've painted in that black strip then you're going to want to swatch out your gouache colors. Now the only thing to really keep in mind is you want to swatch them at quite an opaque consistency so you don't want to dilute it with too much water. You can also swatch them from a greater opacity to a thinner, more transparent layer if you want, but make sure that at least half of it is more of the opaque consistency. So you can get a clear look at how the color looks when it is quite opaque. We actually won't dive too much into color theory in this class, as this class is more focused on the basics of gouache, but it's still useful to get a feel for your colors. So this exercise is still useful even if we're not going to be diving really deeply into the topic of color theory. Now after you swatch them out you can label them. And what you can also do is you can label them with cool or warm. If this is not too familiar to you, you can do a quick Google search online of whether your colors are cool or warm and label them as so. This will be a handy bit of knowledge for later on. 5. Getting the right consistency: Alright, let's get into talking about the first property of gouache and what that means for us when it comes to learning how to use gouache. So I mentioned before that gouache can be diluted with water to be used in thin washes or in thick washes. That means that your control of water is essential to controlling how thin or how thick and opaque you want the paint to be. Getting the right consistency of paint is probably the hardest thing when it comes to learning gouache as a beginner. How much water should you add? What should be the ratio of water to paint? Well, there's really no golden ratio for how much water to add to paint. If we're just talking about trying to achieve that creamy, velvety, buttery kind of texture to work with, then the amount of water we add will also depend on the tube of paint we're using. For example, as I mentioned earlier, I do find that with the Himi gouache I am adding a little bit more water to achieve that same kind of creamy consistency as compared to the paints from these tubes. The consistency of paint can also vary within each brand. For example, I know that this phthalo blue is a more smooth texture. So when I squeeze this out of the tube, it tends to flow out more. So that means I use less water when it comes to trying to get that same level of consistency as if I were to use the same brand but just a different color. I noticed the same thing with the Winsor Newton paints, for example, the spectrum red is of a much more thicker consistency. When I squeeze it out, I have to use more water just to thin it down to be of the same consistency as say the primary red. So that's just something to note. And it just goes to show that there's really no golden ratio. It's about getting the feel for how much water to add, the more you play around with it, and the more you paint with gouache, you start to get a feel for how much water to add to get that perfect creamy texture. And you'll also know how little water to add if you want a more opaque consistency and you want to use some dry brushing. You will also know how much water you want to add if you really want to thin it down and work with it and thin washes. Now let's jump into a quick exercise to show the different kind of consistency we can achieve by adding varying amounts of water. 6. Control of water: For this exercise, I'm just going to be using some ultramarine blue paint. You can use any color that you have and water. The purpose of this exercise is just to see what different kinds of paint consistency we can achieve just by varying the water. So first I'll just squeeze out some of the paint. So I'm just going to be using my angular brush. You can use any kind of flat brush that you have. And I'll just soak it through with water, but we're actually going to be working from thick to thin. So I don't want this brush to be soaked through with water. I'm going to dry it off on here. So when you feel it now it should be mostly dry. But it's got a little bit of moisture from just soaking the bristles before. Then starting with that, I'm going to pick up the paint. So this is as thick as the paint will get. We really aren't adding any water to it. And what I'll do is I'll just paint on here. So I can see this consistency is very, very thick. The paint doesn't even want to spread on the paper. I have a lot of paint on my brush and it's just not spreading very far. So this is the kind of consistency would use for dry brushing. Now I'm going to slowly thin out this paint, so I'll add just a tiny bit of water. I'm just going to put my brush in there a little. I hardly picked up anything. Just get a bit more. And now I'll just mix that in. And let's see what we can paint now. So again, it's very thick. Now I'll keep thinning it out so I'll add some more water. I can start to feel that it's starting to thin out. Now this already feels a lot better. It's moving more smoothly on the paper, but it's still quite thick and I can tell because it's leaving behind brush marks. So it's leaving the brush strokes behind. Whereas usually with gouache, it should even out quite smoothly. Now I'll pick up some more water. So I'm just going to keep repeating this by just adding a bit more water each time. And now this is a really nice consistency. And some more. And I just keep adding water now it's going to start to get a lot thinner. I can see the paint is starting to glisten from the amount of water in there. And so I'll just keep doing this and just keep thinning it out and just see how thin I can go. Now I can see the water is starting to pool up on the paper because I'm using a lot of water to thin it out. So that was just a really quick and simple exercise just to practice thinning out your paint with water. So here I started off with barely any water except just a little bit of moisture on my brush. And then I slowly thinned it out until I have these really thin transparent washes. So here you can see that there's brush marks in there indicating that the paint is really thick. And here you can see through to the texture of the paper. So it's very thin. One thing to note is the less water you put in obviously the faster it will dry, the more water you have in there, the longer it will take to dry. I can see these last two that I've laid down I can still see the moisture pooling up on the paper, so it's going to take a while for it to absorb and evaporate. And we'll talk more about drying time in the next few lessons. So if I just had a look at this, I would say that these two consistencies up here. They are ideal for if you want to do dry brushing, then I would say that from here to maybe around here, this is the most ideal kind of creamy consistency that I like to work with. This is where it feels the nicest, so the paint is flowing across the page nicely, but you're still getting this really opaque look, which is what you usually build up your gouache paintings to be. And then I would say from maybe these are the kind of consistency you would use for maybe an underpainting. So you use these thin washes to start off your painting and then you layer them until it gets thicker and thicker and you may or may not get up to this thick consistency here. I generally work in around this kind of consistency. And then I would say that these two are kind of an in-between. You can see here that I'm starting to see through to a little bit of the paper. So it's probably a little bit too thin for the finished painting. And here it's quite good but I would probably be kind of working my way up. And I would land somewhere around here as the final consistency on top. And of course you can go even thinner than this as well. You can dilute it with as much water. It will just become very transparent and very thin. So you can go even thinner and do your underpaintings with an even thinner and transparent layer if you want to. 7. Thin washes: Now we'll go through each of these three paint consistencies and I'll show you how and when you'd want to use each. So starting with the thinner washes, as we covered before, you generally use a thinner wash for doing an underpainting. This just means that you continually layer more paint on top until the paint becomes more thick and opaque. So somewhere around here. And what's great about thinning down the paint is that it makes it harder for you to lift up paint from that layer because there's less pigment on the paper for you to lift up. And I'll show you with an example. So if I wanted to paint a thin wash, what I would do is I would just soak my brush through and I wouldn't have to worry about drying it off or anything because I need a lot of water. So I can go straight into the paint and you can see there's a little pool of water there. So that's what we want to do a thin wash. We want a lot of water to pigment ratio. And as we said before, you can add more water if you want it to be thinner. So I can keep adding water if I want, I can thin it out even further. So that's basically a thin wash. It's very easy. You just dilute it out with a lot of water. Now while I wait for that to dry, I'll just paint another section with more of the thicker paint, so more of that creamy velvety texture. And we'll compare how easy or hard it is to lift up paint from each of them. So on the left we have our really thin wash You can see it's very light, it's very transparent. On the right we have our more opaque consistency. And I'll let the two dry before I go in and test, how easy is it to lift up the color once it has dried. Now they have completely dried. So I'm going to go in with water and just test how much can I lift up with a wet brush. So I'm going to really soak this brush through with water. And I'll go into this thin wash first. So if I just put my brush through it, you can see no pigment really moved around at all. The edges are very clean. If I do it again, it picks up some of the pigment as I bring it all the way through. But it's really hardly anything, I can scrub my brush like this and really nothing is getting picked up off the paper. Hardly any pigment is getting lifted. And that's because there wasn't much pigment to begin with since we diluted the paint out with a lot of water. Now, I'm going to do the same thing to this right side where We use a lot less water, so there's a lot more pigment on the paper and I would expect that the paint will lift up if I were to go through it with a really wet brush. So if I do the same thing and I just go through like this, you can see that pigment is being dragged right through and a lot more of it is coming out. And if I do that same scrubbing, I would expect a lot of paint to be lifted as I scrub it. So what that goes to show is that it's very easy to cover up any mistakes from your underpainting. It's very easy to cover it with more opaque paint without having to worry too much about the color from here lifting up since there's much less pigment on the paper. So the purpose of an underpainting using thin washes is just to cover the white of your paper to block it all in, mark out roughly where the positioning of everything is going, the composition. And then you can build up your layers with more and more opaque paint, which is the whole purpose of this exercise to show that you go from these thin washes and you build it up with more and more opaque paint without having to worry about the layers from here lifting up too much. I'll show you an example of two paintings I did, where I used a thin underpainting to cover the entire page. And then I built on top of it with more and more opaque paint. So in this first one you can see the underpainting is very rough. I've just blocked in all the colors. And then as I continue through the painting, I'm adding more and more opaqueness to it and I start to carve out the positioning of each of the shapes and I start to flesh out all of the details and same with this one, it's very rough at the start. That's because I know I'll build more on top of it and I'll position everything as I go through the painting. And then I build it up to an opaque layer at the very end. So the most important takeaway from this short lesson is that by adding more water to your gouache paint, you're making the paint more transparent. I know we've already illustrated this, but I think it's a really important point to emphasize because it just goes to show the importance of control of water when you paint with gouache. And it's a mistake I made a lot as a beginner. I fell into the trap of using water to lighten the color of my paint without being aware that I was making it transparent. And that makes a huge impact on what happens to the rest of your painting. So typically in watercolor, you do lighten the color by diluting it with water. But that's because watercolor is a transparent medium. So water is what you use to control the lightness and darkness of the color. However, gouache is an opaque medium, while it can be used transparently like this, typically we build it up in layers until it builds up to more of an opaque layer. So the takeaway from this lesson is just understanding how diluting your paint with too much water makes it more transparent like this. And we'll go into more detail about controlling your water to create this smooth, velvety texture in the next lesson. 8. Blending: how I get smooth blends: I often get asked about how I achieve really smooth blends in gouache, for example, in these paintings, you can see that I've painted a really smooth transition from dark to light. I can transition smoothly between these dark colors to lighter colors. And I really enjoy the way that I work to create these smooth blends. It actually feels quite effortless. So I'm excited to show you how I actually do it. So you can see here I go from this pink to a lighter color to a peachy orange. And then I can continue to transition it to a slightly warm orange. And same with here. I can go from blue to yellow with a really soft green in between. The trick to achieving the smooth blends is knowing what kind of consistency you want to work in. So if we take a look at the exercise we did before, this is where I want to work. I'm working in this smooth, velvety texture and this consistency here, if I'm working in this thin consistency here, I can't achieve that same look, that same creaminess and opaqueness that I can when I'm painting my smooth sky blend. So just keep in mind, this is where we want to work. 9. Blending exercise 1: simple gradient: Let's do an exercise to help us practice blending. So I've just taped down some paper with masking tape. Here I have two jars of water. This one will be for cleaning my brushes off in, and this is clean water to help me just dilute out the paints. And then I've just got my cloth that I'm going to put here. And I'm going to use again my angular brush. This is what I usually use for painting backgrounds. I also suggest a flat brush of some type so you can cover a decent amount of the painting. We'll start off with only using one color, so blue, and then we'll use the white to help us lighten the color. I'm going to need more white, so I'll just squeeze out a little bit more. And I can also squeeze out more later if I need to. As always, I just start by soaking my brush through, but I'll always wipe off the excess. Then I will go into the blue. And I'll pick up some of the white as well. This is where you can just get a feel for the consistency. Do you feel like it's quite smooth If not, you can dip your brush into some of the clean water and thin it out a little bit. And here's where you can test it out on your paper. So it's not spreading too far. I can tell that when I do this, because of this streakiness, it means I need to first thin down my paints, but also I probably need more paint as well because if I keep thinning it down, it's going to become really transparent. So I want to keep that opacity but just get it to spread further. So