Beginner Moho Pro (Anime Studio) Illustration, Rigging and Animation | Brian Jackson | Skillshare

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Beginner Moho Pro (Anime Studio) Illustration, Rigging and Animation

teacher avatar Brian Jackson, Author/Publisher/Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

89 Lessons (8h 8m)
    • 1. Promotional Video

    • 2. Welcome

    • 3. What is Moho?

    • 4. Animation Workflow

    • 5. Course Overview

    • 6. intro Summary Using Moho Kinetic Typogratphy

    • 7. Create Your First Animated Illustration in Just 10 Minutes

    • 8. Create Your First Illustration in Just 10 Minutes

    • 9. Create Your First Rig in Just 6 Minutes

    • 10. Create Your Second Animation in Just 10 Minutes

    • 11. Introduction to Illustration with Spud the Potato

    • 12. Getting Started

    • 13. Introduction to Illustration with Spud the Potato

    • 14. Using Library Resources or Character Wizard Instead of Drawing It

    • 15. Posing Characters for 2D Animation

    • 16. Drawing Shapes

    • 17. Selecting Points

    • 18. Transforming Points

    • 19. Adding, Deleting and Copying Points

    • 20. Smoothing Curves Using the Legacy Method and Bezier Curves

    • 21. Configuring Line Thickness and Hiding Lines

    • 22. Selecting Shapes and Applying Styles

    • 23. Let's Pause for a Mid-section Project

    • 24. Drawing Arbitrary Shapes with the Add Points Tool

    • 25. Shape Stacking Order

    • 26. Layers

    • 27. Layer Groups and Masking

    • 28. Using Accelerator Keys

    • 29. Using Styles to Style Multiple Layers

    • 30. Displaying and Configuring the Grid

    • 31. Freeform Drawing Tool

    • 32. Reviewing and Exporting Your Work

    • 33. Tracing

    • 34. Section Summary with Dill the Pickle

    • 35. Using and Modifying Library Resources

    • 36. Tracing Scanned or Digital Images

    • 37. Originating an Illustration within Moho

    • 38. Illustrating Switch Settings

    • 39. Introduction to Rigging

    • 40. What is Rigging and What Have Bones Got to Do with It?

    • 41. Creating and Populating a Character Bone Layer

    • 42. Adding, Transforming and Reparenting Bones

    • 43. Setting Bone Strength and Binding Bones to Points

    • 44. Adding Switch Layers

    • 45. Smart Bone Dials

    • 46. Using Target Bones

    • 47. Bone Dynamics

    • 48. Using Pin Bones

    • 49. Reference Layers

    • 50. Rigging Summary

    • 51. Illustrating and Rigging the Perfect Arm

    • 52. Rigging a Character Body Pt. 1

    • 53. Rigging a Character Body Pt. 2

    • 54. Rigging a Character Body Pt. 3

    • 55. Rigging a Character Face: Eyes Blink

    • 56. Rigging a Character Face: Eyes Movement

    • 57. Rigging a Character Face: Mouth

    • 58. Introduction to Audio and Lip Syncing

    • 59. Recording Audio Using Moho

    • 60. Manually Lip Syncing a Dynamic Mouth

    • 61. Manually Lip Syncing a Switched Mouth

    • 62. Papagayo Semi-automatic Lip Syncing

    • 63. Installing Papagayo

    • 64. Implementing a Preston Blair Phenome Set Based Mouth Switch Layer

    • 65. Conclusion to Audio and Lip Syncing

    • 66. Introduction to Animation

    • 67. Basic Animation Using Bones

    • 68. Additional Animation Options

    • 69. Advanced Timeline Editing (Part 1)

    • 70. Advanced Timeline Editing (Part 2)

    • 71. Animating a Preston Blair Walk Sequence

    • 72. Using Cycles to Repeat Sequences

    • 73. Background Animation

    • 74. Camera Animation

    • 75. Producing and Distributing a Video

    • 76. Animation Conclusion

    • 77. Sample Animation

    • 78. 1. Gather and Arrange Your Resources

    • 79. 2. Your Character Walks on Stage

    • 80. 3. Your Character Speaks as the Camera Zooms

    • 81. 4. Clean Up, Produce and Distribute Your Animation

    • 82. Introduction to Skipping Ahead

    • 83. An Overview of Moho Projects and Layers

    • 84. Using the Character Wizard to Build Your Character

    • 85. Loading a Prebuilt Character from the Library

    • 86. Loading Backgrounds/Props/Effects from the Library

    • 87. Loading Images for Use as Backgrounds

    • 88. Loading Prebuilt Resources Off the Internet

    • 89. What Now?

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About This Class

Have you tried to learn Moho (formerly Anime Studio) but gotten stuck?  Well, you're not the only one -- I've been where you are now.

  • Maybe you tried piecing together YouTube videos but couldn't find where to begin or the order in which to watch them
  • Maybe you tried other online video courses but found they were outdated (no longer matched your version of the software), were too specific or way too advanced
  • Maybe you tried an introductory course which was nice but it was too short

I created this course to specifically address these issues.  They are what I viewed as a gaping hole in the previously available body of Moho knowledge; namely, a decent introduction.

This course provides a detailed, easy to follow introduction to the latest version of Moho Debut and Pro, version 12 (not Anime Studio 11, 10, 9...).  This introduction is 8 hours in length (not one hour) because it addresses all the phases of 2D development using Moho (not just one phase) including:

  • Illustration
  • Rigging
  • Animation

It even includes a lengthy section on lip syncing a character manually and using a semi-automated process based on the free Papagayo product from Smith Micro.

Though this course is for beginners it delves into advanced topics such as:

  • Smart Bones
  • Reference Layers
  • Target Bones

After completing this course, you'll know Moho very well.  You'll certainly be able to tackle more advanced YouTube lectures to hone your skills to perfection.

Click on the Enroll button in the upper right to begin learning the most powerful 2D illustration and animation software in the world: Moho Debut/Pro.

I'll see you in the classroom,


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Brian Jackson



Born in Los Angeles in the middle of the last century, I have always wanted to be a writer. After twenty-five some odd years spent working in the computer industry in the heart of the Silicon Valley, first for Lockheed as a Systems Programmer and later for Cisco Systems as a test tool developer, I managed to retire early and begin my next career as a self-published author.

Along with writing and publishing my own novels I also publish the works of my wife, Melanie Jackson. During the past four years I've published well over 100 books in paperback and eBook formats. Oddly enough this includes eBooks on how to self-publish books and how to create professional looking book covers using the GIMP. I've also recorded and distributed a pair of audiobooks available for purchase on Amazon... See full profile

