Beginner Photography Master ISO, Aperture, and Shutter Speed | Angel David Weatherston | Skillshare

Beginner Photography Master ISO, Aperture, and Shutter Speed

Angel David Weatherston, Helping Artists Grow

Beginner Photography Master ISO, Aperture, and Shutter Speed

Angel David Weatherston, Helping Artists Grow

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13 Lessons (1h 58m)
    • 1. 1 Intro

    • 2. 2 Changing your camera settings

    • 3. 3 Exposure

    • 4. 4 Aperture

    • 5. 5 ISO

    • 6. 6 Shutter Speed

    • 7. 7 - Lenses

    • 8. 8 Stops

    • 9. 9 Aperture Depth of Field

    • 10. 10 ISO Noise

    • 11. 11 Shutter Speed Moving Objects

    • 12. 12 Shooting in the Shade

    • 13. 13 Shooting in Sun

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About This Class


In this course we are going to go over understanding the exposure triangle and the settings that affect exposure. We will go in great detail over ISO, Aperture, and Shutter Speed. We will talk about stops of light and how to change them with all three main camera settings. I will show you examples of stops of light and how it looks when you are underexposed and overexposed. I will show you depth of field, and how an image looks with different aperture settings. I will shot you noise/grain in an image when you go through various ISO settings. We will also see how Shutter Speed stops motion as you change the settings.

We also go and shoot outside and we talk about settings shooting in the shade and in direct sunlights. Settings you might use with various lens based on their capability of Aperture. We will also talk about different lenses, where to research the best ones for your camera and what does those numbers in the lenses mean.

Great beginner course to get you started shooting in Manual mode and get you to take better images.