what I'll do is I'll get some more paint. And then I'm going to pick up some more water. And now I'm getting a much better coverage. And the paint is still opaque. So what you don't want to do is you don't want to thin your paint out a lot just so it can spread, but see how transparent that one is. So that's not what we want to do. We want to thin it down so that it will spread, but we have to continue to add in paint so it doesn't become transparent. So it should flow across the page nicely without being too thin. And then as I move down, I'm just going to keep adding white. So I need to add more white And you want to work relatively quickly because it's much easier to blend while the paint is still wet. So I'll keep adding in white It's getting a bit thick. So I'll add a bit of water. And I can tell I'm going to need to squeeze out some more white paint soon. I'm going to pick up some more white and some more water. And what I'll also do is I'll just look up here and I'll see the transitions a little bit harsh here. So I might go back into my slightly darker paints and just rework a bit of the area. Sometimes I have to go over the whole thing so that I can still get that smooth transition. And I'm just moving my brush back and forth like this. And because the consistency of my paint is that smooth, creamy texture, when I move my brush back and forth, I am able to blend the paint and the pigment on the paper. If it was too thin, then I wouldn't be able to blend it because it would have just soaked into the paper. So at this stage, I tend to wash off my brush. And the reason I do this is because I want to just go into my clean white paint and lay that on the paper and start to keep transitioning into a lighter color. So once the paint starts to not cover all of the paper, I can see those gaps in between. That's when I know I need to add more water in. And once I add more water, it will start flowing smoothly again. So we can just cover the rest of the paper with this and that's all I really do to get this smooth transition. I'm maintaining the same level of opacity by using white instead of water to lighten the color. And that means there's a lot of paint on the paper for me to blend as I move my brush back and forth a lot. Now if there's any areas that look particularly harsh, you can go back and fix it. So let's say I wanted to fix this area. I can go back with some of the paint from before. This does get trickier as the paint starts to dry. So you want to be quick when it comes to making these decisions. It's best to do it while the paint is still wet. And sometimes it might be better just to leave it because you might actually overdo it if you tried to fix it, it can be tricky. And we'll also talk about how to fix mistakes later as well. 10. Blending exercise 2: advanced gradient: Let's practice blending again. This time it's going to be a bit harder. We're going to try and do this one. So there's going to be two, maybe three colors involved. So we're going to learn to transition between different colors and to go from dark to light to dark again. I'm going to use primary red, permanent yellow deep, and a bit of the primary blue. You can use any color combination you'd like. So I'm starting off with the same brush and just soaking it through, taking out any of the excess moisture. And we'll start with the primary red up here. I just want to mix a pinkish purple. So taking a bit of the white, and I'll mix in some of the blue. Now I can feel the paint is quite dry, so I'll just go into the clean water, thin it out a little. This is where I'm just testing the color and testing the consistency of the paint, is it too thin, is it too thick. It's usually a bit too thick, so I tend to get more water. But at the same time, I also add in more paint. Now it's flowing across the page quite nicely. It's maybe a little bit too thin, so I'll just add in some more white. Then I can just keep going. And the transitions here are quite quick. So I already want to start lightening this color. What I do is I wash off my brush because i have too much of this strong pinkish purple on my brush at the moment, no matter how much white I use, it's going to still be quite strong. So It's better to just wash it off and pick up some clean white so that way you're not wasting a lot of white paint. So after I wash it off, I just take off that excess moisture. And if I just go into the white paint, just the pure white paint and I start placing that here because the paint is still wet. I can actually blend that really nicely right there. And I'll just adjust as I need. So maybe I feel like I need a bit more of that color. And just so the transition here is quite harsh, so I will go back into this darker color. Now, I actually wash my brush off quite often when I'm doing this. Because I can tell that I have too much of that light paint on my brush. So what I'll do is I'll just clean it off and now I can just blend that out. If I left that paint on there, that would get up there and it would lighten everything. Whereas with a clean brush, I can blend without putting more of that lighter paint on the paper. Okay, so I wash off my brush again and I'm going to continue. So I'm going to need more white. And now I really am just picking up mostly pure white, it's a little bit too light. So I will continue with this and then I'll just bring it down. So it's already transitioning into peachy orange. But again, I just saw that I brought my white up a bit too high. So what I do is I just wash off my brush, take off the excess moisture, and just blend that out while it's still wet. And I'm going to leave that now I don't want to let my brush go up here again or else I'll have to fix it up. So I'm going to clean up my brush once again. So you see I clean off my brush a lot when I'm doing this and I'm going to mix that peachy orange color now, so I'll need some of the yellow and I've run out of white, so I'll get some more of that. I'm going to need a bit more water. Pick up that white, mix it with the yellow and maybe just a bit of that pink so that we can get a gradual transition. I'm going to need it to be a lot lighter, so I'm gonna go into the white and then we can brush that in maybe a bit more water, it's not spreading as much as I'd like. And I'll move it down. The transition is quite harsh, but I'll come back and fix that up because I want to keep moving down while I can. So it's going to get darker. So I add in more of the permanent yellow deep and just gradually bring it down. That was a bit too much so I'll add in more white. So you can see I'm just adjusting as I go. If it's too dark, I just add in more white. If it's not dark enough, I'll add in the color. As long as you're working relatively quickly, you can get these smooth blends. Get some more water, some more paint, some more of that peachy color. And it's just spreading really nicely across the page, which is what I want. Now to blend out these two parts. I'm going to need more white in between. It's a little bit thick, so maybe more water. And there I have this really smooth blend. And then I can continue down here. So I go back into my darker paint. A bit more water. And the more you do this, the more you'll get a feel for when you need to add water, how much water to add Generally, when I go get the water, it's just barely touching my brush, I just get a little bit. So that way I'm not adding too much at once. It's always easier to add more water than it is to try and take out water if you've added too much. And again, to blend out this bit, I kinda just mix the in-between color and just go over that. And there's a really smooth blend again. And I can just make my way down to the bottom. And that has just blended itself out because the consistency of paint I'm using allows me to do that. If there was too much water or not enough water, I wouldn't be able to just run my brush back and forth like this and let it all blend together. Now we can go back and fix up this line so I'll wash off my brush completely. Sometimes I give it a second wash here and dry it off. So I can try and just use this brush that's clean has a tiny bit of moisture on it and just try and soften the edge like that. So I don't have any paint on here. Just using the water since gouache can be reactivated with water, I'm reactivating the paint and just blending it out. You do have to be careful that you don't have too much water on your brush. And you want to be quite, gentle here. Now this might not always work. I'm going to wash off my brush again because I can see that the brush has picked up some of the paint and I don't want to keep dragging that back and forth, so I'll just wash it off. And repeat. Now you do have to be gentle because sometimes you might actually end up picking up too much paint or the paper can start to flake a little if you have too much water and you're rubbing it back and forth like this too much. There is a bit of a fine line between how much you can do this. It kind of worked in this situation, but I can see a little bit harsh here. So what I'll do then is I'll just try and mix that color again. And I'll blend it out as best as I can. So that's looking quite good actually. I might mix a bit of the darker paint on top and just blend out that very top bit. And I think that's good, that looks quite smoothly blended out to me. I like the transitions in here. It's gone from like a purpley pink, to a much lighter color, almost a white, and then it goes to a much warmer, orange again. So here we have the two pieces we just practiced. First one being a little bit easier. We're just using blue and white. The second one being a little bit harder when you have to transition between different colors. But you can see I've just used the same technique. The most important thing is your consistency of paint. So if we look at this again, this is where we want to be. We don't want to be working here. We want to be working here. We also don't want it to be too dry because then the paint won't spread on the paper. So this is most ideal for getting those smooth blends. 11. Blending exercise: mistakes: Now I know I've already emphasized this a lot, but I just want to quickly show you an example of what happens when you don't quite get the control of water right. And you start diluting your paint with too much water. And I'll also show you how you can fix it if that does happen. So the first mistake that I think typically happens and that I was guilty of is starting off with too little paint. So I used to use only a tiny bit of paint because I thought these paints were really precious and really expensive. So I would start off with a little bit of paint. And then what would happen is I would start adding water and I would use only what I have here. And I will just try to get the most out of that. And we can see how, how thin this already is. So this is what I would do. And I would think that as long as the paint is spreading, then that means I'm doing a good job. But I didn't realize how transparent and how thin I was making this. So this gives us a completely different result to if we were using more paint and more white paint to lighten it, rather than just using water. So if maybe I recognized that I had too little paint, I would squeeze out a little bit more and then I would continue to dilute it because I was trying to get the most out of my paint. I would try to darken this area. And then I'd use maybe a bit of white. And this is what I did as a beginner. I would not be aware of how, how using water, or how controlling water makes a huge difference. So I might end up with something like this. Which now when I look back on, I can clearly see that there's barely any pigment on the paper. If this did happen to you or if this is what you did do. Or maybe you're following along with my examples and you find that your result looks more something like this, well you can continue to build up the layers until you achieve that creamy opacity, that creamy velvety texture and that more opaque consistency. So you can let it dry or we can continue working with it and just build up the layers while it's still wet since we do need to blend out the sky anyways. So what I'll do now is firstly, I'm going to squeeze out some more paint because that's clearly not enough for us to work with. And what I'll say about these tubes of paint is that even though they may seem small, they actually last a very long time. So don't be afraid of feeling like you're wasting paint if you squeeze out a bit more. I've had this set for a year now and at one point, I was using it on a daily basis and I still have this much left. So don't be worried about wasting paint. Usually I will reactivate the paint on my palette if it does dry out. So I really don't waste too much paint when it comes to gouache. So squeeze out more if you need to. Now I have a lot more paint, a lot more pigment. And it feels so much better to work with already. Because I used so much water before I can see the paper starting to lift off the table and it's forming this curve. So if you notice that happening to your paper, that's also a sign that you could be using too much water. And I'm going to need more white. You can see that when I'm building up the opacity, it doesn't mean that I'm not using water. I'm still using a fair amount of water, but I'm just adding in a lot more paint to it. And it feels so much better using white to lighten the color than it does using water. I'm getting this really creamy texture here and it's just blending and flowing across the page so nicely. Alright, so this is what you should end up with once you put more paint into it and control your level of water. And this is quite perfect. I can see it's very, very opaque. It's very nice to look at. It's much nicer than that transparent layer from before. So that's an example of what could potentially go wrong if you don't control your water and how you can fix it and continue to work with it. 12. Dry brushing: Now let's look at this much thicker consistency. So what I labeled as dry brushing. Dry brushing is really as the name suggests, it's using a dry brush, going into the paint and painting with that. So hardly any water. Now, I don't quite like to just go in with a completely dry brush. I still like to do what I usually do, which is just soak it through and then I'll just take off all of the excess. So I'm wiping off most of the moisture. I just don't like the feeling of going in with a completely dry brush. But now when I touch this, it's almost dry. It's just not completely dry. If that makes sense. You just want that tiny, tiny bit of moisture in here. Okay, so then what you do is you just go into the paint and you can still control the amount of moisture, or the amount of water in this, there's varying levels of dry brushing. This is probably as dry as it would get. So if I just move that on the paper, It's gonna give me a scratchy kind of look. Now depending on what you're trying to paint or what kind of textures you're trying to create. This could be useful for you. I think dry brushing is all about creating texture. So I think this is a little bit too dry. I'm just going to add a bit of water. And I can get some kind of texture like this now. So that's what dry brushing is. And I'll show you some of my favorite ways of using this technique to get the most out of it. One of my favorite ways of using dry brushing is to paint clouds. So here in this painting I've painted these really wispy clouds. And I really just used a dry brush and white paint. And I just control the amount of moisture in that brush. And I could just drag it across the paper and create these really nice natural looking clouds. And same with the clouds in the reflection here, I also used the same technique to create these. In this painting I used the same technique to paint these wispy clouds along here. And the good thing about dry brushing is because there's less moisture in the brush, I can use lighter colors to go over darker colors without worrying too much about it lifting up the paint from underneath as we talked about before. The more pigment there is in that previous layer, the more easily it'll be lifted up if you go in with a wet brush. So by using dry brushing, you're not really going to pick up colors from underneath because you hardly have any water in your paint brush when you're doing dry brushing Another example of when I like to use dry brushing is to paint water so it can give you this really natural foam look. So when I painted these waterfalls I used a really thin brush and white paint. And I just dragged it across the paper and it gave me this really natural looking water. And same with this waterfall as well. You can see it gives me this natural looking texture that's perfect for painting water. Let's jump into an exercise to practice this technique and paint some clouds using dry brushing. 