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1. Promotional Video: This is a course about Mojo, the two D animation product. Hi, my name is Brian Jackson. I'm a former software developer, first for Lockheed and then for Cisco Systems, who retired early and spent my early retired years as an author and publisher. Having published over 100 E books in August 2014 I became a you Demi instructor and currently have 34 well rated courses. I'm also the creator of the less than popular spud and dill animated Siri's. Oh yes, and I've also been a frustrated mojo Lerner for over a year now, while the frustration will, it begins with a lack of good introductory training material. Most training material out there is out of date. For instance, it dresses anime studio. The previous release of Mojo, Smith Micro and YouTube training is just too disorganized. There's no way to find a beginning or an end. Ah, lot of training is very advanced and assumes the basics. Other training materials to specific. For example, it addresses body turns and nothing else. Some introductions air too short and some address on Lee a portion of mojo, for instance, rigging. That's why I developed this eight hour course to provide a solid introduction of Mojo to address the latest version of Mojo to order a solid introduction all in one place to assume nothing and teach the basics and detail to address all aspects of mojo usage, to provide comprehensive coverage of the topics and to address illustration rigging and animation. This course is for those who have been struggling to learn how to use mojo, those who want to learn the latest version of the product, those who want to learn the product in a systematic way, those who want complete understanding of the fundamentals. And those basically were frustrated, too. In this course, you'll learn in detail the basics of Mojo two D animation. You learn to illustrate a character using vector graphics to rig that character with bones for animation. And to animate that character, you'll learn lip sinking a character both manually and using the semi automatic free Papa Guyot product, you'll learn to implement a standard Preston Blair Walk cycle and to produce and distributed animated videos via YouTube and Facebook. This course is divided into lecture sections and workshops where I demonstrate what was just learned after the introduction will cover illustration, then get into rigging, lip sinking and conclude with animation. It's important to note that this course includes projects that you should complete and then share via the Q and a section of this course. Additionally, this is just the second course in a series of planned courses. Be sure to check out the introduction and keep your eye out for the intermediate course coming up. So if you're ready, buckle your seat boats and get ready for a wild ride, because here we go. 2. Welcome: hello and welcome to the course. In this lecture, we're going to discuss what is mojo, which would naturally lead into a discussion of the illustration workflow. And then we'll conclude with a course overview in the rest of the course, will discuss illustration rigging and animation in that order from the workflow, So I'll see you in the first lecture. 3. What is Moho?: in this opening lecture. I want to talk about what is mojo or basically, how to make cartoons, because that's really what Mojo is is a cartoon creation software tool. Now this is recorded as of September of 2017 and some of the information may be dated. The further we get into the future. Let's begin by looking at the company that distributes Mojo. It's called Smith Micro, and this is its website. Now. If you just go to smith micro dot com, you'll end up seeing their high level website where they talk about services and partners and stuff like that. You actually have to click on their products link, which takes you to slash customer to get to the customer graphics section of the website. When you get there, you're gonna find that they have quite a line of graphics products. The other thing that you're likely to find is that their products are expensive. Remember these air professional products now they do have debut our entry level products that are somewhat cheaper, but you're still probably gonna get tempted into the pro products which cost hundreds of dollars. So let's begin by looking at clips studio paint. Formerly known as Manga Studio. This is Smith Micro's illustration software, and it's really fantastic. Its greatest competitors probably photo shop or illustrator. It's along the same lines. It's a vector editor. The generates vector graphics such as this where I'm drawing, using a three D model to trace the other product that's useful with clips. Studio paint Pro is motion artist Motion artists allows you to put some motion to your cartoons if you're a cartoonist, such as in this demonstration, where you can see that there is an animation from cell to cell on the comic that I drew. This is done using motion artist. The next product to consider is Poser, which is a three D animation product where you get to spend your characters 360 degrees and see them from all sides where you can generate graphics such as this. That shows an air played scene where passengers have a dispute. And finally, there's Mojo, which, like the previous products, comes in a debut or entry level product and a pro product, which allows you to do two D animation, such as in this Once again, The website is Smith Micro dot com slash customer. And here we encounter our first bit project. What I want you to do is consider pausing the video at this point and going to Smith Micro to look at their products and make sure that you're watching the course and purchasing the right product for what you want to do next. I want to talk about why Mojo two D animation. For one thing, it's faster to produce and render than three d three d takes. A lot of machine resource is, and it takes a lot of time to render things. It looks more cartoonish than the more realistic three D animation. It's also simpler toe work with, and you can use it to animate hand drawings by scanning them and then tracing them First. I want to talk about the mojo pro advantages over the debut version. It has a lot of additional features that you're gonna want smart bones, frame by frame animation, busy a curves motion blur dot i dot It just has a ton of additional features. If you fall in love with debut, you're gonna want tohave pro next. I want to look at the price comparison mojo debut is fairly inexpensive at about 70 bucks. But hold onto your britches because Mojo Pro can cost upwards of $400. The rule here is Buy Mojo Pro on Lee with a coupon, and another option is to buy debut and upgrade. That's a little bit more expensive, but I bet you're going to get tempted into Pro eventually cause Mojo is one cool product now. As of September 17th the previous version of Mojo was called Anna Mae's Studio 11. And that's where we get the formerly known as it's currently called Mojo 12. And these two versions air not exactly identical. Mojo 12 has several significant additions above the predecessor release. There are also alternatives to Mojo, including for illustration clips, Studio paid by Smith Micro and Photoshopped. Both of them allow you to create sophisticated illustrations and save them as S V G files for importation into Mojo and for animation. I've heard great things about harmony by tune boom, but this is even more expensive. This is the top of the line professional two D animation tool. Now I want to talk about two types of graphics what you're normally used to in doing J Pegs , or P and G's and so on are called RASTER graphics. These are extremely large graphics because there's a value to describe the color and the brightness off every point in the image. What Mojo works with his vector graphics, which is just points shape formulas and fills very small, very simple to render and very simple to animate. Vector graphics provides a standard S V G or standard vector graphics open file format, which allows you to share your vector graphics between programs. It creates smaller file sizes because you're storing much less information. You're not storing every point in the image. You also get faster graphics because software can process the formulas and points defined in an SPG graphic much faster than the raster graphic bit values. Remember, it's just points shaped formulas and fills. Though I use Windows Mojo supports both Windows and the Mac OS and one last thing a standard Windows installers provided, which makes installation of breeze. Now this is what I recommend. If you want to draw it, check out clip studio paid instead of mojo. If you want to draw comics, also check out motion artist. I think it's a need addition to clip studio paint. If you want to do three D animation, you have to try out poser. That's the way to go very similar to Blender, the open source product of You're familiar with that. And if you want to do two D animation, I think mojo is the answer. So here we've encountered our second little bit project. I want you to go off now and decide what you're going to pick up a Sfar as a software product. One of the options you have is to do a free time trial for 30 days. You might want to just pick up debut and later upgrade to Mojo Pro if you're not sure about what you want to do. Now, up next comes the animation workflow, in which we're gonna talk about all the phases and tools that go into creating a two D animation. I'll see you there 4. Animation Workflow: next, I'd like to talk with you about the animation workflow. There are a series of steps that come a standard order that you perform to complete animation. That's actually why there are teams, because teams or multiple people actually on big projects work as teams on each of the steps in the workflow. Or there might be an individual, but in this case, it's usually me, or in my case, it's usually me. And in your case, it's probably gonna be the same until you learn that you're going to do all of these steps in the workflow. And let's take a look at what these steps are. Number one is the story outlining Somebody's gotta have a story or what's going to happen a plot, characters, scenes, all of these things. And that's kind of, you know, the writer director kind of part, because they're also going to decide. You know how to the scenes fit together and all of this stuff so they'll probably be heavily involved in production as well. Now I'm not going to talk about all of that Outside stuff. You're gonna have to come up with your own story. I'm not going to tell you how, but I'm going to talk about steps two through six. The first is illustration. You have to draw whatever your characters are going to be. And more specifically, you have to draw them as vector graphics rather than raster graphics. Because vector graphics can be more easily and faster animated next, you're going to rig the characters. What this involves is setting bones that actually move points based on their movement. So you move the bones, the character moves. And Mojo is smart enough to fill in all of the steps in between one placement of the bones and the next to make it a smooth animation. So rigging is the process of taking an illustration a vector graphic illustration and then binding bones to all of the points so that it moves and looks natural. When it does, you also put in switches toe, have different eyes. You'll put in controls to blink. You'll also put in switches toe, have different hands and maybe hats and add facial hair or excluded and switches that control the mouth movements in the blinking of eyes and so on. All of this has to do with rigging. Now, when you get done with illustration and rigging, you have a finished character, and one of your options is to go into the mojo library and grab some finished characters. And then, knowing about illustration and rigging, you can go modify the illustration and rigging to make your own character from those that will save you a lot of work and get you a more precise character. Next, what you usually do is you record audio, and the reason that you do this before animating is that part of animation is lip sinking. So you've gotta have the audio, and you gotta have the characters react to what they're saying. Somewhere along the line you're going to create scenes and backgrounds and props and all of that. So you've gotta have supporting graphics as well, and then finally make it to the animation part, which is where you move the rig characters around a seen a backdrop with props and have them interact with their environments and multiple characters interact with one another. Now I want to take a more detailed look at each of these steps after storytelling. When it comes to illustration, you actually have several choices. You can draw using analog drawing methods outside of a computer and then scan those drawings in. And then what I like to do is trace. So I'll either trace images that I've gotten off the Internet or drawings done by my wife that her analog and scanned to turn them into vector graphics. Another is to just originate your drawing in mojo. You can also import SPG files from programs like Photo Shop or a clip studio paid or use. The library. Resource is so there's a lot of ways to come up with illustrations. If you don't want a particularly illustrate, go ahead and use the library. If you're not very good at drawing, go ahead and trace. If you're great at all of them, then you're probably working in photo shop and might want to import. If you're somewhere in the middle, you might want to draw in mojo so you got all the styles covered. Next is rigging, and that's adding bones to a character or an object. Remember that you can also have animated objects that do things in adamant objects. You then bind the bones to the points and actions so points would move the character around as you move the bones. Actions would maybe flipped to a different hand position or a different mouth position. And then you may have to draw additional shapes as required. So if you're gonna flip pans, you need to draw more than one hand position, and you may not do that until you're rigging. Next comes audio recording. Now here you have options. You could download free audio from the Internet, so playing music in the background and so on is no problem. You can import your own recordings as I'm doing here. I recommend using the product audacity, which is free off the Internet for doing recordings. And who knows? There may be time in this course that I can give you a little audacity demonstration. You can also record within mojo, and we will definitely be looking at that or use library. Resource is, which includes little sounds that you can incorporate popping sounds, bangs, all the common sounds that you might want to incorporate. Now next comes seen scenes, backgrounds and props. You can draw your own, and that's actually fun to do if you like that kind of thing, or you can buy them or get them free off the Internet or use library resource is once it again to fill them in. So you've got your options here, and then finally comes animation. We all know about the animation. That's the recording and the movement of the bones and so on the actual creating of the cartoon. And you have to do this yourself. You can't load this from a library and so on that well, actually you can do to a certain extent. But this is where the artistry of animation comes together. So you have all of these options. Are you interested in this story telling part? Are you addressing illustration because you can draw and take snapshots and make still images of your drawings? Are you interested in rigging? Maybe you just like to create characters through illustration and rigging. Well, specialize in that part. Maybe you really like the animation part of things, the moving of things, but you don't particularly like illustration or rigging. Well, in that case, use the library Resource is no illustration and riggings that you can modify. The resource is just slightly to make them your own and then go ahead and spend most of your time with animation. So what I'd like you to do is prioritize your favorite animation in the big 10 cents tasks . Prioritize them in order. What's the most important? What's the least important? And post your list when you get it to the Q and a section of this course? Or if you, if that's too much work, just post your favorite. What are you primarily interested in? Is it the illustration, the illustration and rigging or just the animation itself or the whole thing? Personally, I find the whole thing a blast, and it's nice having a variety of tasks. Now, this is a pause point. So I encourage you to pause the video right now and go do this task. Prioritize your tasks. You can rewind and see what the list was again and put together your priority order. I'd like to know, and you probably would like to know what is it that you're so interested in that you're taking this course on two D animation and up next is going to be the course overview. I'm gonna show you how this course is laid out and the little tricks that I've used in it and how you can take it. I'll see you in that lecture 5. Course Overview: in this lecture. I want to provide a course overview for the course. You're about to spend several hours watching. So we're going to talk about what you're going to learn in this course not only what you're gonna learn, but how you're going to learn it. So I'm gonna begin with a history of your instructor could. This is kind of justification for why I should be teaching this course. I went to community college and then humbled State where I got a degree in business administration married Melanie Jackson, who was an author. And then I worked for Lockheed for a while, and in that interim, Melanie became a New York published author. And then I worked for Cisco Systems, where I cashed out on the stock options just before the tech bubble burst, which allowed me to retire at the age of 48. I went to Columbia College when we moved up into the foothills of California and took creative writing to brush up my writing skills. And then, from 2000 and 9 to 2014 I was a author and self publisher, along with my wife, Melanie Jackson. In 2014 I became a you Demi instructor. And just recently, in fact, it's been about two weeks. I have been a dedicated mojo, pro 12 user. Now that doesn't exactly send me up Is justification for why I should be teaching the score . So let me address why I created this course while I was out there trying to learn Mojo. I found that there was very little introductory material on YouTube. I found two good sources of introductory material, and I'm gonna address those in the resource is that is the article. After this lecture and what I found on you, then we seem to be outdated and just kind of disjointed. YouTube video techniques were great, but they were scattered, and some of them were very advanced and somewhere very specific on techniques. Where was the general introduction to mojo information? That was up to date. I couldn't find any, so I kind of pieced it together myself. And one of the things that I learned early is that if you want to learn something well and I'd like to learn mojo well, teach it. And as a result of putting this course together, I went out and had to gather a whole bunch of basic techniques, and I learned a bunch of stuff that I didn't know about Mo and fundamental stuff that I can use over and over again. So it's already been useful, even if this course tanks. Additionally, I watched a video on training techniques and it said, You know, one of the great fallacies that you have to be an expert on a professional It's something to teach it. In reality, if you're a beginner, you actually know and are more familiar with what a beginner needs to know. It seemed like a lot of the videos I saw skip beginning techniques. And I went, Wait a second. What was that? You're gonna press a space part, you're gonna do this? What does that mean? In this course, I started the very beginning and go very slowly through what a beginner needs. At that point, you can go and watch any YouTube video you want, and you're gonna understand the fundamentals that those techniques air based on. So this is an introduction for beginners, though mojo, it's an extensive one. So if you want to know mojo really well, this is the course now, Here are the topics that we're gonna cover after an introductory workshop where we're gonna have some fun creating some animation. That's after the next couple documents in the conclusion video in this section. And I apologize for this section being so long we're going tohave pairs of first illustration and then an illustration workshop rigging in a rigging workshop, animation, an animation workshop. And then I'm gonna conclude with how to do audio and lip sinking several techniques. One using Papa Guyot, a tool which automatically kind of lip synchs for you. And then we're gonna look at drawing backgrounds and props and all of that stuff and scenes and how to organize those. And then we're going to conclude with an important topic production and storage and organization of all your stuff and how you're going to distribute it. It's kind of like the administrative part of putting together a cartoon. Now, in addition, this course is being taught in a specific way. Along through the course, you're gonna hit thes pause points, right? We already you already encounter those before and they look like this when you hit those. I am suggesting that you pause the video and go try out the techniques now. You should also do this at your own pace of I'm not doing it enough, or you can ignore them if I'm doing them to, rapidly or to repeatedly and do the pauses at your own pace. But be sure to pause this video and go try out the techniques after you've accumulated several of them. In addition, sections will conclude with major projects. So after illustration, there will be an illustration project where you will illustrate a character after rigging your rig. A character after animation will create a small ah 32nd cartoon video. Now, one other thing that I want to point out is the Edger. Watching a video check out the lower left hand corner, I brought up the one times speed. If I'm going too slow for you, then just crank it up to two times and you're gonna watch the course in half the time. If I'm going too fast, slow it down. That's going to probably change the pitch of my voice, but you can do that. The other thing that you can do is notice. In the lower right. There's a continue button, if what you're learning in the lecture is too simple for you, and you already know that you're more advanced. Are you seeing that before? Yeah, you already know that. Hit the continuing Just skip the lecture. In this way, you can speed up the learning process considerably now. How to contact me. You can either send a you Demi message just by clicking on wherever you find Brian Jackson and sending message. Or you can start a public Q and A discussion by going to the Q and a section of this course and opening up, um, or public discussion. If you think what you're asking or stating is of public value, you can respond to announcements that I send out. So be sure to respond. If you have comments or questions regarding one of my email announcements, you can also email me it Brian JJ xn at gmail dot com, or visit my website it author Brian Jackson dot com. And on that website, you'll find a contact form. So that's it. Next, I'm going to give you a couple of documents. Additional resource is will give you training, material and stuff that's online and all free, and then we're gonna do the course project, and then we're gonna have the section conclusion before we go off and start playing in the introductory workshop. And they can I apologize for this introduction being so long, I just wanted you to have a solid base before doing anything with mojo, including which mojo you want. So coming up next is that document on additional resource is Be sure to scan it because it's gonna give you a lot of good stuff that you can watch and read to learn about Mojo, I'll see you there. 6. intro Summary Using Moho Kinetic Typogratphy: in this lecture, we learned what is mojo, the animation workflow. And we viewed a course overview. I'll see you in the next section. 7. Create Your First Animated Illustration in Just 10 Minutes: in this lecture. I want to take somebody new to Mojo through the process of using it to create an illustration. And I'm going to do it. None that under 10 minutes. The first thing that you do is you start mojo, and I'm gonna start from a blank screen here. Just that you know, that there's nothing up my sleeve they're seeing exactly the way that it's done. I don't have anything preset. And finally, here it comes. And the first thing Mojo does is it brings in a default animation and Aiken right away. Start playing this and I can see an example Animation. I can also play with it, modify it if I know what I'm doing. This animation is way too complicated to work with. And by the way, I just returned the play head, which we saw moving ahead along. We could stop it and I can go back to the beginning, which is where we want to be Now. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna say file close to get rid of that particular animation, and I'm gonna go file new to create a new one. Now, the first thing that we need to do is save our work somewhere. So I'm gonna goto file save as. And at this point, you can create a directory. I would recommend going to documents and using new folder to create a new folder called Mojo Class. Now we've got a folder in which we can put our materials double click on the folder to open it. And then let's name this class, Project one. Great. Now we've gotta saved file. Now, the first thing that we're going to do is we're gonna bring in a background and to do that , I want you toe open window, come down to a library that will open the library window, which contains resource is that we can reuse, go to factory content and you notice it has this little arrow to the right. Click on that and it'll open this. This is just like a directory structure. And in it you have characters and effects and images. All these things that you can reuse. But what we're going to go after is scenes and under scenes, we want backgrounds and under backgrounds. Finally, we make it to desert anime. Let's bring that in. If I double click on it. It brings up a sample that I can look at, so we're going to have a desert desert scene. Let's go ahead and say, OK, now we can get rid of the library window by clicking on the X in the upper right hand corner. So we're looking at the desert scene. This purple box here is actually the view area of your cartoon notice that of the scene does not fill up the background. Also noticed this that we can zoom in and out by rolling our mouse wheel in different directions in and out. We can also pan screen by right, clicking anywhere and moving our mouse around two important navigation features. And what we're gonna do is zoom out just a little and then grabbed with the mouse the lower right hand corner of this box here, the little red circle, and you'll notice that your mouse will turn into this two way arrow. When that happens, click down and pull away. This will expand the desert scene, and we wanted to be just larger than the purple box, the purple box being the viewing area of our cartoon and congratulations, you've just created a background to your cartoon. Next, we're going to open the window menu and come down to character wizard to create a character . And it brings up the boy we can choose from different characters, including a creature and a mannequin. But what? I'm gonna go with Spikey boy and we can go here and change the proportions of his various body parts. Give him very long legs and a short torso. We can change the length of his arms and his shoulders and how wide he is. Try completely configuring this character to be you. Then you can go to the face and modify all of these things, the colors of things and so on. You can even go to movement and change the way that he walks with Walker actions. Something that we're going to use to animate. I can changes the color of his clothing and the type. And here in style, I can even change the styles of his skin and so on to make him exactly me. I'm just going to accept the existing boy. Now what we want is having walked from left to right across the desert. So we're going to take a side seen notice this little scroll or down the bottom will change in 1/4. Circular increments. The direction in which you're looking at this character. We want the side view here, the third watch over. And we also want to export only one view. So uncheck the box, export all of youse and click OK, and you can see that our character has arrived in the scene. Congratulations. You just illustrated your first character. Now the problem is, is he's standing in the middle. We want to change that. But first we're gonna check out a few things on the screen notice on the far right that we actually have things called layers. And if we move these layers up and down, we can change what's on top of other layers. So just be no, just notice that there are layers and if sometimes you try to do something, you could be on the wrong layer. We want to be on the boys side layer and notice the timeline. Here we can set up an animation on frame zero. Once the frame advances into the timeline, the current frame, then we're doing animation. So we're actually animating a scene and every change that we make will be recorded and animated by mojo unframed zero. We can modify things, so make sure you're on frame zero on the timeline and that the boy is selected in layers. Next, pick the layer, the transform layer tool that looks like a four away arrow in a bench sheet of paper. Click on it and it will highlight. Now go over and notice this red box with the eight circles in it. If I click and hold down in the very middle, I can move the boy character over to the left off the screen. Now I'm ready to start my animation. What I'm gonna do is have him walk, and to do that, I can quickly assign an action. If I goto window and select actions, the action window will open either in the middle of the screen or docked, as this one does. We want to move the current frame in the timeline to one click on walk and then select insert reference that will insert a copy of the walk cycle, which is a repeating cycle. So now we can click play, which is the arrow in the middle of the screen and we walk in place. We want the character toe walk across the screen. So click the square to stop the replay and then click the arrow, pointing at the block to move all the way over to the left and get back to frame zero. What we want to do is to decide how long it's going to take for him to walk across the screen. So we have him starting on the left. And as we move the frame forward just by grabbing the triangle at the top of the gold line and dragging it across the timeline, we can decide weaken set when that where the next action is going to occur and let's set it to 1 20 That's what fits on my screen. Now have you noticed there's 30 frames per second in my set up? So that means that it's four seconds that were going toe record. That's how long it's gonna take him to walk across the desert next with your transform layer tool selected click again in the middle of the boy and drag him all the way across until he's off the screen on the right there. You just created the complete animation. Go ahead and play it. Uh, we forgot to go to frame zero. So let's rewind and play. Now he's moving a little fast. In fact, it looks like he's sliding on the ground. So maybe we want to change the speed or the time that it takes him to make it all the way across the desert. Now notice the little stroller down here. The very bottom of the screen scrolls the timeline left and right. Here's what's known as a key frame and 1 20 We created that by setting the boys ending position. What we're gonna do is scroll until the key frame is on the very left of the screen. Click the key frame to turn it red with our left mouse button and then click and hold it and drag it over. Let's go. If we hit the end of the screen, noticed that it's scrolls. Let's go to 10 seconds. Now it's going to take him 10 seconds to traverse the desert. Let's hit the rewind button and then play again. That's a little more reasonable, and he's trudging. He wouldn't be moving that fast, and it repeats. Let's hit Stop! Congratulations you just created your first animated cartoon in Mojo. Now the next step that will do is go up to file and say, Save so that we can update our saved class Project one. Then we'll say file and go all the way down Toe export animation on the export animation page will see that we have start frame one and we could in the end frame of 300. If it's not there, we can choose between an MP four file or an A V I We can even create an animated GIF and leave all of these render options alone. Notice we're exporting to the same directory that our class project was in. Its just gonna be called dot mp four instead of dot mojo. So we click. OK, now, this is actually the longest part of the entire process. It's going to take upwards of two or three minutes, maybe even as much as five to render this short scene. So I'll speed this up when finished, mojo will play the finished product for you. And there you have it. If we go to file Explorer and to our directory mojo class, we can see that we have a new MP four along with our class Project Mojo. If you wanted to extend this simple project, you could try the other. You could try adding the other action sequences on other frames from the actions list. Or you could modify your character to trick them out and make them look completely different. One more thing to make note of is that you can always hold the control key and hit Z toe. Undo your last action if it was an air, in fact, you can control Z repeatedly toe. Undo multiple actions. Remember Control Z is your friend. I'll see you in the next lecture. 8. Create Your First Illustration in Just 10 Minutes: Hello, Everybody in this lecture and the following two lectures were going to do a simple illustration. Rig it with bones that we can control it and then do a simple animation. So you're going to see the entire process. Let's begin by starting mojo, and once again it takes a while to come up, and once it does come up, it shows you the default character this we don't want. So we're going to go up to say file clues. Now let's use file new to create a new project. Let's goto file and save as and save this in our project directory mojo class, and we'll save it as the file class project to and let's put a hyphen and say star so we know what we're doing. What we're gonna do is we're going to draw a simple star character similar to the debuts step by step tutorial that I pointed you to on. The resource is but much more simplified. So let's begin. We've got a palette here. We've got the purple area showing us the screen area, and what we're gonna do is we're going making sure that we're on the layer that we want we only have one layer and that were in frame zero, which is where we do illustration rather than animation, which takes place on the rest of the time line. So with all of this set up will select draw a shape and the shape that we want is a star for the basic body. So let's select that and then pick any place on your palate and just pull the star out. Now. We wanted to be fairly large that we can see it, but we also need room toe, animate it. So let's make it about this size. Now we go to transform shape. We could move it down into the center of our area. Now this star black and white is very plan. So let's go ahead and click Select shape, come over and click on the star and notice it's selected Now. Now we can come up here and we can change its fill, its stroke and its line with. We can also give it effects. Another option is to pick colors from the swatches. Let's go ahead and pick yellow to make the star yellow and black is a fine stroke and will go with a width of six. I usually use three or 4.5 is the line with but six is good for a large character like this . The other thing we want to do is give it a bit of a three d shape. So let's click on the little arrow here on the effect that says playing and come down and click shaded. This shading is fine. We can control the offset and so on and the angle of the shading here and how much it blurs . But I'm going to go ahead and go with this default shading there. Now he looks more or less three D. The next thing we'll do is add eyes. Let's go again to create shape and will select the oval. Now pull the oval out. We want him fairly small so they'll fit in here. So let's zoom in on what we're doing. Once again, select shape and come over here, And this time we want the color to be white. So let's click on the color and move the little selector here up into the upper left hand corner That'll make it white and say, OK, we don't want this to be shaded, so let's just make it plain there. Now we have a plain black oval. Next, we'll create another shape for the eyeball. Once again, we want the oval, but this time hold down shift so we can pull a perfect circle. There we go. That's a nice size for a pupil. Now the thing we want to do with this is once again select the shape with the select shaped tool. Come over. And this time, if we want the Phil to be black, which we do, we can use the eye dropper. Pull the eyedropper, it any color on the screen, and it will use that color. For instance, I can pull it down onto the stroke color and make it black. Now let's use the transformed points tool to select this and move it into the center of our I. Next, we're gonna make a copy of the I. You select points to drag the mouse around the eye when everything selected hit Control C and Control V on your keyboard. That's the cut and paste keys Now holding shift. I can transform this shape and make sure that it stays aligned over to the left we now have two eyes. Let's zoom out by scrolling the mouse wheel, and then I'm going to grab with the right mouse button and drag and drag my picture into the center of the screen. You select points and select both eyes. Now use the transform tool to move those two eyes indoor drawing. Those are a little small and far apart. Let's grab the corner of the transform tool and expand the size of our eyes. Now we can move them into position as large arise. Next, we'll create a nose. Once again, we go to insert shape or draw shape. This time we want a triangle. So let's select that pull down a triangle. Click transformed points and we want to transform this. This time, let's zoom in and use the right mouse button to drag the rector of the triangle into the center of the screen. Now, if we click in this outside border rather than the inside and the inside, we can move it in the outside. We can rotate it, so we're gonna rotate it until this line is more or less straight up and down this left line. Here we go. Now we can use transformed points, click anywhere to UN select all points and then drag this point down. It's that it's the right angle in lower left hand corner. There we go. Once again, let's select the shape. And this time we want to make it gold again with a simple way to make it gold. And to match the start of color is to grab the eyedropper on the Phil and drag it down over the star that makes it gold. Now the other thing we want is to remove the line because we don't want to see that as part of our nose. So let's go here and pick hide edge, come over and click on the edge that we don't want their. Now you won't see that thick line. Let's zoom out a little, dragged the star into the center of the screen and use the transform tool to move our nose over onto the character. Wow, that's way too large. Let's grab the lower left hand round button so that we can resize this triangle and then move it down into place. There. We have a nose as the final drawing element. We're going to create a mouth. Let's go ahead to draw shape again and select the oval Tool will pull out an oval about the size that we want. Click select shape, click on the shape, make sure it's selected and then come over here and grab the eye dropper for Phil and make the filling stroke color the same. Now we're gonna shape this mouth click to make sure no, the points are selected with the select points tool. Then click on the curvature Tool here will select the left side of the mouth, and rather than have it rounded, we'll make it peaked by clicking the peak button. Then we'll go to the right mouth and make that peaked as well there that is becoming more mouth shaped. Now let's go to treat the transform points tool and will take these points and dragged them up so we can make a smile. Now let's grab this point in the middle, pull it down so it isn't quite that large and use the transform tool, clicking on the shape and clicking in the middle and not on the edge to drag that smile over into position. And there we have our smiling star. Now if we want a preview. If we want to see what our work is going to look like, we go to file and down to preview. This will draw the animation on the screen. We can then use the wheel on your mouse to zoom in and out to get a clear view of the picture. Congratulations. You've just drawn your first character in Mojo. In the next lecture, we're going to rig the character with bones to be able to move it. And then in the third lecture, we're going to actually do an animation with our star, so I'll see you in the next lecture. 9. Create Your First Rig in Just 6 Minutes: to close this preview. Just click the X in the upper right hand, went corner of the window, and we're back to where we were. Now, the thing that I forgot to tell you in the last lecture is two things. Actually, you should save frequently, so go up to file, save now and by saving your work. If there's a crash or you want to back up at any point, you can go to a unknown good point. The other thing is that controls E will undo anything that you've done. Be sure to use that when you make mistakes and you'll probably make plenty. Now, what we're going to do in this lecture is regar star with bones. Whoops. I made a mistake. Control Z rigging. Our star with bones will allow us to move multiple points with a simple bone rather than having to move each individual point. You can still move individual points of you want to animate that way, but it's much faster, animate via bones. Let me show you The first thing that we need to do is come down to our layers here. Now we really should name layer one something different so let's click on it and type body . Since this is the body of the star, the next thing we do is come up here to add new layer. We click on it and we pick a bone layer. This is a special kind of layer that contains bones that control the points on this star. Let's name this layer. Lucky Star. The name of our character and press center now we want to do is grab the body layer and scroll up holding the left mouse key until Lucky Star is highlighted. That means we're dragging the body layer in to the bone layer. The bone layer contains all of the graphic elements that are going to be controlled with its bones. Now we select the bone layer, make sure that we're on frame zero and we're ready to start rigging. Notice that your tools have changed over here in the left because we're now adding bones or rigging, and it recognizes that we're going to use the ad bone tool now. The first bone that we're going to install just controls the placement of the star. It's known as the root bone, and what we'll do is come down somewhere to the point of its feet and in the middle, click and hold down the mouse button and drag up into somewhere around the center of the star. There, we've added a bone. Now what we're going to dio is add more bones, and to do that, we go through this process. We're gonna add a bone for each leg and arm and the top of his head or each point of the star. First, you use select bone to make sure this bonus selected it already is. Notice how it turns from blue to red when it gets selected. Then we'll click on add bone and we'll drag from the tip of this bone down into the lower left star point, and we'll just repeat this select bone. Select that route or anchor bone doing ad and pull this bone out into this peak. Click select. Add bone drag to sell the bone kind of snaps in there to match up with the other bones. Now bones don't need to touch, but in this case it's doing that for us. And here we stretch this bone out in this direction. We select the bone. Go here, say add bone and pull that bone down into this leg. Now there's two ways to make bones affect the points in an image. We're going to use the first technique, which is bone strength. And to do that, we go up to select bone. Click on that, then drag around the whole image. So we have all bones selected and then click on the bone strength tool. This will show you colored areas that show you how strong the bone is in controlling points or all the area that it controls. Now, what we want to do is click anywhere in this red area around any of the bones and drag left and notice how the bone strength for all of these bones get smaller. I can make it bigger. I could make it smaller. And while we wanted to have it to do is make sure that all of the points are inside the red areas. Now, this shows you that each of these bones is going to control the points within the red area and in the middle where where they're all controlling, they're gonna fight over the points. So let's go ahead and will go up to select bone. And from here we want to select manipulate bones. Now manipulate bones is what we're going to use to do animation. But we're going to do that on the timeline while we're on frame zero, we can manipulate the bones and it won't matter. We can undo what we're doing. So in frame zero, you can experiment on the timeline. You're actually doing animation. So with the bone layer selected will come over and make sure Ron frame zero. Select the Manipulate Bones tool and grab any of the bones and drag it. Notice how the shape changes along with that bone. And once again, we're not doing animation this point because we're in frame zero. If I click into the timeline and then click back to frame zero, that clears theano mation, and that's rigging. Let's go ahead and do a file save with our character Fully rigged will animate it in the next lecture 10. Create Your Second Animation in Just 10 Minutes: in this lecture, we're going to do a simple animation using this rigged illustration, so to do animation rather than being in frame zero, we actually moved out onto the timeline. Let's have the star dance a little. So to do that, we move from frame zero out to, let's say, frame 12. And then we just grab and position the bones where we would like them to be. So we use manipulate bone, make sure that selected and then let's have him throw his arm up this arm down a little. He'll cock a little of the side and you'll throw this leg up in the air. Now we also want to rotate him, so let's go to the layer manipulation tool. I think it's called Transform Layer and will rotate him by clicking in the outside box. And then he's got to go up in the air slightly and a little to the left of He's going to go up on that pin bone, so we will move him up like this. They're now. What we can do is by grabbing the triangle at the top of the current frame of the play head . We can move it back and see what our animation is gonna look like. So here he'll throw an arm up in the air. Now let's go to frame 24 here we'd like everything to be the same. So he's going to pause to do that. Let's go back and select by holding our mouse and dragon around the points we want and hitting control. See to copy and control V will copy it to the current timeline location. They're so now. He pauses once he does that move. Now we want to move him back to his original location. Now we happen to have that here in frame zero. So let's select that to control Z and Control V. And he's back. Now let's have him throw his arm and leg up into the other direction. I need to use the manipulate or the yes, the manipulate bone tool, and we'll throw this arm up in the way. The sun will come down a little and he'll kick this leg up and we want to rotate him. I almost forgot. Rotate him and move him up into this side. Just a little. There we go. Now we've got him kicking up to the other side. Maybe we want him to stay on the ground in this pose for a little while, so we need to replicate this. Let's select this movement that we just made to the right and click on any of the highlighted key frames and drag it over to 60 there. That makes room for us to take this. The original position that we copied, make another copy of it and put it here on 48. There. Now he pauses in his original position for a few friends before kicking off to this side, and we want him to pause here so once again will set to the key frame the current play head to 72. We'll go and copy the's cocked off to an angle, frames with control, see and will hit control V to paste it where the play head currently is. So he pauses in this position, and then we want him to come back down, and that position is here. So let's select these to a control Z. Come out to where we want them, which is 84 and we'll do a control V there. Let's have him hang here for just a little while to 96. So will control V again. Now what we can do is we can scroll all the way through this animation and see what it's gonna look like. In fact, we can play it by moving to the very beginning, moving the play head to frame zero and clicking the play button. There's are Happy star now. The next thing we want to dio is move his eyes from left to right. And to do this, we're going to use rather than bone manipulation. We're going to manipulate actual points. So instead of being on the bone layer, let's go to the body layer. Here we are at frame 108 where we want to move things left. And right now what we're gonna dio is zoom in. We want a mute move the pupils. So let's select that hit shift and select that. And the first thing that we want to do is set a frame for where they are. So we take the transform tool and just click notice how that created a key frame with them looking straight forward. Now we go ahead just a little bit more. Let's scroll the timeline. Let's have him look left by once again, using the selection tool and selecting these shapes hit shift so you can select them both. Then use the transform tool and scroll them over to the left. I really should have held shift to make sure that they didn't go up or down there. That just created a new key frame with them in that position. Let's go forward just a little bit more click toe. Add another key frame. Then we'll go forward and will move them back to the original position. Here will select that key frame, copy it and then say control V. Copy it with control. See pasted with control V. Now we're gonna move the eyes to the right. We use the same process. Select we click on the first shape, hold shift to add a second shape, se transform and then pull them to the right once again, probably holding shifts. They stay on the same level. There we go. Let's scroll the timeline a little farther forward and will select frame 1 68 By the way, noticed? There's 30 frames per second in my case in my configuration. And so it's showing us the second counter here were about 5.5 seconds into the animation. Now we want those frames toe hold. So let's just click to create another key frame in the same location and then will come back two straight ahead. And that, I believe, was yes, the key frame on 1 44 So let's select that. Do Control Z and Control V to paste it here, and then we'll go out a few more key frames. Let's say to, um 1 92 Now we want this to be the end of the animation. So let's hold the control key and then right click in the timeline on 1 92 that will make the end 920.1 92. Another way to make an end point is to set the number of frames here, that total that you have toe 1 92 There we go. We've just created an animation. Now let's go ahead and use the return or the rewind key to go all the way to the beginning . Scroll out, position our star in the middle and play our animation. Here he kicks the one side, the other side. He looks left. He looks, he looks right, he looks left and he's in the middle and that it repeats the animation. So a simple animation, but you now seen the entire steps of doing mojo animation, and that's it. What we want to do now is actually render the animation. So what I'm gonna dio is go up to file, say, save to save our animation. And then I'm going to come down to file export animation. Here. I want to export an MP four frames one through 1 90 to leave all the options alone. That's going to export to the same name dot MP four in the same directory is my project file. I click OK, and the animation is rendering quite quickly because this is a simple illustration and animation. Once it completes, Mojo will open up your default video browser and show you and show you the video. Let's rewind to the beginning and hit play and here's our finished video. There you go. You've just created your first animated cartoon all the way from the beginning illustration through rigging through animation. Now in the next section, we're going to cover illustration and detail you've seen just the tip of the iceberg. When it comes to the illustration capabilities of mojo and we're about toe plow through into the details, I'll see you there. 11. Introduction to Illustration with Spud the Potato: Hello, everyone, and welcome to the first substantive section on illustration. We're going to begin by talking about how to avoid illustration by using other people's illustrations and how to illustrate outside of mojo and imported. Then we're gonna spend the bulk of our time learning how to illustrator draw objects within mojo 12. It's worth noting that everything in this introduction was illustrated, rigged and animated in Mojo Pro 12. So I'll see you in the next lecture. 12. Getting Started: Hello and welcome to the getting started lecture In this lecture, we're gonna talk about the very fundamentals that you really need to know about Mojo to use it. And we're gonna go very slowly from the very beginning in this illustration section to build up a good illustration knowledge, you will know mojo illustration inside and out. So let's go ahead and start Mojo. And again, once mojo comes up, it's going to give you a devolved character here. We got the wolf that shuffles through its character selection. Now, normally, what we would do to start is coming to file and close the default character because we don't need it to do any work. But what I want to show you is that you can actually have more than one mojo project open at a time, So we're not going to close this this time. Instead, what we're going to do is come up and create our new project. Now, the first thing you should do after creating a new project is go ahead and save it, and you do a save as instead of a save save, as will allow you to set the directory and what you're going to save your work, and in this case, we want to save it in mojo class and I'm going to call it illustration for now. And this is where we'll see of all of our illustration work. Here we go. And I hit Save. Now we've saved a copy of illustration. Now what I want you to notice, too, is that with two projects open, I have two tabs appear on the top, and I can click either one to go back and forth between the projects. The 1st 1 the default one that we were given is called untitled. And obviously we wanted to say that we would give it a different name and do a save as to save in a directory. The other thing that I want to show you is that if I make a modification here, let's go ahead and add a shape quickly. Even though you don't know about ad ship. Supposedly, I noticed that a little pencil shows up in the tab. That means that it has unsaved changes. So if I try to kill this tab by hitting the control X, it's going to ask me, Do I want to save the changes to illustration mojo. Now, in this case, I'm gonna cancel the kill because I don't want to actually close this file. So that's how you use the tabs. Appear to switch back and forth to kill something, and then you go to save from now on to save your work. Let's go ahead and save it and the pencil goes away, which means that this is up to date as faras the copy on the desk. Now, the reason I kept the original illustration around us that we could have something toe look at because I'm going to talk about how to move around within thes the drawing screen. The purple box here is showing you the area that's actually going to be displayed in the animation in the finished animation. Now, quite often, scenes go beyond this because the scene will pan from left to right to show movement and so on. And just because it doesn't hurt, you just don't see the things outside the purple box. Now, one of the things that will help you out is that notice you have the time line down here, and we're not going to use that until we make it to animation? Well, if I come appeared to the line between the timeline and the drawing area, I get a little up and down error, which means that if I left click and drag, I can reduce the size of the timeline and increase my drawing area. I recommend you do that when you begin illustration. Now remember to move around. The drawing area is very simple. Scroll the mouse wheel up to zoom in, scroll it back to zoom out and grab the screen and move it around with the right mouse button. So using that you can pretty much manipulate yourself around. Now if you get completely lost and you don't know what to do, just hit the home key, and the home key will center your image and enlarge the views that you see the best of you of your drawing area. So what I want you to do now is this is a pause point. I want you to go and use the wheel to scroll in and out of the default image to drag it around and to hit home to go to the home position until you are very familiar with these functions, you're going to be using these functions over and over again. That's it for this short section in the next section, we're going to talk about the importance and how to line up a key frame zero and your default layer. I'll see you there. 