Beginner Figure Drawing: Learn To Draw Stunning Poses | Robert Joyner | Skillshare

Beginner Figure Drawing: Learn To Draw Stunning Poses

Robert Joyner, Making Art Fun

Beginner Figure Drawing: Learn To Draw Stunning Poses

Robert Joyner, Making Art Fun

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56 Lessons (14h 14m)
    • 1. Overview

      3:02
    • 2. About This Course

      2:29
    • 3. Introduction To Gesture & Structure

      18:24
    • 4. Structure Basics

      18:25
    • 5. Gesture Basics

      10:39
    • 6. Gesture Basics Part 2

      6:38
    • 7. Forms

      13:47
    • 8. Forms With Perspective Part 1

      17:01
    • 9. Forms With Perspective Part 2

      9:47
    • 10. Simple But Characteristic

      19:15
    • 11. Pencil Method

      18:54
    • 12. Facing, Leaning, Tilting Rotating

      19:10
    • 13. Connecting Line

      19:46
    • 14. Longest Sustained Curve

      6:23
    • 15. Master's Analysis; Gesture & Structure

      22:10
    • 16. Drawing Tips

      8:39
    • 17. Demo 1

      14:17
    • 18. Demo 2

      22:07
    • 19. Demo 3

      19:20
    • 20. Practice Reel Assignment

      19:28
    • 21. Roberts Take; Practice Reel Assignment

      21:45
    • 22. Body Part: Head

      12:41
    • 23. Master's Analysis; Head Part One

      17:37
    • 24. Master's Analysis; Head Part Two

      15:22
    • 25. Body Part: Neck & Torso

      18:38
    • 26. Master's Analysis: Torso Part One

      23:05
    • 27. Master's Analysis: Torso Part Two

      22:07
    • 28. Demo One

      8:32
    • 29. Demo Two

      10:12
    • 30. Demo Three

      8:02
    • 31. Body Part: Arms & Shoulders

      18:03
    • 32. Masters analysis arms shoulders 1 HD 1080p

      24:41
    • 33. Masters analysis arms shoulders 3 HD 1080p

      19:55
    • 34. Masters analysis arms shoulders 4 HD 1080p

      24:34
    • 35. Masters analysis arms shoulders 5 HD 1080p

      11:21
    • 36. Arm: Demo One

      11:10
    • 37. Arm: Demo Two

      11:17
    • 38. Legs & Feet

      24:36
    • 39. Master's Analysis: Legs & Feet Part One

      21:15
    • 40. Master's Analysis: Legs & Feet Part Two

      9:39
    • 41. Leg Demo One

      6:55
    • 42. Leg Demo Two

      8:54
    • 43. Proportions Part One

      18:47
    • 44. Proportions Part Two

      8:17
    • 45. Proportions Part Three

      10:02
    • 46. Profile Proportions

      14:00
    • 47. Profile Proportions Part Two

      5:13
    • 48. Proportions Back View Part One

      14:07
    • 49. Proportions Back View Part Two

      8:51
    • 50. ProportionsWith Skeleton

      27:22
    • 51. Body Parts Summary

      21:14
    • 52. Proportions Demo One

      12:12
    • 53. Proportions Demo Two

      17:40
    • 54. Final Assignment Practice Reel

      25:59
    • 55. Roberts Take Part 1

      16:27
    • 56. Roberts Take Part 2

      13:36
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About This Class

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Welcome To Beginner Figure Drawing! The ultimate online course for complete beginners that aspire to draw the human figure.

My name is Robert Joyner, and I'm a full-time artist from beautiful Virginia. I've been painting and teaching for over 15 years and I'm thrilled to bring this in-depth figure drawing course to you via SkillShare.

This class has been carefully constructed and includes a step-by-step approach that will build confidence without getting overwhelmed. If you can draw a circle, square and rectangle then you are more than qualified to take this course.

OVERVIEW

Section One: Gesture & Structure

These are  the ultimate building block for your drawings. Unlike many figure courses gesture is used in a very unique way. Instead of drawing stick figures we will use it to locate and draw the lovey curves that make up the body. Each pose has many gestures and you will quickly discover how to find them.