13. Dry brushing exercise: clouds: For this exercise, we'll only need white paint for the clouds and just a round brush. So I have here an already painted smooth sky transition. And now we're going to paint the clouds on top. So you want to start with a dry brush, like we said before, one where there's hardly any moisture in it. And then you can go into your paint. And as I said before, there is still a certain level of control to the amount of water you are putting in here. So I'll just test it out here. I can see this is quite good. So it's not too dry that it's not spreading. But it's dry in the sense I can see it's giving me a wispy texture. So I am going to continue without adding any more water. And I'm going to just start placing in where I think the clouds should go. Now sometimes you might see that it's giving you a really wispy texture and maybe you want that up here so you can go in here and start adding it in. So while you have that texture on your brush, you want to make the most of it and start to use it. So I still haven't added any water to my brush just going back into the paint. And that's what's allowing me to do these really wispy brush strokes. You might also notice that your paint dries out faster because we're not adding any water to it. So what I might do is I'll add a little bit of water. And I want to paint this area with a bit more of a runny white, not so thick and wispy. And I'll just go really slowly with the water. If you add too much water at once not only is it hard to undo what you did, but you're likely to start picking up that blue paint from underneath. The only reason we've been able to layer white on like this so cleanly is because our paint is so thick that there's no water to reactivate the blue underneath. I find this process quite fun actually because it feels like these clouds are just coming to life. And all I'm doing is just using white paint. So I really enjoy creating these textures on the paper, which make them look just like clouds. It does still take a little bit of practice though. There is that fine line between just a tiny bit too much water and just that perfect amount of dryness that gives you this wispy look. So it does take a bit of practice. But once you get the hang of it, it's really fun to do. So I'm only adding in a bit of water when I find that the paint really isn't, isn't moving on the paper. And for some areas that are a bit more opaque, you can go in with a second layer. That was a little bit too thick we'll come back and fix that up. I'm going to use that excess paint over here. So I'm taking off all that paint on my brush. And then I'll go in and fix that area where I accidentally put too much paint in one go. But first I just want to use up what I have since it's giving me that perfect wispy look. Okay, now I'll try and just take a bit of that out. Just try and spread it out a little bit so it's not too thick in that one spot. And that looks okay to me already. So I'll leave that. And I'll just keep working on these areas. And what I'm using to paint is actually the belly of the brush. So I was holding the brush like this. And on the surface side you can see that I'm mostly using this area to paint. I'm not using just the tip of the brush. I'm really using most of the belly of the brush and And dragging it flat across the paper. So I'm not so much doing it like, like this. I am doing it more like this. So it allows me to drag the paint. So when I go to pick up the paint, my brush is more so flat than vertical. I pick up the paint like this so that the belly of the brush can get a lot of paint. And then I can start dragging that paint across the paper. When I go to add the water though, I pick it up with the very tip of my brush. When I pick up water it's going straight vertically in like this and I pick up just a tiny, tiny bit of water on the tip and just use what I get. And if I want thinner strokes, sometimes I'll turn my brush on the side since it's gone quite flat from all the action. So I go on the side and I get a thin stroke like this. So there's a bit of brush manoeuvring as well. Use the brush to your advantage to help you create these textures. So for thinner strokes I'll turn my brush on its side. I think that's quite good for our clouds. It looks quite realistic to me. Just by using white paint and these dry strokes, we've really created this illusion of these clouds that are spreading out across the paper. So that's why I really love this technique. It's really easy to do once you get the hang of it and it makes these clouds look really realistic. And as I said before, you can use it for other subjects, other elements as well. Like waterfalls, I love using the dry brushing technique. So whenever you discover a texture that is similar to something like this, you can use this technique to paint. 14. First lesson summary: So we made it through our first major lesson, which is really just focusing on understanding control of water and how and when you would use each of these consistencies. Once you get a better feel for how much water to add when you want to achieve each of these. It makes painting with gouache so much more fun because it's really all about understanding the properties of gouache and how to use it to your advantage so you can get the most out of it. We're not saying that any of these are wrong. It's just that when you are not aware of how to use it, you'll start doing things and expecting results that are different to what you're expecting. So I hope that you learned something from this first lesson and that you are able to understand or practice some other techniques that I've shared. If you've only been watching along, I really recommend that you follow along with the exercises and try and recreate these like I've done, this will be really beneficial as you'll actually get to practice the skills. 15. Layering: thin to thick: Our next lesson focuses on the second property of gouache that I mentioned at the beginning of this class, which is that gouache is resoluble, meaning that once dry it can be reactivated with water. So there are two things we need to watch out for here. Firstly, your layering techniques and secondly your drying times. So by that I mean the drying stages from wet to dry. We'll first look at layering. In the last lesson, I mentioned how with gouache you need to work from thinner layers up to thicker layers So that way you're less likely to reactivate the layers from underneath with more water because the thicker your paint gets, the less water there is in your brush. I'm going to do a simple exercise to illustrate this example. So here I've painted two very thin washes. And then down here I have two thicker washes. With the thinner washes, I'll show how if you go in with thin paint on this, it doesn't make too much of a difference because since these washes are so thin, there's not much pigment on there. So even if your brush is wet, it's unlikely to lift up the paint from underneath. So on the left I'll use some thin paint to wash across the top of this and on the right I'll use some thick paint. And we'll see what the difference is. I'm going to use a lighter color, so I'll just use a yellow so we can see how this darker blue paint affects the lighter yellow paint on top. So I'll first just soak my brush through and since I want a very thin wash, I'll just pick up some paint and I'll just thin it out some more so I can get quite a thin wash. Now, if I just paint across here with this thin wash. So I don't have to worry about the moisture or the water on my brush reactivating the layer underneath because that layer underneath is really thin already. There's not much pigment to pick up or to reactivate. Now I'm going to use thicker paint and paint the same thing on the right-hand side. So I'm going to use a lot more paint. And again, because that wash it so thin, I shouldn't need to worry about reactivating it with this second layer. So the only difference here is with the thinner wash on the left-hand side, the yellow is just a lot more transparent, which means a lot of the blue underneath will show through. So it makes the yellow look a little bit green because blue and yellow mix green. And on the right-hand side we've got a much more opaque yellow. And the more opaque we make it, the more bright and vibrant the yellow will be. Now let's look at these thick washes. What happens if we do the same thing? So on the left-hand side, I am again going to do a really thin wash. So I have quite a bit of water on my brush. Now the yellow is not really showing up because I had a lot of water on there. Let's do the same example on the right-hand side and I'll use some thicker paint. So now I've loaded up my brush with a lot more thicker paint and I'm just working a bit more slowly so I can get good coverage. So I'm just trying to show that it is possible to lay your light colors on top of dark colors as long as your paint is getting thicker, in consistency as you move up in layers. So on the left-hand side, the yellow is hardly even showing up because I did dilute it with a lot of water. And that means it's really transparent, but also it's reactivating the blue underneath so it's going to mix into a green. On the right-hand side, I used really opaque paint so the yellow is still able to be quite vibrant. So if again, I used some really wet paint on the left-hand side and I just scrub my brush like this, you'll see that I start to get green because the amount of moisture in my brush is reactivating that blue. So I'm essentially mixing the yellow and blue to make green. Now on the right-hand side, as long as I use thicker paint. And I'm more careful to not reactivate the previous layer, then I can still get that vibrant, opaque yellow on top. So this example was again just to quickly illustrate the importance of layering from thin to thick, which just means from using more water to less water. 16. Drying times: wet to dry: The second thing we have to watch out for is the drying times in gouache. So by that I mean we have here some dry paint. And then if I were to paint on some more here I would have paint that is in its drying stages. So it's starting to dry. And then if I lay on some fresh paint, I have my perfectly wet paint. So I have wet paint, paint that's drying and paint that's dry. Now, I feel like the drying stages in gouache are not as dangerous as they are in watercolor. I just think of it as I have completely dry paint and then I have wet paint. So I really only think of it in two stages. Whereas I know in watercolor, there's those tricky stages where it's almost dry but not quite dry. And if you paint during that stage, you're likely to get bleeds in your painting. But with gouache, it's not as particular. So I just simplify it to two stages. You have your wet stage and you dry paint. When your paint is completely dry, that's a pretty safe zone for you to work in, as long as you use some techniques, like the ones in the last lesson where we layer thicker paint on top and some more techniques I'll show you in this lesson. Then you can be pretty safe that your gouache will be ok and it won't muddy too much. Then we also have the wet stages here, and this is where it's a little bit tricky if you want your gouache to not muddy and blend with the new layer on top, then you don't want to be working in the wet stages. But when you do want your paint to bleed and to blend smoothly, you want to work while it's wet. And we'll go through this in this lesson. Let's do an example of what wet on wet in gouache means. So wet on wet means if I lay down some wet paint now, if I lay down some wet paint and then I squeeze out some white paint onto my palette. And I go in with that white. And I try to paint on top of here. This is wet on wet. And you'll see that the paint very much bleeds. So in this wet stage, it's impossible to get a clean, crisp white line on top when the layer beneath is wet And you're going in with more wet paint. This is wet on wet. Now let's look at what wet on dry means. So this paint here has dried now and I'm going to go in with my wet paint and try and layer some clean white lines on top of this dry paint. So what I'll do here is I'll just pick up some of the white. And now you can see I'm able to get a much more crisp line. So this is essentially wet on dry. Now as we talked about in the previous lesson about how the paint needs to get thicker as you move up, the paint I'm using here is quite thick. If I were, for example, to thin out this paint, let's see what would happen. So now I'm going to pick up more water and dilute out the white. So I'm using a thinner layer. And if I go in now you can see it's not going to be opaque. So it's not as opaque. So I can't get that clean white and it's going to start reactivating that blue. Another thing to note is if I were to paint in a stroke and I wasn't too happy with the outcome and I try to do it again. This will also cause the blue to reactivate as you're continuously putting that moisture onto that blue and you are continuously trying to reactivate it by doing multiple strokes. So it's best to just do one clean stoke. A few other things to note is the longer the length of the stroke, the more likely it is to bleed. So if I were to do little dots, I'm able to get really clean white dots here because I'm hardly dragging my brush across the paint at all. If I were to do a really long stroke, the chances of it reactivating the paint is much more likely. So this one was okay, the paint just started to taper out towards the end as I ran out. But I can see here it is a little bit more blue than it is at the start. So we can do this one more time. So again, if I do a really long stroke, it starts off really opaque. And then the more I drag it, the more slightly blurry it becomes, it might not be too obvious on camera. But I can see here it goes from really opaque to starting to blend a bit with the blue. So what you can do here is similar to over here where if you make a mistake or you feel like the white is not crisp enough, instead of going back to do it again and again, if I were to continue to play with the end of that line. So if I was unhappy with it and I continued to try and fix it, I'm likely to reactivate that layer underneath. So what you should do is just wait for it to dry. And it's the same thing when it comes to layering light colors on top of really dark paint. Sometimes you need two, maybe even three layers for that light color to really become opaque and vibrant on top. So we can use this to try and fix up the mistakes up here. So let's say the first time around, I wasn't patient enough and I went in to wet paint with my wet brush and this is the result. Now what I can do is after it has completely dried, I can go in and fix it up. Now this is only possible because the layer beneath is completely dry. If I was trying to do this while it was wet it would just become a muddy mess. So now I'm able to fix up all of these. So this is a good sign. It just shows that gouache, is quite forgiving as a medium. If you make mistakes, you can cover it up as long as