Meet Your Teacher

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Angel David Weatherston

Helping Artists Grow


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1. 1 Intro: Welcome to my course. Beginner photography Master, I s so aperture and shutter speed. My name is Angel and I'm gonna be your instructor for today. I've been doing photography for the last seven years in fashion kids events and I've been teaching countless courses and photography on this platform with tens of thousands of students. And I'm glad to be teaching this course today where I teach you everything about eso, shutter speed and aperture that I feel you need to know us a beginner photographer to get started to going from automatic to manual. One of the biggest changes that you're gonna make as a photographer and being a wood to shoot in manual mode. When you shoot in manual mode, you have the opportunity to take full control of the exposure of the picture. You can make the picture brighter or darker than you want, based on the situation that you're shooting it. You don't always want to shoot an automatic and have the image be either too bright or too dark and the subject not be exposed properly. You also get to have full control of the depth of field so you can make things in the background blurry or in focus. You also get to control the noise in the image so you could make an image, have less or more grain in it, and you also get to have full control of motion blur and get to freeze objects and frame. Or you can have it have a full blur, like if you're taking nighttime photography were streaking lights. A lot of great reasons why you want to switch to manual mode. It's gonna take your photography from amateur to professional. In this course, we're gonna talk about changing your camera settings in manual mode. We're gonna talk about exposure. We're also gonna talk about stops of light to understand exposure based on the dream main settings that effect your exposure, which is ISO shutter speed and aperture. We're also gonna talk about ISO shutter speed and aperture while using some examples that shows you the noise that you get from changing your eyes. So settings go deceptive field changes by changing your aperture and and the motion blur that you'll get from changing your shutter speed. We're also gonna talk about shooting outside in the shade and in the sun after this course and all the examples shown in this course, you should be ready to start shooting and manual most and understand all these studies. And to top it all off, we're also gonna be talking about lenses, how to review lenses and research them online for your specific camera and what all those numbers mean next to the leads to really understand which leads you need for your photography. So if you're ready to take your photography to the next level and sign up for this course today 2. 2 Changing your camera settings: Okay, you guys. So I'm gonna show you guys how to change the settings for shutter speed aperture and I s O on your camera in your screen, you press in, folk usually can get to the section that shows you your settings for your camera. Now there's on a canon camera, maybe a little different on a Nikon camera. But just follow along because a lot of this would translate to your camera. No, to change the shutter. Speed is it is usually a dial on the top. Like this one. You can scroll, and when you scroll it, it changes the shutter speed. In order to understand which was the shutter speed, you need to find the one that's a fraction this one this a fraction is the shutter speed okay to change the aperture is usually this one that says f on it. So after 2.0, usually involves a dial like this one, or and some cameras, they'll be on a F one, and then you hold the I F button and you turn this style and it's gonna change the aperture for this camera. I just have to turn this dial right here and that changes the, um, aperture now some cameras or touch screen. And you could touch on these and change the settings now to change the I S o there's usually a button. This S s so on the top of your camera when you press that button, this will show up. If I turned this, I can change my eyes. So another thing I can do IHS uh, holding it after a press a button. I can scroll this on top or this one and change my eyes up. Um, no, this is Sepulcher. I s So I had to press a button scroll and then shutter speed. I just grow up here. You gotta understand in your camera which button changes those settings knife. Not letting you change any of these settings or somebody settings you probably not in manual mode. You want to go to the setting in your camera. This s M. So this little line here's pointing to em. That means that I can change. Um, all my sons, you want to be in manual mode. If your guys are in the green a mode, that means you're probably an automatic mode. So you want to make sure that you're in auto mode so that you can change your shutter speed your aperture. And the one says, I s O no. If your camera has this little screen on top, Um, this is another place that you can see your settings. So this number right here, the says 1 25 is my shutter speed. It won't say one divided by it is always gonna be one divided by. So they take away the one And you just have to know that this is the fraction No, The only way that they managed to put something. So you don't confuse this for your eyes. So is that they put Iess. So next to the I s O. So in turn, since this number up here is the I S O. This has to be the shutter speed. And you know that the aperture is always a single digit number with a decimal. So 2.5, 2.8 two point No. 55.6 This is my aperture. This has to be my shutter speed. Because this is my I s o They could both be 200. But this is my ice also This is my Shuter Street. 400. 400. So that's how you can see it from appear. Now, this right here is my exposure. So if I try to take a picture is telling me that is way under exposed. If I go, Teoh 1.8 I s O 800. Shutter speed 100. Now it's ah to stuffs under exposed eso 1600 for this thing that is pointing at its one stop over. Regardless, we're gonna be talking about this meter later on. But this is where you find that, and it's also right there. You can also see it through here when you taking a picture. Now I'm going to show you on this camera. This is a newer, um, Cannon. So they changed it up. So, um, it doesn't look like before where the numbers were on top. And now it looks like this. You have eyes, So aperture and, uh, shudder appear. If I scroll this tough, it changes my shutter speed. This is a cannon sl two. It's a smaller camera. Some of the new cannons, they're gonna look like this. So I scrolled is I'm changing my shutter speed. You can scroll here. So if I press the Avery button and hold it When I scrolled this, I'm changing my, uh, aperture. So I got a hold this so that this scroll bar changes my aperture by Lego. This crowbar changes my shutter speed And then to change my i s o I have to press the ice so button, it's on the top And then I can changed my eyes. Oh, if I wait too long, it goes back to normal menu. Alright, compress it again and then, like I mentioned and I want to mention in this, uh, of course, smaller cameras usually only have settings. 102 104 116 100 bigger cameras have more settings in between those. So, in this one, if, uh, touch screen, you have to press Q I can also do like this up and down. I can also move these dials. Good. This was touch screen. So And like I said, you got to be an m manual mode. So long story short. Um, every camera can change those settings differently. This is how you change in this camera. That's how you change it In three other camera. You've gotta figure out what? Your camera, How do you change those settings? Because in this course, we're gonna be talking about all those different settings. So you got to get to manual mode and you got to learn how to change those three settings in your camera to really understand this course. So that's when it comes to changing the settings in your camera. Now we're gonna move on to the next section. 3. 3 Exposure: okay, In this section, we're gonna be talking about exposure. Exposure is the main reason that you want to go from shooting an automatic to shooting and manual. Now, to understand what exposure means, exposure is the amount of light that reaches the camera sensor in digital photography, it is controlled by I S O shutter speed and aperture, also known as F. Stop. So what? I mean by the amount of light that comes into the camera sensor, it basically means how bright is the image now in photography? They'll say exposure if it's correctly exposed, under, exposed, overexposed. But that just means is a picture bright how bright the picture is when a picture is properly exposed, it has a correct exposure. That means that it is set exactly where the camera thinks it has, even among a light, Um, throughout the whole image. Now, uh, sometimes some parts of the image might be brighter than the other. But whatever it considers perfectly, even like us, even as it can get, that's when the image is considered, um, perfectly exposed. If it's over exposed, um, or under exposed, it's either too bright or too dark, and we'll talk about that in a bit. So exposure is basically how bright the images and you want The perfect amount of brightness and the brightness of the image is controlled by these three settings. Your eyes So your shutter speed and your aperture Nesta. So, as you see in this image, um, I s so shutter speed and aperture they considered the triangle of the settings that you use to control your exposure. So the I is so on top having numbers like 104 108 116 100. And as the eyes so goes up allowed green to the image. So this image here shows, um, what is doing to the light bulb? The quality of the images adding grain as you have a higher I s O. But you get a brighter image now when you look and it adds noise to the image. So, um, you see in this chart is showing that I s o leads to noise, but it could affect your aperture. All three of them can affect your aperture, but all three of them do something different to the image. So I eso ATS noise, shutter speed on the bottom, left at motion to the image or takes away motion. So when you at 11 25th of a second, that's how faster images being taken, it slows down motion. So this person in a bike it's completely frozen. You can tell that he's moving when you goto 11 one dirty it or one second or four seconds. You see motion in the image you see Ah, blur where the bike was at, and that's what shutter speed. Thus, when you slow it down to four seconds versus 1 25th of a second, then you get more light in the image. And then the last one is aperture, which affects depth of field, that the field is basically things in the background, being blurry or not. So at F 16 which is a top one, you see, everybody is all four people that are in a row, one behind the other are in focus at F eight. The person, although in the background, is blurry. At F 5.6, the last two people are blurry, and at F 2.8, everybody in the background is blurry. So this little this image here is to kind of remind people what all three settings do and that all three of them give you more light or less light. So now we're going to move on to the next image. Um, so in here we look at I s So, um so that I so 100 you have was called a clean image when no noise, no grain in the background. Um, when you raise your eyes so and the same, uh, image. So let's say you changed the other settings so that the exposure is the same, but you just raise your eyes. So you see, the ugo was called a noisy image or greenie image like the one on the right side. At I s 0 3200 or 3200. You have, ah, grainy image in the background. So that's what I so does. Racing the ice so makes a image brighter. In this example, they changed the other setting. So doesn't make it brighter, just showing you the effects of noise by raising the ISO. And here we look at aperture, um or f stop. So when you look at aperture, you're going to see a symbol that is F and a number that's too when written down determines what your aperture setting it's so when you see F and a number, that means that's what the aperture setting ISS so aperture, um, shows blurry