Structure is used to add volume and depth to each gesture. This makes the gestures more dynamic and allows you to sculpt each area of the body using simple forms and volumes.

Section Two: Body Parts

This is a complete breakdown of the main body parts including the head, neck, ribcage, waist, pelvis, arms, shoulders, legs and feet. You will learn easy ideas for drawing each part using gesture & structure!

Section Three: Proportions

You will learn to develop a general model for understanding the front, back and profile views. Plus we will discuss some key similarities and differences between male and female bodies.

Section Four: Final Assignment

Here you will put your knowledge and skills to the test. There is a practice reel that includes four poses, each one is six minutes long. To make it even better I will complete the same exact practice reel so you have something to compare your work to!

As you can see this is the perfect lesson plan for beginners! It also includes:

Master's analysis - throughout the course we will look at some of the Master's figure drawings, like Michelangelo, Raphael and more, to see how they used the ideas shared in this course in their work.

Hours Of Demos - Each lecture is accompanied with a series of demonstrations where I will use images of models to draw the ideas for you. So, you will see how each main idea can be implemented in a variety of situations and poses.

Resource Images - Ive included all images used in this course including demo images, model images, Master's analysis images and additional model resources.

Thanks for taking the time to check out this course. I really hope to connect with you on the inside and become a part of your creative journey.

Image Credits: A HUGE thank-you to PoseSpace.com. They were very generous in allowing you and me to use their wonderful model pics. To learn more about their photos and services visit https://www.posespace.com/

Materials Used In This Course

Here's a list of drawing supplies used in this course. You DO NOT need to have the exact materials and I'm only sharing this in case you're curious. Feel free to use your medium(s) of choice. You can draw with anything and on any surface that you have available. Feel free to use digital medium as well.

Robert's Materials

  • Print Paper, 18" x 24"
  • Bulk Student Grade drawing paper. 18" x 24"
  • Sharpie Marker
  • Colored Markers
  • Prismacolor pencil, Terre De Sienne PC 945
  • Prismacolor pencil, Blue Indigo PC901
  • Caran d'Ache Supracolor II black
  • Graphite 2B & 4B

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Meet Your Teacher

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Robert Joyner

Making Art Fun

Teacher

Hi, I'm Robert Joyner.

I'm a full time paint-slinger from Goochland, Virginia specializing in watercolor, acrylic & mixed media paintings. Best known for my signature loose brushwork and carefree approach to creating abstract style artwork.

YouTube Channel

Click HERE To check out my weekly uploads and Live sessions

Here's a quick look at some of my bragging rights.

Official Artist 2012 Kentucky Derby Arlington Horse Race Track Chicago National Pastime Baseball Museum Art On Carnival Cruise Ships 555 Fahrenheit Restaurants Art on sitcom Modern Family Artwork on sitcom The Odd Couple Artwork in movie Tracers 2013 Mixed Media Instructor Strathmore Papers Shenton Valley Vineyards Wine Label Polo Resort - upscale hotel In Hong Kong