you're a little bit patient and wait for the paint to dry. And then you use the techniques I'm using, more dry paint on top, so more thicker paint on top. And if you find that maybe this still isn't opaque enough for you, you can let it dry again. So wait for it to dry completely and then go in with a third layer. The paint does tend to build up and get quite thick though. So you do have to be a little bit careful. And we can do the same down here. So if we want to fix up this line, you can just go in with a second layer. And maybe halfway through we actually need some more paint. And we can get a much cleaner white line. So far we've only looked at layering on top, what about when we paint side-by-side. So let's take a look at what happens when we put wet paint next to wet paint. So if I just paint in some blue again here. Now if I don't wait for that to dry and I decide I want some yellow paint next to it. You're gonna get this edge that bleeds. Because as the yellow touches the blue, it's going to start to bleed. So each time that yellow touches that wet blue paint ever so slightly, that blue is going to bleed over into the yellow. So that's the same as in watercolor. If you paint wet next to wet that water will travel to wherever the next wet area is, or that paint will go towards where that wet area is. And that's a slight similarity between gouache and watercolor, if you put a wet stroke next to wet paint, they will bleed together. Now this isn't always a bad thing. Let's say I do the same thing. And then I go in with my yellow paint. But actually what I want to do is I actually do want that blend. So I can actually use this to my advantage and I can play around. So I can get this misty effect. Or I can just get a really smooth transition if I just keep moving it around. If I do want to transition it to yellow, I could wash off my brush. And first I'm going to try get a smooth transition first. You can see it's bleeding really nicely now. And if I wash off my brush and I put in some more yellow. So now I've used it to my advantage, I actually got a really nice smooth blend. So this is the fun thing about gouache. Once you understand its properties, you can have a lot of fun with it because you can then use it to how you would like. But let's say you don't actually want the paint to bleed. So I'll just paint some more of this. And you've probably already guessed it all we have to do is just wait for this to dry completely before we go in with any paint next to it. Now this happened to me quite often as I was learning how to paint, when I was painting sometimes I wasn't quite patient enough and I would try to start painting in the details next to some paint I just laid down. And then this was the result. Obviously the paint started to bleed, but now I find that gouache actually dries quite quickly, it dries fast enough so that when I work on one area, as long as I leave it for a little bit, I go off and work on another area. By the time I come back, it's pretty much ready for me to start layering more paint on top without worrying about it being wet. So it's not too much of an issue as long as you are aware of this and you practice a little bit of patience, it should be fine. While we wait for that paint to dry. I just want to show what happens if you actually do want to reactivate dry paint. So you can also use this to your advantage. It's not always a bad thing that dry paint can be reactivated in gouache. So let's say I paint in some paint here. And then maybe below it, I'll paint in another color so I'll wash off my brush. So I'm going to paint in some pink underneath. So I'll let that dry and then we can come back and work on this area now that it has dried. So this part is dried. So let's say we want to paint that same yellow just beneath it. We can just do the same thing as before. So we go into our yellow paint. And this time, if we paint the yellow next to it, even if we touched the blue, it's not going to bleed, it might overlap and give us a bit of green, but it's not bleeding, which is the main thing. So that's an example of how you can overcome this issue of the paint bleeding when it's wet on wet side-by-side and just wait for it to dry. And it's also an example of how you can use it to advantage as well. You can use it to create really smooth blends. Now this last example, we're going to look at what's the advantage of being able to reactivate paint that's dry. So here I've painted blue and I've painted pink. And once it's completely dry, I'll go in and see if I can actually blend this out just by reactivating the paint. I've got my brush here that is a little bit wet, it's got a bit of moisture in it. And I'm going to try to just use the moisture on this brush to reactivate this paint. So as I lay it on, I can see that it's doing something. I'm actually going to get a bit more water and I think I'll need some of the paint to help me. So I've picked up some of the paint now, some of the pink just to help me. Because if I keep going over it with just a clean brush, I'll start to scrape up too much of the paint. So all I did was go in with a wet brush with a little bit of the pink. I just picked up some of the pink. And this is what I can get. I am starting to get it to blend together. So this right now isn't a perfect blend, but if you work at it, you definitely can keep going and get a much smoother blend. But this is something that's really great about gouache, the fact that you can go back and you can fix it up. So it means that you can take your time with your paintings. If your paint has dried on the paper, it's not permanent and you can reactivate it. You can keep working it to your advantage. 17. Layering exercise: white daisy: Now it's time to put everything we've learned in this lesson into practice by painting a white daisy on a black background. This is going to be quite challenging. But if we can do this, then it means that we have a pretty good grasp of our layering and drying times techniques that we need to use to achieve this. So I've just painted in a bit of a black background. It has completely dried. And now we can start painting in the daisy. So I'm going to be using permanent yellow deep, so just a warm yellow color. And I'll also be using burnt umber. And then for the petals, I'll be using white And I might need a bit of black later to mix some gray. But for now we just need these three colours. Once I have my colors ready, I just soak through my round brush and then I take off any excess moisture. So remember, we need our layer to be quite thick, so not as much water in it because we want to be very careful not to reactivate this black paint underneath. And one way you can test the moisture in your brush is just to use your fingers so I just gently do this. and by doing this I'm also taking out any of the moisture if there is still some. But when I do this, I can feel that there's really nothing coming out. So it's almost a dry brush it's just got a tiny bit of moisture in it. And I prefer to start off with it being more dry and add more water as I need, rather than accidentally having too much water and then accidentally muddying the paint. So I like to go from more dry to adding more water as I need. Now we can go into some of the warm yellow. And I'll mix it with some of the white. And I can just test it out. So let's say I just want to paint the center. I think it's okay. I could probably add a bit of water to it. And I'm being very careful here. I'm almost dabbing on the paint because I don't want to move it around too much. I can see it is starting to pick up a bit of the black. So I'm going to be extra careful, might go into the burnt umber and I'll just start painting in some of the darker colors first. So this part is sort of in shadows, so want to paint it a bit darker here. I can see this is going to be very tricky, so I'll wash off my brush and I'll just leave that area as it is. I might actually let that dry as the first layer. While I wait for that to dry, I'll just mix up some more paint so I'll use some of the warm yellow. Just pick that up and just get it ready for when I want to start painting again. So let's try layering on some more of that paint. Being careful I'm really using a dabbing motion on the paper. And in the center of the flower, it gets a bit darker. So I'll pick up some of the burnt umber. And I want to mix a darker orange. Okay, this center is not going to be too perfect because this is quite tricky. I think I'll leave that for now and we can work on the petals, so I'll just wash off my brush. And now it's time to pick up the white. So just before I just did this with my brush to take off any of the excess moisture after wiping it off on my towel and then go into the white and I'll make sure it's quite a thick consistency, not too runny. And then let's try painting some petals. I'm going to do one clean stroke and I won't touch it again. Because if I keep going back and forth, that will just make it muddy with the black. So one clean stroke at a time. The petals are a little bit shorter from this perspective. So make sure the ones pointing downwards are just a bit shorter. And each time I do a petal, I actually go back into my white paint. So each time I paint a petal, I will go back in here, pick up some fresh paint, and again, go back into the white, pick up some fresh paint. And I do this because I want to make sure there is more than enough white paint on my brush. I don't want it to get to a point where it's just very thin paint and then that starts to muddy with the black underneath. So I'm doing clean single strokes and picking up more paint each time as I go. So I think we're doing quite good here. The white is very opaque, so that's good. This is definitely very tricky to do. Now, I can see that they're not perfect. Some of them are not perfectly opaque. But this is not the stage where I want to go in and fix it. This is the stage where I want to let it dry, kind of let it seal in that layer and then go back if I need to with a second layer of white. So we'll let the petals there just dry and we can maybe go back and work on the center of the flower a bit more. So I'll wash off my brush. And what I'll do now is I think I'll pick up some of the brown and some more of the orange. And I just want to paint in a bit of the shadows. So I want to fill in some of the gaps that I can see between the petals and the center. And just round it out. And then do the same with the top. So I'm going to wash off my brush. And I'll pick up some of the yellow. And I'll just round out this area. Going to be careful and just use a dabbing motion. The paint is quite thick on my paper, but it does need to be in order for me to not lift up that black. Now the white petals have mostly dried. So what I'm going to do is I've got a bit of black on my palette. I'm just going to mix a gray, that's a little bit too dark. I'm going to add a lot more white into it. And these grayer petals are just for painting in some petals that are more in shadow. So I'll paint these in, in between the white petals. So by doing this, we can add some depth to this flower, because as you can see in that reference, we have petals that are on top of one another. So those that are below are more gray, they're more in shadow. So we can just go in and fill out those spaces in between. And just and then what I'll do is I'll wash off my brush and go back into the white paint again. And I will just go over some petals that I felt like weren't opaque enough. And I can just finalize the shape of my flower. And that's really all there is to it. I think we've done a pretty good job here. I'm quite happy with how it turned out. It's quite opaque, it's very clean, not much muddying at all. And this is very difficult to do to try and paint clean white on top of black. And as always, I like to show an example of what could potentially go wrong. So I'm going to do this again, but I'll show you all the mistakes that could happen along the way and how you could fix it. So the first mistake generally is that you haven't waited for the black to dry. So if I go in and paint that black background again. But let's say this time I didn't wait for it to dry completely and I tried to go in and start painting. I'll pick up the yellow. And I'll start trying to paint the center. If I zoom right in you can see that yellow is hardly showing up because the black is still wet every stroke I put down is just going to reactivate that black. So if we try to paint in some of the white, it's going to be very muddy and not very nice. So that's the first thing that could go wrong. Let's say we did wait for it to dry. We'll come back and see what else could happen. Now the black paint has dried, so let's go in again and try to paint the flower. Let's say this time, what I do is this paint is not thick enough. It's quite runny. So let's say I wasn't aware that I needed thicker paint to start with. So again, I try to paint the center. It's showing up more now that the black is dry. But it's not really giving me that clean yellow that I want. And let's say I'm trying to fix it and the more I fix it the more muddy it gets. Now maybe I go into the burnt umber and I try to get some of that. And let's say I add too much water into that as well. This is what's going to happen. Okay, I wash off my brush and I'll go into my white paint again. And again I'm still using paint that's a bit runny. So I've used some water and I've got white paint that's quite runny. So what happens now. Now if I try to paint It's not bad. But it's definitely not as crisp as it could be. And you'll also note that because that centre I painted before hadn't completely dried, so that brown hadn't completely dried. When I go to pull out these white strokes because my brush touches the brown, it's going to pull a bit of it out. Just like when we were talking about how when you paint wet on wet side-by-side, it's going to bleed, so that will happen. Whereas in this flower I was very careful to wait for the center to dry before I worked on the petals because I didn't want the petals to drag out paint from the center. So these are some of the things that could go wrong. Either you haven't waited for the background to dry or the paint you're using later is much too wet. And you could end up with something like this. Now how you would fix this is you can just wait for this to dry completely and then apply the exact same techniques as in here. And you should be able to bring this to a pretty good position. So we'll just leave that as it is to show you an example of what could go wrong and what you should be doing to try and fix it. 18. Value change: Our third major lesson focuses on the third property of gouache, which is that it changes value from wet to dry. So darker values dry lighter and lighter values dry darker. And when I talk about values, I'm just talking about the lightness and darkness of the color. So each color or each hue has its own inherent value. Say for example, ultramarine blue, it's value is somewhere around here, it's a bit of a darker color, whereas with say a lighter color like yellow, it has a much lighter value. So somewhere around this end of the value scale. So what happens is say when you lay down ultramarine blue, so a darker color once you lay that down, somewhere around here when the paint is wet, but once it dries, it dries a little bit lighter and same with yellow. So yellow is a bit of a lighter color when you lay down the paint and it's wet, it's somewhere around here, but when it dries, it just drive a little bit darker. This can be a pretty tricky thing to get your head around or to even be able to get a control of when you're working with gouache, especially as a beginner when there's already so many other things to focus on and to get the hang of. The easiest way I think to combat this is when you're painting, try to mix more paint or mix enough paint that you don't have to try and color match if you've run out of paint. Because that's quite tricky. Because when you've painted a patch of color and it's dried, and then you realize you need to paint some more of it, but you've run out and you try to match the color. It's very hard because one patch of paint is dry and the paint you have is wet and when you match it, it might look perfect when one is dry and one is wet, but when your wet paint dries, it's going to try a slightly different value. And I'll show you an example to illustrate how difficult it can be to match the color or to match the value when you have some wet paint and some dry paint. 