things that are out of focus. So right now, the focus is on the white pieces of chess and the things that are not in focus. The things that the camera didn't focus on were the black pieces of chess. When you have a low number of the aperture, which is considered a large aperture, it gives you shallow depth of field shallow, meaning that the things in the background are, um, out of focus. So um, even though, says a large aperture, that means that the leads pupil is open very wide, but it's written down in Symbolized as a number, that's very small. So after two the opposite meaning a small aperture, which means that the pupil is closed and we'll talk about that when we get to aperture more . Um, it was considered a deep depth of field, which means digs in the background are more and focused, and that's represented by a higher aperture number, like after 16 we'll talk about that in the later on in the course. And next is shutter speed shutter speed at two types of shutter speeds, either a fast shutter speed or a slow shutter speed, so shutter speed is broken down in fractions of a second. So 11 20. It means that the image is being taken, the shutters opening and closing at 1/20 of a second. So which means in a second and will shoot 120 images if the camera can shoot that fast. But his shooting at 1 1/20 of a second is closing that quick. Now what? That that us to an image is something like this. Ah, Fares wheel that's moving at 1 1/20 it It almost slows down and stops the motion so you can actually see the lines in the fares. Well, uh, now, if you were to go to a slow shutter speed in this 4/1 means four seconds. Um, you'll have streaks of light as this fares will is moving. Um, and you can use this to your advantage if you want to freeze motion or you want to show like light moving. Um, so that's what why people change the shutter speed. People have higher fast shutter speed and almost all type of photography because they want to, uh, capture moments without it being blurry. So they shoot at fast shutter speeds and we'll talk about that later on in this course is well. So when we talk about exposure, I have this kind of like chart this image that shows three different exposures for the same image in the center. We have correctly exposed part of this image, which means either the camera or the person determined that this is exposed, how they want it, which means it's all. Even it looks just how they want it under exposed would be that the image is too dark, like on the left side, the images obviously too dark. If the image was the exposure off the left side, you will think that the image is too dark. Also, another note about under exposure, a certain things that are dark. You lose the detail in the information in them, so if you were to brighten it, you won't be able to see the detail in the rock in the background. So that's a problem with under exposed images. Even if you take a trying to fix them and editing later on. Now overexposure on the right side. If it's over exposed, that means it's too bright and also that you're losing information. Um, in the bright parts of the image. So right now, the bright part in the image is the sky. Um, with the sun is over exposed so you can't even see the SkyTeam where all you see is white, you can see the clouds, you can't see anything and you're losing information. If you were to dark in this image, it won't show the clouds anymore. So you want to correctly exposed image so you have all the information, and then you could tweak and fix earned digs, make certain things brighter, certain things darker and editing or just leave it the way they save you like how it looks . Um, so, in order to understand exposure, you need to understand was called stops of light. So a stop is basically doubling or have how healthy, cutting it in half the amount of light you let end when taking a photo. So, for example, if you hear photographer say he's going to increase exposure by one stop He simply means he's going to capture twice a smuts light, as on the previous shot. So a stop of light? Um, when is perfectly exposed, you would consider it, um, zero stops. Okay, One stop hired in. That would mean that you're doubling the light, and it's gonna be brighter by double the amount of light. And then you're messing which your settings. Either I iso shutter speed or aperture. Um, exactly the amount that you have to change to double the amount of light in the image. So stick with me. You'll get you'll see more big samples later on when we go to each individual section. When you go the opposite Wait au Laurie by one stop. You're cutting in half the amount of light, so you're changing the ISO aperture or shutter speed to the exact setting in which you're cutting the light in half. So, as you see here, um, you'll see this light meter in your camera that's showing you the exposure that the camp the image has based on the cameras, um, use looking at the light and seeing how much lights and the image by itself, it creates on exposure. Uh, so the light meter on your camera, and you gotta find that you can look at it through your viewfinder to the screen. It'll look just like, um, this thing under a standard exposure. Um right now, it will have this little red mark. The points of where the exposure is. The one in the center shows the rep in part in the middle, meaning the exposure is set standard like it's correctly exposed. So this part of the image this center part of this image is correctly exposed. The left side is, um, under exposed by two stops. So the red being on the left side by with under the number two means that is under by two stops, which means the light has been cut in half twice. At one stop, it was cut in half, once and at to stop. That was cut in half, twice. So as 1/4 of the amount of light that the standard exposure the correctly exposed one house under right side. You have increased exposure by two stops, which means the light was doubled twice. So the light on the right side is four times as much light as the one in the center, so double the original would be two times as much light and then double. That would be four times as much. So it has four times as much light as a one in the center, and we'll see them or a throughout this course now in your camera. If you have a cannon, you're going to see something like the line on the top, where you have a number one and number two A minus. I an A plus I. So anything on the left side means that it is, um, less light is under exposed. It's under exposed either by one stop, two stops, and then there's little lines in between. They show a dirt of the stop, so if it's right next to the center by one, it would be 1/3 over stop underneath. That's too complicated. Throughout this course, we're just gonna focus on full stops. So one stop underneath two stops underneath one stop above would stop are two stops above an icon. You might not see the numbers one or two. You might just see the line versus a circle. The line means a stop or two stops, so whether you're camera shows a number or a little line. That is where your stops air at. And doesn't it come in handy as I show you the examples being ableto manipulate your settings to match the stops. So that's it when it comes to exposure. It's a lot of information information without really knowing. I am so aperture and shutter speed. But in the next few sections, we're gonna talk about that, and then it's all gonna come together. So now we're gonna move on to the next section. 4. 4 Aperture: in this section when we talking about aperture, so aperture is a hole within a lens through which light travels into the camera body. It is an easy concept to understand if you think about how your eyes work as you move between brightness and dark environments, the iris in your eyes either expand or shrink, controlling the size of your people. In photography, the pupil of your lens is called your aperture. You can shrink or in large, decisive the aperture to allow more or less light to reach your camera sensor. So basically, um, your lenses can close and open. It's pupil in order to make the image brighter or darker. And that is what app. Atriss now the other part two aperture is that it effects depth of field when, uh, um, pupil is open wide. What ends up happening this you get a shallow depth of field, which means the background is blurry when the pupil is close, very small. Then you get a deep depth of field, which means everything is in focus. The foreground subject and background are more and focus than when the pupil is wide open. In order for a lense to have an aperture that will allow the people to be very open. You need what's called a prime Linse or a lance that allows you to get a, um, larger aperture. Now, when we see this f stop sharp, you can see what I mean by that. Um, now, after numbers. So you see, assess F one point no. At 1.4 after two at 2.8 at 45.6 F eight F 11 F 16 and F 22. Those are the main numbers that you will see. Wit aperture. Now, certain cameras. Most cameras have numbers in between those numbers, so you might be able to see something like 1.8 or any number between those numbers. Now, the These are the main numbers, though, and these are the ones that we're gonna be focusing on in this course. We're gonna focus from after 22 F 16 and on occasion I'm gonna show you f 1.8 because of, um, most prime lenses start at F 1.8. They can go toe F one point 4.5, 1.2. But, um, the most affordable prime lenses start at 1.8. So I will show you that, um, using one of my prime lenses. Um, Now, the thing you need to note is, when you're messing with your camera settings, you will see the number to 2.845 point six. Those numbers change, and those determine the settings for aperture? No, the smaller the number. Um, as you see in this chart here, the smaller the number, the bigger the aperture opening s, the bigger the number does close, the smaller the opening for the pupil iss. Okay, so ah, small number F one is considered a large aperture after 22 is considered a small aperture. Even though the number is bigger, the number doesn't signify whether that, um, the opening is bigger are not the numbers. The opposite, so small number makes a big opening, and a big number is a small opening. Also, the bigger the opening, the more light, which means the smaller numbers give you more light than the bigger numbers. So to is brighter than 2.8, which is brighter than four, which is brighter than 5.6 and 5.6 is brighter than eight and so on. F 22 is the darkest setting. The next thing you need to note is that, um these are the stops. So when we talked about earlier, when it comes to stops of light, if you're going from one stop to the other stop, you need to move. Um, this these settings in this order. So let's say your F two to move one step lower, meaning make the image darker. You got to go to 2.8, um, to go one stop darker, you gotta go toe four and remember when? When I mean darker by one stop. I mean, you're cutting the light in half. Now, these numbers don't make sense, so don't worry about the specific numbers. You can try your best to remember these main numbers, but you're usually just gonna pick an aperture setting. And then mass would I assaulted shutter speed because those are easier to remember by numbers. As long as you remember the main numbers. Which is, uh, 2.845 point six and eight. You should be fine when it comes to aperture. No, um So if you have 5.6 and you want to make the image of stop brighter, which means double delight. You goto before a v er at, um 5.6 and you want to make it a stop darker. You goto f eight and so on. F 11 makes it a stop. Darker F 16 makes it a stop darker, and F 22 makes it a stop darker. So those numbers are very important because as we're going and comparing those numbers to I s own shutter speed, you need to know what to stop. Thus what? Practice that later on in this course, so you could see it better. The next thing you need to note is how the depth of field is affected by these numbers. The lower the number the white earthy opening is and the more blurry the background. This says you see in this chart when you're looking at after two, the background this pyramid is very blurry. You go toe 5.6 in the center. Um, the pyramid in the background is sort of sort of blurry. And then when you go to, uh, f 22 the pyramid is not blurry. So this is ah, very bad representation of it. It's kind of like because it won't really be like that. It won't be that sharp. But I'm gonna show, you know, in the next example how blurry or not blurry these numbers really are. When I take when I show you this next example, I just wanted to show you that the lower the number, the more blurry the backgrounds gonna be. The bigger the number, the more sharp the backgrounds gonna be. So now I'm gonna show you in the next example. Um, that 5. 