13. Introduction to Illustration with Spud the Potato: in this lecture. I want to once again reiterate the importance of being on frame zero and on the right layer before you start drawing. And I want to show you by showing you what will go wrong if you're on the wrong layer. So here we are were on key frame zero, and we're on the only layer that we have called Layer One. Now let's go over the layer one. And just to set things up here will add a new layer and we'll make it a vector layer. That's what the's are, by the way, is vector drawing layers. They draw vector images rather than raster images, and we'll go ahead and we'll just call it Layer two. Now let's say that we wanted to draw on Layer one and we started coming along and adding shapes and so on. And then all of a sudden we got Oh, wait a second, that's the wrong layer. I wanted to be on layer one, which he end up having to do is undo all of your stuff or copy it and move it to the other layer. You have to fix what you do. The other thing that I want to point out is now notice when layer one or layer to are selected because they're vector layers. They have the vector drawing tools over here. So you see the drawing tools. Now, let me add one more layer. This is gonna be a bone layer. We saw this in the introductory workshop that you use the bone layer to insert bones. We're just gonna go ahead and call it layer three. Now, let's say that we're on layer one and look at the tools here. See, we've got drawing tools, we go to the bone layer and suddenly we have bone manipulation tools. What happened to our drawing tools? So if you go along and suddenly your tools disappear and he can't find where things are, look at the layer. You're probably on the wrong layer and go to a drawing layer view on drawing tools of vector layer. It looks like a little, uh, it looks like a being. Actually, it looks like a kidney being and then go to the A bone layer. If you want to use bone manipulation tools now, the other thing that will happen is let's go ahead and will be on the Let's say the drawing layer here and we've got our drawing tools. And then, all of a sudden we move to frame one. Well, there went our drawing tools. They're completely gone now. That's because you don't draw in frame one. You animate and frame one. You draw in frame zero, so always make sure that you're there in frame zero. Otherwise, your tools, they're gonna look wrong. So let me reiterate one more time things look wrong. You don't know what's going on. Check to make sure you're on the right layer and then go over and make sure that you're on key frame zero to do. Illustration. That's all I wanted to cover in this lecture and after pointing out one more time the importance of Control Z in the next article, we're going to go on to a lecture where we go into more depth on library resource is and how to modify them instead of drawing from scratch. I'll see you there 14. Using Library Resources or Character Wizard Instead of Drawing It: in this lecture. I wanted to talk with you one more time about using existing resource is rather than creating your illustration from scratch. Now remember, if I come up to window, I can go down to the character wizard and end up creating a character which is going to pretty much conform to whatever I want, since I could change anything. But if he doesn't come close, you can always modify him once you get him in the mojo. Now I want to actually bring in a character from the library. So let's go to Window Library and go down to characters and open that and within that is partners. Now we're gonna go down to partners and take a look at the work of Jeff Holland. He's actually the person who did the papa to G. YouTube site that I forwarded to you, too, and the resource is really useful stuff, and he's got his character here, which I think is really need now to import it. All I do is I double click on the character and it gives me a little picture of it, and I say, Yeah, okay, now what he's done with this character that's really need. Looks like after zoom this down, let's get rid of the library. Stop, get rid of the library and bring this character down so that he'll fit in our window. Let's press home to zoom in. I'm now. What he's done that's really need is that within each of these layers, for instance, let's go to his hair. This is a switch layer, and if I right click on the hair I can actually pull. I can actually select between braids or let's see what we can give him an Afro all of these things so you can configure the character to get pretty close to, Let's say you and then when it doesn't get close enough, what I can do is I can go to hair. I can open it up and I can say, OK, the Afro is pretty close to what I want. Let me take this a duplicate the layer, call the new switch layer m small Afro. And now that I've got my own little switch layers setting here, I can go in and start transforming this Afro. Let's say I want to take it down so that it's not quite so big. There we go and you would see that I'm using an existing character to create a new one. Now let me show you what I was able to do with this character. By the way, the reason that I like this character is if I go to the bone layer on him, you could see that he is very nicely tricked out as faras, using the bones and so on. He's he's really nicely rigged and drawn, and he's easy to modify. He's got neat ways to use him, so I like the character a lot as a base. And one of the things that I did was I went in and I created me. So I went in and I modified the shirt to turn it into a lab coat. I modified the shoes. Let's zoom in on the shoes. I wear SAS shoes, these ugly brown shoes. So it went in and I took his check out the original. Originally, he's got thes tennis shoes things, and I took them and I modified them to be SAS shoes with laces and so on so you can take a character and get pretty close to what you want and then go on modifying, for instance, he had round glasses, so I turned on the glasses, copied the glasses layer and made them or the ovals that I wear. I put on a beard and it was a long beard, and then I shortened it up because I've got a beard. But it's very short, so you can modify these characters that you bring in to make them exactly what you want and use them as a base character. It'll save you a lot of time. When it comes to animation and rigging. In the next lecture, we're going to talk about opposing characters for two D animation. So if you're going to draw your own, we're gonna talk about considerations. And one of them is setting your character at a 3/4 view like this, which is probably the most popular view for characters. So I'll see you in that lecture 15. Posing Characters for 2D Animation: in this lecture. I want to talk with you a little bit about planning out the character that you decide to illustrate planning them for animation now, rather than drawing acute seen with your arms with your characters arms huddled up, leaning against a wall and with flowers and so on, which would be a really nice illustration, realize that that's very hard to animate because the legs are gone behind the wall. You've got the arms crossed, and how are you going to animate those? You might have flowers in the way. So when it comes toe and illustrating a character for animation, you want to keep it a simple assed possible. Also realize that the arms will probably the front arm or the back arm will be drawn and illustrated, and then you'll probably just make a copy and flip it for the opposite side and then take the body out of the drawing and you'll do the same thing with the legs. You'll make copies of those and flip them. The faces usually mawr up to the illustrator than the animator, but my point is that you're not going to really be drawing an illustration. A snapshot of something, you're gonna be drawing parts for the animation process. The other thing is to consider whether you want to do cartoony type things like this and exaggerate shapes. This makes control easier or make them very accurate. And then you have the position to consider. Let's snap him back to his home position, and he's got kind of this 3/4 view or 1/4 view, whichever one it is, and realize how versatile this position is. Just by moving his eyes left and right, he can either be facing forward and even the shoe. If we take the shoe and we move it just over to the right, then he's kind of more to the right, and we move his eyes to the right is to the right, and he can walk to the right. So it's like a right view. Ah, 1/4 view and a face forward view. And then if we take him, we can flip him from left to right, and we've got all of the other views. We have pretty much everything except for the back views. By using this 1/4 or 3/4 for you, I don't remember which one it is, so consider that it's probably the most popular of views. The other view that you could consider using is like I used here for my character Spud the potato. I've got a face ahead on view of spud, but what I've done is I've implemented ahead turn, which allows him to turn both left and right now head turns air, usually quite hard to implement, and they don't always work out quite the way you were hoping that they would. So I kind of would discourage the face on with the head turn. But that does work if you want to do face on, and then you can do you no more realistic slight turns to either side and you don't just turn your eyes. You could turn the whole head to focus in on either side. Now there's also the full body turn, which turns the legs and so on so that you could walk sideways. I cheated by not even putting like something that's character because he's always behind the bar. So there's your choices, the 3/4 or 1/4 view how review it and make sure that you're not drawing a complex image. Your just keeping it simple so that you can animate it. You want to see all the pieces as many as you can in your illustration, and the other option is this of face on with the head turn, um, which you can implement. So that kind of dictates what you're gonna draw. Also, whether you wanted to go cartoony, a realistic what sizes for things. Whether your character is a creature like I'm working on here with the angry green blob you decide. But think of all of these things ahead of time. Think about how you're going to animate and how I think about how you're going to rig and animate this character before you start illustration. I'll see you in the next lecture. 16. Drawing Shapes: in this lecture, we're finally going to start drawing other than the earlier workshops. But we're going to do it slowly so that you get used to things we're going to begin with how to draw shapes. Now. To do that, you come over to the left hand corner here where the tools are, and if you hover, you should eventually see the shade. Let's click here and hover. There we go. Draw shape and you can see s is the accelerator key the fast way to get there and you click on draw shape and it gives you a whole bunch of options up here in the tool options area. Now, first of all, auto fill will use this fill color here gray and the stroke will use black so it uses whatever you have set up in the style to draw what you're about to draw. Then you get your shapes here We've got a rectangle and he lips a triangle, a star, an arrow, this worry weird swirl. I'm not quite sure what that's used for and a grid. And when you peg grid, you get to pick the dimensions of the number of cells in each direction so that your tools now the most commonly used, are the rectangle and the oval. This for maybe the body. And so have a character, this for eyes and so on. But what a lot of people do is they just draw a rectangle so that they don't have to come up here in mess with this layer, and instead they could just hit s and they always know that they'll have a rectangle now to actually draw the shape you click on the screen. And let's say this is the upper left hand corner. I pulled the lower right. I can go in any dimension here, just hold down my mouse. And I continue to pull now the other way to insert a shape that I want to insert the next shape. I just go and I pull it somewhere else. Now, another way to insert a shape is to hold the shift key, and what that does is it pulls a perfect square. So no matter where you put your cursor, you can't get it out of perfect squareness where the with equals the height. Once I release the shift key, then it could go skew out and I'm completely skewed. I can hit the shift key and it suddenly jumps back into a perfectly matched aspect ratio. Now we can do the same thing with the Ellipse. We can pull it out wide, and then we can hold shift and pull a perfect circle. There you go. So we have several shapes on the screen now. And the final thing that I want to point out is not only can he hold shift and get a perfect circle if you hit shift and Ault you will pull the circle from the center. So your your point of center nous will stay where it originally was, and all the sides will go out proportionally. So those are your options. You can pick the draw, a shape, tool or hit s while you're in the drawing area and then most the time. You just leave it on rectangle cause coming up, we're going to learn how to select points and how to change a shape or transform it from one to another. I'll see you in the next lecture 17. Selecting Points: in this lecture. I want to go into detail on selecting points, which is the first step in manipulating points to create any shape that you want. So we're gonna look at all the ways that you can select points. First, I have point selected, and I don't particularly want them selected. So I'll hit escape to, uh, insulate the points. Next to select points. You pick the select points tool. Either that or hit G. Then I can select a point, and later I can manipulate it or do something to it. If I select another point, the first point goes unsolicited in The new point is selected. If I hold shift, I can accumulate multiple points from across my graphics area and make them a single element that I transform. Now. Another quick way to de select points is just a click anywhere in the area, not in a shape, and it will once elect all the points. Ah, quick way to select a lot of points is just a click inside of a shape. It will select all the points for the shape. Now, Another option you have is toe hold the altar key that will de select a point so I can remove points from the selection by holding Ault and left clicking the point until they're all de selected. The other thing that I could do is drag around points. So here I can drag and select all the points in that I can hit, shift and add this shape and this shape. And then I can hold Ault and maybe go. Actually, I didn't want that shape and click on it with the all turkey and remove those points Now. The other option you have is to hit control A and that will select all points. And then, of course, escape will select none of the points, so there's there's your options. Click on individual points. Hold shift, click on individual points. Hold Ault two months, elect points. Click on shapes to select all the points in the shape. Hold shift to collect to select multiple shapes. Drag to select shapes, and you can also do shift on a drag to accumulate points to add them and then escape or just click anywhere in a non shape area to de select points. Now one of the things I want to do is I want to show you an example of a complex selection here. I have my shoe that I drew and I have shoe laces on it. Now it's kind of tough to just get in there and select the shoe laces and not get the other lines that are part of the shoe. Or is it? Let's go to select points and then I'm going to drag around the shoe laces. There we go Now. I got the shoe laces, but I got a lot of extra points from the shoe that I don't want. So I'm gonna hit old and click on this shape. There goes the parts of the outer shoe and then click on this shape. There goes the parts of that that I selected and finally click on the tongue to de select those points I should now on Lee have the shoe laces selected, and if I go to transform and drag it away, you can see that. Sure enough, I left all the other points behind. So, through a combination of keystrokes and clicking, you can select any points that you want. In the next lecture. We're gonna look at how to transform points. This is the way you draw any shape you want. I'll see you there 18. Transforming Points: in this lecture, I want to discuss the transform points tool. Now there's a similar tool in bones and in layers, so you can transform bones and you can transform layers. It's a common act that you're going to perform, and that's to move things around to change the shape of things now to enable the transform points to a. What you do is you go up to this transform points tool or hit T Now, once you selected your going to suddenly see all the points and some interesting lines, these air busy a curves and we're gonna talk about that. I believe in the next lecture, where we talk about smoothing. But for now, let's talk about transforming points. All you've got to do is click on the point and you select it. That's kind of the quick selection point. You don't need to go to the selection tools, select a single point, and then you can move it anywhere you want so you can create any shape that you want. At least out of these four points later will learn how to add more points here. I can come over here and I can transform this further by dragging that shape out, I can pick this and change this shape to more of a pointy kind to a pointy rectangle. The other thing that you can do to quickly select things is just like with the point selection tool. You can click on a shape, and then you get the entire shape. Now this is an interesting little box. What it's telling you is that if I grab in the middle, I can move everything that I've selected, or all four points that's in this middle area. Here in the outside area of the box is the rotate, so I can use that to rotate the tool. And then you have these little circles. If I pick one of the ones in the corners, it will change the size of the shape, maintaining its aspect ratio, meaning it'll shorten its with and its height the same amount. If I grab one of these side buttons, then I end up crunching the shape. It doesn't maintain the aspect ratio, and I'm Onley moving or changing the shape from left to right. I can do the same up to down, so that's kind of the controls on here now, The other thing that you can do is when you move a shape. If I want to move this, see, I can move this anywhere I want. If I want to keep it exactly on this level, layer and move it to the right, I hold shift, and then all I can do is move it left and right. I can't. That's interesting. And moved it up and down somehow. Like supposedly, can't move it up and down. Ah, same thing going up and down. I can't move it Left. Move left and right. I guess if you really pull, you can move it left and right. So shift control will constrain your movement to only in one direction. So what I want to do is I want to use this information to kind of draw something. So I'm gonna come down here, notice I can select this shape. I don't. But just by clicking on it with the transform points tool enabled, I don't have to go to the select points and I could move it over a little. Now the other thing that I can do is I can I can duplicate this shape by hitting control C and Control V. Now I've got a copy which is selected transformed shape. In fact, let's control Z to undo what I just did and hit shift so that I can move this out exactly. Onley in the left and right direction and I'll get it there and then I'm going to grab of the left side of it. I'm gonna shrink it down and then let's go to select points. Now I only want thes points selected, and I'll go back to transform points and I can hold shift and I can drag these in the diagonal. So I'm making a three d box you could see here. So let's go ahead and will insert a new shape that will be a rectangle. I'll pull that here and now I can go back to transform. I kind of pull this end aware I want it more or less to get the top on the box, shrink it up just a little bit in this direction, and then select points. Select the top points, select transformed points hit shift so that I only go left and right and see if I can pull it over this direction. There we go and we quickly made a three D box that once again I can click out anywhere that's not in a shape to de select all the points. And that's the transform points tool. Use it to make any shape. You're gonna use it in combination with adding points, which we're going to cover in the next lecture. I'll see you there. 19. Adding, Deleting and Copying Points: in this lecture, we're going to discuss adding, deleting and copying points. This is where you can really make any shape that you want that add points used the ad point tool, just click on it, and then all you do is you click on an edge, notice you get this little a round circle, and that tells you where the point is going to be added. Now why you're holding it down. You can actually move the point, so there's no reason to go to transform points you could transform as you add it once you release it. If you want to move that point again, then you're gonna have toe click over to transform points so you can add points and pull this out and make more or less a circle out of what was a square. That's why most people just insert rectangles and don't bother with and inserting lips is so you can pull that out now once again to move any of these points that we added, you have to go to transform points and then grab the point and move it. Now, if you ever wanted to lead a point, all you do is use either transform or select and select a point and hit the delete key. For instance, this point is highlighted by hit delete. The point is gone. I could even go and select several points. That's his old and get that point out of the selection and hit. Delete and multiple points are gone. Now. If you remove so many points that there isn't much left that shape, let's delete this. Then the shape ends disappearing. Here it just turns into a line. So that's the way that you add and delete points, and you can very quickly by going to add points, take any shape like this rectangle and start really modifying it drastically by just adding points and pulling the shapes out, pulling them in if you'd like, so you can quickly add points now to copy points. What you do is you select points like let's say I want all the points in this three d square and then I hit Control C and Control V. We've already done this before, so you should be familiar with it. Control C Control V gives me a copy and it turns on transformed points, and I could move that box out of there. So that's the way that you add points, delete points and copy points. In the next lecture, we're gonna look at smoothing curves, which will allow you to take a rectangle, add points to it and then turn it into a perfect circle. I'll see you there. 20. Smoothing Curves Using the Legacy Method and Bezier Curves: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about smoothing curves so we can take something that's very jagged , like this shape here, and we can turn it into something very smooth. Now let's get rid of some of these things will get them out of the way by doing select points and grab all this. And then we'll hit all, too, and will remove that from the selection and then hit. Transform, and we'll move these points over here. Now I'm gonna work with this shape, and the tool that you use is the curvature tool. Here. You can either hit, see or click on it. Now, As I said, there are two ways it's actually insulate points. There are two ways to smooth curves. There's the legacy what I call the legacy method, which was the old method. And with the new version of Mojo Pro, they've actually added busy a curves. That's what these are here that you're seeing. So let's work on this shape here in the middle with the smooth curves tool selected. What you do is you just let's see what happens if we select the shape first and then will go to the curb points tool and notice this. If I hold down the mouse and I just go to the right, this one's curving to let me unsa like that. So it looks like first you have to select the points. Did you want a curve? Only that one's out. Now we go back to the curvature tool, and if I hold the mouse and just scroll to the right, notice how things are curving here. This is the legacy way of controlling or curving a shape. And if I go the opposite direction, that curse become less and the, uh, lines become pointy so I can control whether I have curves or not. Now the other method is this. With all of these selected, I'm gonna go up here and notice Aiken, select whether I want these points to be peaky or I want them to be smooth and I'm gonna check smooth. There we go. That's that's more like it. I didn't see the busy a curves pop up, so he said, used busy a curves for all these things. And this is the way that these work. Let's look at one point at a time here now what I can do is I can grab these handles and the further they go out, the more that it smooths out in that direction. And then I can actually turn the handles to make the curve go in an interesting way. Um, so I can make this curve curve out more, notice how the curve is moving towards towards the other point, and then I concur of it out and curve that in here. I could make the curve move out a little, see how it's moving out in that direction, and I could make it move out in this direction. So that's the way that busy a curves work, that you can pull it out and control the curve very precisely with these curves. Now, notice also that what I can do is I can hit the old key, and then I can move on Lee, one of the two handles so I can make it peaky again if I want toe have smooth curves coming into a point like on a cloud. Then I used the all turkey and I moved the busy acres closer together. Let's put another peek over here, so here I'm going to hold Ault. I'm gonna peak this in. There we go. See? It could make a little dimple in the shape. So there you go. Busy a curves. I can move the point around with the point transform tool. And then I can smooth shape out with the busy a curves. And by hitting ALD, I can actually control and make more or less Ah, little dimple. And that's the way to smooth curves. In the next lecture, we're gonna look at configuring line thickness and hiding lines, so I'll see you there. 21. Configuring Line Thickness and Hiding Lines: in this lecture, I want to discuss controlling line thickness and actually hiding lines. So let's go back to the shape again and let's really zoom and so we can see the lines. See the black area. I know the green kind of covers it up there, not very thick lines. If I come over here to the line with tool or hit W and select that watch what happens? The line. This works just like the curvature tool and smoothing online, but it makes a line thick. So if I want this line to be thicker, what I do is I hold down and I go to the right and notice how the line gets thicker so I can have, um I can make it look more organic. My lines they can look like they were hand drawn, and I could make certain parts thick, and I could make certain parts thin. Um, and this is the with you control line thickness. It really isn't any more complicated than this. I just hold down my mouse and I go right if I want them to be thinner than I hold down my mouse that I go left and I can thin out the lines so I can vary the line thickness. Now here's another interesting one. Let's say that I wanted this this little shape down here. Let's go select that shape and then use the transform tool. And let's say I wanted it to be kind of a bubble appear. So I put it in the middle and I'm trying to have it be a bubble, but it's got these lines down here. Well, what I can do is the tool, right next to the line with tool is the hide edge tool, and when I click on that, I can now click on edges and they disappeared. Now you can't really see that disappeared. Now when we get a little larger, you could see that's disappeared. Now it looks more like a bubble. So there you go. This is going to be a quick lecture. You just use the line thickness tool and you go to the right to make the lines thicker. You don't even have to select points. You just roll over the line and get in the area. You go to the left to make the lines thinner, and if you want to hide a line. You just click on the line now I believe I can bring the blind back. Yes, by clicking on a hidden line, I could bring it back so I can either get rid of it or bring it in. And I'll see you in the next lecture in which we're going to talk about selecting shapes and applying styles to those shapes. I'll see you there. 