19. Light values dry darker: Here I've just drawn two random shapes and I'm going to just paint them one flat color. So in the first one I'm going to show you what could go wrong when you're just trying to paint one flat color. And in the second one, I'll show you what you can do to make it easier for yourself. So firstly, I'm just going to mix a really light pink. And I know that with lighter colors, it tends to dry darker. So the pink that we see now is not going to be the same level of lightness or darkness. Once it's dry, it's going to dry a little bit darker. So let's say I want to fill in this whole shape, but I only mixed a little bit of paint, so I start filling it in. And let's say that as I get to here, I leave out this little bit, so I keep going and I decide I'll come back later and paint that area. And hopefully this shows up on the camera, but I can already see that it's starting to dry here and it usually start to dry from around the edges since the water is pooling up in the center. And I can see the edges are drying a shade darker than what the wet paint is. So let's say I keep going and I want to fill in everything but I leave out these two little areas. And maybe I left it for a bit and I had to come back in a second and finish it off. So we'll let it just dry for a bit. It's already mostly dry I can see and it definitely is drying a little bit darker. Now let's say I want to continue so I've run out of paint and I decide I need to mix some more. So I'm doing my best to match it. And it looks pretty good, but I can see that there's some difference in color here. We'll wait for it to dry and see what it looks exactly like. Once it's dry, the paint has now completely dried. And if we take a quick look at it, we can see that these two that we painted later, are definitely darker. When I first laid them down, the difference wasn't as obvious, but definitely as it was drying, I could see how these were drying much darker. So that's just an example of when I first laid down the color, I thought I matched it pretty well. But that's because this paint was drying and this paint was completely wet. And once they both dried, the difference was a lot more visible. So this is what can happen if you don't mix enough paint to cover one area and you go kind of back and forth between painting one area and the next. And you're mixing your paint as you go, you're adjusting the amount of water in there. You're adjusting the amount of white, the amount of pink in your paint. And all these small adjustments can lead to areas of patchiness or just where the color is different. And also, I found that the more water you have, the more the value can change. So let's see what we can do to paint a really clean, flat color that doesn't have any patchiness. So this time I'll mix up more than enough paint than I need to paint this whole area. Now, I've mixed up my paint and I'm only going to use the paint here. So I won't go and mix my paint here as I'm painting because that will change the amount of pink in the paint. So I'll only use this little pool. And this should be more than enough to paint in this random design. So in the materials video, I mentioned that I like to use flat palettes because it gives me much more freedom to practice mixing my water to gouache ratio. But one of the downfalls of it, or one of the benefits of using palettes with wells is it could be better if you paint illustration work because that allows you to mix up a color in a little well. And that way it's not going to be affected by any other colors or any water on its side. So that could be a better option for you if you paint more illustration kind of work and you just need one shade of color and you don't really need to be mixing around a lot. It's better if you're pre mixing your colors so it avoids issues like the values changing and not being able to color match when the paints dry. So I've now quickly filled in this area. I know this one's a lot darker than that one, but that doesn't make too much of a difference for this purpose. We're just trying to show that I can get a much more clean, flat color here without any patchiness as opposed to this one which has some patchiness and has some difference in, in the shade. This one has almost dried now there's still a little bit, I can see it still drying. But we can say this is pretty good. It's quite flat and consistent the color. This area is still drying, so it looks a little bit different right now. But this is definitely a better approach than to mix up a little bit of paint, realize you don't have enough, and to try to color match because that can be really tricky in gouache. 20. Dark values dry lighter: So we've talked about lighter colors drying darker. What about darker colors drying lighter? I think the easiest example is to use black to illustrate this. So when you lay down fresh black paint, it's a lot darker than when it's dried. For example, if I paint in a little patch of black here and I'll let it dry and then I'll lay down some fresh black paint next to it and we'll see what the difference is between the wet paint and the dry paint. Now that black paint has dried. So I'm going to put down some fresh black paint next to it and we'll see if there is a difference. So to me it looks like that fresh paint is a lot darker than that dry paint. And this can be really intimidating when you're trying to paint in more black paint into an area after one area has dried. But just keep in mind that this will dry to the same darkness as the dried paint. This is something that still gets me from time to time. I still panic a little bit when I see such a huge difference in the value. But then I remind myself to just let it dry. So the good thing about this issue of the values changing or this challenge of the values changing is that the more you paint with gouache, the more it kind of just becomes second nature and you do become used to it. But there are still moments when I do panic a little bit, but I just remind myself to let the paint dry and it will be okay. Okay. We can see now that the paint has mostly dried. There are just these two little patches here that haven't dried, which again shows the difference between wet and dry paint. So you can see here the rest of the area that has dried, it's dried to the same value as that dried paint. So there's no need to panic when you see this. Just keep in mind that this will dry lighter. One last thing I want to go over is what happens when you go into dry paint with a wet brush. So I have here a clean wet brush. Now what happens when I place water on it You'll see that as soon as that water touches it's going to start changing the value of these areas. And this was something that I also panicked a lot about as a beginner. But you just have to remember that once it's dry, it should dry to the same value as when it's wet because this brush only had clean water on it. It didn't have any paint on it. So it shouldn't have technically changed anything. So I'll just let this dry and again, we'll see if it does dry to the same value once it's dry The paint has now dried. And we can see that while there is still a little bit of a difference, I think when I went in with my brush, it was wet and I did pick up some of the paint off the paper, so it changed it a little bit. But we can see it's nothing as dramatic as what it was when the paint was wet. So if you do come into a situation where you go back into working with your dry paint, you're trying to blend out an area or you're trying to fix up an area, just be aware that this will happen and there's no need to panic. The best thing you can do is just let it dry and see what happens. And usually the change shouldn't be that dramatic once the paint has dried. 21. Palette management: Something that I haven't really talked about so far in the videos is how to use a spray bottle or when this comes into play. And that's because in all the examples that I've been showing, they only take me about five or ten minutes to do, so the paint doesn't dry out in that period of time. But now I want to show you how I actually use a spray bottle as part of my workflow and why I think it's important to use something like this to keep your paints fresh while you work. Let's first take a look at what happens when your paint dries out. So this paint has been here for a few hours and it's completely dried. You can tell because the paint has even started to crack. Now, I do know that some brands reactivate better than others and may not necessarily crack like these. But with the three brands that I have tried so the Winsor and Newton, Art Spectrum gouache, and Himi jelly gouache, they all tend to dry the same. So they all tend to crack when they dry and when it comes to reactivating them, the result is all about the same. So I only speak for these brands in terms of how they dry and how they reactivate. The cracking isn't an issue, I wouldn't say that it's something that's wrong with the brand or the quality, it's just this is how they tend to react. If you prefer one that reactivates better, you could look into brands that do that better. I've heard that Holbein potentially reactivates better than these brands. So let's just look at what happens if I want to try and reactivate it. Now if you have a pool of dried out paint, it's generally easier to reactivate it as long as I just put some water on it, it comes back to life. And it's quite easy to reuse this. And this is the great thing about gouache, you feel like you're not wasting as much paint because if you let your paint just dry out like this, you can come back and reactivate these colors that you have and you can start to use them. So same with the pink over here. I can reactivate these pools of pink. The one thing do you have to watch out for is how much water you're using to reactivate it. You might need to add in some more fresh paint as well, just so your paint doesn't become too thinned out from the amount of water you're using to reactivate the paint. But for the most part, pools of paint are pretty easy to reactivate. What about these dried out bits? So let's see if I want to reactivate this yellow. I've put a generous amount of water on there. Now because it's dried out in this little patch here, it's a bit harder to get it to that creamy consistency. I have to work at it with my brush for awhile. And even then, the texture is not as nice. And if the paint has dried for an even longer period, so paint that dries overnight, it might not even be possible to reactivate and use it because it becomes really cracked. And when you try and go in, even with water, it just crumbles to pieces and that's not really nice to work with. This paint here has only been dried for maybe two hours, so it's still workable. You can see that I've actually worked through this yellow. So I've completely dissolved it now. But I had to use quite a bit of water to do that. So now the paints become quite watery, so I would add in more yellow just to get it back to that creamy consistency. Now what about the white. If I do the same thing Again, I'm feeling like I have to really work at it to try and bring it back to its original consistency, which I think you actually can't bring it back to its original consistency. What you're actually doing is you're just softening the paint and you're dissolving it with the water that you have. But it's it's not going to be quite the same as fresh paint squeezed out of the tube. So for that reason, I always do my best to try and prevent my paints from drying out on the palette while I'm working with them. So that I don't have to go through this process of trying to reactivate it. Because not only can I not get it back to that original creaming consistency, but it's also really time consuming to continuously work at these paints and try to reactivate them. That's not to say that I don't use dried out paint like this. I do try to not waste paint so I will use it. But if you can prevent it from drying out like this, then that's the best option. Now this is where the spray bottle comes into the equation. So if you squeeze out paint onto your palette, this is the most ideal consistency you want to work with. It's really fresh, it's really buttery, and you want to keep it like that if you can. So I use this spray bottle to help me slowdown its drying time. So sometimes after I squeeze it out of the tube, I'll give it a quick mist, but I don't mist it right on top of it because that will just soak it with too much water and it will dilute out the paints too much. Instead I do it from a bit of a distance so that it can mist it quite evenly. And it also makes the palette a little wet. So when I lay other paints next to it, there's also a little bit of moisture there just to slow down the drying a little bit. Now, a spray bottle isn't the only option you have when it comes to maintaining this nice consistency of paint. You could also use a different kind of palette. There is a Sta-wet palette which uses a sponge underneath the paints to keep the paints moist so that they don't dry as fast. You could also try laying down a wet paper towel and placing your paints on top of that. This is the way that I usually paint. I just use a normal palette and I just use a spray bottle to help me slow down the drying time. So there's definitely different options. But if you only have these at your disposal, then a spray bottle is a pretty good solution to this problem. 