5 ISO: in this section we're gonna be talking about I s o I s O And digital photography is the measure of the sensitivity of the image sensor. So basically, what that means is that when you change the iess so you're allowing more light or less light to come into the image. Higher numbers means your sensor becomes more sensitive to light, which allows you to use your camera and darker situations. So that means when you raise the eyes so setting, you're getting a brighter image. But the cost of doing so is more grain in the image. Later on, you're going to see how I show you all these examples of grain in the image by changing the I s. So But I want to give you a brief overview of what I eso means Now I'm going to go over some situations where you might need a higher eyes. So setting you don't really wanna have a high I it's so setting because it's gonna give you grain and the quality that image is going to be lower. But there is some situations that U. S a photographer will bump into where you need to have a higher. I so setting, meaning that the situation is makes you take a picture in a darker setting, so you have to raise your eyes. So to get a brighter image just to get a properly exposed image, so the 1st 1 is indoor anytime you should an indoor, whether being your house or your at a specific location in your indoor. Unless there's so much light in the location, chances are you're gonna need to raise your eyes. So settings the next one is any concert or indoor invent. So I'm talking about events that don't let you use your flesh. So you go to a concert or get together. Um, there's you know, you're the theater or any event where, like there's a performance or just people getting together, Um, and you're not using your flash. Chances are you gonna have to raise your eyes so because they're not enough light in the room in most rooms, so you're gonna have to raise your eyes. So to get more exposure in your image, Um, the next one is if you're shooting at a church. The reason I bring that one up is because as a wedding photographer, if you're do wedding photography chances are you gonna be shooting at a church and in a church, a lot of the times you can use flash photography, so you're gonna have to raise your I S O. And even if you're shooting would flash chances. Are you going to raise your eye? So anyway, to get some of the Ambien light from where the flash is not hitting so the rest of the room and then the last one is when you shoot at night. So when you're shooting at night, if you were to shoot outside, chances are going to raise your eyes. So now, even though you might be able to use your Flasher external lighting the rest of the environment, you can't see because you know your eyes. So isn't, um said high enough. Now, if you're setting your camera on a tripod and you have a really slow shutter, you might be able to lower your eyes soap. But in most cases, if you're not using a tripod, you're gonna have to raise your eyes. So at night, whether you're indoor or outdoor, because at night it's always gonna be darker. So these are pretty obvious I just want you to remember, like, when am I not gonna be shooting with I s a 100 when I got to worry about green, and that is almost any case where you're not shooting outside with the sun or you're not using your flesh. So now we move on. Now, most camera settings will have a nice so range that starts at 100 goes up now some cameras Onley double D I S o number. So you'll see something like I s 0 102 104 108 116 132 100 and 6400. Some won't go higher than 6400. Some will And some cameras have eso settings in between those numbers. So something like 300 to 5600 and so on. Numbers in between the main numbers. Now the reason 102 104 108 116 100. Our main numbers is because of exposure. When we talked about earlier exposure has this thing called stops of light. So a stop of light, um, changes the amount of brightness either by doubling the amount of brightness or cutting it in half now I esos one of the easiest to follow when it comes to measuring how much light is in the image and the number basically determines how much latest in the image at 100 your at the bottom setting of how much light is an image. So, as you see in this example here at 100 you have the darkest image. When you go to 200 you're doubling the amount of light. So as you see in the image, it is brighter. But when it comes to stops, what the exposure, you're doubling the amount of light you're going once stop higher. Now, when you go to I so 400 you can see that the images brighter and you're doubling the light again. It doesn't mean that you went four stops from the first I s o setting over 100. It just means that you went up to stops because you doubled it twice. So for my s 0 100 or 400 you went to stops up. Okay, I hope you guys are following along with me. So for my s 0 200 or 400 you gotten out one stop from my s 0 100 or 400. You got up to stops now to go up three stops, you go toe I s 0 800 which means you double the light three times for my so 102 101 time from my s 0 200 or 400 a second time and from 408 100 1/3 time. So you gone up three stops and then you can see that the images even brighter. And then to go up a fort stop higher for my s 0 100 or a stop higher from my s 0 800 You goto is so 1600 which is even the brightest picture in this example. Here, Um, as you see, the images go from the darkest Isa 100 to the brightest 1600. And you might determine that from all these images, The one that you want to use the one that's properly exposed is I s 0 1600 So here's a little sample chart to show you different I s O settings and how the image might look like and to talk about stops 6. 6 Shutter Speed: in this section, we will be talking about shutter speed when it comes to your settings in your camera, shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second and in the case, how fast the current at the film plane opens and closes the shutter Speed controls how long light enters the lens and hits the image sensor or the film plane. The shutter speed enables you to capture the world in split seconds. But it can also observe the world at speeds upwards of three and four seconds or remain continually open until the photographer wants to close the current. So basically, shutter speed is, um when, uh, image, how long it is the image to take. The slower the shutter speed, the more light you get, The faster the shutter speed, the less like you get. So, as you see and this chart right here, um, something like 1 200 of a second will give you less light, darker image, but crisper motion on the right side. One tent of ah, second, I will give you more light, brighter image and blurrier motion. So if you want to image to look darker, just shoot faster, have that fraction B smaller. And if you want it to be brighter, just shoot slower, which means you make the fraction smaller meaning that is gonna be open longer. Now, if you look at this chart here to freeze action, you need to be at a faster shutter speed. So 1 2/50 of a 2nd 1 500 of a 2nd 1 1000 of a second that would freeze action. Um, if you go lower than that and you're between, um, 1 25th to 60 it of a second, that's almost like the danger zone, where you can hold the camera by hand and kind of avoid shakiness. If you go slower than that, you're more likely to have was called motion Blur, which means just you holding the camera up. We'll have some sort of blurred because you can hold a camera completely still. So it's recommended to have a tripod when you get Lord and 60th of a second, Um, in this chart here, you see that, um, some examples of things and the shutter speeds and recommends so freezing fast moving cars , motorcycles and speed boats is recommended at one thousands of a second or faster if a person is running is recommended at 2 58 of a second through 500. So anything over to 15 of a second. If somebody is walking 1 25th and sometimes work is recommended, the higher the better. Um, if Children are playing running, um, moderates beat bicycling. Um, 12 50 It is. Okay. Um faster. Better general outdoor daylight scenes with little to no movement. Um, if you're outside, there's no movement. You could be at around 1 25th of a second sports to 50th and higher. Now you go to the other extremes. You want to see a light trail? You want to see the light, continue on and catch the whole light. You might want to go eight seconds or slower if you want to see fireworks to its full brightness. Um, at the speed that fireworks, um, like, go off is recommend the 2 to 4 seconds if you want to catch night scenes outdoors. Ah, quarter of a second to eight seconds. Um, this next chart here start trails 10 plus minutes. So start trails. Take a long time. You sat on a tripod, you put it for 10 minutes shutter speed and just let it, uh, take this image for a really long time. Um, stars 20 to 30 seconds, um, to blur water. If you want the water to be blurry, You 2 to 10 seconds. Um, kind of like a waterfall or the lake passing by, um, water in action. So, um, you kind of want to see like, ah, the water. Um, on 1/10 of a 2nd 2 seconds. Walking 1 25th of a second. It's fine. Phrasing waves to 58 of a second. Um, running sports 500 faster cars, bikes. 800 flying birds. 2000. Mean there's endless charts. You really just got to see what it looks like and go slower. Faster. Based on what you want to do. In the next few examples, I'm gonna show you, um, how toe what difference shutter speeds look like when freezing an object. There's moving, and we're going to talk about the stops. You know, basically, when you double the shutter speed, um, you're adding a stop or taking away a stop of light, so that's when it comes to shutter speed. Now we're gonna move on to the next section 7. 7 - Lenses: Okay, This section, we're gonna be talking about lenses. So, um, throughout this course, we've been talking about different settings. The main reason you by specific lenses are for the aperture that it allows you to get to and the folk elect. So the focal, like meaning, how zoomed in and out, you can get to, um, and my aperture. We mean how wide the lens can go to. Now there's other little things like, you know, can you focus on things that are close up macro lenses, but we're not gonna focus on that in this section, which is gonna be talking about focal lengths and aperture, mainly aperture. So the best place to figure out which lens you should get for your camera. When I learned this, I went on here and uses every time of purchase of Let's for my camera. It is very hard to figure out what's a good lens for your camera. There's very little resource is out there, but this website here is the best. So what you want to do is you go to leads hero dot com Ellie and as h e r o dot com. Now, once you're on this website. The first thing you want to do is type your camera. Now we're gonna do two different types of camera my canon 60 and my Canon SL two. Now the reason I might get different lenses for photos cameras is because the cannon 60 is a full frame camera and the cannon SL two is a crop sensor camera. Now it doesn't matter if you know which, uh, said which one? Your cameras. If it's crop sensor or full, it is better if you do know. But at the end of the day to use this, you don't need to know if it's cropped or full if it's crop sensor. What it basically means is that, um, if I were to put a 50 millimeter on a crop sensor, it crops. Ah, the view of it and then it's not a real 50 millimeter. It is about multiple of 1.6. Um, so it's around 75 80 millimeter. So that's the view. Um, but if his full frame will actually be 50 millimeters, my 60 as a full frame, we're gonna start with that camera. So what you do is