22. Selecting Shapes and Applying Styles: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about selecting shapes and applying styles. Now we haven't done really an awful lot in beautifying our shapes. We just been drawing gray blobs with a black outlines. If I go here with things unsolicited, so let's hit escape. Make sure you don't have anything selected clicking here. It escape. There we go. So this is the way that it works. This is the shape selection tool, and you can use Q to get to it quickly. So we click on that. I can now click on a shape and notice that the Phil and the stroke up here become accessible. Now I can turn the fill off so I can have it be empty. You can make it see through, or I can turn the stroke off if I'd like or I can go and I can configure the colors. Now if I click on one of the colors, up comes a color selection box. I can quickly go to black or I can pick orange and maybe go in and get a brown color. I can pick the greens and go maybe toward lighter. I could do all of these things. The other thing that I can do is I can make them somewhat opaque. So you can see through them. Were actually can reduce the opacity is that they're more transparent by dragging this bar up and down if I want to see through and see other shapes behind it. So let's go ahead and will say okay. And another way to select Phil colors and so on is to drag this little eyedropper and select a color. So here we're back to Grey again. Or I can even select the stroke color here and go to black. Let's get a more interesting color. Actually, another way to get colors is to go down here to the swatches, and I can select from them so I can go with a blue or any of these colors down here. If I right click, I'm actually selecting thes stroke color. If I left click, I'm selecting the fill color and I can select the stroke color just the same way by clicking on it and so on. The other thing that I can control is the line with so I can make it very wide. If I go up to 20. There we go. Now you can see I've got a really nice thick line on this thing. Most of the time, I'm going to draw down around four. If I draw something bigger that maybe needs a thicker edge, I'll go up to six and something real fine. I'll go down to three or two, so let's go back to four here. The other thing I wanted to show use effects, these air really fun. If I pull down effects, I can shade this and it shows me the shading. I can control the offset of it in the direction. So now I can switch the angle of the shade around. This way, I can select how much it shades in the blur, the shade color, which is typically just black and go like that. Now you can see I've got a shadow along the edge. And if I want to reconfigure the shade, I just hit the little dot, dot dot to the right. That brings me back into that panel where I can configure it now. The other one that's a lot of fun is the Grady int, and here I can go from one color to another and then back again. So here I'm going toe from white two purple to black. And when I select that, I get this selector that allows me to control how the greedy it works So I can set the bottom of the Grady int, And then I can set how much of the black and purple are going to be in there or they're gonna be up high by dragging this little circle. I can also control the angle of the Grady int in this way by spinning the circle around. So that's the greedy int and the shadow or in the shade. Now the other thing sometimes that you want to get to, is the complete effect. You're not actually seeing them all because the style panel is docked here. If I go to advanced, it's going to give me a warning here that I can't fit that in here and it wants to detach it. And here I get a whole bunch more options. And in fact, what I could do is I can apply to effects so I can have another effect. Let's try shaded, going from the other direction and maybe the color that I want to use is white instead of black. So now you see, I got a white shading and maybe I want to turn that so that the shade is up on top and I apply that. Now I've got two effects on the same on the same shape. I've gotta Grady int and a shade. And to get rid of those, I just come back to plain. Now it's kind of annoying having the style window open like this. So if I unclipped advanced had become small enough that Aiken docket and a docket, I go up the window docking and I click style and that'll doc that style panel up here and out of the way. So that's selecting shapes and configuring the style of things. Use the select shaped tool or Q, and you can select a shape. The little box will come around the outside, and then we can come over here and change the fill the stroke, the line with apply effects and so on to the shape. Now this will be in effect from now on. So if I create any new shapes, let's go up here and pull a new rectangle. You can see It's purple with the brown outline because I've set that now as theme, new default shape, color. So that's selecting shapes in the next lecture. We're actually going to take a little break here and do a brought a drawing exercise. You've learned enough now that you can pretty much draw anything, so I'll see you there. 23. Let's Pause for a Mid-section Project: in this lecture, I thought that it was time that we took a little break. It's been over 45 minutes going over the first part of illustration and just using that part. I think that we can do this next project. So what I wanted to do was draw cloud. And to do that, I'm going to insert a shape and let's ah, do a rectangle just so I can show you how severe shapes could be. Now let's select this shape and let's do something more like What do you think if we make this white and this stroke is black, that's good at six is good, and rather than being plain, let's make it shaded so that it looks like a bit of an ominous It's going to a rain cloud now. The next thing that I would do is I would go and insert points. So let's go pick the ad point tool, and what I want this to be is kind of a little piu fear. Let's add a a few shapes to make it somewhat round or a few points. There we go. So that's more cloud like now. The next thing that I would do is I'm gonna go to the curvature chewed tool. Well, actually, first let's select all the points and curve of them all at once, and then I'm gonna go to the curvature or two, and I'm gonna drag. Whoa! I'm gonna drag right there we go And round these corners out. Not quite that much. There we go. More like that. Now, the next thing that I want to dio is with all of these points selected, I want to make them busy, acres. So I'm gonna click the busy a thing here, and let's see what happens. Did they know how they did turn to busy acres? There we go. So we've got them all here, and what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take every once in a while I'm gonna take one. Let's Ah, now you can actually modify the busy acres with the transform tool. So as I'm dragging this end with transform, you could see this is the transformed cursor. I can hit old and make these dimples, so that's good. Let's pull in another one here and hold old and make, uh, that a dimple and then Ah, this is fine. Let's pull it out a little more. Can a shape it like that? Ah, this one. Okay, I'm gonna make a dimple here. Oh, I got a hold all so I can bend it at this dim plea shape. Actually, it should be flat on the mom and dimpled up above, shouldn't it? So let's hold ald and straighten this back out and see if we can turn this into kind of a flat bottom cloud. So we'll take this and curve it more like this. Bring this up this way. Make it very flat bottomed. There we go. It looks like it can actually pull this out a little bit more and maybe get a dimple here in the side. So let's ah do Ault, and I'll drag the anchor in this direction. Can I get a dimpled going there? But this more out in this direction? Here we go. So here we've created a cloud. Now we can actually let's let's put some or a little dings in it. Here, maybe. Whoa! I want to go that far and I'm gonna hit all to drag this out a little, Put a little proof there. We can actually make all these little poof scantly and I'm put little dents in all over the top. And there we go. Now, the next thing that we might want to do is go up to select all points and select the cloud that or control a or click on this shape, and that would select it. And I want to make a copy. Control C Control V. So let's have another angry cloud up in this area. Except what we're gonna do with that is we're going to maintaining the aspect ratio. Kind of bring it down a little bit. And the other thing we didn't cover this before. If I select a shape spent at least in the transform tool, I can come over here and I can flip it horizontally or vertically, and we're gonna flip it this way, just so it looks a little different. And then we're gonna control C Control V again, and we're gonna put that back over here. There we go. Now we've got several angry clouds and we can take any of these if they're too similar to one another and we can start modifying the points to change them just slightly so they don't look exactly the same. Here we go. Let's pull that up this way and make that even deeper. There we go. So that doesn't look quite so actually, does look quite the same. Let's really shorten this up. There we go. Now it looks quite different. So this is the way that you could make clouds and I thought we would take a little break. What I'd like you to do now is make clouds. Now, there's some more than we need to learn primarily in this area. If I pick this shape and I move it over here, it's over this cloud. What if I want that to be the other way around? And this is over that What if I want this on top of those two clouds there on top because of the drawing order, I drew this one first and then this one, the whips, and then this one and then this one. That's why it's on top. And we're gonna learn about how to change the layer order of images on a single layer and using multiple layers. But that will occur in the next section. I'll see you there 24. Drawing Arbitrary Shapes with the Add Points Tool: One of the things I failed to discuss in the lecture on adding points is that the ad points tool itself is a useful tool for drawing arbitrary shapes, so not only can use it toe add points to an existing shape, but you can use it to originate a shape. Let me show you this. So if I want some kind of a strange shape, what I do is I click, and that's the first point of the shape. Now I click on that point and drag, and it draws a line to the next point in the shape. So I click on the last point, hold down the mouse, drag and release, and I can draw any kind of shape fairly quickly just by drawing just by dragging from the last point to the next. And now the reason that it connects and creates that shape is because auto Weld is on appear notice of auto. Weld was off and I did a Control Z, so I didn't complete that point. Now when I dragged this point, it's like, Come on, Connect, connect. It's not happening now that ever happens to you. Go up and take a peek at your ad points options and make sure auto well designed and also auto fill in auto stroke Iran. That's what's going to cause me to get a white interior with a black exterior and sharp corners air on. So these aren't going to be nice, smooth corners. However, once I get this connected, I could also always hit see to go to the curvature tool and with all the points selected, hold down my mouse and start curving and forget your sharp corners cause I'm rounding this object quite nicely. And there you go. This is the way to create virtually any object and a great way to trace using the ad points tool. 25. Shape Stacking Order: in this lecture. I want to talk about shapes stacking order. Now. This is very important because the shapes actually overlay each other, and unless they're transparent, you're not going to see what's underneath them. For instance, this grey shape up here is obviously above the purple shape because you can see it when it overlays it. In fact, let's transform this shape and we'll see what else is over. It's behind this other purple box, and it looks like it's behind these as well. You can't really tell, since the color is the same now, what it would happen if we wanted to reverse that. How would we do that? And it's actually very simple. Noticed, too, that this little circle that we had for the bubble is on top of the purple. If it wasn't on top of the purple, it would have disappeared. So if we want this down below the purple, what we do is we come here and we select the shape. So first I'm going to use select shape, and then I can use the up and down cursor keys to move it up and down one position so I can keep hitting the down position, and there it finally went down below the purple. And if I do that, it goes so I can have it either way. Now, the other thing that I can dio is I can hold the shift key and hit either up and down to bring it all the way to the top or all the way to the bottom. So let's move it all the way to the bottom and then transform the shape and you could see its underneath everything. Now, if I want to reverse that, I do shift and the up arrow key. And now well oh, I'm not in select shape. I've got a select the shape. OK, there we go. And then I do up arrow with the shift, and now it's on top of everything. Now I can transform it and you can see it's on top. So that's changing thes shape stacking order. In the next lecture, we're gonna talk about another way to put shapes above each other, and that's using layers rather than doing everything on a single layer. And I'll see you in that lecture 26. Layers: now it turns out that there's another way to control the stacking order of shapes, and this other way actually gives you a lot of other opportunities. But it's always gonna be a question for you as to whether you do all your shapes on a single layer and use the stacking order shapes to control what's in front. Or if you use multiple layers. Now, we haven't talked a lot about layers yet. Let's go to the lower right hand corner of the screen. This is where the layers are, and we've always been working on the default layer that comes up when you create a new image. Now the first thing that I can do is I can double click on this layer, and I could start looking at some of the layer attributes Frankenstein's I can't See Through It because it's 100% opaque. If I brought that down to 50 it would be see through Aiken Blur. What's on this layer? I can add noise, which actually makes it move around when I animated, But the big thing here is that up top. I can name it and we're gonna name this shapes because that's what's on this layer and then of I press return or I can actually apply and then say Okay, with some panels, you actually have to apply before saying Okay to get the effect to apply. And now I've got a shapes layer here. Now notice the kidney being shaped. That means that it's a vector drawing layer. And if I want to add another layer, I go up to the top and I say new layer. And here are all the different layer types that we've got. Now we've had a little peek ahead at the bone layer. That's, of course, is to use to add bones and a regular character. We've been working maybe unbeknownst to you in vector layers, which draws vector graphics points and then the algorithms for the curves around the points . And that's the most common layer that we're going to use. So let's add a vector layer. There we go. And let's call this, um, example. There we go. Now let's just go here and well, since we're on this layer now, notice This adds the extra complexity of which layer do you need to be on, so make sure that you're always on the right layer and, of course, in key frame zero before you draw. So I'm gonna draw something on example here and then add a shape, a square, and I'll just pull a simple square. Then let's go select this so we can do some different coloring with this. Let's bring it down into this range and let's make the stroke black. There we go. Actually, let's make the stroke a little thicker, too, so you can actually see it with the zoomed out coordinates. There we go. Now we can kind of see the stroke around it. Now notice that this shape is on top and if I want to send it to the back right, I select shape. I hold shift and I hit the down air. It doesn't go beyond behind the other shapes because they're on a layer a separate layer so you can use shape stacking order with in a layer and then for layers. You dragged them up and down here in the layer window to have them go above and below each other. Now, the example layer all shapes on it are below all shapes on the shapes layer. Now you're probably beginning to get an idea of one of the things that's going to differentiate for you. Whether you use shape stacking, order a single layer or you use layer stacking like you might do the head on a single layer . But then you'll do the arms and the torso and the hips and the legs and the feet all on different layers. The other thing that you can do with layers that's kind of Andy is that you can wink thumb out if you click on the eyes here, the layer disappears. So if you get multiple layers that you're working on and you want to get rid of the body and stuff, maybe you're working on the head and things were getting in the way. Then you can wink out the layer and you can go work on the layer that you're working on, and then you can always wink it back in later. So that's pretty much all I have to say about layers for right now. In the next lecture, we're going to talk about layer groups and masking. I'll see you there 27. Layer Groups and Masking: in this lecture, we're going to talk about layer groups and masking one particular application of layer groups. That's extremely helpful now. First of all, what a layer groups do if I come over here to the layers area and I hit. Plus, I can see that one of the options is group. Now, if I picked that, what this becomes is kind of like a folder. So let's call this all shapes now. What we can do is weaken click on shapes and hold, shift and click and select example and then dragged both of them up until you see ah box all around all shapes. That puts thes two layers in all shapes. Now what I can do is I can go to Shapes and Aiken, move the layer or transformed the layer and dragged that around without this background shape moving. Or I can go to the example there, and I could drag that layer around, and I could do that independently. But if I goto all shapes because it's a group and I want to drag that layer around, I dragged both of them so I can treat them as a group or as individual layers this is kind of handy. And let me show you another handy application. First of all, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna get rid of the example, layer. So I'm just gonna go to it and I'm going to click. The garbage can appear on the top of layers. There goes the example. And I'm gonna get rid of this layer just for now. We're gonna go to just kind of a base layer. So let me let me drag this outside of that layer and then I can go here and I can get rid of the layer Group. Now, let's change this the name of this too. Eyes. And what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna control a to select everything, and I'm gonna hit the lead to get rid of it. What I'm gonna do now is I'm going to draw in ah, couple of big round eyes, so I'm gonna add a shape and we're gonna go to the oval and here's the I. And let's go ahead and will use select shape and will come up here. 0 10 is a little large. Let's go down to four and will make the color white and oh, that's a little thin. Let's go to six for the line with and the stroke stroke is just fine, actually, a black. So there we go. So we've got an eye. Now What we're gonna do is we're gonna put ah, pupil inside of it. But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna do that on a separate layer. So let's go here and will add a new vector layer cause we're gonna do a drawing and we'll call that pupil pupil. There we go. So I'm actually going to put the colored part of the eye in here, too. So we're going to come up here. Let's draw a perfect circle by holding shift. And remember when the pupil layer now. So there we go. We got that colored area. Let's go ahead and select this area and let's give it blue eyes. So we'll go to fill and I'll go toe here and let's let's get a lighter blue. But not that light getting into the purple. Let's get down more into here. There we go. That's a good blue eye color. And then I'm gonna use the transform tool to move that into the middle of the I. Now the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm going to make the actual pupil the part that is transparent or that you see through and we'll drag that out. Actually control Z because I want to hit, shift and drag that out to be a perfect circle. Say about there and let's select that shape and will make the fill the same as the stroke, and we won't stroke it. Now I'm going to use the transform tool to put that right in the center of the eye. And there we go. We've drawn and I now the next thing that I'm going to dio is I'm going to duplicate this. So let's go ahead and use thes select points tool and I'll say control C Control V and ah, hold shift to move that over here. Now we're on Lee getting the pupil or the center colored part of the eye. That's one of the problems with being hunt two layers. You can't grab everything between layers and move it, so the next thing we'll do is we'll come down to the I and we've got that selected. So let's hit control. C Control V and hold shift that we can get that over here around this other I Now why are we doing this with these different layers? Let me show you. If I add a layer group well, say group. And let's call that both eyes. Yes, there we go. So both eyes And then I click on pupil hold shift click on Ai's release shift and dragged these two up until they're in both eyes. Now what I can do is magical. Now one of the let me show you the problem that we're trying to solve. I'm gonna go to pupils here where we got them both and let's move them around. Maybe we want them, you know, all the way to the right and cut at the edge of the I. Uh oh. If I try to get it right at the edge of the I, it goes outside the I. I don't particularly want that. I want the pupils to remain within the I and that's what masking with a layer group allows you to dio If I go and double click on my layer, I can go over here on my life If I double click on my layer group. I can pick the masking tab And here I can say hide all Now what That will do. Apply. And okay. What that will do is it will actually use the bottom layer as the shapes that create a mask . Let me show you how this works. So I go to pupil, Remember? We moved them before and they didn't get cut off. Well, now they do. They're not going to be able to go any further, then the edge of the I Because the I layer is on the bottom. Here it is. This is creating a mask saying Onley, Things that fit within me are going to be displayed. So this gets cut off Now the other thing that you can dio double click on the eyes. I think this is it. And then go to masking. There we go and exclude strokes. And what that means is use me as a mask but also include my strokes So that the inside so that the things that are getting cut off inside of me don't overlay my strokes. So if I go here now well, actually, let's go to pupils and I start moving. You see that the black line is going to be retained around the eyes. So this is the way that you quite often do eyes. You make the actual eyeballs a a mask or the bottom layer within a layer group and you turn masking on. And once again let's go to where this is. I double click here, and this is the group I go to masking, and I want to hit, click, hide all and then within eyes. If I go to masking, this is the the layer that's being the mask I can say excludes strokes to make sure that the eyes strokes get included. And that's what layers and a layer mask are all about, that you can group layers together and treat them as a group. I can move them up and down in the layer group hierarchy, and I can use a group to do masking. So I'll see you in the next lecture, where we're going to talk about accelerator keys, how to speed up your drawing process. I'll see you there 28. Using Accelerator Keys: in this lecture, you're gonna learn one of the most important skills in using mojo effectively and efficiently by using accelerator keys, accelerator keys, air key sequences that speed you through the development process. It keeps you from having to move your mouse from the drawing area over to the tools area and all over the screen. When you learn accelerator keys, you can keep your mouse in the drawing area and working while you change tools or select points and so on. So we're going to go over the accelerator keys that I use the most and the ones that I recommend you memorize and use. And then I'm gonna give you a demonstration of you're not using the accelerator keys and using them and you'll see how much faster things go. So here we go first. Notice that the drawing areas way over in the center here, and if I'm drawing there and I want to change a tool, I've gotta move it way, appeared to the left and then back into the drawing area again. I'm gonna wear a path through my screen from my cursor, going back and forth. That's not good. So that's what accelerator keys are all about is keep your cursor in the drawing area, keep it drawing and change the tools anyway through keystrokes. Now the most important keystroke with one that you have to memorize is Control Z that UN does the last operation, and you can use it repeatedly to undo, undo, undo. So if you make a bunch of mistakes in a row, you can undo them all back to it. Good known state Now nothing beats saving your file for setting a real marker. As far as a good state to restore to and control Z or undo is available under the edit menu . If you want to hit, undo and redo, which I think is control shift see, you'll have to check it. Just go look at the menu and it'll tell you the accelerator key sequence. Now I want to point out that other than Control Z, each step of illustration rigging an animation has its own set of accelerator keys because each has its own set of tools. Now they try to follow each other's somewhat, so tea is transformed bone, and it's also transformed points so you won't get two lost if you use accelerator keys. You'll just have to loot, learn a few more and adapt yourself to what state that you're in now. The first to all I want to talk about is the select points tool. It's in the upper left hand corner. You use it to circle points or just click on them to select the points that you want, and you can get to that tool quickly by using G. Along with that typing G, you can say control A to select all points and escape to select none. Now you can also select unsolicited all the points by clicking in an empty area left mouse clicking. And that's somewhat faster than having to search for the escape key. But if you can't find an empty area where you're not gonna be selecting something else that you don't want to select, use the escape key to UN select. Now what I want to dio is I want to set up for you a table of the keys that you need to memorize these air pretty much all the tools that you use all the time while drawing So G is the select points we just learned that T is for Transformed Points s for draw shape. See, for curvature A for add points Q for select shape and w for line with so you can quickly get to each of these functions. The only other function that I'd like to add is that I quite often use the grid, which you can get to with control. G can turn it, snap it on and off, and control shift G will allow you to configure the grid. And that brings us to a pause point. This is what I want you to dio. I want you to go over to Mojo as I'm about to dio and draw using nothing but accelerator keys. Well, I mean, he leaves the mouse and so on. But instead of selecting tools used, the accelerator keys let me demonstrate for you. Here we are in mojo and I want to draw a shape. Now this is the way I typically draw shape. Watch this. I go over here and I select shape. Yeah, rectangles. Good. And then I come back to the drawing every notice, all that movement around. And then I draw the shape I got. Oh, man. I want to select the shapes that I could get rid of shading on it. So I go over here and I click on selection. By the way, as you hover over them, notice you see the letter that is the accelerator key. So if you forget, just go to the tool, hover over it and then come back and don't click on the tool used the accelerator key. Okay, so we are gonna select this shape now. Now there's not a lot of acceleration. Weaken