I enjoy spending my ... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Overview: Hi there. I'm Robert Joyner. I'm a full time artist and have been for over 15 years, and I'm thrilled to bring getting started drawing the human figure course to you together, you and me will learn to draw the human figure using a series of very simple and basic ideas. So if you can draw a circle, a square or a rectangle that you are more than qualified to get started right now and again , this course is aimed at complete beginners. No experience needed. We will start from the very beginning of drawing the human figure and work through it step by stuff. First, you will learn a series of basic two dimensional and three dimensional shapes and forms. Then you will learn to turn these forms and shapes in various positions and perspectives, and this is essential for capturing the illusion of depth on a two dimensional surface. Once you are comfortable with that, we will then turn to some of the masters like Michelangelo and Raphael. You have a look at some of their figure drawings and studies and see how they incorporated these basic shapes and volumes in their figure drawing. Of course, I would be doing a series of lectures and demos along the way. I encourage you to always have your paper and pencil ready and draw along with me. This will ensure that you get the most out of your online learning experience. Section two is dedicated to body parts. Here. You will learn how to use these basic three D shapes to draw very sophisticated and complex body structures, and the final section is dedicated to proportions. We will look at both the female and male bodies, and we will look at the front, back and profile views Together. These lessons will give you a salad foundation for drawing the human figure. You will gain a tremendous amount of knowledge and confidence if you can master drawing the human body. Everything else becomes very easy. To make this course even better, have a series of assignments for you to complete. Now this is not homework, but of course, if you want to really learn to dive in deep and master human figure drawing, you'll want to complete these assignments not just once, but several times. All images I use in this course are available for you to download as well plus I've included some additional figures that you can use as a reference as you move forward and practice on your own. So I hope you're ready for a major upgrade to your creative skills and to learn some valuable drawing techniques. I'll see you on the inside. Thanks for watching. 2. About This Course: welcome to the first section here. There's a lot of content in this introduction. We'll talk about gesture and structure the two parts to this wonderful process. We're going to break those down, and I'll give you a lot more information about how to use each one for your figure drawing . And then we'll talk about conceptualizing those ideas on how to take those forms and make them perfectly vertical. How to lean them, how to tilt them in space so that we started to get the feel for how to make a two dimensional drawing more three dimensional drawing, so it has a little bit of perspective to it. We're also going to talk about the pencil test. The pencil test is very important. It's an easy method for understanding how the form is sitting in space. So as long as you have a pencil and paper there or a pencil in your hand, you can use that to quickly determine a lot of information about the human figure. So a wonderful tool you're gonna want to use throughout this figure drawing course. I will also do complete demonstration. So the first series of lessons it's a lot of lecturing. But there's a lot of tips and things I'm sharing with you. And then I'll show you how the Masters, you some of these ideas in their artworks and we'll take a look at some wonderful artwork from the Masters. And then there's an assignment. So this is where you roll your sleeves up. He put these ideas to the test, and then I'll wrap up this first section by showing you my version of the assignment. And that's a wonderful way to get Mawr out of this online learning experience. So once you do your assignment, then you can go watch my take on it, and it gives you something to compare your work to. It doesn't mean that what you did is incorrect, or that what I did is correct. It's just something that you can look at and say, Oh, well, no, I like how Robert is using this or that. Or maybe hey, I didn't really get much out of what Robert did there. I kind of like my take on it better, and that's perfectly fine. So collectively, you have a wonderful assortment of different learning tools, and together it's just going to give you a really good start to your figure drawing process . So now we're going to kick things off with understanding that two basic ideas you're going to use and that's the gesture and structure. 3. Introduction To Gesture & Structure: well before we dive into the course. I think it's important to get on the same page with terminology with, But I feel is kind of the core view I take on art. So let's just start right there for a second. So you know, all all art is really your ideas. Um, I say that because when you really start to break down, painting or drawing doesn't matter. Art In general, you're only doing symbolism, so you can't really paint a hand because the hand only exists in real life. It's attached to my arm, and that's it. So I can, however, draw the idea of a hand. So, in a sense, everything we do with somewhat abstract eso in it's done through symbolism. And when we start to move through this course, we're going to kind of break this down into two groups. So we had the structure on. Then you have what's called the gesture, and everyone interprets structure and gesture a little bit differently. They may use them a little bit differently, so, but again, this over on the same page throughout this course, I'm going to break down what they are to me and what you can expect moving forward so that you know exactly where I'm coming from. So structure well, im you