you type it your camera and you look it up. Once you find your camera, you put whatever your budget ISS, it doesn't matter. Um, I'm just showing you different lenses, so I'm gonna put the budget at 2000 and then I press go now, Once I'm here, I'm gonna take away. The fact is this Mac Rowland's and then we have different types of lenses Landscape, white angle, low light fish. I So what? Ignore this for now. I'm gonna show you how to look through this and figure out, which lets you want to get for your camera. So, um, right now they're rated in order of popularity. What are the best lenses for your camera? Based on the man like where people buy, they don't put just the most expensive camera on the top here they put based on what people are using and buying the most. So the most popular lens for my camera is the cannon 24 to 105 f four. So let me explain what this means. So what this lens basically means is that, uh, you can zoom men and out from 24 millimeters all the way to 105. So 24 is pretty wide. 105 is pretty telephoto, um, a standard lens that you will see its standard zoom lens for a full frame camera is 24 to 70 millimeters and then a standard telephoto lens is 70 millimeters to 200 millimeters. So the fact that this one goes from 24 all the way to 105 not 70 means that a consuming past what a standard zoom lens is almost in the range of a telephoto. Let's so being 24 to 105 give me a wide range of options to zoom in and out with this. Let's. The other thing that makes us with popular is that I can open my aperture all the way to four point. Oh, now, when we look at more examples of aperture, it might not be like the best, but for a zoom lens, that is pretty good. Um, if you buy a cheaper version of something like this is cheaper zoom lens, you will see that it is between 3.5 to 5.6, meaning when you zoom in all the way, you can only go as open as 5.6 does give you a whole extra stop. Um, and no matter where you zoom in or out off, you can be as open as four. Now, that doesn't mean that it only has aperture for for those that don't know, um, it means that it could be as open as for, but it can close, um, as much as, like as the normal. Let's so you can get 5.6 aperture. Um, 789 Um, 11 13 16 22. You can get all those apertures, but you can get as wide asked four point. That's why this F four means that you can go as wide ass four. When you see this chart here, it shows How good is it? It is a stabilization which doesn't really matter much in my opinion. Fixed aperture, Yes. Which means that if you zoom in and out at at four is not going to change his aperture, I'll show you Let's where it will do. That zoom range is pretty good is in the green. Um, focal length. One of five kind of good is in the yellow aperture e four is not bad. It's not the best. Okay, the next leads is the 50 millimeter 1.8, the one that we were using. Um, the great thing about enough, this is that is one of the cheaper, um, prime lenses. And you can go as open as 1.8. Now, this one can only go as open as four. This one can go as open as 1.8. And And when you see my examples, you're gonna see how great a shallow depth to feel One point it gives you, which is why this is one of the most popular lenses to get. The problem is that you're stuck at 50 millimeters. You can zoom out to 24. You can zoom in tow 105 You can zoom in at all. You're stuck at 50 millimeters. This leads working the crop sensor, and a full frame is better on a full frame because there's a little more zoomed out, Um, on a zoom lens, you have to, like, step back in order to see stuff. Um, the next one is that this 35 millimeter to after two, which means that goes as open as to doesn't go as open as 1.8. It goes as open as to, but it's wider than 50 millimeters is 35 which is a little bit wider. You can Seymour with this. Let's, um, there's another version of that 50 millimeter. 1.8. Here's a zoom lense like I was talking about before 72 200. This is, um, telephoto lens, which means that you can get to a large focal length like 200 which means you can zoom men really far away, and it can be as open as 2.8, which is amazing. That's why this let's is very, very expensive, one of the most expensive lenses that they have. Um, you can see that this is huge because they can open while zooming in and out from 70 to 200 is one of the bigger lenses or probably the biggest lens that they have. So very heavy has a little thing on the bottom so that you can support it on a tripod. You won't put your camera on a tripod, aka this This thing is as heavy or heavier than your camera. You put the lens on a tripod just to keep this dirty. It's very hard to get Ah, sharp shot with this. Like even when you shoot at 200 shutter speed, it might be blurry because carrying this is very heavy. You might have to shoot faster than 200 shutter speed, but you could be as open as 2.8. So the main ones that you're saying is 2.8, 1.8 and four so far, Which is why I'm gonna point those out more when we talk about aperture. Here is a 72 300. Now you see, this one is $1500.1600 dollars because they can have opened a 2.8 this one open from 4 to 5.6. Now, when you see a range in the F number, so the aperture number there's a range. That means that when you zoom out all the way, you can open your lens to the biggest aperture, which in this case is for and when you zoom in all the way to 300 millimeter the most, you can open it to its 5.6. That's what this range means. It's somewhere in between 773 100 open somewhere between four and 5.6, so is arranged because you'll see your aperture opened by itself. So if you have a set to aperture 4.0, and you're a 70 millimeters and then you decide, assume men your lens, you'll see that your camera will automatically changes aperture slowly from 4.0 to 5.6 by itself, just because the lens can not open to 4.0, while Zoom. Then at 300 millimeters. That's the same witcher with standard lens that comes with the camera. Usually the lens that comes with the camera is one that is 3.5 to 5.6 and same idea. When you zoom out all the way, you can get to 3.5. When you zoom in all the way, you could be a 5.6. So given that 5.6 2.84 point oh, and 1.8 are standard apertures that you might get as a white is opening in most of the lenses that you're gonna own. Those are the ones that want to point out the most. When I'm talking about aperture in my examples, here's another 1 70 17 to 400. It's a wide angle lens that could have an opening off four point. Oh, here's a 40 millimeter cheap 40 millimeter that has an opening of 2.8 24 millimeter wide, one that can open a 1.4. That is a really good let's because you have, Ah, nice, shallow. That the field of problem is that, um, it's hard to see blurriness when you're zoomed out all the way went. The more you zoom in, the more you get shallow depth of field, the more you zoom out, the less shallow depth to feel you get. So being a 24 millimeter, which is very open, you're gonna have less shallow depth of field than if this was like an 85 millimeter 1.4 Ah , here's ah standard zoom lens with standard apertures. So 28 to 1 35 pretty good folk elect options. But when you zoom out to 28 millimeters, you can have 3.5. When you zoom in all the way to 1 35 the max opening, you can have its 5.6, so it's not as good as the four point no one because the 4.1 you can have it when you zoom in all the way. So look at this one $400 and then look at the most popular leads. You can go to 1 35 per you can goto 105 at F four and is almost twice a price. So this one's more popular is better just because you could be a 4.0, and people want shall Adaptive fielding photography is very popular. Um, and C 24 to 72.8. I have a 24 to 72.8. Um so is my main lens that I use my 24 to 72.8. I could have an opening of 2.8 and zoom in and out. So there's a very rare popular lens. Um, if you can't afford a 2.8 version, you're gonna get the 4.0 version of the 72 200 wide angle 8 to 15 millimetre very, very wide, um, 4 to 5.6, and then one of my favorite lenses is the 85 millimeter, 1.8 you can open this to 1.8 and you could be zoomed into 85 millimeters, which is a great focal lengths for, like, head shots and stuff like that. And you get a nice, shallow depth of field. Um, they have ah, 28 millimeters. Okay, Now I'm quickly going to switch cameras. Teoh. A crop says they're camera Teoh. I guess I don't have the new cameras, but like Leslie, they don't have the t seven, but they have the t six. I is the same lenses or the SL toothy eso. One is the same. Lenses gets lens hero hasn't caught updated yet. Um, so most popular leads in for a crop sensor camera. A lot of the full frank lenses work with a crop sensor lens, but actually off, I believe awful, uh, frame lenses fit in a crop sensor camera. But not all crop sensor lenses fit and a full frame camera. So that's a difference. So you're gonna see extra lenses here that you wouldn't see on the full frame one. So here's 100 million reeder 2.8. Great option. Great focal like 2.8. That is good. I prefer, like an 85 millimeter. 1.8. Um, there's a macro lens, which is great for close ups of our like, little objects. 24 to 70 at four. Open opening of four. A 2.8 is better. Um, the zoom lands, like before. Ah. Special 90 millimeter. 2.8 for macro. Um, Mac girl, I would ignore these. Oh, I know why I have only macro lenses selected. Okay, there we go. Now we're back to normal. Um, 24. 71 of five. So the same lenses here is the crop censored version 18 the 1 35 3.5 to 5.6. So at 18 millimeters, you get 3.5 at 1 35 Year, 5.6, which is awesome. Um, 18 200 Onley crop sensor cameras have a lense like this where you can go as open as 18. And because white is 200 this crop, so this 200 is almost like being at 300 millimeters. So this is super white and super zoomed. It, um 50 millimeter, 1.8 same lenses, same lenses. Yep. That That's a guess about it. Just at 18. Ok, Here we go. This is your standard lens that comes with most of these crops. Sensor cameras. It's an 18 55 3.5 to 5.6. When you're zoomed out to 18 millimeters, you can be as open as 3.5 and and high end and a bigger ed, so you can be as open as 3.5 and you can close it as much as you want at 18 millimeters. So we could be a 3.545 point 68 and so on. When you're 55 millimeters, the most opening you can have is 5.6. I hope you get there following along. If it doesn't make sense, if you're confused, looked through the other chapters about aperture and then come back to this, um, it's going to make sense. Um, I just wanted to show you why 5.6 matters, because I'm zoomed in a 55 millimeter on my standard leads that came with my camera. I can only be it's open. It's 5.6. I'm gonna show you when we're shooting the shade and in the sun. Um, why this matters. Okay, so that's when it comes to lenses. Whereto find, uh, lens for your camera and which lenses, um, what these numbers mean and stuff. Now we're gonna move on to the next section. 8. 