Do Over here, you just have to use the colors. Okay, We're doing plain stroke. Wonder why it still looks shaded that shady. Okay, we want to insert another shape. We come back over here and we insert a shape like this, and then we go, Oh, man, I'd like to add some points to that's We come over to the ad points tool and we do this right. We start adding points, Then we go. Let's add a little curvature to this. Suddenly we have curve it. Whoa, curvature going on and you keep going over here to do things. Now watch this. OK? The first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna select all the points so I can either go over and I can hit this select points tool or I can stay here and I can say G. And suddenly I become the box with select tool cursor and I could drag over these points and I can select them all. And then I can hit the lead to get rid of them. Let's try that Delete gets rid of them. I didn't really want to do that. So I hit Control Z in their back, and I didn't have to go up the menu or anything to do these things. Now the other way that I concur, Let's hit escape. So we unsolicited all points and then I can individually select them and I can add the shift key, right? We can do that over here. I can also hit control A to select all of the points and once again, escape Tonight's like them. So let's select all the points with control A. That's the fastest way to get there and then just hit the delete key in their gun. Now I want to insert a shape so I'm gonna hit ass. Unfortunately, Oh, I've gotta pick the rectangle. Um, this is why people just insert rectangles because they don't want to move up and change the shape so you can change the shape of a rectangle easily to a circle or any of these other shapes. So we're gonna add a rectangle, Let's make Okay, let's transform. So we're gonna do t to move this over to the center and then I need to select shape. So I'm gonna hit Q and I'll click on that shape. And I'm still I don't understand why I'm getting the shady Oh, I know what I'm getting the shading I have to go to advanced And it's a second effect that's being added. So I don't want that second affect either. And then I can go unclipped advanced and say docking style. Okay, now I've got my box normal. Now what I want to do is do a control. Um, let's select everything. So I'm gonna go to G to select, and then I'm going to do control a to select all the points and then I'm going to do a control. C Control V. We know that when two I guess I should have included that in the keys. And now we're right into the transform shaped tool so I can pull this over here and then, Ah, let's shrink this up in this direction a little bit. Saseidx isn't quite as wide Now let's select none of them by hitting escape, None of the points. And I want to now hit G to select. And I'm gonna pull over these two points so that I can hit t to transform. And I can just hit old shift and move these up to get kind of Ah, a parallel. Here we go. Now it's going off into the distance, okay? And then I want another shape. So he it s for shape and it's on a rectangle, which is great. I pull that here. I say t for transform when I pull it down into the area that I would like it and then I it escaped us selecting them. Now I could just be clicking off in here to do the same thing, just like no points. And then I say g to select and I want these. And then I hit t to transform and I hit shift. Let's see if I could pull it over in this area. I've gotta pull it down a little, too. So let's hold shift and pull it down. Hold shift and pull it over and OK, then we hit it. Hit, escape, or I'll just click over here. Do not select anything. I'll move this point down just to get it kind of in there. There we go. We've drawn a box and we're doing it all without moving over to the left. I can start curving these things by hitting, see and then curving the points on the corner. Woo Control z, I didn't mean to do that. That's still doing it controls e you know, I can get this one and this one and curved them all out with the curvature tool. What else have we got? We did transform. We didn't do add points. Did we add points? A. There you go. And by the way, while you hold it while you're adding it, you can keep your mouse held down and you can pull the point out where you want. So you don't have to go over to the transform tool. You can just add ah, bunch of points and pull them to more or less where you want them and then sit, see for the curvature tool and start Whoa! That's the magnet tool Hit C for the curvature tool and start curving. These points out. So there you go. That's the accelerator keys. Let me one more time. Go and look at that slide that shows all of the tools. Here's the slide. I recommend that you pause on here and then minimize the screen and go over and use mojo and try these tools out. And remember, just hover over the tool. If you can't remember the letter for it and it will tell you now, I'll put a, uh, additional attachment or a downloadable resource to this lecture so you can have all of the keys that I discussed. Other than that coming up in the next lecture is the free form and the magnet tools. I'll see you there. 29. Using Styles to Style Multiple Layers: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about another option for coloring things or for styling. And I want to tell it to you for two reasons. Why nous that you can use it yourself. You might wanna plan upfront to use it and take advantage of it. And the other is, if you load characters from the library and they use it, you're gonna be very confused if you don't understand this. This is a character from the library, and it uses it. Let me show you what can go wrong. Let's say I go toothy the front leg. Okay, So let's say that here I go to the front leg, which is switch layer. So I have to go into it to pick the long leg, and that's going to be this leg over here. And then I decide. Okay, let's go ahead and will select it. I guess you get the front and the back leg and then let's go and change the color of the pants. Do something like green. There you go. Go ahead and nothing happens. Now, the reason that this nothing happens because a different thing is being used to color the pants and that thing is, isn't visible without viewing this theater Vance to style window. So here we've got a click on Advanced, and it tells us that it can't be bound, so it's gonna unbind it from that area and docket rather, and down here you can see look, these styles air being used. This isn't using these colors up here to cover the pants. Instead, it's using a style. Let me show you how that works. What you can do is you can come appear in pic styles. Notice all these colors. I have socked color hair, color shoot color pants, color shirt color. All of these things are styles and edit them. I go to, for instance, pants color, and I see that the color is blue and I can change that to any color that I would like. So let's say I'm going for the green. I can give him green pants instead, and all of his legs and his torso and everything changes because all of those things, our have a style of pants color. So what you can do is you can take a single style given a name, so appear I can say, Add a new style and let's call this, um, me. See what else might we want to color shoe lace color and I come down and say OK, I want my shoe laces to be black So that's the shoe lace color and now I have a shoe lace color. Now what I can do is I can go to the shoe laces and I can color them using that style. So what it does is it makes it quicker, and you can share colors across the multiple components. But also remember that what it's going to do is it's gonna throw a style like pants color down here onto the bottom of the advanced style screen, and you'll have to actually come to the style pants color and modify it. If you want to change the color of the pants, not just change the color on the pant layer, so it's a little complicated. Let me run through this again. You define styles like I did with what was it shoe lace color, and he give it its color information, and then you go to the shoe laces, pretend on picking the shoe laces and you say, give me a color of shoe lace color on this pant leg, and it'll change it. Now. All of these things, if they're all in shoe lace colors, would all change to the same color. And that's, for instance, using pant color. Now they're all using the same pant color, and that's applying styles in a slightly different way. Remember, when you want to dock this one, don't get it out of the way, unclipped advanced and then come upto window docking style, and it's back, docked over into this way and out of the way. So two ways to set color. And remember, if you bring in something from the library and you're trying to change its color and its not changing, go into advance and make sure that doesn't have a style applied. You can un apply the style you could say none and then use the color tablet here to change the color or go up and select that style when it was being applied and changed that color. So that styles. I'll see you in the next lecture 30. Displaying and Configuring the Grid: This is gonna be a quick lecture in which I described how to display a grid and how to configure that grid. Now the grid wants displayed. Whatever you drag, where of you drag points. It will snap to the grid so you'll end up getting very precise measurements. I use this for configuring arms where you got to get the joints to come together just right , and you can get to the grid by coming up to view and saying, Enable grid Now I always use control G and then to configure the grid, you could use control shift G. So let's go ahead and will enable the grid by default. The grid is about 20 points per square, which is rather large. So what I usually do is get it down to more like five, and you can get there by hitting control shift G. And that will bring up the grid configuration options. Now you can actually create weird grips. Grid Square is the most popular, and here, for instance, I can bring it down to five and make it a very tight grid. This one you really have to zoom in on to see Now, Whatever shapes that I draw. Let's see if I want a shape that is exactly, let's say, eight squares wide and then a certain number deep. I think I'm off by there. There we go and you could see everything snaps to the grid, so I'm getting very precise measurements. So I go over here and I draw another one that's eight wide and that length. I know that they're going to be exactly the same when it comes to doing something like matching them together, overlaying them in some way that why that's why this is so useful in creating arms. Now, if I want to get rid of the grid and get rid of the snap, all I do is I hit control G and the grid is gone. So control G to bring mix grid on control shift G to configure the grid to your size and control G again to get rid of the grid and get rid of this snapping. And that's the grid. In the next lecture, we're going to look at drawing with the freeform drawing tool. I'll see you there 31. Freeform Drawing Tool: in this lecture. I want to talk about the freeform drawing tool. This is where the true artist and you can come out, and I'm addressing it last because there may not be a true artist in me. I prefer geometric shapes. Here it is. Over here, it looks like a pencil. Or you can hit F to go to the free hand tool when you select it. Noticed some of the options that come up you can set to use pen pressure. If you're using a tablet and so on, you can. I made a point. You can trim the start in the end. Here's tapers, start and taper end, which is also a trimming option, so you can also hear you have auto fill, which usually you're not going to do with strokes and so on. So this is the way it works. You click on that, and then you just hold down and you draw whatever you're going to draw. Now it kind of cleans up your drawing, and it puts in very few points. So even though you're doing a freehand drawing, it turns it into a vector, and it uses very few points to do the drawing. Now let's go in here and do taper the two ends. And now if I draw, you'll notice that I get points on either end so it tapers it so you could do more of like , ah, calligraphy brush type Stroke can get very fancy, and it cleans up the lines for you, makes them more smooth and tapers the points for you. Now there's another drawing tool that's very similar to that, which is kind of like the big What would you call it? A felt pen? A big magic marker type of brush. That's the blob brush. Wow, this is quite large. Let's Ah, let's change the radius. Oh, actually, hand, let's change the radius down to maybe 05 There we go. That's that's much more reasonable, and that's going to give you a big, fluffy drawing area. Now watch this when I release it actually uses very few points. If I come here, look at how few points it used to make that gigantic shape. So mojo is very efficient and reducing the Freehand drawing tools to a limited number of points. So I use the freehand drawing tool for things like eyebrows. You can use it for the nose and stuff like that. If you're much a much better drawer than I am, then you may end up using the Freehand Truell a lot and even use it with a tablet. Remember that you might want to taper the ends to get something going on Smoothing. This is kind of cool Here. I can make this a very smooth line by upping the smoothing and now watch what happens. I do something like that, and I don't get all those little ah humps and and so on from my drawing in their it. It draws very cleanly, and it's doing the reason that it's ending here and it's clicking up here is because I have auto weld on. If I don't want auto welding to be occurring, I just go like that. I could draw over other lines, so use smoothing if you have an unsteady hand or keep it in the middle. Anyway, that's the Freehand drawing tool. In the next lecture, we're gonna talk about reviewing and exporting your work. I'll see you there 32. Reviewing and Exporting Your Work: in this lecture. I want to talk about how to preview or review and export your work. Now, remember, when we create an animation, will goto file as the final step and will say export animation and that will take us through The whole process of generating the animation will get us an MP four ah video file out of the whole process. However, here we're just illustrated so we don't have a video to export. We have an illustration now. One thing that is that I can preview this by going down to preview, and I could get a look at what my illustration is like here. I can zoom in and out of the illustration and look, I have a ladle, a pause sign and several lines to immortalize this work. I would want to save it as a J peg or a PNG, and this is the screen from what you do it. So you go to the preview screen and then you come down here to save as and here I can save it as a J peg or a PNG. Let's go ahead and save it as a PNG. It asked me what I want to name it as Let's see, It's untitled right now. We're gonna call this great art, and it's up to you is it's telling you that it's it's doing frame zero. So you can actually do this for a single frame in an animation if you want, and then we just go ahead and we say, Save and we've saved a PNG off our illustration. When we're done, we just close this window. Now the other way that you can save an illustration is remember that this is a vector graphic so I can come up and I could say file export export frame to an SV G. Now SPG is structured vector graphics, and it's a standard for defining vector graphics and a file. If I exported SPG file of my drawing, I'll be able to import it into other tools that support vector graphics such as clips, studio paint, which is Smith Micro Graphics illustration Tool or two photo shop. So let's go ahead and will export in SPG here. It's now it's asking us about an SV G type, and we go ahead and we tell it once again that this is great art. There we go and we created an SPG Now that we can load into photo shoppers something else to work on it further. So that's the way that you review or preview your work by hitting preview and you'll get a drawing, which will be much cleaner and easier to understand than sometimes what you see on the screen and then do save as if you want a J peg or a PNG, or go ahead and generate an SPG by coming to file export export framed SVG two ways to save your illustration. Now, from now on, we're gonna talk about rigging an animation in which you will be exporting an animation, using the export animation control and generating MP four videos of your animation. Up Next is a segment on tracing my favorite way to draw illustrations in Mojo, and I'll see you there 33. Tracing: in this lecture. I want to talk about tracing and prepare you for the section project which is coming up next, which is going to be to trace your head. So I'm going to start tracing my head and then I'm gonna work more on tracing my head in the illustration workshop coming up. So let's get started. The first thing that I can do is that two ways to set up a trace image the first and kind of I guess you'd say the official way would be to come here and go to file import and select tracing image. Now, what this does is it allows me to bring in an image that will be displayed very faintly at all times so that I can trace from it. So I'm gonna go down to an image of my head. Here we go and I'll double click on it and incomes the tracing image. Now you notice this doesn't create a layer at all in the lower right hand corner. It's no and stretch this out a little so we could shrink that up. It doesn't create a layer in the lower right hand corner. It's just it's own thing now to view it. I can say either I can toggle show tracing image or Aiken toggle it back on again so I can turn it on and off. I can also come here and select a different tracing image of one that I've got is not what I want. So here we go. With this tracing image available, I'm going to go ahead and double click on here and call this layer head and I'm gonna go and I'm gonna Let's let's add it this way. Now, I didn't show you this before, but you can actually add arbitrary shapes with the ad points tool so it kind of crops off my head doesn't well, we'll draw my head up there. So I put a point, and then I drag what, like a double put a point. Here we go. So I put a point, and then I drag that point to the next point, and I release the mouse and I drag and I just keep getting like this and I get fairly close . So I click on the last point. I drag and release. Click on the last point, Dragon Release and I can get a pretty fair approximation of my face here will come up and we'll go around the outside of the ear and then let's come inside the hair. I'm gonna draw that around the outside of the head and we're going off the reservation here and we finally come down and connect. Oh, I don't have auto. Well done. Let's put auto well done here. Now when I drag from here, it will complete the shape. So there's my head now these air kind of jagged points. So let's go ahead and with all these points selected, will pick the curvature tool. And I'm going to drag from left to right, and we're gonna curve these lines out. There we go. You can't really see that. But now I've got a nice curved head figure. Now let's go ahead and within the head. I'm going to create. Actually, let's create another image and let's do hair shoot. I renamed the same image. Let's let's bring that back to head and I'll add a new vector image and I'll call this hair . There we go. Now I can go in and I can add the hair and I'll do it actually, the same darn way I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna draw the points. Maybe a little more outside of my head up in this area. It comes down here and then it goes up this way and then it comes down here, goes up there down here, down over a year around here, up a little. They're here, there, here, and we'll go around and we'll catch the hair that I drew short of before. Let's sing out just a little, and I'll just keep clicking on the last point, dragging away. And now with auto Weld enabled, it will close the shape and there's my hair, so I just keep doing that. So this is one way to get a trace image and let me show you another way. I'm going to go up and I'm gonna turn the tracing image off, and I'm going to instead come down here, create a vector image called, Um, let's say, uh, trace, click on your trays image. Here we go. And I'll pull this all the way down to the bottom. So all I'm going to do is use a vector layer and on that layer, well, actually, I didn't want to do that anyway. What I want to do is I want to add an image layer, you go and that will take me to Brian stuff. Now the cool part about this is let me show you first. This is not the one that I used. That's the one I used. So it comes in very large. Let's get rid of our trace image layer here. And but what I could do is because it's just a normal everyday shape. I could take it and I can crunch it down and let's let's get rid of the views of these two so I could even get my head on the screen. I can move it around. I can actually wink it off and on very easily using the layer controls. And if I don't like the fact that it's so bright and so on, I can go to it and I can change down what a lot of people do is they reduce the opacity, so maybe they'll bring it down to 30 and it will make it kind of see through, so it isn't quite so dominant. Now, you see, it almost looks exactly like the trace image, so there's really no reason to use the trace image. Actually, I'm gonna bring that up a little more to maybe 50. There we go, so there's really no reason to use a trace image. They have much more flexibility just having an image layer, and you can wink it out and often on, and we can trace that layer. So that's using a trace image and doing tracing of I use accelerator keys. I can go very rapidly through curving and adding points and drawing shapes and so on. I can very quickly draw my head. And what's coming up next is the section project in which you're going to be asked to draw your head. Now, if you can't quite handle that yet, then go ahead and watch through the workshop where I'm going to continue drawing my head until you get the hang of how to do that and then go and do the section project. This is important. If you want to learn illustration, you gotta work on it, so I'll see you in the section project 34. Section Summary with Dill the Pickle: no. 35. Using and Modifying Library Resources: in this lecture, I'm gonna give one more shoutout for using library resource to speed up development. And this is something that I just noticed recently, and I want to show it to you. So to get to the library, we goto window that menu and we come down to library and click on that and libraries of floating window. Now you've got characters and so on that you could choose from. You could use the character builder if you like, but noticed this. This is kind of fun. Um, I just started. I just recently noticed that you have facial components here so I can load a pair of eyes. Here's blue eyes are 3/4 position looking off into the distance. Straight ahead. Omine eyes. Look at the all of these eyes. The's air, Really nice connected eyes, narrow eyes. So I could, for instance, um, let's load the almond eyes. So I've got a hit on character and I want to use that so I can say that's the one and I want to import it and I check common eyes and I say, OK, and I've got almond eyes now noticed. This is a switch layer so it has all of these positions for it. This is the arm and I set. And here's the look left look, right, the anger style. So you get all of these styles and all I've got to do is draw ahead around it, and I've got the eyebrows and the face all set up on a switch. Now I can go further and here's the head. So hair, I can dio, um, let's do girl's hair and I'll bring that in as another layer. Well, let me we cancel that. I want to make sure it comes up above this. Okay, Now we'll bring in Oh, and I get to choose between what kind of what kind of hair that I want. Um, let's go with this curly hair. Kind of like that. What? Curly here? Yeah, that's the one I want and we'll say, Well, I got to check it. Okay, so incomes the curly hair and I could take that and actually, I need to down the eyes quite a bit on islands. Let's go to the almond eyes. It's minimize that and I will change the layers slightly will bring these eyes down quite a bit. the more or less in the center. And then we'll go to the hair, the curly hair. We'll move that out quite a bit and pull it into position. Yeah, I made it a little too big. Okay, let's come out on the curly hair. Bring it down like that. There we go. And you could see we're already beginning to get a phase. And then, of course, within the library there's next is mouths so I can pick a mouth set. And this actually has a movable a switch switch. Hable mouths again. So let's say, um, was so, uh, these air kind of cartoony mounts and she's not very cartel. Yeah, that's realistic on Oh, lipstick, mouth animated. That is really nice. So we'll bring that in. Okay, And then I'm done with library. So let's close that at Wo. She's got big lips. Now we bring her lips down, move them into position and let's hit home and you can see that every pretty much built a character just from library resource is, and it's fairly unique. So one last suggestion for library resource is you can see that have all the vowel sounds here in the mouth. That's pretty neat. And I Next we're going to move on to next. We're gonna move onto tracing scanned images, so I'll see you there. 