22. Project + closing thoughts: Thank you so much for making it to the end of this class. If gouache is brand new to you, then I really hope this class was able to help you get started on your gouache learning journey. And if gouache is something you've been trying to learn for a while but you've been struggling then I hope this class was able to help you overcome some of the challenges that you've been facing. If you've only been watching so far, then I highly encourage you to pick up your paint brush and your paints and to follow along with the exercises. I promise that you will get so much more out of the class if you paint along with me. I've scanned in all the exercises I painted and uploaded it in a single PDF file under the resources tab. so you can refer there when you're practicing and if you did go through all the exercises and you feel ready to tackle a painting, then in the next few videos, there is a real-time painting demonstration of this seascape where I put it into practice most of the techniques that we've covered in this class. Please upload your exercises and any finished paintings under the projects tab so that I and everyone else in this class can give feedback on your work. And lastly, if you would like to stay updated on what I'm up to, you can find me on Instagram @Jesschungart, or on YouTube @Jesschung I would love to see you there and until the next class, happy painting and stay safe. Bye bye. 23. Part 1 painting demo in real time: We're now going to put everything that we've learned in this lesson into practice by doing a painting. So I have here some paper that I've taped down with some masking tape, my palette, my two jars of water, my cloth for drying my brushes off on. I'm going to be using mainly two, maybe a third liner brush. If I need to do some finer details. I have my spray bottle, which I'll show you how I incorporate it into my workflow when I do a painting and I have a pencil as well just to do a bit of sketching at the start. For colors, I've picked out a few colors that I think we'll need for this painting. So I've got my white and my black. I have burnt umber. I have primary red, so a cool red, ultramarine blue, a warm blue. And I've got both a cool and a warm yellow. And for the painting I chose, I decided on this seascape because I thought we could put into practice some of the things that we've learned in this class into this painting, such as when it comes to painting the foam, you have to be able to layer that lighter color on top of the darker colors. So that's something we learned and there's a bit of blending going on here and there. So I think it'll be a good reference photo for us to paint off. Let's just jump right into the painting. So when I start a painting, I always just do a really quick sketch. This one's quite simple. I'm just going to mark in the line where the sky ends and where the sea starts. So somewhere maybe just above the halfway line. So I'm going to allocate this half to the sky and from there downwards I'm going to have the sea. And then I might just mark in maybe where some of the foam goes. So there's some over here. And there's a bit of a small wave around here, so I'll just mark it in. And then I think the water, I might let it go up to about here. Now this doesn't have to be perfect, and you just want to do this sketch really lightly so that the paint can easily cover these lines. And this really is just to help us to get an idea if we can fit everything nicely into this painting. So it's just a chance for us to mark in the lines. And if there's any mistakes, we can go in with a rubber, an eraser and just fix that up now before we actually start laying paint onto the paper. So I think that should be fine for the sketch. You really don't need to make it too intricate or anything. Now to start off, I usually start with my half-inch angular shader. I use this for backgrounds and I'm going to start by painting in the sky first. For this sky I'm going to need some ultramarine blue. I'm also going to need a bit of the primary red. Then I'm going to have some yellow and quite a bit of white as well. So I'm going to squeeze out quite a bit of white. Now for the sky, I can see it's it's a light blue, very light almost a purple. That's why I chose the ultramarine because it's more of a warm blue that leans towards purple. So I'll just mix that with the white. And my brush already had a bit of moisture in it because I just washed it, but otherwise I would soak my brush through first, take off that excess moisture and then get into the paints. So you don't want to start with a completely dry brush, make sure you do soak it through a little. And then I'm just going to add a touch of that primary red, just a very, very little bit. I just want to make this a little bit purple. And we can test it out. So I quite like that. So I'll just place that in. And as we talked about in the blending lesson, we want to make sure that the paint is spreading on the paper without it being too transparent. So here I'm adding in some water, but I'm going to add in some more paint as well. And that way it spreads nicely, but it's also opaque. And I'm going to transition it to more of a lighter color and at the same time, it gets a little bit more pink. So I'll add in a bit more of the primary red and I'll just keep bringing it down. Once it doesn't start to spread as smoothly, I'll bring in some water and just adjust the paint as I need to. And I'm going to work quickly so that the paint is still wet and I can blend it while it's wet. I'm just adding in more white. And then down here it transitions into a yellow because we've got the setting sun here and it's got this warm glow so we are going to wash off our brush. Going to place some more white on my palette because I've already used up all my white. There's quite a bit of binder coming out of this paint. I'm not sure why it suddenly decided to come out now. But the amount of paint I squeezed out wasn't actually that much. There's a lot of binder coming out. So I'm just going to go into the white and just lay that in there a little maybe pick up some of that pink from before. Bring it up a little bit and I might wash off my brush again. Because now I want to start using the yellow. So I am going to get a lot of white. And just a touch of that yellow. Maybe a little bit more, and start placing it in. Maybe a little bit more yellow. And we're just going to blend that part out. And you want to leave this part white for now because that's where the glowing sun is. So we'll just go around it. It's not spreading as nicely so I'll just get a bit of water. And just fill in this area. So sometimes I paint with my brush like this and sometimes I'll turn it on its side so I can get some flat strokes across like this. And what I might do is I want a bit more of a warmer yellow. So I'm going to introduce the permanent yellow deep, which is just a warm yellow. So I'll just get a bit of that and I will mix that in with my paint. Bit more white. I'll just place some in down here. Just to give it a bit of warmth. Might wash off my brush now, go back into the white from up here and I want to mix up a bit more yellow. So tiny, tiny bit of yellow, really nothing at all. If I want a tiny bit of yellow, I usually go in with the corner and pick up a bit with just the corner of my brush. And then just blend this part out. So we want to do our best to try and get really smooth blends. That's why I keep washing off my brush so that I don't have too much excess paint on there that's going to mix with all the colors. So just then I cleaned off my brush and I went in with pretty much a clean brush that was just a little bit wet so I can just blend these out. And then I'm going to wash it off again. And then for the center, I'm actually just going to pick up white paint. I don't usually leave the white of the paper as it is. I will fill it in with white. So white paint. And we're just going to fill it in and then blend it out with the surrounding area. So hopefully that will create a glow for us. Now you can just observe your painting and see if it looks okay. any areas you need to fix up. I think it mostly looks okay. I think my sky might be a little bit slanted towards this way. So I'll just keep that in mind. I might cover it up with a bit more paint later when I go into paint the sea. But for the most part I am quite happy with how it turned out. Actually, I might add a bit of warmth on this right side here, it's a little bright. Then I'll just blend that out so I'll wash off my brush and I'll just blend it out with a clean but wet brush, just to get that really soft transition. And when you do that, you want to be really light handed. If you're too heavy handed, you might start irritating the paper. So you might start picking up the paper and it'll start to peel. That also depends on the quality of your paper and how much water it can take. But I'm kind of just on the surface, just blending it out like that. And I'll wash off my brush one more time. So we're just going to leave the sky as is we'll keep it nice and simple. That was just a really quick blending exercise. Let's move on to painting the sea. And with this my strategy is to not paint in the foam around this area, just so we can preserve the white of the paper. So it's easier for us to lay that light color on top. But when it comes to this area, we will actually painted it in and we'll go in with white paint later. So let's start with the horizon line. So it's a dark brown around the edges, I think. And in the center there is the glow from the sun. So it's this really warm orange. So let's try and mix that color, I'm going to use burnt umber. And I don't mind mixing it with the yellow from before. So I'll just place it next to it. Going to get a bit more water. Now to darken this, I think I might pick up the ultramarine blue. So if you mix ultramarine blue with burnt umber, it will start to mix a black. So I will mix in more blue so that I can make it darker. Might actually need a bit more blue. I'm just mixing in some more ultramarine blue. Quite dark, which is good. And I'm turning my brush on its side so I can get some strokes like that ways. And I'll just start to paint in this horizon line. Now I don't want to go all the way. This part I want to leave it as it is so that you can go in with that orange later. Because I noticed my horizon line was little bit slanted before. I'm just going to try and even it out now. Now as it moves in, it starts to get lighter and brighter. So what I'll do is I'll need a bit more of that warm yellow on the palette. I've got some here so I'll start with that. Let's see if I mix it with the brown. I think that should be okay. I might use this just to get a bit of a transition happening here. And then I'm going to, I might actually just wash off my brush and switch to a round brush. So switching to my round brush and this time I will soak it through, take off some excess moisture. And I'm going to go into this warm yellow. Mix it with some of the pink actually to give that warmth. Use some of this yellow here. Maybe some more yellow, bit more water. And I'll just start placing a bit of it in here. Now because that brown that I laid down is still wet, this is good because we want to blend it, because we want it to transition seamlessly. Transition really smoothly. So this is an example of when you do want to lay wet paint next to wet paint. I'll wash off my brush and I'm just putting a bit more of the permanent yellow deep on my palette. So the warm yellow, I'm just going to get some of it and I'll just place it here. And just putting some more water on my brush so that the paint will spread a little bit nicer. And then I'm going to wash it off because I want to quickly blend out this area. Well, it's still a little bit wet, so I washed off my brush and I just have some water on it. Going to clean it off again, and just blend it out ever so lightly. And over here as well, blend it out very carefully. Now, we want this to meet in the middle with maybe a light yellow. So I'll grab some yellow and some white. And I'll connect this part here. And pick up maybe some more of the warm yellow. Just lay that in. Now we want to continue to make it blend smoothly. So what I'll do is I'll have to wash off my brush again. And I might pick up some of that brown from before just so I can put a bit of it here and try to blend out this area, wash it off. You're going to see that I go back and forth between my paint and my water jar a lot as I I constantly clean off my brush so I'm not dragging around any paint that I don't want to drag around on the paper. So a lot of the time I'm actually just using a clean wet brush on the palette, I mean on the painting. Now if we have a look at it, it's quite a smooth transition. Might add a little bit of that bright yellow just down the center. Just to really emphasize that glow from the sun. And that looks pretty good to me. Okay, so we've got that down. Next I'm going to leave that foam for now. And what I'll do is I'll actually paint in the shadow underneath the foam. So I'm going to use, you can see it's kind of a brown with a bit of purple. So I'll use the burnt umber from before. And I'll just start with that. And I'll use this just to mark in where the shadow goes. And this paint is, it's quite wet, there's quite a bit of water in it, which is good because that will give me a bit more time to work with it while it dries. Since the more wet the paint is, obviously the more water and the longer it will take for it to dry. And I want it to be more wet so I can blend out this area underneath before it starts to dry. So I've marked in where the shadow is and I am preserving that white For the sea foam that I'll paint it in. Alright, let's start quickly blending it out. So I am going to use white and start to lighten this and it gets a bit more gray. So we'll add that in after. But for now, I want to try and blend it in the direction that the water is flowing in. So the water is flowing this way. So my strokes are going to follow that direction. This probably won't be perfect as you do it. But we'll go back and forth and we'll fix it up so that it blends more smoothly. First, I just want to quickly get the colors in, so the paint has a bit of a chance just to blend a little bit. To make it a bit more gray I might get some more ultramarine blue. And I'm going to lighten it as I go as well. So just go in to my lighter paints and just quickly place it in. And then afterwards we'll do our usual trick of just going in with a clean brush and blending it out so quickly just placing in all of these strokes. Now I'm going to wash off my brush. And I feel like the dark paint we first laid down was just a little bit too thin. So this is when we can go back and add in some more. I'm going to place some more burnt umber on my palette. And I'm just going to mix that same paint again, maybe try get it a little bit darker. And with the dark paint I'm going to go right back in because it's darkest at the very top. So I'll go right back into the top and just place in a second layer of paint. This layer is a little bit thicker, which is good. It's not going to blend as smoothly with those lighter colors, but that's okay. We will fix it up very soon. I'm just dipping my brush in a bit of water and then go back in with a bit of the lighter paint. And we're going to start that blending out process. 24. Part 2 painting demo in real time: So when it comes to blending out, I think I'll wash off my brush, pick up some of that lighter paint here. And maybe a bit more blue in it, a bit more white. And again, following the directions. Just bring it up. Then washing off my brush. And using just a clean brush just lightly going to try and blend together any areas that I can. Might have to wash off my brush halfway, just so there's not too much paint on it and then continue that process. And whichever one is more overpowering. So if I feel like the light paint is starting to overpower all the dark areas, then what I'll do is I will pick up some more of that darker paint and just go back and try to bring it back a little bit more. And if you just go back and forth like this a few times, it will start to blend nicely. I think we've done a pretty good job of blending that out. It also does go into an orange yellow kind of here. And we'll work on that now. So we won't worry about blending that part out for now, but we'll start working on it now. So I will switch back to my flat brush because I want to start to block in this whole area. So when I look at this painting, I look past the sea foam and I pick out the colors that are underneath so I can see there's this bright yellow here, and then it's orange around these sides and brown right here. So that's what I'll just block in first. So just getting some water on my brush. And we're going to be using the same colors as before. So we've got it all on our palette I think. Maybe we might actually start with the yellow in the center. So just going to need a bit more yellow. And I'll just place the yellow in here. And I'm just gonna lighten it with white. I've just got some white leftover from before, so I will just bring it over. It's a little bit thick. Just get some water. Just bring over some more white paint. Going to need some more white. And this is when I might actually use my spray bottle. I can see some of the paint is starting to want to dry out. So here I've got my spray bottle and I'll just use one hand to cover the painting so I don't get water on the painting because that's not good. And then I'll just give it a quick spritz, so I'm not spraying it right on top of it. I'm kinda going from a bit of a distance just so it's got a bit of a light water on it. It is a bit of a warm day today as well, so the paint will dry a little bit faster. So with the white I just laid down. I'm just going to place a bit more in. And I will just start to put in the yellow. So nice and bright yellow