8 Stops: Okay, this set up. I have these two lights here in my living room. Very bright light here with these two giant bulbs. And then I have this teddy bear set up with this camera on a tripod. And in this section, I'm going to show you guys about stops. Okay, so the 1st 1 I'm going to show you guys is aperture. So as we talked about earlier, different stops of light change the Amman off light by half. Or by doubling it. So we insert in the darkest setting. And then when a cut, we're gonna add one stop of light to it to make the image brighter by double the amount of light. So when you set your aperture two F 16 you're at one of the darkest settings in your camera . One stop higher than that. Which means doubles. A light from F 16 is after 11 and this is what that looks like. So this is F 11 and we have doubled the light So that how the image is a little bit brighter still not bright enough to were wannabe still seems dark just by looking at it. So we're going toe move once stop higher. So the next stop is F eight. So it's starting to get a little bit better. It's still not bright enough. It still seems a little bit dark, so we're going to raise it once. Stop higher. So one stop higher from eight s at 5.6 at F 5.6, it looks well exposed. So this is great exposure for this image. But for this administration, I'm gonna show you what a couple more stops. Thus an aperture. So one stop higher from 5.6 and which doubles the light is at four. So this is what F four looks like. Now, this looks a little bit nicer. I might end up shooting an image like this and the other one because I kind of like bright images. So because you have the background being the window, it looks really nice. One is bright like this, so I might do f or you never really know Just cause you're camera tells you is perfectly exposed at 5.6. Always try Ah ah love a brighter, a little bit darker. Just to see a view like the image better, darker or brighter. So at four. I like it better. Let's see. One stop higher is 2.8. So from 5.62 goes to four from 4 to 2.8. This is two stops, two stops hired than when my camera told me to expose for. But I like that force. I like that one. Stop higher. And then this is one stop higher above that. And then just to show you what the next stop would look like, I'm going to go to F two point. Oh, so this is the next stop up. Um, so from, uh, 2.8, the next stop up is two point. No, you would need a prime lens to get to two point. No, I just wanted to show you what the brightest settings looks like. So, um, that's a when it comes to stops and aperture. And now we're gonna move on to the next one. Okay, so here we're looking at I s O so I eso is probably one of the easiest to understand when it comes to stops. Aperture was the hardest. We went from the hardest, and now we're going to the easiest. So I am so pretty straightforward. The lower the number, um, darker it is, the higher the number, the brighter it iss. So I s 0 100 usually the lowest setting your camera has. And, um, I s 0 100 would be the darkest image. So I take this image at I s a 100 it is too dark, so I would move on up. So the next one is I s 0 200 That's one stop higher. You just double that number and you get one stop higher. So one stop. Ire is still too dark. So I'm going to move onto the next one. This is I s 0 400 Starting to look good is still a little dark. Maybe, um, the camera things is exposed properly here, but this is just one step higher. So instead of going from 200 to 300 because you're raising another 100 you got to double the number. So from 200 you have to double it to 400 which means to get one stop higher, which means double delight. I need a double it again. So now we moved to 800 right here. Uh, it looks exposed. I like how this image looks just at the setting here, but let's see what was stop higher than that looks like. So the next stop above eso 800 is 1600. Now this is a little over exposed. It still looks nice, but I would probably choose 800. And since my camera has setting some between those, I would choose something, maybe in between, or I would change my other settings. You're just starting out. Maybe your camera doesn't have numbers in between. It might just have 102 104 108 116 100 and no numbers in between. Some higher cameras have eyes, so settings in between those numbers. So we're gonna move one stop higher just to see what that looks like when it comes to stop . So the next one is 3200 at this point, the sky, the backgrounds all blown out. It is way too bright. So where a ISO 3200 and you get a lot of green in the image. We don't want that. Um, but that's beside the point. For now, we're just talking about stops. The next stop up would be 6400. This is way too bright. But I just wanted to show you the extreme on the brightest setting it can get to. And then the next one up is 12,800. So we've doubled the light yet again. And now it's too bright and you can barely see the bear you can only see, like the heart and the eyes and stuff. So those that the stops when it comes to I soaps pretty easy to follow along Wit Just double the number and you're fine. And now we're gonna move on to shutter speed. Um, and with shutter speed, I'm going to start at a really fast shutter speed. So this is a shutter Speed 1 3200 of a second or also known as dirty 200 100. So 32 hundreds of a second. So I 3200 of a second, um, you have a really dark image to move one stop higher than that. We had to go the opposite direction. We got to make this image the shutter close slower than 1 3200 by exactly half the time. So half the time off. 1 32 100 If you know, basic math is 1 1600 So 1600 um, so 1600 is half the time of, um, with 3200 and is that it won't stop of light is still too dark oven image. We're gonna add one more stop of light. So to cut it in half from that it's gonna be 1 800 of a second. So 1 800 is looking good. It's still, I think, a little under explored. I want to see what one more dust to see. If that was better, and then that one would be cutting it in half again to make it brighter. So half the time of 1 800 would be 14 hundreds. That one, I think, is properly exposed. I like this one the best. Now in your camera, you have a lot of settings in between those numbers. It won't just be those numbers. And most cameras, unlike I s. So some of the cameras, you might just have those numbers I showed you, but when it comes to shutter speed, you get a lot more options. So you will have options between 408 108 116 100 to play with. So you can look at numbers in between those for exposure. So I'm gonna add one more stop. The next one would be 1 200 that wants nice, the exposures. Nice. It's a little bright, but I kind of like it. Or I might do something in between between 204 100. The next one is one stop higher, which breeds which would be 1 100 of a second. Now, when you shoot at 1 100 of a second and you're shooting with a subject, chances are you start to get into the danger zone of, um, movement and blurriness when shooting an up objects. Still. Now I'm shooting with a tripod, so I don't have to worry. But if you want shooting with a tripod, if you let 100 or any slower than that, chances are, is gonna not be a sharp because of movement of your hand or the subject. Moving slightly will cause the image to not look a sharp so ah, 100 slower you'll get to the danger zone when it comes to shutter speeds. So the next 11 stop higher would be 1/50 of a second at 50th of a second. You really want to be using a tripod? Um, you know, some people say they can shoot at 58 of a second. I try to never shoot a 50. It may be a idiot of a second, maybe 60th of a second. I try not to go to 50 if I'm doing it, Handheld. Um, unless I'm shooting white angle. If I'm zoomed in, there's gonna be some movement at 50. It there's a big risk off a of slight movements in your hand and the image not taking fast enough. And it be sharp. So now we're gonna go to one stop higher, which is the brightest when I'm gonna show you, which is 1 25th of a second. Um, unless you're shooting your shooting a tripod, you shouldn't not be shooting at 1 25th of a second hand health. Almost nobody can get a sturdy image at 1 25th of a second. Anything slower than that? 1/10 of a second quarter of a second. Half a second and one second and so on. You wanna use a tripod and let it just stands still. And whatever you're shooting has to be a standstill subject, like landscape images. Not like, uh, moving subjects. So that's it when it comes to stops and showing you I s o stops aperture stop and shutter speed. And now we're gonna move on to the next section. 9. 9 Aperture Depth of Field: Okay, So in this example, I took this image of this co can with the TV in the background. I shot this at F 1.8 and I focused on the coke can. So everything in the background at F 1.8 is going to be blurry. Now, F 1.8 is the white is aperture that the standard prevalence will give you. If you buy a more expensive prime lens, you can get to 1.41 point two and rarely one point. Oh, but in most cases, if you're just starting out the first prime lens you're going to get, we'll let you go to 1.8. So I'm shooting this when my 50 millimeter 1.8 and I shot this at the whitest opening, which is 1.8, which made the background very blurry. From looking at this image, you cannot tell what it's on the TV, and as we move on to the other settings and closing my aperture, um, you will see what that background looks like. So now I'm going to move on to the next setting is 2.8 now 2.8 is ah one of the first ones I want you to focus on. And the reason is because there's a lot of lenses out there that are zoom lenses, like a 24 to 70 or 72 200 that allows you to have an opening of 2.8. It's not a prime Linse because of prevalence cannot zoom in or out. When we talk about lenses, you'll know what I mean. But some zoom lenses unless you go to 2.8, um, no matter how zoomed in or out your at. So I wanted to show you what 2.8 looks like, because if I was shooting on my 24 to 70 I can go as open as 2.8. So this is what the background will look like at 2.8. Those lessons are more expensive than the standard kid Lance that you get with your camera . But, um, if you want a shallow that to feel like this, you might want to get this. Let's So now we move on to the next one. This is 4.0, um, so one stop. Um, under from 2.8 is 4.0, now some lenses give you the option like a standard kid lands to go from 3.5 to 5.6, which means you will be able to get to a four. Now, there is some lenses, like the 2.8 lens zoom lens that lets you go to a four opening off before they're more expensive than your standard kid lands. Um, but less expensive than the one that go 2.8. So, uh, lens, unless you go as opening us at four. Um, this is what it will kind of look like versus prime lands versus the one that goes 2.8. Now, you see in the background you can kind of start to tell little bit what it iss. You're not 100% sure, but you can kind of see, like, a face. Um, so you kind of get to see a little bit more of the background. Now, this was shot in a tripod. Everything is in the same position. Nothing has been moved. Just change the aperture. The next one is 5.6 5.6. If you get your standard kit leads, um, it and you're zoomed in all the way. When you zoom in all the way in the standard kids leads the biggest opening. You can have this 5.6, which looks like this. You already lost a lot of the blurriness from the background. You still get some blurriness, but not as much as when you were at 1.8. Um, so when you're first starting out and you have your first lets you zoom, then all the way chances are on this is, uh, aperture the white as you can get it to now we're gonna want the next one after eight. F eight is a standard apertures one stop over 5.6 where you might be shooting outdoors. So if you're outside and you're shooting with son, you might be around F eight to get proper exposure without raising your shutter speed too high. We'll talk about that more later on, but after eight makes them much darker. The sun is too bright, so you might be around f eight. And this is what the background looks like by now. You can tell that I'm watching a cartoon with, uh, kid and a dog. So, um, the blurriness is already starting to lose, and you can kind of already see what's going on there. The next images are at 11. This is even darker. You almost never will shoot at F 11 unless you're trying to show levels. So like if there's two people and you're tryingto have both of them and focus, you might do if 11. Or if you have a background and you want that and focus, you might be a run after 11 or higher and ah, higher number. So, um, by the at this point at F 11 the pupil is very closed and you're getting more focused on the co can and the TV. The next one is F 16. At this point, the TV is almost kind of sharp. You can already start to see the word Nick in the corner because this was a Nickelodeon, um, and is very is getting sharp in the background, and that is the highest one. Um, around F 16 to F 22 is usually the highest you can get to and most cameras, so it doesn't matter any higher than this, really. But I just wanted to show you from af 1.82 f 16. What it looks like in the background, um, and why? It looks really cool to have ah, wider opening aperture because it looks a lot better. The first image with the background all blurry than this one. We're showing the TV in the background that is own a picture, the picture basis. Whether you want to show the background or not, we don't want to show the background, which is in most photography. The focus is on the subject. Then you want ah, wider opening. So that's a with this example Now we're gonna move on. 10. 