36. Tracing Scanned or Digital Images: in this lecture, I'd like to talk with you about one of my favorite ways to draw, which is tracing. Now it turns out that I don't really have the drawing flair, but I'm really good at tracing and I'm really fast. And this is one of the early tracings that I did bringing a mouse in tomorrow, my wife draws mice, and this is a scan of one of her pads. So I brought it in as the bottom layer on a mojo project. And I thought, Let's go ahead and try and rigour and all that. So if I bring on my mouse, this is my interpretation of that. So I drew it fairly accurately. I didn't have the hands crossed and so on. This actually has moveable components and so on. It's fully rigged. It can bend its head and, ah, kinds of things low, lost its neck. So I'm working on an improved version of this, and I put a little dynamics to her skirt. So is you pulled her leg out the skirt, moves in interesting ways, and, um, ended up a animating this goofy dance there, you just to show her freedom of movement So that's one of my first tracings was going from this. Does that and get rid of all the bones and stuff. And what I'm planning on doing now is tracing my face. I'm gonna continue tracing my face from the last time, but we're going to kind of start over again. So here, let me do this file new and I've got a brand new work area. I've got a layer on it and let's see, what I'm going to do is I'm going to use the the image on a layer techniques. So I'm gonna create an image layer here, and I'm gonna go to my stuff. Here we go and will come down just a little bit. There I am. I believe this. Yep, that's the picture I want. And it's super gigantic. So let's scan out, grab a corner and maintaining the aspect ratio will bring it down so I can draw the top of my head in the area to and there we go now the first vector layer that we've already have year. Let's double click on that and call it head, okay, and we'll zoom in now. I'm gonna use the add points method for drawing the head here, and that's begin up. Where about the crown is gonna be and just drag points to get more or less in the vicinity of my head and just keep drag grabbing the last point and dragging to the new point location. You can space thes out quite a ways because we're going to curve them once we get them all in here, my hair coming up and finally will complete that. And there's the shape of my head. Now one of the things I might want to do cause I'm gonna do the hair is wink out my head and here I'll add another vector layer and we call that hair and let's go ahead and use the same method to bring in my hair will go out just a little wider to make sure that this goes outside the head area and we'll bring this down here. Whoa, whoa! Control Z control Z. There we go. It, colonel, it welded. Let's get a rid of auto Well, for right now so it doesn't weld over to the other lines because we're going to get a little close here, and then we'll turn on Hajto well before the end, or we could just manually weld. Um, let's do this. Okay, It's coming along. Well, we're coming down the home stretch. Oh, and here, control Z on that point, and I'm going to just turn on a well done. This is the easiest way to get the weld. And there's our hair. What do you say we start getting some color going in here now? I'm blonde, but you can see that I'm very gray twos. That makes it a challenge to pick what we're going to do for things like the hair on. Let's get kind of, Ah, gold. Can I get kind of a Goldie's Silver? It looks like it's either gonna be blonde or not. Uh, dirty blonde. It's this makes me look like I've got green hair. Okay, let's Ah, come up Very light in here. How's that for my hair? That's the closest I can get. And the stroke? That's fine. Six is a little thick. Let's come down to four and then we'll go to the head. Bring that into and will select shape on that and we'll do the same. Let's come down to four and let's give it a skin tone, you hear? I want to be up in the pinks in very light. Oh, I don't want pink face. Exactly. Let's go to the redder pink. Uh huh. Bringing over very light pink. It's pretty close. Now let's see. The next thing that I'm gonna do is I think I'll do the glasses. Let's go here and create a vector layer. And this is all you dio Oh, something else that I forgot to do to is going toe like head and picking all the points. We got him all picked and then smoothing them outs. Let's get the curvature tool and will pull to the right. Get those things smoothed and how they're popping out there. Okay, they're getting a little too smooth. I'm getting dimples. So there, that's good. Smoothing that. And then let's go for the hair and you know these. Ah, yeah, Let's smooth them out. Here we go. We're gonna try and smooth amount makes my hair grow a little. It's pretty good, but you know what I might do to make sure that I get nice, crisp points is to select none and then come here and select like this point and make it pointy rather than Thea, the point of the roundness that I get out of the busy a curves so we'll just go and selectively make things pointy now, probably at the tips of these dips. What that to be pointy to and not roundy. And we can just go in and do that. There we go. That looks a little born reasonable now. It's all rounded out here, and it's rounded in the curves here, but it's pointy at the points. So with that done, we take those two out and we go for the glasses and the glasses. Air. Interesting because they're clear. So what I might just do is use an outline and make it fairly thick. So let's bring in a shape this time. We'll just bring in an oval like that and move it into position. So it's just about in the right place. Let's bring that in just a little. Bring it down here and, you know, just a zone. Oval looks. That looks pretty good. Let's take that and select all the points and will control C Control V to copy it and then move him over here and again click outside UNSA, Lecter all the points and then individually, I'll pull these points down into where I want them to be. Wow, that was pretty easy. And let's take the first shape Woo. But and did you notice I'm on hair? That's not particularly useful. So this is once again you get that giving that example of when you draw on the wrong layer . Then you got to go fix it. So here what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna insert a new layer called glasses, and I'm going to go to hair where I'm going to select all these points, have an old shift and all. I had that one and I hold all I'll get rid of that one and I'll say edit. I don't know what the short code for this is. Cut control X. Okay. So I can cut those out of there, then goto layer and say control V to paste them, and they're in the same place Now. What I want to dio is I wanna take that and maybe um, up this toe, like 10. What happens if we do that? Okay. And this I wanted to have no Phil, so that's a little thick. It's trying more like eight. Yeah, get him just more pronounced and then we'll click this shape and we'll get rid of the fill on their and will make that eight. We deal in can. We don't want any particular special thing with that. So there we go. Oh, we've had to make the bridge and also stuff. Okay, let's make the bridge. So to do that, I think I'll just stuff in one of these and I'll make it very Lou made it very large. We'll bring it over here, get it up in this area. Although we can't see, it's get rid of the hair in the head so we could see where the bridge actually is. It's up in this region, and we're gonna shorten this up now, Notice I I pulled in the lips. Oh, I'm sorry. I wanna pull that there. I pulled in a lips because I want this shape to be full in that lines. I could have just done lines. Now click out here and I want to pull this part of things, both of them up just a little bit. Let's see, How would we dio Yeah, that kind of got me a bridge. Now I could put in all this stuff, but Ah, forget about that. Let's just put a leg on here and let's try a square this time. So we'll go with one of the is and, um, transform. Seem what this point to be here. We want this to be over in this range that comes back, and it's going to go below the hair so we can get this to hide back in there. Let's do something like that now. It doesn't really matter what the fill color is cause you won't see it. Let's move the glasses down below there. So when the hair shows, it'll overlay the glasses and you won't see that. That's looking pretty good. So there is the beginning of my face, and I just keep on tracing in that way. Next would come the beard, and then I give myself a nose and then I do the eyes. Hopefully, you're getting the idea of how to do this. Now you do the same thing with the body, and then we'd rig it and we to animate it. So remember the mouse example here, Although the drawing that I was working on, the arms were crossed and she was holding a hat and so on. I had to modify it somewhat so that I could make the arms moveable right and put bones in them. I changed the tail a little. I changed quite a few things to make this picture and, um, a double. And that's what you want to do while drawing your face? Yeah, I get a very red base, so continue to draw your face. Ah, When you get it done, be sure and export a copy. So go to preview and pick down here, save as either PNG or J pig. And would you get the J peg uploaded to the Q and a section of this course? Okay. I'll see you in the next lecture where we're gonna play some more. Some other tools. 37. Originating an Illustration within Moho: now, in addition to tracing and bringing things in from the library and speedier paths to drawing, you can always originate. And this is gonna work best if you have talent and probably a tablet as well. I'm gonna use a mouse. And what I've decided to dio is let's illustrate a pipe, a smoking pipe. So I thought I would start by inserting any lips. And let's make it about that big for the opening of the pipe. And let's zoom in on this. Here we go, and then let me see. I need another outside of the pipe. So let's control C control V this and then I'll pull this out kind of maintain perspective and pull it over. I should have centred it there. Yeah, I like that. So now we have, like, a lip of the pipe. And then here's the outside of the pipe. And then what I'm gonna do is probably just keep drawing ellipses. And we'd like this one. What? That keep drawing. I can stop after that one, and then I'll want this to come in quite a bit and come down quite a bit and smooth this up . How's that for the bowl of a pipe that's a little shallow. They're extremely deep slits. Go more like this. We get a fairly deep bowl, and then let's curve and not curve some points that I'd like to be rounded. Oh, rounded. Can I go t Pretty nice. I'd like to be able to around that out. What's going on with the Okay, let's actually select none. Grab that. Go to the curvature tool. There we go. I was wondering what happened in my busy, busy A curve handles. Let's pull those out. I want more of a curve like that. Yeah, that's pretty good. And then I'm gonna come up to the top one. And, you know, I basically don't need that And what I need here, it's for these to be like that. Just go straight across what, at the wrong one. Well, transform a little go to here, and we'll make that pointy. Here we go. Now. Unfortunately, what I also did was made this pointy, which I didn't want to do around. Oh, not good. Okay, So I gotta bring the handles in quite a bit closer because we don't want this to be a riel . Big curve get it in like that and then transform again. Grab this point, get it over there. And then I'm gonna make sure that this is in the background. So well, select that bowl and control. Select that bowl and shift down to get into the background. Now, I used to have two circles here. Let's grab that one. Send it to the back. There is my other one and then we'll grab this. Send in the back. There we go. Now I've got a pipe looking thing. Now let's set some colors here. The inside of the pipe is usually grungy black, so we'll set this too grungy. Black. The outside is going to be a would color. So we want something in the Browns. It's a little red. Brown's Bring it up to Brown. Brown. Yeah, something like that. And then I'll go here and I'll just bar of that color. Now we need to stem to do that. I think I'm just gonna drag a rectangle here and then, ah, hit T for transform and I'll angle it slightly. Maybe make it a little larger, especially in this direction, and then I'll move it down until it's kind of in position like that, and I'll select that shape and hit shift down arrow to get it into the very back. Here we go. And then it needs the mouthpiece part of this stem and those air usually more elegant. Let's let's go ahead and pull. We'll pull a point by point shape here by going somewhere out into this region, and then it will come down here and it'll twist up to a mouth piece type of thing here, just up a little that will come across the end. Okay. And we need toe turn off auto welds that doesn't tempted Jump across to the other line so skinny and then we come down, get a little wider come in and one last. Oh, okay. Control Z and let's turn auto held back on going to pull this across to here to finish the shape. And then I'm gonna add a point and pull it down here to connect it. There we go. Now, with these shapes on top, I should be able to select the point. Go here and say, give me a one of these points, okay? And then ah, well, you see curve to layer. bring this in just a little because he curve and this. I think I wanted to curve up more so this might stay straight or even started going up. And then we'll have the schooling up, maybe even more. That's kind of interesting to bend the mouthpiece like that. Let's have the mouthpiece go more or less straight after this, which would imply that we're kind of bending back a little and we g o I'm not entirely unhappy with that. I would like to Okay, select these points and go into curvature, Maybe smooth them out a bit. Well, actually controls the control Z. Let's select the points in the middle of her curvature, and I like having this square. And so with that selected will go to the curvature tool and I'll start dragging out to kind of round it a little. There we go, and that should be black. So let's get a little, uh, irregularity on it. What the heck, Let's say black and then select shape. Go here. Okay, it's got a black stem. That's kind of a crummy looking pipe. It doesn't even matter how far you zoom out. That's a pretty bad looking pipe, But you get the idea. You can originate art within mojo without having a reference, and it may not turn out well, or you can trace where you can pick you. Library resource is so you've seen most of the methods for illustrating within mojo. Next up, we're gonna talk about illustrating backgrounds and props. Hey, this is a problem, so I'll see you there. 38. Illustrating Switch Settings: in this lecture. I want to talk about one last aspect of illustration that you'll be called on to dio and that is to create switch illustrations for things like hands and mouths and so on. Maybe even eyes depends on what you put a switch on. Let me show you what a switch layer is. If I come down here into this character notice. I've got a folder here with, like, two directional arrows in it. And what that means is that this folder contains multiple hand positions that I can switch Teoh and to get to them. I just right click on the folder and I pick ones. So right now, the hand that selected his open hand inward. Now let's say I wanna have ah, pointing, pointing palm up. I just click on that, and now I have a pointing palm up. Let me see. What else do we have pointing palm down? So that's the other way around. So I have several hands that I can pick here Now if I need more hands, like maybe a fist, then what I need to do is I need to drive, so to do that, let's come down to open hand inward. There we go. I didn't want that. And what we'll do is we'll take this and will turn it into a fist. So let's zoom in on the hand. Here we go. And I'm going to take this. I'm going to right click on the hand and I'm gonna say duplicate layer, and that gives me a duplicate of the hand. And let's call this fist. Here we go. And now we have to do is modify this hand to be a fist. So let's do this little transform points. Okay, so we're on the fist layer, and what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna transform it. And I think I'll just take thes fingers, kind of move them up so that it turns into knuckles. Smooth. This one up in this region. Thanks. Loads. That was helpful. Okay, this one, we will move down into this region and get rid of the goofy curve. And then finally, this one will bring way down. So we have kind of a fist here, and that would be actually an outside fist. That would be pretty good. If I wanted to do an inside fist. I would probably add some shapes here and make Whoa! That's a thick line. Okay, look at the line with down to three stroke there in the hand killer. It's going to be that now. Let's try pulling this out, transforming it a little. Thank you. It's not to go the direction that I wanted to. Here we go. And I'm having really my problems trying this morning. Okay? Let's see if we can actually get this to punk up and look like a finger here and then move this into position in three is way too thick for some reason. Let's go down to a two. Let's go down to a one there. We going at one. We've kind of got it. Now let's do the transform and pull this around until we get it more or less where we would like it and we'll pull those busy a handles out. Uh, so there you can see if it was the other way around. That's a really fat finger. Um, it would, um Then I would have the finger curling over so I would do that modification. How, in this case, with the back of the hand looking at a fist, something like that might work. In fact, I might, since I'm making a fist year move this from over here, make it a little tighter like that and create a fist. And then I've got a fist and I just keep making hands. And then when I want to switch to these, whatever I create in this layer turns up as a switch setting. So that's the other illustrations that you might have to dio is switch settings, which includes maybe mouths. Maybe I positions and hands. That's it for the illustration workshop. And in the next section, we're going to begin rigging. Yea, so I'll see there. 39. Introduction to Rigging: Hi, I'm Dill. And this is my friend Spud. We're here to introduce you to rigging, which is a lot like animation and illustration, except completely different. So buckle your seat boats and get ready for a wild ride, because here we go. 40. What is Rigging and What Have Bones Got to Do with It?: in this lecture. I'm gonna answer the question. What is rigging and what do bones have to do it anyway? Ring is the process of using what are known as bones, and that's actually a really good name for it, because I act like bones in the human body to make moving points to create animation. Easier now, imagine if we didn't have bones and we just had points here in a drawing. Now let's go and say that we want to bend this arm. That's the animation we want. We wanted to start here and then bend down. Well, we could always go grab the transform tool may be rotated a little. Oh, went off at one end so we'd have to grab it and line this back up and see if we could get it more or less perfect. And there we go. We bet the arm Not incredibly difficult. But now what happens if we want to bend this entire arm two Okay, well, we'd have to select all of that, and then we go transform. What? Let's try this again. We select everything, and we use the transform tool to maybe shifted around like that and then we'd have to move it down. So we line up the shoulder with the body and so on like that. It can be done so we can animate this way. But it's a little slow and it's a little imprecise. Instead, if I went through the rigging process, I can make this much easier to do and let me show you this. I'm going to just get hit control Z, undo everything we did until we're back. Now. One of the things that I've done is I've rigged this arm and I've hidden the bones. So let's go ahead and will go to bone Show all moans. And now you could see these two bones that I've added. I have one here for the upper arm, and I have one here and notice that they also are shaped or positioned more or less like the bones in the body. And this is gonna pivot on the end of this bone, and it's going to manipulate that and so on. So if I want to move once again and bend the arm, all I do is I go to transform bones and I grab a bone and I pull it down and notice I could move the other one to. I can move these and all kinds of wild positions. It's moving all the points that are bound to these bones, and that's what we're going to learn about in this section. How to add bones to a character and how to bind them two points to make it easier to animate them. We're also gonna learn about switch layers where we could switch in different types of hands and different types of mouths. All of this is part of rigging in anticipation of animation, so I'll see you in the next lecture, where we're actually going to populate a body with bones. 41. Creating and Populating a Character Bone Layer: in this lecture, I'm going to talk about the initial rigging of a character. Now here's a character that I rigged for the opening welcome message and the arms rigged out fairly well. The head, I believe, moves and in either direction fairly well. But I didn't rig out his legs because I didn't particularly why I'm toe walk. He bends left and right, but is his legs stay? Stay determined, Lee in place. So what I thought I'd do is I'm gonna remove the rigging and then I'm going to just add it's that you can see the initial rigging of a character and we're gonna change the rigging right now. Here is the root bone. This is what everything's connected to, and it will make the character fly around. If you move it, it's not connected to anything else. There's no parent of that. Now, if I click the next bone up, this one is a waste bone, and it is anchored down here to that route bone. So it pivots relative to that route bone, and it brings all the points in the area along with it. Now how can I tell what the parenting is for all of these bones. I just click the parenting tool and a draws aero, so I can see. Okay, this one is parented to the root bone. The chest bone is parented to the pelvis bone, the two arms air coming into the chest bone as in the head. And then the forearm is coming into the other part of the arm. And then finally, the hand connects to that so you could see a pretty simple rigging structure to do legs. We would just pull down two for the legs, the top of the thigh and the and the calf, and then put one in for the foot. So that's what we're gonna do. But I'm gonna anchor it at the waist because that just seems like it makes a little bit more sense than having to come down here after the anger. So let's get on to that. I'm going to begin by taking all of the layers out of the inside of the drawing of me, so I select them all. I'll click the 1st 1 after opening up me, and then I'll click the last one and then I'm going to hold the top one. That means that I'm moving them all. And I'm gonna move them out of Brian upon to the top. There we go. And then I'm gonna take Brian, and I'm gonna delete it. So here we are, without any bones in Brian with the basic drugs, this is what you get out of the illustration. Step and notice that the drawing has been drawn with straight arms and the arms are in separate layers and it has been planned out. It even has switch layers for the eyes and for the mouth. So it's been planned out for animation and illustrated appropriately. Now, the first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna come over here and add a new layer. Don't you? Always? And this time it's going to be a bone layer. So what a bone layer is is it contains and we'll call it Brian. It contains all the shapes, like a folder off what it's going to change with the bones. And then it contains itself. The bone definitions. So what we do is we once again select everything that was in Brian all the way from hair down through legs and we go up to the top and I drag all of this in Dobrien. There we go. So now I have have a bone layer with no bones defining the Brian character. Now what I'm going to do, let's not select any points, huh? I want to be on Brian now, Toe add bones, which is what we're going to do. You have to be on the bone layer. Let's move me. Actually, that shrink me, That was terrible controls. Is he? What did I do to myself? Okay, we'll shrink myself up just a little bit. There we go. So I fit on the screen a little better, and then I'm gonna pull myself over here to the side where I'm gonna be talking, and now I'm ready to lay down some bones. So the first bone that we want to do is the root bone. And instead of putting it down here between the legs, I'm gonna go to add bone, and I'm gonna put it here, going across at his pelvis, something like that. And that will be the root. And that way I can grab him by the waste to move him up and down and his legs will do interesting things will get there in the end on how to do that. And then I just start pulling bones now first, what I want to do is I want to select the bone that will be the parent of my other bone. Now, if I don't do this and I get it wrong, I can always repair it. The bone with the re parenting tool, which appears to be, Oh, it's disabled because there are no bones to repair it. So now what I do is I select this bone using select bone that's going to be the parent of this next bone that I'm going to add. And I dragged that right up the middle. This is kind of his waist bone. Now notice it leaves the last bone you've drew selected, and it keeps add bone selected so you can just keep adding bones until you need to re parent. Okay, and this will be his chest. And then from that, I'll pull up his head. This is where I would repair it rather than parenting with head, which was the last bone drawn. Ah, select his chest and I'll add a bone right here on his arm and then I'll add the next bone going up his arm until finally we make it to the hand bone. Now let's see what happens if we don't parent correctly. Let's leave this as apparently the parent of the next bone I'm going to draw, which is the other arm. Now that's completely wrong. And I'm gonna show you were gonna do it wrong so that I can show you how to correct it. Pull that out to there and we can adjust these bones later for perfection. Right now, I'm just trying to get them into existence and in generally the right area. Now this bone is parented incorrectly. And how can we tell that what we can't really by looking? But if we go to the Bryan later and choose manipulate bone, which we can do at key frame zero and remember, that's what we've got to be to rig. I can drag things around, but look what happens if I try to move the left arm or the right arm. The left arm goes flying up in the air. That's because it's parented incorrectly. And if I come here to parenting, I can see Oh yeah, this draws a line all the way over to the other hand. So this is parented incorrectly. And the way that we correct that is we go to Parent Bone. Okay, First we got to select the bone, so select a bone, and I say, parent repair it bone. That means parroted over here instead. So now we have the bone going to the chest bone, which is where we wanted that arm and is gonna move much more naturally now. So now we can just move a second. Ho, Is that this This bonus Still wonky. OK, but anyway, there there, laid down correctly, and we're going to try and figure out this problem over to the right as we go along. But let's continue to add bones that we can finish this character. I'm gonna now add the upper leg or thigh on the right side. So I'll come up here and a pole down the right to about where the knee is, and then I'll pull the next bone. I don't need to worry about setting up the parent. And then finally comes the last bone. There we go. Did I make that a target bone? Well, we're gonna find out, Um, And then I come up here and let's say I want once again this kind of waste bone here, the route to be my parent, and then I'll click add bone, and I'll come down here with the other leg like that. Okay, so this is the basic bone infrastructure for a character, and I should be able to play with it now, and it should look good. So if I'm up here on the Brian layer the bone layer and I pin it, pick manipulate bones, I should be able to drag these. Well, these air bound oddly. So let me look at the binding infrastructure. Yes, that's bound to the wrong thing. This Okay, we're gonna select the bone. This bone here should be parented to this spoon here. Oh, I see. It is it's this bone down here that's parented up. So we say, parent, you want that to be parented to the hip, apparent it to the hip. There we go. You know, we got that on the hip, and this is what you gotta do. You gotta go through and correct these little mistakes. Okay? Now I should be Oh, and I still have a piece of arm and the hand isn't going, which is which is interesting. I'll have to figure out why that is. Maybe it's where's their switch layers with something like that, and I'm gonna do something special. But this is the basic that moves the legs. Okay, this is the basic structure of how to rig a character. We click quickly, rigged it partially. We drew out the bone structure and bones allow you to manipulate many points rather than having to manipulate them all. And you manipulate them in a logical skeletal structure. In the next lecture, we're going to look at adding re parenting bones, which were already kind of gotten into, and then how to set bone strength and buying bones. And that's gonna clear up all the little mistakes that we have going from this character. Apparently, when I made a copy of him out of the bone layer, I didn't quite get everything cleaned up correctly. So we'll clean that up in the next lecture. I'll see you there 42. Adding, Transforming and Reparenting Bones: Hello. By the end of the last lecture, I had been encountering problems. I think it was because I already had the character rigged and copied it out of a rig and retained some, um, rigging things. But now I'm back to the point that things are working more or less normally. This is the way things should work after you rig your character. Now what I had to do was I hit control A to select all the bones. And then I went up here two bone and I said, Reset all bone rigging and that apparently got rid of the weird bindings that I had with leg going to the arm and the head going to the legs, all kinds of stuff like that. So now everything works more or less normally. Now, what I want to talk with you quickly about is how toe ad and re parent bones. And we already talked about this somewhat. If I go to the bone parenting thing, I can see the bone parenting structure, and I can take a bone, select it and go to repaired bone and click on the new bone. See, it's telling me this bone is parented just correctly to the chest bone. But I could repair it it to the head bone, and then I can select it. It's already selected, actually, and repair and it back to the chest bone where it's supposed to be. So that's re parenting and selecting bones. Toe add bones. I just go ahead and I add more bones. So if I want to keep on adding, if I want a hair bone, let's say a specific hair Boone lip. We control Z on that. I double click, and I think that makes a target bone. So let's add another bone here and by just adding it. I'm not sure what was selected, so we got a look at the parenting structure. Oh, this arm was selected. So here I go and I select this new bone and I say, Parent to head there and now it's parented to the head bone. And if I want to get rid of a bone, I just click on it and I hit the lead and it's gone. So that's adding, removing re parenting. The other thing that you can do is you can move bones around if I click on transform bone here. I can actually grab a bone and change it like, let's say maybe I want the end of this bone to really be over here and it ends up moving the bone. Now, if I want the other end, this will stretch the bone so I can