running down the center to maybe about here. I think I can add in some more warmer yellow. So just along the center down here. And this step doesn't have to be perfect because we will come in and blend it all but not only that, a lot of it will be covered by the foam on top. This is just to lay down the base layer. So the colors that you see beneath and there's yellow here I can see. So just add in a bit more yellow and just put it here. Basically just wherever you can see the yellow. You just wanna place some in. Now I'll keep this paint on my brush and I'm going to go in to this warm yellow. And I might start a new pile of paint here. So just start to blend that out. Maybe I need a bit more water. Now this one is a bit more of a warmer, much warmer orange and it looks like there's some brown in it I think I'll mix that in with the warm yellow. Maybe actually I think it needs some red. I'm just using the primary red from before and mixing a bit of that in. It looks a little bit better, it might've been a bit too red. Going to put some more yellow in it. Sometimes I'm just experimenting on the paper. But as we said before, gouache is quite forgiving as a medium when it comes to making mistakes. So if I did make a mistake here, I could cover it up. So I'm not too worried that I haven't got the perfect color here. I'm going to get some white, lighten it a little and bring it up here. Okay, I'm going to wash off my brush, there's quite a bit of paint on it. It's getting a little messy here so with a clean, damp brush I just want to blend it out. And I just repeat this a few times until I've got a smooth blend. You can see the orange is going to start overpowering the yellow. So I'll go back into the yellow and just try to bring that back a little. And I have to wash off my brush. Otherwise, it will pick up too much color from what's on the paper. Just trying to bring some of that yellow back into the painting. Just getting bit overpowered and just want to clean it up. So we've got a bit of a smoother blend here. I'll keep working my way up. I will fill in this area. I think it's the same orange paint. And we will come back and blend out these areas as well. For now, I just want to place down the paint so I have something to work with when I come to blend it out. And washing off my brush once again. I might switch to a round brush for a bit more precision and just fill in this area with some more yellow. So just this area here. And while the orange paint is wet, let's work on blending out these two. So I'll go back into this from before. And again, just moving in the direction of the water. Bring a bit of it into the orange and just let it naturally blend out a little since the orange paint is wet. And then I'll go the other way. I'm going to get more of the orange. And I'll start to bring that into, into the shadow here. We can see it comes up quite a bit, just getting a bit more of the red. A bit more red. Washing off the brush again. Now I will go back into the brown and blend out these harsh lines. I add in some more water to make it easier for me to blend it out. Washing off the brush. Go back into the orange. Washing it off again, going to go into the yellow now. And blend out that bit. Basically just trying to eliminate any of the harsh transitions and trying to keep the colors as clean as possible. Need some more orange. Alright I will leave it like this. And maybe later we might come back just to add in a bit more details. But for now, it's pretty smoothly blended out I think. Maybe just add in a few more lines of orange. Now, I'll finish filling in this area. So I will go into the brown, into the burnt umber. And I'll actually just mix it with some black. I'll place a little, little bit of black, just a tiny bit. Black can be really overpowering. So you want to use it sparingly and get some more of that burnt umber, a tiny bit of the black. Let's test it out. It's quite dark, so we don't want to add in anymore black. That's already quite dark. So we'll just fill in this bottom area. And the paint I'm using is quite opaque. Just need a bit more water because it's starting to not spread as nicely. But then going to have to add in, a lot more paint so it doesn't become transparent. And you'll probably notice how as this part starts to dry, it's going to dry a bit of a lighter value. As we discussed in the lesson about how gouache changes value when it dries. So don't be surprised if you thought this was really dark, but it started to dry a bit of a lighter value. So now we can actually blend this out with the orange and I'll wash off my brush. So picking up the rest of that yellow there. Going into that red. Might need some more orange on the palette. When I say orange, I really mean the permanent yellow deep, which I'm mixing with some of the primary red to mix an orange. Then I'll just fill in this area. This might get a little bit messy. We might actually wash off our brush because it started to get really dirty really quickly. Get some more white. And with the white I will mix that in. And I'm going to fill in these areas. And I'm not going to touch the brown just yet if I can avoid it. Because over here we were touching it and it's just started to get really messy and we don't quite want that. So let me just mix up a bit more of this, fill in these areas. Bring it down a little. Bring it around here I think. And we'll wash off our brush again. And now what we'll do is with a clean but wet brush, we'll start to blend it out. Washing it off because you're going to be picking up a lot of that brown on your brush just from doing that. So you want to wash it off regularly. So you're not spreading it too far. Might pick up a bit more of the orange and just fill in this area. And for this part I'll use some yellow. This part will get covered up with the foam later, but I'll just fill it in with some yellow. Just try and bring the orange down a little. This transition might look really harsh, But it doesn't matter too much as I said. We're going to cover it with foam. So as long as the colors are peeking through later, that's really all we need. Just blend out this area. You can see this is a little bit harsh, so I will just try and soften it a little bit just with a clean, wet brush. And I'm being really gentle here. I'm not pressing my brush, I'm really just on the surface very gently going over it. And that that's how I can get more of a soft transition without making the paper peel. Okay, I think we're doing good so far. I'm ready to go back and work on the foam in this area. From the reference photo, we can see there's a few layers, a few waves coming in and they're kind of stacking up here. So I'll use this brush for now, but I might switch to my liner brush in a little bit just so I can get some of those really fine details. What I might actually start with is I will switch to the liner brush now, soak it through. And I'll just first paint in this little wave that is sitting just over here. So for that, I'll just use that same mixture we used for the sky before. So over here, I'll just rewet it and I think I'll use my spray bottle again. So I'm going to go with my spray bottle. Sometimes I'll pick it up when I see that I've got color here that I might not touch for a little bit, but I don't want it to dry out. So I'll go in with my spray bottle and just spray this area. So it just buys me a bit more time. I don't need these colors for a little bit, but I still want to come back and use this paint and I don't want it to be dried by the time I come back. And that should be fine. So then go back in here and just reactivate this area. Add in some more white. And we'll use this mixture to paint in some waves here and make sure that this area is dry because if you're going to rest your hand on here and paint, you don't want to be muddying the paint with your hand accidentally. So just make sure that this area is dry before you move into painting here. Alright, so with this, this liner brush is great because it can hold quite a bit of water and paint. And it allows me to do really fine details. So I'll just roughly place it in now in our lesson about layering and how to layer on top of dark colours. You can see this part is dark and the paint we're trying to layer on is very light. But because it's quite a short stroke it should be okay and the paint is quite thick and I'm going to use like a bit of a dabbing motion so I'm dabbing the paint on there, I'm not dragging it and reactivating that layer. So this will allow us to paint on it. Actually my paint is a little bit too wet so what I'll do is I'll wash it off. It's actually a bit too wet I can see it's pooling up which I don't want. So I've dried off my brush and with the dry brush I'm going to soak up some of that moisture, It's a bit too much water on my paper. So I'm gonna soak it up so it's not pooling. And when I go back into my paint now, I am going to try and add some more paint in so that it's not as wet. Then I'll try and finish off this area. That's a bit better. And then just painting in this little bit here. And then to make this realistic, all we have to do is I'll wash off my brush. We just have to paint in the shadow underneath, we just have to paint in like a dark brown, a dark burnt umber. So I'm going to use the mixture that we used before from painting in those darker areas down the bottom. 25. Part 3 painting demo in real time: And it's best to wait for this to dry because if this is wet and I start going in with my dark paint, it's going to bleed into those lighter areas. So we'll just give it a minute or two to let it dry and then we'll go in with the darker color to paint the shadow. Now that the white has dried, let's go in with that dark paint and place it just underneath it. So it's creating the illusion of a shadow underneath there. And that will just bring this wave more to life. And we can just try and transition that out smoothly. Wash it off and I might actually just extend out, might just extend out that wave a little bit. So going back into the lighter mixture from before, just want to add a little bit here and I'm just dabbing it on so it doesn't muddy with the other paint. Think I placed it a bit too high, I might actually need to cover that up. Go back into the brown. It's going to start to muddy a bit. But it's okay we can still cover it up. I'm going to try again and this time get it a bit lower. So just lightly dabbing it. Okay I think that should be good. Maybe bring this down a little bit. Okay. And just to make this wave look a bit more realistic, we're going to make this part a little bit darker. So I need some more ultramarine blue. So I just placed down some more ultramarine blue, and I'll mix some more of that into the mixture. So I'll pick up some of the blue, I'll mix it in, need some more water, a bit more water. I'm going to tone down the blue with some of the burnt umber. So I'll just mix that in, it just makes it a bit less blue. Then I'm going to paint it in on this side. So I can get a bit more depth to the little wave over there. A bit more blue, and just paint it in here. Wash off the brush, might go into the lighter paint and highlight the top a bit more. Okay, that's good enough since that wave is really far away, it's not going to be too detailed. So that's what that part looks like. And then I'm going to repeat that process for all of this because it's essentially the same thing, it's just these waves that are curling up and they have a shadow underneath them. So maybe I'll start with the ones that are in the back here. I'm going to use the same mixture as before, so just white and ultramarine blue. With some burnt umber to tone it down if I need to. And maybe to make it a bit more purple I'll mix in some of the primary red, but that's really all I need to mix this. And I will start, actually I might start with the ones over here. So we can just start placing it in and then we'll highlight it or add in shadows as we need to. I think I've decided to just stick with my liner brush since it can paint a lot finer details, but you can use a regular round brush if you want as well. I'd say the mixture is a greyish purple, it's quite muted. Going to quickly try and just fill in this whole area. And I'll do the back part as well using the same color, maybe a bit more ultramarine blue. Fill in this area as well. And in between these two, on this right-hand side there's like a third one here. So I'll just block it in. Think that should be okay for the waves for now. Maybe just to add a bit more here I can see there's a wave that just comes up here. Now we'll start bringing the waves to life again by adding in the shadow first. Let's use our spray bottle again though, since I can see this area starting to dry out again, or it's just about to dry out. So I'll just spray it and I just sprayed it from a real distance. While protecting my painting with this hand, and we'll need the same dark brown, and because I sprayed it now I've reactivated this paint so it's ready to use, almost, we need a bit more water. And we wanna make sure this part is dried before we go in with a dark paint. I think it has dried now. So I will go in with this and start to carve out where the shadows are. Just add in a bit more brown, a bit more burnt umber. And also here you want to add in a very, very thin line just to, to separate those waves, show a distinction between them. And on the left-hand side, we can do the same thing. Placing a bit of a shadow underneath here. Sometimes I'm pulling the paint, sometimes I am just doing a bit of a stippling, dabbing motion on the paper. We can deepen the shadows here. And let's see, there's another separation here are we'll place that in as well. Just so the waves don't all melt together into one. They are separate, so we have to use the shadows to help us show that. And then here as well, there's a bit of a wave that comes up. I might add in some more white to it, just to lighten it a bit. And I'll just fill in a bit of this area. And using that lighter paint I might actually fill in this area too, just a bit more of a shadow here. And then I need to fill in the rest of the gaps with some of the orange. Since the sun is shining on the water and it's giving it an orange glow. So that's what I'll fill in the rest of the white space with. So I'll just wash off my brush and using some water, we will reactivate this part, might need some more paint though. So I'll just use this for now. Get some red, Some more white. We can just fill in this area. So I've just mixed a paler color. I'm going to fill in these little gaps. And also around here. Alright, so we've blocked in the area, but the waves are looking pretty flat and pretty dead. So let's try to bring them to life, we'll do the same thing as before by maybe adding in some shadows first and then we'll start highlighting it. So firstly, for the shadows we'll mix this brown, this burnt umber with some of the ultramarine blue and add a bit of white. A bit more of the burnt umber. I'm going to try this as the shadow. It's a bit dark so I'll mix in a bit more white. I'm just doing like a sideways motion, just filling in some of the shadows here. So by doing this, I'm shaping the wave, I'm giving it this rounded curve, which is showing the direction in which the water is falling over the top. And I might go into that dark brown from before and just add in a bit more of that shadow underneath, just get it to blend a bit more smoothly. I can wash off my brush. And maybe for this wave, we'll start to add in the highlights, so the highlights I'll just use white, think I'll just use pure white. And just place in some highlights. So we're going to place this really only at the top of the wave and just make it a little bit bumpy so it looks natural. Alright, that looks pretty good. And we'll just repeat the process. For the other waves we painted. So let's go back into the shadows. So into the shadow color. And again I'm going to just add in some of the shadows. Go in