10 ISO Noise: Now I'm gonna show you an experiment that I did where it took this image of this teddy bear using my camera on a tripod and I go over different settings so you can see what changing the eyes so does when taking an image of this teddy bear. Okay, I'm starting with I s so 100 shooting this teddy bear. I basically said all my other settings, so that thing exposure is perfectly exposed every time I'm shooting this in a tripod. So if I have to lower my shutter speed that it will not show any camera shake. And the image isn't exactly in position. So I'm starting that I s 0 100 because the I s 0 100 gives you the clearest image. It gives you the least amount of grain in the image. I'm shooting next to a window so that you can see what a traditional shoot probably like at home. You might do endorse, um, somewhere outside of being outdoors. Um, so the teddy bear is my subject. I'm starting at I s 0 100 you can see that the detail in this image is great. The quality in the background in the back left side where it's dark, you don't see any green and it looks good. And then I'm going to move up. I assoc so you can see the difference. This next one is I s 0 200 Um, at 200 you start to see very little difference. It still looks really good. You can kind of tell very slightly that the quality changed very little from my so 102 100 . There's still 201 100. It looks almost the same. I still considered I saw 200 a safe zone to take images and and get nice grain lists image throughout. Now I'm gonna move onto the next one desire, So 400 is still what I considered in the safe zone. But you start to get a little little bit of green and dark areas in the image is hard to tell what I was zooming in, But let's see how it looks like as the eso goes up. This is I s 0 800 that you start to see a little bit of green in the left side in the back . Um, where the shaded areas that now it all depends on the camera. My camera, it can process, um, I eso at higher settings without showing as much grain. Your camera I s 0 800 might have way more grain than I do. I'm just showing you on my camera what it looks like. But on different cameras, you'll start to get more and more green. You'll see it more noticeably when I get the higher I s O setting in these images. But I just want you to know that in various camera, But I just wanted to show you how it starts to change as the I s o goes up. So I'm going to go up to the next one. This is 1600 now in this area in the background, you get to see a little bit more green. Uh, now I'm gonna move on to with 30. 216 132 100 are like entering the danger zone. I try to avoid at all costs, shooting 3200. Um, you could see some green in the background. It gets to be very bad. Like if you were to print these images out and like you will see the green in the background. Now when we want 6400 now it starts to look really bad and dirty. It's almost like it's much too in the left side, in the background. And then, uh, 12 8 is a worse one. Yet, as you see here in this background, it looks really, really bad in grainy. So now a lot of cameras can't even get to 12,800. Um, but 12,800 in this camera might be equivalent to, like 3200 on your camera just because of the sensitivity to light the your camera might have verses. Mind Now, we're gonna look at 25,600 which is the highest ice so setting that my camera has, this image is completely unusable. I would never, ever shoot a 25,600. Um, ever in any picture that I take as to be for a non professional reasons Onley in which I will ever shoot at this higher when I s o you can tell by this background that it just looks terrible. And if you were to ever apprentice image out, it would just look really, really bad. So I just wanted to show you the extreme of green and I So, uh, the darker the room, the more the grain is noticeable. That's why you can really see green more in that corner, this in the shade. But if you were to shoot in a darker situation, you'll see that lower I s o numbers at way more grain. Then when the room is more lit So, um grayness affected by higher that s o number And how dark the situation iss So that's it when it comes to shooting with I s O and how green is affected by higher I s o and now we're gonna move on. 11. 11 Shutter Speed Moving Objects: Okay, This section I'm gonna be taking a picture of a ceiling fan. This is to show you guys shutter speed and what movement looks like when you're shooting the shutter speed. I'm shooting with my 50 millimeter and I'm gonna now turn on the Fed. And when it takes some images, this is what the fan looks like. One turned on at the fastest mode. You can see from this video that it's going very, very fast and when to take images with different shutters to see what it looks like. So this is the first image. This is the image of the fan ceiling fan turned off. This was before I turned on the ceiling fan. Just that you could see what it looks like. You can see that it has, uh, five. Let's call them wings. Um, um, so that when you see the images when it's on, you can try to distinguish the wings in the image. Um, and I shot this at 1 200 of a second. Didn't matter what the shutter speed was when I started because the ceiling fan is off. But I just wanted to show you where we're starting at at and what we're looking at, and now we're gonna move on. So the first image was shot at 1/2 off a second. Eso I shot There's very, very slow just so you can see that all the wings disappear in the image. You can kind of see like, um, kind of like a shadow a line around. Um, but you can't see any of the wings anymore. It looks pretty cool. Um, you might want to do something like this would light to create a streak of light, and it will look really cool. Um, but this example we're just using the ceiling fan. Um, Now I'm gonna go a little bit faster. So I shot this at 1/5 of a second, and it still looks exactly the same. But in others instances, you might be able to tell more differences between 1/2 and 1/5 and and in one second. But in this case with the ceiling fan, this is all you're going to get. I'm gonna go a little bit faster. One tent. I see slight difference, but almost not at all. It still looks up pretty blerp it almost disappears. So I'm gonna show a little bit faster. Um, now I'm at 1 25th of a second, and now you start to see a little bit like some a little bit of the wings, like on the right side and on the left side. You see, like two wings, little parts of the wings I'm showing, but it's still very blurry. And and you can't really tell like Hominy. There are anything like that. Next time finish show 1/50 of a second. At this point, you already start to see the wings. You can kind of tell others either four or five in there. They're very blurry. But you could tell that the shutter close fast enough to catch them from, like one part to the other and then a big blur. So it looks really cool here, but I'm going to shoot a little bit faster so we can see what that looks like. So now I'm out of 100 of a second at 100 of the second. You can clearly see that there's Five Wings is still blurry wings, but like it's not going all the way around or anything like that. So, at 1 100 of a second. You know it's for moving objects. This is example. Off cars, animals, sports photography is still way too slow to get anything sharp, so you don't want to shoot at 1 100 of a second. You want issue faster than this if you have moving subjects. So now I'm gonna show you a little bit faster. 1 200 of a second. Now someone's a blur has gone await, but it's still blurry. If you have moving, subjects depends on the speed that they're moving. 200 might be enough, or it might not be enough. If if it's at all fast, like a car, a bike or anything, um, you want to shoot faster than 200 of a second, for sure. So now, when issue a little bit faster to see if we can get this to be sharper than this. So now where? 400. And now you can see someone that blur. To really go away is a very little blurred. Left. 400 might be a good starting point for things that are moving. You might want to shoot 400 or faster for moving objects. Remember, this was moving very very fast, and it still looks kind of sharp here. So you got to put things into perspective and really look at the image based on what you're shooting somewhere between 200 higher. 400 see if it's sharp enough by zooming and in the image and looking at your subject to see if it's sharp enough. Now I'm going to go a little bit. Ah, faster. And where I 1 800 add 1 800 It almost looks like the fan is off. We've almost frozen our movement in it. You have very, very, very little blur. It's almost like unrecognisable. You can barely tell at all that this was moving, so this is really good. You might be fine, just at 1 800 But we're gonna go a little bit faster to see what that looks like. This is 1 1600 It still looks like it's off. Um, you can't tell any movement is really captured this image very well. Um, so you know, now you could tell that when things were really fast at around 1 800 are 1 1600 Um, you will get like things stopped completely, but things could be even faster than the fans. You might want to be a 1600 or faster. Just look at what? Um, the next one, um, going a little bit faster. Looks like So this is at 1 3200 at this point, this is a thing of Sharpest is going to get. Can't tell at all that this was moving. You can't tell almost any blur anywhere, so this looks very, very nice. Uh, so that said I just wanted to show you guys a ceiling fan movement and shutter speed and talk about that. So hopefully this help you guys understand shutter speed and speeds with moving subjects, and now we're gonna move on to the next section. 12. 12 Shooting in the Shade: okay, In this section, we're gonna be talking about shooting outside in the shade, and we're gonna go over all the different settings, and we're going to really talk about I s O shutter speed aperture and some of the settings that you might want to do when shooting outside in the shade. Now, my subject for this example is this tree here. We're right now in the shade, and this is kind of like in the middle of the day, um, this image right here in these settings are going to represent most of your experience shooting in the shade outside in daytime. After this example, we're gonna shoot with the sun. But in this example, we're just gonna be shooting with the shade. So when I should in the shade assuming this tree waas a subject the backgrounds also in the shade. By the way, um, this is probably what I would do. I would be shooting at I s a 100 because at 100 I have the darkest setting, and it also allows me to raise, uh, open my aperture, which we'll get to in a second. But it also gives me the clearest image no green, um, at all No noise in the background. I can go to 204 100 be fine, But in photography, you want to get used to getting as close to 100 or 100 as you can in your images. So I started 100. Then I set my shutter speed to Then I send my aperture. I said the aperture right where I want to. So, um, I can get as open ass 1.8. Prefer this example for perfect stops. I'm going to shoot at two point. No. So that when we go one stop higher, one stop lower, you'll see the difference. So I'm gonna be shooting at two point. No, because I want a shallow depth to feel that one. A blurry background. And that left my shutter speed at 200. Now I s 0 100 shutters B 200 is kind of like a starting point for your photography. Um, I s 0 100 would gives you no noise in your image as little noise as possible. Shutters. B 200 of a second is kind of like the slowest you can shoot a person a subject while holding your camera and knowing that is gonna be a sharp image. When you go slower than 200 of a second, you start getting a little bit. You start running into the risk of getting a image that isn't as sharp because of camera movement. You moving your camera, little can casts shakiness, and the image not to be a sharp 200 of a second is fast enough. And it's kind of like an industry standard of a speed that is good for taking images without a tripod. So that leaves my aperture at two point. Oh, so would you really need to note from this image? Is that the