stretch it out in this direction. This one and I can move to the end and so on. So that's how you can reposition Bones. Let's try and position this back where it's supposed to be the joint that may not be far off, actually, on this week and pull in here. This I'm gonna pull down here and that connected there. So that's the way you can move bones around. Now, in the next lecture, we're gonna talk about binding bones, two points or how you make the character move. When a bone moves, I'll see you there 43. Setting Bone Strength and Binding Bones to Points: so now have completed the first step of rigging. And if you look, you can see that I can manipulate bones here on frame zero or a key frame zero. I can go up and I can grab the bones and I can move them around. Now the question becomes, how does mojo know what points to move for the different bones and also noticed this If I move this bone out in a certain area like down here notice that is my face kind of warps out at the same probably on this site, and I get a really wide face, so that's not quite working correctly. And, uh, so on. So it turns out that there's actually two ways to tell the bones what points to move. One is bone strength, and the other is point binding. Now, we're actually looking at bone strength right now. If you look at this, notice the's circular air colored areas around the bones. This is telling you the area that that bone will influence and unfortunately, the upper part of this arm that we've been moving has part of the face in it. So what I can do is go to select bone with select the hand bone and then go to bone strength. And by holding and dragging the left, I make the bone strength smaller by dragon to the right. I make the bone strength wider, so here I can set the bone strength down just to the hand. I can then select the next bone, and I could say, OK, let's tone the bone strength down on that. That's way too large. Just the arm like that. Go to the next bone, Say bone strength. Okay, We want that to be toned way down so we could just cover the arm and the next bone. Let's take the head bone and said It's bone strength, so that's just a whips. I lost my bone there bone strength and will set this down so it just barely covers the head . Now the arms shouldn't influence the head anymore if I come here and move the armor out. Still, doing it slightly interesting might be the chest that's doing it hard to say, but this is the way that you set bone strength and you restrict it down. Actually, here in the chest looks like we might have to have the bone strength increased a little out . Oh, come on, get me the of the chest and then said it's bones strength to be larger to cover the whole chest. There we go. So you go through and you set your bone strength to just barely cover the points that you want, But he gets some slop over and you're gonna end up with a little bit of weirdness Like my face growing. We we calm that down a little, but we can't get it completely now. There's actually another, more sophisticated and precise way of setting what the bones control. And it begins by turning bone strength off. So the first thing that we want to do, we're gonna use this instead of bone strength, I hit control A to select all the bones. Then I go to bones strength and I pull that to the left. There we are. Wasn't selecting the bone strength until the bone strength completely goes away for all bones. Now we go to manipulate a bone, you'll see that the bones don't move anything. They don't have any points associated with them. So the next step that we're gonna do is we're gonna associate points with bones, and this is the way you do it. Let's begin with the right hand. So I go down into my character. In fact, let's begin at the very bottom and move up. So I've got legs. I've got both the legs here. Now I want to select on that layer. So I'm going to the actual drawing layer here legs and let's se this bone. And then I'm going to say Bind points and I'm going to select, which points this bones controls and it controls these two points. So I come up and I say bind points. Then I go to the next bone and I select it this bone down here that's gonna control the bottom two points in the pant leg. So I click on this one and then I'll hold shift. Click on that one. Get him both and I'll say, bind points and then I'll take Lou Select bone the foot bone and I will select to bind their all the points in the foot and I'll say bind points now for the other leg I see to go here, and I guess I'm only gonna select that left point so This is the only point I'm going to bind to that. And then the I select the next bone and I say Bind to here and here bind points And then I go and I select the foot bone. And for bind points, I select the shoe who shift, get all those shoe points in there and then I will say Bind points and that's it for the legs now for the body. Let's see, I will take thes bottom points. So let's go here and select that bone and I'll say, Let's select for binding this point, this point and this point and will bind those points. Then we'll select the bone, the chest bone, and here I could drag over the rest of the points that I like that to select. Remember, it's only getting them on this layer. Then we move up to the right arm. Here we select the forearm bone and we want to buying that to the fore arm points and we select top of the arm and we want to bind that to the top of the arm points and then the right hand we're going to say Select the bone, the hand bone and that will be bound to all of these points. We go to the left arm, select the bone. Let's do the the top of the arm bone and buying that to those points. And then we'll select the forearm and will select the forearm points. It will bind those points. Then we'll go to the left hand, select the hand bone. What it's going to be bound to is all the points in the hand find points and we keep moving up. What are we up? Teoh? This is a complicated character. Okay? The head we're going to just do here is take that point and say Bind the entire head to that bone and will come up to the eyes, do the same thing. Oh, we got to go into the eyes. The pupils. Okay, We're gonna bind to this bone, select all the pupils and save bind points and then we'll go to the eyelids. Select this bone. Find points will be the pupils and bind points. Next comes the nose Select. This month it looks like this bones already selected, so we may not have to do that. I like to make sure I'm going to get it right. Select all those points on the nose and buying that to the head bone. The eyebrows. Let's select this bone. What do we want to bind the eyebrows? Find points. The glasses Select the bone once again the head bone. Select the points. Just all the glasses points and bind points. How much more way? Got a beard? An ear and hair. Okay, so here we select the bone select all the points in the beard and mind points when we go to the year, select the bone, select the points to mine, which are all the points in the air and buying points. And finally, the hair we click on the bone and we want to bind all the points in the hair We go bind points and that's it. Now we've actually more accurately bound the points in our character. Let's see how this moves in comparison to the, uh, just using the bone strength to manipulate the character. Um Okay, so we forgot something. Uh, a wrist hole. Okay, but now you can see the arm moves fairly nicely. Now, we might need to readjust where these bones are to get it right at the joint correctly. It looks like it's a little out, but you can see it's not dragging the face left and right. Thea body should move nicely. It either side the legs should do their thing. Here we go. Yeah, they don't have any. They don't have any joints in the middle so can't bend. Um, not a great drawing job for animation. I wasn't planning and tricking it out quite this much. So there you have the other form of binding the binding that you're probably going to use with most complex characters. Now, we just used bones strength binding with our star character up in the introductory workshop . And that was simple because it was that was satisfactory because it was a simple character . This is a complex character is going to be need mawr complex binding. Now, as you find in here, little airs in, um, what's going on? It's That's not bad, actually. Ah, like in here where we get a gap of the Benzes waste, we can fin fix that with smart bones which were about to learn about in a few lessons. But up next, we're gonna talk about switch layers. Actually, let's fix and get we got to go find are our wrist thing that was on the right arm? Yes. OK, so here we've got the forearm. So what? We want to dio pick the forearm bone, zoom in here and pick for the points You could see it's already got these. So let's pick these points and then I'll hold shift. And I want this wrist hole to There we go and I'll bind both those points and then on the other arm, I'm pretty sure I probably have the same problem. So let's go to the left arm and I'll pick the bone. I want to bind this one, uh, pick the points. We've got this in the forearm and then we get this little cuff whole hold shift, Click in there. Come on, give them all to me and we'll go mind points. Okay, now we zoom out, let's just hit home and I go to my bone layer, Brian. And here I select manipulate bones. I'm now getting my wrist whole moving down with the rest of the arm. And there you go. That's how to do two types of bond binding. You can use Ah bone strength minding, which is simpler. It kind of comes automatically, and you can adjust that to get as close as you want. But the rial more precise binding is going to be to go and bind individual points to bones . So I'll see you in the next lecture. We're gonna talk about switch layers. 44. Adding Switch Layers: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about how to create switch layers. Now we've run into them several times. We haven't exactly created one yet. We've manipulated one, and we've used one, and we're definitely going to use them in the animation section. So let me show you how this works. What do you do is you pick some part of your illustration that you want to have multiple poses for, and you don't need all the in between poses. So what you do is you just create the poses and then you can switch to them. For instance, the mouth is a typical switch pose. You pose to the different positions for the phenoms that the character is pronouncing. I'm going to go after a hand. So I've got my character here. He's kind of Ah, triangle based. So everything is triangles with this guy, and I want to make a switch for various hands. So let's go into the character and you can see that he's got a right hand here now to create a switch layer. I would select the right hand because I want to switch later to be right above it and Then I would go and add a new layer. And I'm not on later zero or I'm not on a key frame. Zero. So I had to make sure to be there. That's why my switch layer didn't show up. So I go to the right hand, and then I click. And there we go. Now, I've got a layer called switch here that I could add. So I add the switch layer and let's call it our hand s stubby for switch. So they're now I take I select the right hand. What? That's the right hand switch. I select the right hand vector layer and I drag it into the switch layer. Now, when I right click on the switch layer, it shows me all of the switches that I have available. And right now I only have right hand, and this is the way switch between them. So, uh, we'll just have right hand and then I'll take right hand and I'll duplicate it. Let's make a pointing finger. Okay, so I duplicated. And I go right and well, and point pt, There we go. So I'm gonna have let me see. This is a thumb. Is on the wrong side. So I'm looking at the back of the hand and I need the thumb on the other side cause I'm gonna show all the fingers Or should I show a pointing finger on this side? Hmm? Lets you a pointing finger on this side so we'll keep the thumb on the same side and this finger has to be pointing. So all I've got to do to do this is go to transform the image and take this point way down . So I just have these as knuckles and I take this and maybe stick it out a little. So it's pointing. There we go in this simplified triangle world, that's a pointing hand. Now, when I go up to the right hand switch layer and I right click on it, you could see I have two options I can have right hand, which is the normal hand. And then I can select right hand pointing, which is this new hand that we just created, and I just keep creating hands. What else could I have? I could have a fist. Let's make a fist. I'm gonna make that out of right hand pointing which one is this? This is pointing. So let's take that and will duplicate it. And I'm gonna create ah, right hand fist and we go and to make a right hand fist Reason I picked that is this is really simple. All I do is a bring the said like that and maybe get rid of the thumb sticking out. So there you go. There's a fist coming at you. The thumb is tucked in. So now I have three switch layers here I have right hand pointing right hand and right hand fist Too interesting. I don't want it to be no apps. I don't want it to be right and vis too. So let's take off the to and you just keep creating hand positions for everything you want . Now, obviously, I'd want to create hand positions for the opposite side to, or I could take thes hand positions that I could copy them over to the other side. So that's using a switch layer and creating the drawings for them. In the next lecture, we're gonna look at correcting rigging, airs using smart bones. I'll see you there 45. Smart Bone Dials: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about another way to use smart bones. And that is not just for correction, but to actually do animation. You create smart bone dials. Now, let me give you an example of one Here were on my character spud. So we go to that bone little layer and I transform bone. Oh, actually, what is? This is his manipulate bone and then noticed this style here that says head turn. Now, as I pull it toe one side, his whole head turns toe one side and if I pull it to the other, turns to another, This almost gives the character a three d effect. Now, the problem is, it's kind of hard to dio. So let me show you how you do it. The first thing you do is I go to the spied layer and I'm not going to show you this because I've already done it and we go and we add a bone so I would add this bone for head turn, and then I would select the bone. Yeah, and I would go up here to the bone menu item and I would say make smart bone dial. Now, once I do that, it's gonna ask me what I want to name it and I'm gonna name this head turn and suddenly I have a new smart bone. Now it's bound to nothing and let me show you what it does. It creates an action here called Head Turn named after the smart bone and I Congar oh, to it and I can see that on spud. It actually has a timeline. Now you'll know that you set up your smart bone correctly. If, after you add it, you get a blue bar like this. Now, this is telling us that we're in this action. If we ever want to go back to normal, we go back to the thing called Mainline by double clicking on it. Now we're back to everything that's normal. But if we wanna work on the head turn, we double click on the head turn. Wow, We could have a lot of smoke there all of a sudden, So we're gonna work on the head turn, and, um, I bring the dial from the top to the bottom. You see, I get a full head turn here, and it's happening in an area of 100 ticks or key frames on this key frame diagram. There we go. That's a lot of what we do, is we set up one is going to be the far end of the dial 50 is gonna be the middle. We usually set that up and this doesn't have a 50 in the middle, and then the other end is going to be 100. So we set up those three positions and the dial ends up figuring out all the positions in between. Now what makes it complicated as I've got to do this for every feature on the face. So I don't just do it for Spud. I open up spud and I go to the right hand and I see that this has no particular animation. That's because it doesn't move the arms and hands don't. But let's go to the mouth and the things within the mouth. You can see that they have turns, so there is the inside of the mouth. This part of the mouthy actual mouth opening has turns, so it has a this side and it has a middle. And then it hasn't Ah, the other side So let's see. This could be a little complicated. Let me take something like the nose. Here's the nose. So the nose, you can see it has one side, and then I move it to the middle, and then I move it to the other side to create the entire smart bone movement. Now let's say that I didn't have this. Let's just take this out, will select it and will delete it. And now the nose is just in the middle and it doesn't have any smartphone actions to it. Now, this is what I would do. So notice I'm on ahead. Turn. I double click that to be on that action, and I'm on the nose, so I'm setting the smart bone action for the nose. Now look at the dial as I dragged back and forth the dye Elice straight up and down and we're gonna have that, I believe. Yeah, that'll be the looking to the right. And then all the way down will be looking to the left. So what I do is I go to the middle and I go to transform or e I go to transform points and then I just click on it. That'll give me the position of the nose in the middle. So now when I'm in the middle of the dial, I get the nose in the middle of the face. Now for the far side. All I do is I come over here to frame one and I let's hold shift so it doesn't go up and down. I just need to move the nose over to this side. No, no, no. So I don't move the arm, which is unfortunate. That means that I end up running into it. Let's kind of overlay the arm. There we go. And now notice the movement that I have. The nose moves with the figure and let's go over to the far side And here. Ah, hold shift again. And for this side, I'll move the news way over, and I'll leave it there now, moving back and forth. The nose moves with the character doesn't quite move as much as it should. Let's move it just a little more. So we want it. Come over here like that, see if it was the face. It's not moving enough in this direction, either. Let's grab that and move it over the analysis even moves with face. It's that's a little better. It moves with the face, and that's the way you do a smart bone dial turn. Now, I also have smart bone now once again to get out of the smart bone. So I set this for every one of the layers that I want to move. I set one of these head turns smart move dials like I just did with the nose. And then if I want to return to normal, I go to Mainline now on mainline noticed that I've also got Let's see, I'm gonna Whoa, I got to go toe spud and notice the eyes This is once again a smart bone dial that opens and closes the islands The eyebrow brows with same there on a smart phone dial So is the drink and so is the mouth Here I've got it all the way closed in the middle I animate room What being in the middle would be like And then far open I anime I set that up and the smart bone takes everything in between That sets that up for me. So rather than being a switch layer for this character. I decided to use a smart bone for the mouth. So that's smart bones and how you can use them as dials. I know it was a little quick. I'll probably go into this in much more detail in an advanced course. Up next, we're gonna look a target bones, which were particularly helpful for fixing up the legs. When you want the legs to climb stairs and to move in particular ways, it's really good for the feet. Anchor them to the ground, so I'll see you in that lecture. 46. Using Target Bones: in this lecture, we're gonna talk about target bones. The target bones air usually use down at the feet. And they're kind of a way to help animation to happen. You notice if I let's go down here to Okay, we're on. Let's go down here and we'll start manipulating this leg and and all kinds of weird stuff happens. It bends in all kinds of different directions, and it's a little hard to manipulate. So if I wanted to maybe climbed stairs or something like that, I suppose I could. But what makes it easier is if I can make a target for this leg two point Teoh, let me show you how this works. What I do is I go to my bone layer. I make sure that no bones air selected, So these target bones that I'm gonna add are gonna be route bones. They're not gonna be bound or they're not gonna be parented to anything in the character. So I go here and I add ah bone and let's zoom in. I want it to be right here and stick out like that. Now, this is what makes that bone into a target bone. I go, and I select a bone that I'd like to always have point to it. And thats this. And then I go toe bone constraints on that bone and I come down and notice there's a target . If I click on Target, I can click on which bone is the target of that. Boehner. What's going to be its target? Bone be 16 is the last bone that I added. It's the one I just added and noticed this little target symbol shows up here. Now let's do the same thing with the other foot. So you get to see this one more time we click to make sure no bones air selected. This is gonna be an unparalled and bone, and then we add the bone. There we go right about the angle, and then we select the bone above it. We go toe bone constraints and we say Target is going to be that last bone that we created and we get the little target symbol. Now let's see what happened here. Goto home and now let's start pulling this around. I'm on the bone layer. I go to transform bones. Let's grab the waste bone Notice this could do things, and the leg bones always point at the target bones. Now this makes it a little easier. I can move the character around and so on, and I don't have to worry about what's gonna happen to legs or positioning on stuff. They always point to the ground, and the feet are always flat on the ground and so on. If I want to move thes feet, I just grabbed the target and I move it up and this pone stays pointed. Their everything stays nice and organized, so that's the use of target bones. It helps you to give a target for what you want. Your bones 2.2. In this case, I was with legs to point to the ground, so that's a good place to use Target bones. And I'll see you in the next lecture, where we'll talk about bone dynamics 47. Bone Dynamics: in this lecture. I want to talk with you about dynamic or or bone dynamics. What it allows you to do is to not control a bone and just let it flop around using physics so or using the physics engine within mojo. So let me give you an example. When it comes to my mouse character here, I'm gonna go and I'm gonna manipulate bones and I manipulate this bone. Now this bone here cannot be manipulated. It's actually kind of frozen into doing a particular thing. And what that particular thing is is just flopping around. So using the physics of moving this thing next to it to flop around and move the skirt Now , sometimes that can be messed up a little in which we need to use smart mounds to correct it . But the rest of the time it just flops around. Now the other thing that flops around is the tail. So if I move the tail down blip, that's the flopping around in. I can move it around like that and it will actually end up flopping around. In fact, if we play this video, I think you'll see both the skirt and the tail flopping around. Watch the skirt in the tail. See there they kind of they just kind of move around. And there's there's the tail, even still bouncing and this skirt from having all that movement applied to it. So how do you do this? So you go and you select the bone, and then you have it bound to the other bones and all that stuff. That's where it gets its motivation to move. And then you go up to bone constraints and you set bone dynamics. Now I haven't figured out that what the torque force, the spring Forcing the damping forces. I haven't played with enough to figure out what that is. Most of the lectures that have seen on this just say, Leave it alone. And that's what I'm going to recommend is leave these values that control the bone dynamics alone unless you got a lot of time to play with it and then you close it and that's all you do. So you apply bone dynamics. I've applied it to here, and I've applied it to the to end bones of the tail, and I just let them flop around. So that was it. is a quick lecture. That's what you can do with the rest of your bones. Or do you just get some general movement? It's also really great for hair you can have that flop around is the head moves and so on anything where you don't want to bother controlling it. Just let the laws of physics flop it around. I wouldn't recommend it for hands, but I guess you could just have floppy hands. So use that sparingly on various ancillary features of your mouse to get some movement to things that you just don't want to spend time moving. I'll see you in the next lecture where we talk about pin bones. Ah, fun new feature of mojo. I'll see you there. 48. Using Pin Bones: in this lecture, we're going to learn about a feature that's actually new to Mojo 12. And that's called pin Bones. Pin bones are actually kind of fun. Now, you look at this character. I call that the angry green blob, and all it is is a blob. It's Ah, big, amorphous, moving blob. It's kind of got ahead so I could put a bone up here and I could move the head from left. Right? But how do you move all this liquidity mass down on the ground? And the answer is, pin bones, let me show you how you do this. Now I've got the body here on a vector layer. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna add a new layer and make that a bone layer. We'll call that angry green blob. There we go. Now let's drag the body layer into that bone layer. Now we're ready to start adding bones to the character. And rather than adding bones that are anchored and pivot and act like bones in a normal body, we're gonna add pin bones. And this is the way you do it. We go to the bone layer and we add bone and rather than clicking and dragging, you just click. So there's a pin bone there. Here is one up here. Here's let's put a pin bone over here, one down in this area over here and you just blob down a bunch of pin bones. They're just single point bones. And let's put when there. Okay, now let's go look at the strength. You could see that these pin bones actually have influence over some points. Now let's go and manipulate them. Okay, we'll go here and we're on key frame zero So we can just play around as much as we want and you just pull it out. And what it does is it ends up kind of morphing the whole shape and dragging out the green blob Penis of this thing. So imagine. Let's try an animation here. Let's come over to Key frame 12 and just pulled these bones around these pin bones. See, we can make this blob move somewhat. There we go, and then we'll come to 24 will move the minute in different directions. Okay, and we'll see what we can do with this blob and then we'll go to 36 we'll move it yet more just by pulling these pin bones around. And what we should end up with is just this blob kind of moving around. We'll do it again here. We could even start moving it in a particular direction, like from left to right. Let's say it's trying to walk and we'll go to 60 and we'll pull it out even further in this direction and will go up here. Here, we dio. So we should have the blob moving by. Now. Let's move it just a little bit more. You could see the pin bones are really easy to use. You just grab him and drag him there. Little X mark. Periodically, I double click by mistake when trying to pull a bone, and I get a little axe, and I wasn't sure what it was. It was pin months that I was adding, So watch out, double clicking when you're adding bones and adding pin bones. Now let's see what this animation looks like. A sea. He just kind of moves in a creepy kind of blobby kind of way. So that's the use of pin bones. In the next lecture, we're gonna learn how to use reference layers to put part of a character in front of something and the rest of it behind. Ah, you'll understand what you see it I'll see in that lecture. 49. Reference Layers: in this lecture, I want to show you a problem that mojo reference layers were specifically created to address. So the problem lies here with the with spud the potato and dill, the pickle at the pit stop. Let's go to Spud and I will manipulate his bones And if I pull them across, you'll notice his arm goes behind the bar. Now that takes away a lot of space that I could have here on the bar for things like drinks and so on. I'd like his arm to go in front of the bar, But here's the problem. Spud himself. I'd like to be on the other side of the bar, so I want his arm on the front side and him on the back side. You can see here is the bar