to my white for the highlights. I know these details are very, very small. But I quite like fleshing out all the little details. I think that's what makes the painting look realistic, which is why I love using this liner brush. It really allows me to do those really small details. It does take time and patience, but I really like adding these small details to my paintings. And we can just repeat the process with this last bit. I might add in a bit more blue to this part I think. It looks a bit more blue to me. I'll wash off my brush and go into the white, and start adding on the very bright highlights at the top. And that's already pretty good. Now this area is a little bit harsh, so I might just try and blend it out with a bit more of that gray blue that we have. So I'm going to add some more white to it and blend that area out. I'll just apply some paint to it so it's not so harsh that transition and same with this might just do a few strokes here and there. Few strokes on top. Might go into my dark brown and soften out some of those shadows a little. Or I might just use a wet brush actually and just soften some of these parts out. Just so it looks a bit more natural since the shadow shouldn't really have a very harsh edge. I'm just using a wet brush and just running it over. Now I'm going to pick up some paint actually and then just blend it out a little with that paint on my brush. Same with this shadow here. It's a little bit harsh. Just want to try to blend it out and just soften the edges. Washing off my brush, going to pick up some of that really light gray, that grayish blue and just bring it in there. Going to use now a clean wet brush and just blend this part out. 26. Part 4 painting demo in real time: Alright, so that part is pretty detailed and it's good. I'm happy with it. Let's zoom out and take a look at the painting. So that looks really good to me so far. Now we can start working on the rest of the painting. So all the sea foam all the foam down here. And I'm going to start by painting in a bit of a tiny wave here. So let's switch back to our larger round brush. And going into the burnt umber again now I'm going to give my paint another spray because it's looks like it's about to dry out. Just from a distance, just a bit of a mist. If you spray it with too much water and your paints might start running all over the palette because you've put too much water on there. So you don't want to overdo it. Then going into my burnt umber and a bit of black. Let's just paint in where this little bump in the water is so it goes around here. And there's a second one down the bottom. So I might as well paint it in now. So I'll place it in around maybe here. Just a few lines running across and it goes around here. Now I know this is quite, quite harsh, so let's smooth it out. Wash off my brush. Just using the clean brush. I'm just going to really softly soften it out. And I'm going to be constantly going into the water to clean off my brush. And there's just a tiny bit of moisture on my brush. Not too much. I don't want to be soaking areas of the paper through with water. So just a little bit on my brush. So another great thing about gouache is you can go back and reactivate it. And like we talked about in the lessons, you can use this to your advantage so I can reactivate that orange and blend it with the paint we just laid down, which is really great. Do the same thing here so that it's not so harsh. Okay, that looks good. It's blended out quite smoothly. And I think before we start painting on the foam on the water, let's switch back to our liner brush. And using the burnt umber, I might need to squeeze out a bit more. Actually, before we do that, I actually want to paint in a bit more orange here because I feel like I brought this up a bit too high. So I'm gonna put some of the permanent yellow deep on my palette. And with the flat brush, I'm going to mix up a bit more of that orange. Get a bit of water, bit of that leftover red we still have. Just bring this part down a little bit more. Maybe this part as well. Clean off my brush since it's picking up some of that brown. And just try and blend it out. Okay, that's fine. That's all I wanted to do. Now I'll put some more of the burnt umber on my palette. And with the liner brush. I will go into the burnt umber, mix it with some of the black. Add a bit of white, might give my palette a bit of a spray again. From really far that it wasn't even on camera, I was holding it really far. Because I just want a really light spritz. And using this, I am going to first just work on this area. My water is getting quite dirty so you can change your water at this point if you feel like it's quite dirty. But I think it should be okay, Since the colors I'm using are quite dark at the moment, I might change it in a little bit. So now I will just do some sideward strokes, it's a little bit too dark. I'm going to need more white in this mixture. I'm just doing these really thin strokes. Some strokes are a bit shorter, some are a bit longer and go all the way. Mostly just these little horizontal strokes. Same with this side, I just want it to be a bit lighter, going to mix in a bit more white. Paint in the strokes here. And I'll just do a few more really light strokes towards the center. And that's all for that part. Maybe actually a few more strokes here. So let's see how can we approach painting in the rest of the painting, I think we'll use the larger round brush first, and we're just going to mix up the color of the foam. So we're going to use this paint that we have here so that blue gray mixture, just reactivate it with some water, bring in some more white. And I want to add in some red to it. So using the primary red, going to need some more ultramarine blue as well. And we'll just add a tiny bit. Tiny bit of both. Want it to be a little bit more purple this mixture. So I'll mix in a bit more of that pink, that primary red and then this should be pretty good. So we can start by first just painting in that line at the bottom. And you wanna make sure your paint is quite thick so that it is not going to reactivate the darker paint underneath. Now my one is actually quite watery, but because I'm dabbing it on, it's just sitting on the paper. I'm not reworking that paint underneath, I'm not dragging my brush around. So it's allowing me to still paint it on quite opaquely. And this is good as a first layer because I can come back and actually add a second layer. So this becomes a bit more opaque. So we'll leave that for now and just let it dry. And then we can actually start painting on the foam So using that same mixture, let's see. The foam moves in this squiggly direction. So we'll just, we'll just follow that. So let's say over here, it kind of falls down like this. It's kind of falls over like this. Really, I'm just glancing at the reference photo, just following the shape of it. And there is quite a lot of paint but also water on my brush. So it's just flowing out of my brush. And I'm moving quite lightly, so it's not reactivating that paint underneath. Moving in these squiggly sort of directions. I just went and changed the water because it was getting quite dirty and we're starting to paint the lighter areas. So I just want some clean water to work with, now going back into that paint before, so this lighter mixture, I might mix some more, just grab more white, tiny bit of blue, tiny bit of red, some more blue, a lot more white. A bit of water, and let's continue painting. So really just following this squiggly pattern. When it comes to painting in this area, I'm using the same dabbing motion where I move up and down rather than stroking on the paper. Because again, I don't want to lift up that brown. I can see quite a bit of paint is coming off my brush. As in I can use this brush for quite a bit before I need to pick up more paint. So it just goes to show the amount of paint and water that I have on my brush, which is really important to painting as opaquely as possible. And one more thing to note is when you're painting this, you also want to keep perspective in mind. So the further away this is, the smaller and the thinner the line should be. And as they come closer, they get wider and bigger. I'm going to switch back to the liner brush. Just so I can paint the lines a bit thinner here. I'm just going to use the same paint. Just painting in some really thin strokes. Just try to make it look a bit more realistic. And we'll put in some shadows and highlights after as well so we can bring out a bit more depth in it. For now I will switch back to my round brush again. And I'm going to fill in this area. It does get a little bit more pink and a little bit more blue down here. But I think we'll just use the same color for now. Just so we can lay down this opaque layer and we'll come back and add on some different colors afterwards. Just make sure to work carefully around here. So you're not reactivating the previous layer. So now we can see how the layer beneath, it didn't matter if the blends weren't too perfect because most of it is getting covered up by this foam. So if you do find there's an area that's not blending very smoothly just cover it up with some foam. And you won't be able to tell at all. I think we've done a pretty good job of covering up most of this area with the foam, so let's go in now and I'm just going to work on this line down here. I'm just going to bring out a bit more of the shadows, so I'll mix a bit more ultramarine blue into my paint. So I'll just mix some ultramarine blue. Maybe a bit more white. Not too dark. And this will act as the shadows. So let me just place some of that in. Maybe a tiny bit dark actually, because we want to make this look like it's actually sitting up on top of the water. So I just need a bit of the shadows. I'm still adding a bit more blue because it's not quite dark enough. And I'm actually going to add some burnt umber into it. I want to tone down the blue a little. So that it's not too blue. Let's continue painting the shadow. Actually maybe a bit more blue. 27. Part 5 painting demo in real time: And again, just going to spray my palette with some water, so just misting it a little. Because this part is taking a bit of time and I don't want the rest of the paint to dry out. I think we did a pretty good job with adding some shadows in there. So let's wash off our brush, and let's add some of the highlights. So there's a bit of a pink, There's a bit of like a pink glow on the water. So let's paint that in. We'll use the primary red and lots of white. So it's a really light pink and we'll use that as the highlight. We won't put it everywhere, just on certain areas. Try to bring out some of the highlights. And one more thing that will make it look a bit more convincing is if we paint in an even darker shadow just beneath this. So let's go back to our burnt umber and black. Mix up a bit more. Mix quite a bit of black. We want this shadow to be a lot darker and this will make, make it look more convincing that it's 3D. So let's go in right underneath it and just paint that in. And one more time, going to add in even more black and try and bring it up a little bit higher just underneath that. Because again, you'll notice it might look dark when you place it down. But once it dries, it'll dry a little bit lighter. So don't be too worried if it looks really dark now. I just want to blend it out. Just going to add a bit of water and just blend it out now. And just continue to blend it out with the rest of the paint. And you're going to see that it feels like every stroke you lay down is really dark. But again, it will dry and it will dry a bit lighter. So now just going in with a clean brush and just doing a final kind of blending it out. I might even make this area a little lighter Just so it's a bit more obvious that this part is darker. So just added a bit of white, bring this up a little. And one last touch, I just want the shadows to be a bit more obvious. So again, I'll go back into the brown and the black. And I'll just bring some of them up a little. Okay, that looks pretty good. Going back into my blue paint one more time. The shadow from before and just fixing up some areas, that I think look a little bit maybe unnatural. Okay, I think we can leave this now. Pretty happy with that, just a final bit of a highlight here. Now we will sort of repeat the process for the rest of the foam. We're going to need to add a bit of a shadow underneath them and some highlights and just bring them more to life. Let's use the larger round brush. And what we'll do is we'll add some color to this area. So first I'll mix a bit more of the blue, because I want this area to be a bit more blue. Maybe just a bit of red as well, so that's not too blue. And then let's test it out. So this part is quite dark. It's a little bit too dark. Use some white. We'll just add on a layer like that. And I might as well just go through the whole painting and add some shadows to all of these. So just on the underside of them. Now let's come back in and work on this area again. It's kind of blue in the shadows and pink on the highlight. So what I'll do is I'll wash off my brush and I will go into my pink mixture. So I need a bit more white. So this part is off camera because it can't fit it all in the screen. But basically I'm mixing a really light pink like I did for this area. It's a really light pink. I'm just using the primary red and white and I'll just mix a really light pink. And I'll start painting on the other side of the blue. So what I mean by that is if I've painted in blue on this side for the shadow, I'm going to paint the highlights on the left side of it. So where you painting in those shadows, just put in some highlights next to it. And hopefully that will give it a bit more depth. We're almost finished with this painting. Now I just want to add in some shadows beneath it so it looks a bit more real. So I'll wash off my brush again. And let's use the liner brush so we can do some really thin lines. And I'll go back into the burnt umber and black. So just reactivating this paint. Might add a little bit of white so it's not too dark to start with. We are going to just add a bit of this under the foam, for example, like this, just casting a bit of a shadow. If it's too dark, just add some more white. And it can be a bit random as well. It doesn't have to be perfect. Try to keep the lines as thin as possible to make it look realistic. You can just put in some lines in between as well. Just some horizontal strokes. I'll wash off my brush, and just so that this area doesn't look so perfect, It looks so perfectly smooth here, I'm going to go into the orange paint. So just using this mixture from before. And we're just going to paint in a few lines here and there just to make it not so perfect. So it looks a bit more realistic. Since the water is not perfectly smooth. Just add in some lines here and there. Same with the yellow, I will go into my yellow paint. Which is still quite easy to reactivate because I've been spraying it with water. I'll add in some white. And I'll just paint in some lines here as well. And finally maybe just a few more shadow lines. So using some of the darker orange, Go into the brown again, go underneath some of the foam and just add in some more shadow. At this stage, we have pretty much finished it. It's up to you if you want to keep tweaking it or if you just want to emphasize any other details. Actually what we might do is just quickly add on some highlights. So let's use some just pure white paint and just highlight a bit of the foam. So I'm just using white paint and I'm just going to highlight some of the top of the foam. And this will be the final step in the painting. I think we are finished with our painting. So let's just take off the tape. And here we have our finished painting, which I think turned out really well. And I hope that it helped you to practice some of the techniques that we covered in this entire lesson.