setting four aperture in a shade outside during the day is two point No, to have perfect exposure from looking at this image and what the camera was telling me. This is perfect exposure, my light meters right in the center. It is perfectly set at two point. Oh, so if you remember these settings and you go outside and shoot with the settings, you're fine. But the problem is gonna be is Do you have the leads unless you shoot a 2.0, which means are you shooting? What a prime. Let's international with a prevalence, you're probably gonna have to shoot with a different aperture. So let's move on to see some more examples now we're gonna shoot were at 2.8. So at 2.8, you might have a lenses, a zoom lense that, uh, lets you zoom in and out and get as openess to pointing now as we talked about earlier. Those lenses a zoom in and out to get to 2.8, are a little bit more expensive than your standard kid. Let's so maybe your center kid learns, cannot get to 2.8. But if your legs can get to 2.8 is not a prime lenses, you're the zoom lens. You'll be one stop under exposed. Now, even though this represents majority of shaded areas, there's gonna be some shaded areas. There's gonna be a little bit brighter a little bit darker. I'm just telling you that this is what you mostly get. So if you get something a little bit different when you go outside, um, this is just an example. But note that this is probably what you're gonna get So you're gonna be one stop under exposed my light meter saying one stop under when I'm shooting at 2.8. So I'm going to raise this up to 4.4 point no would signify another leads that lets you get to four point. Oh, so another zoom lens that lets you be open to 4.0, no matter what folk elect urine or your standard kid lens, when you zoom out all the way lets you get to four point. Oh, so at this point, your two stops under exposed, which means you either have to raise your eyes. So a slow your shutter speed, we'll talk about that in a little bit. So the next one is 5.6. This represents the zoom lens that comes standard with most DSLR cameras. Your standard kit lens. When you zoom in all the weight the white is you can have it is 5.6. So this is where you're gonna end up that you're gonna be three stops under exposed and you got a raise your eyes so either three stops up or do a combination of raising your eyes so and your shutter speed. So now we're looking at raising your eyes. So one stop. So we go to I s 0 200 that Reza once stop higher, which made this now be two stops under exposed. So I hope you guys following along with me. If you're getting stuck understanding the stops, um Then go back to the lecture where talk about stops using Aiso app assuring and shutter speed. But I'm raising one stop in my eyes so to 200. And this is the image that I'm getting is still too dark. So I raised my eyes so to 400 now one stop under exposed Now, in many cases, I'm fine being one stop under exposed. And the reason is because I shoot with, um speed lights a lot. And when I shoot with speed lights, I like that. My subjects and my background is what stop under exposed so that when I hit my subject with my speed lights with my flashes, I usually hit them for about equivalent one stop of light, whatever that would look like, where they're just perfectly exposed in the backgrounds One stop under exposed, which makes my subject be brighter than the background and make them stand out. I usually one my subjects to be the brightest part oven emission five in the shade in the background and the subject Are this the same brightness? They're not going to stand out. So use my flashes and I make my studies be one stop under exposed. And then I put flash on my subject. So these is what my setting might look like. I s 0 400 shutters, B 200 and aperture 5.6 and now hit them with a flesh. So now I'm gonna go back to perfect exposure. I have to be at ISO 800. Now. You have brought they light. Um, most cameras. I saw 800. You don't see noise or green. You really gotta look at your camera. Zoom in on the image. Seaver, See noise and green. And if you're fine with the image at I s 0 800 But if you're just starting out, this is a great point to be it. You don't want to really go faster, slower in your charter speed, and you can lower your aperture any you can't wide in your aperture than a 5.6. If you're starting out in your camera, doesn't let you. So you might have to shoot at I s 0 800 to a perfect exposure in the image. Now I'm going to, um, go back to one stop under exposed. So we're back to ice. 0 400 shutter speed 200 aperture 5.6. Maybe you realize that I s o 800. You don't like to green in the image. You'd rather sacrifice something else than the noise that you see in the image. We already talked about noise so that the next logical option is to ah lore your shutter speed so is slower and a shooting at 1 1/100 of a second. Now you're risking noise for sharpness. So can you hold the camera still enough for the image to be sharp? If you're occasion, you know, 100 you think that the image look sharp Then you can use the settings right here. You can be at eyes so 400 aperture 5.6 and shutter speed 1 100 preferably you have a better lens unless you goto a wider aperture than 5.6, which means the lower numbers, which means you can lower your eyes. So razor shutter speed. But if you can't, then this is another option. So you have eyes. So 800 at 1 200 of a second or I s 0 400 at 1 100 of a second to have perfect exposure. And that is it when it comes to shooting and the shade. I just wanted to give you a bunch of alternatives, different settings what I would do, Um, and hopefully this help you guys out with shooting in the shade. Practice this. Go outside. Look at your light meter. Raise your eyes so lower your shutter speed, you know, but try to play with magic numbers. You know, if you're in the shade, open your aperture as much as you can. Um, if and try to keep your shutter speed 200 or higher and you're find these air beginner tips . Once you get better, you can manipulate with numbers in between 102 100. And if you have a better camera, different apertures and I iso's. So that's what it comes to shooting in the shade. Now we're gonna move on to the next section 13. 13 Shooting in Sun: in this section, we're gonna be talking about shooting and direct sun. So this is different than shooting in the shade because it is brighter. With shooting with the Reckson, you could be shooting at objects that people, the rules should be the same. Now, these are some of the settings that you're going to see in. These examples are exciting that you can go based off of when you're shooting in direct sunlight. Um, it might be a little bit brighter or darker for you, but not by that much. These air, usually settings that are universal, uhm would shooting with the sun. So the first settings we have perfect exposure. So my light meter is saying that is exposed correctly for the scene is basically grabbing the exposure off the tree so you can see the tree is seems bright, but that's just because the backgrounds a little bit dark on the left side. But it's exposed properly evenly throughout the scene. Um, the settings that I'm getting our I s 0 100 shutter speed, too. Hundreds of a second and aperture um, eight point. So the reason I chose I so 100 like we talked about in the shaded section is that, um, I always started. I so 100 to get the less noise as possible in the image when you're shooting with the wrecks on, you have so much light that it's a no brainer to be shooting that I So 100 if you're in the shade or in other situations, you might go higher Aiso. But in the rex on you have so much light that you be most likely shooting that I So 100 next is your shutter speed. Um, the fastest shutter speed that you should be comfortable shooting with, um, shooting hand held should be 200 shutter speed. Some people can shoot Ah, a little bit slower, but there's no reason to shoot any slower with direct sun. And if I was using my speed lights, um, 200 is where I can normally is the fastest. I could normally shoot with a speed light. Um, because my speed, like, can't shoot and shoot faster shutter speed in this what are going to high speed sink? It's too complicated to explain if you're not used to speed lights. But for now, I started 200. Um, so I'm always starting at s a 100 shutter speed 200. And then I figure out where my app Atriss. So the aperture for direct sun is about eight point. Oh, sometimes is nine point. Oh, we're gonna start at eight point. Oh. Um, this is giving me a perfect exposure here, which is good. Um, a point. No. Is one of the numbers when we studied aperture that are perfect stops so that you can follow along and you should already know what the next stop up and down is from eight point . Oh, So we look at this next image. Um, I went to 5.6. Um And the reason, um, is to show you guys, um, what I will have to do to keep perfect exposure. So to keep perfect exposure of 5.6, let's say you're trying to, um, get a shallower depth of field in a point. Oh, you want the background to be blurry. So you're going once stop, um, brighter in light. By going to 5.6, you have to go one stop lower in light. It would your shutter speed. So if you go one stop hot um, lower which Your aperture. Um I mean, one stop higher with rapture. At 5.6, we gotta go. One stopped lower with your shutter speed from 200. That would be 400 shutter speed. And if you're lost, go back to the section where talk about stops or the section when we did the shaded one and you'll understand So aperture when up a stop, it got brighter because from 8.25 point six is one stop of light. And since the images brighter by one stop, we got to make it darker by one stop with my shutter speed. I can't make it darker with my eyes. So 100 is the darkest that can get to. So I have to, uh I raised my shutter speed, so I my 400. Okay, so this is setting. I want to get to I want to get to, uh, 5.6. Um, so I need to raise my shutter speed. In order to do that, I had to go one stop of light. Brighter, My happy trim. One stop of light. Lower my shutter speed. But in order to get to here, let's take it one step at a time. The first thing I want to show you is, um, one stop under exposed. So, um, I just wanted to show you what one stop under exposed looks like So you can see what that will look like in this image. Maybe you'd say that last image look too bright. I want to show you where one stop under exposed looks like. So I raised my aperture to F 11. As you see here, you can tell the trees looking really dark. The whole scene is looking very dark, so that's what it looks like. What's up? Under exposed to stops under exposed F 16. Um, in case you want, like, the backgrounds is way too bright. You might raise it two f 16 to see the background better. This is what that looks like. Okay, so we're here at I s 0 100 shutter speed 200 aperture 5.6. I want to really get my aperture really low. So I'm gonna count my stops when I go to 5.6 at one stop Overexposed. When I go to four point no, on two stops. Overexposed. When I go to 2.8. I am three stops overexposed. So we saw with our shutter speed when we goto 400 of a second where one stop under exposed when we go to 800 of a second where two stops under exposed. So now we can combine those two pieces of information. Um, we go back to perfect exposure. We go One stop higher in our aperture one stop lower in a shorter speed, which means where I shudder Feet 400 aperture. 5.6, we do it again. Four point no. 800 of a second. We do it one more time. 2.8. That would be 16th of 100. And then if we were to go to 2.0, we would have to be at 3200. At this point, we've gotten really shallow depth to feel in the background from this tree versus the first image. This is what I would do. I would either be shooting right here at 2.0, a 32 100 or I will be a 2.8. If I have a zoom lens, I would be a 4.0, um or 5.6 of my, um, if my lens does not let me open wider than that, but I know that I can make up with it. And with my shutter speed, my eyes so always stays at 100. That's what you do when you're shooting with the sun. Um, and that sums up, um, this section with exposure. Thank you guys. So much for watching and hopefully see you guys at another course.