could think about as the the parts are the pieces of things. So if you were to think about a Christmas tree, for example, um, and it's sitting in your living room or wherever it could be there there may be, you know, a stand that's kind of holding the tree. It's the trees coming up and then the trees sitting there and we had the symbol of a tree on. Then it may have a star on it, so that's apart. That's apart. The trees apart has all these different ornaments and so one. So all of these little parts and pieces make up the whole of the Christmas tree. You can think if you were, if we relate that to the figure, you know, I could have an arm, but I also you know, the arm is made up of the upper arm of the lower arm. The risk, the hand, the fingers Ah ah, thumb and so one. So I think you kind of understand where I'm coming from. So this would be parts the pieces and so on. Okay, So gesture then would be basically how these things connect and relate to each other. Gesture is what kind of is kind of like the secret sauce that holds everything together. So if we think about this as the how they connect, um, you know how you know it's composed and that's going to hopefully kind of break this down into two major components off drawing, but also of your whole ideas? Um, in general, structure tends to be a little bit easier. Um, it's pretty quick, you know, just to get your ideas down and to look at things separately individually. So the gesture, then, is typically more difficult because things have to flow. The different parts and pieces have to connect to one another one another, and they have the connect, connect and relate to each other. So the shapes how the, you know, forearm joins the wrists. How the risk joins the base of the hand, how the base of the hand, the fingers joined the base of the hand and so on. So things have to flow rhythmically, aesthetically, and so one. So the gesture tends to be a more difficult part of the process. So that's kind of something you never going to work on and talk about as we move forward. Um, so also, with, ah, structure, they we have two different ways we can look at at this in terms of shapes, you have two dimensional shapes, and then we have, um, three dimensional shapes. So if you think about that idea, you could have a square, a circle rectangle. Um, the problem with two dimensional shapes is they don't really give you a lot of information . They're very they tend to be very flat and they don't give you direction. And they don't give you volume, which we're going to talk about in just a second when you start to look at three dimensional shapes. Now we're getting a sense of, you know, form. You're getting a sense of the volume, and you're also getting a sense of direction. Some shapes have mawr information than others. I'm so, for example, you know this idea of a square turned into a cube and the way I, through the perspective here, starts to give us volume direction. And so one, um, a circle we can turn into a sphere. But the only really way to do that would be to come in here and add some shaving. Um, And then, you know, that would start to give us a feeling of, ah, of a form. Um, the idea of this rectangle that could be turned into a tube, Of course, the tube can go in many different directions and so on. And so we start looking at in comparing these two, then you start to say, Okay, well, I can start to see that the direction I can start to see an access point can start to also see the volume of it, which is more effective. So that's the three dimensional shapes are really what we're going to focus on in this, of course, um, two dimensional shapes again lack a lot of what we need. Now we may use at some point ah, sphere and oval or egg shape as a surrogate form, but know that it's on Lee a placeholder for further development. So getting your ideas down quickly is the key to drawing. But having a library of forms and shapes and volumes is the best way to do that. So we're going to you again. You talk about that three d You may hear me refer to all of these as, ah, volume. You may hear me refer to it as a mass. Ah, you may hear me refer to it as a form. All of that is exactly what these shapes will start to do for you. Um so the gesture again is the relationships of all these parts and how they connect to each other, as I alluded to earlier. And it's also kind of how they're composed, which is important, but to if you were to say, think about a painting. So when you're dealing with a painting, are you dealing with color? And so therefore color has to have color harmony. So if you start to put in this really chromatic red and then everything else around it is tonal or gray or great out, then that red may not work as effectively. It may work better and be more harmonious if that red were toned down and not sold. Chromatic so very intense red surrounded by a bunch of great chromatic Hughes isn't going to look very good simply because it's not. You put it down without any consideration of the whole So my gesture is kind of that you're trying to look at how everything connects, and that's very, very difficult when you start to draw the human figure and probably one of the the biggest challenges. And that's why I again I feel gesture is the most important part. Once we get the gesture down of what but the composition is what the figure is doing the feeling of it. Then we can start to break it down into the parts and pieces, but getting the whole to look solid, pleasing aesthetically, um, pleasing, I should say, then that's the hard part. So, um, the process, you know that you want to choose when you're drawing the figure should always be simple. So basically, when we start to build this course and you start to move forward, we're gonna start with these very simple ideas. Um, so you may have one simple idea, and then we'll add the next the next and the next, and so one. And the reason we want to build things, um, slowly, is that if if you start to find yourself going astray or you start to see things going south and simply not working Well, then we can always kind of backtrack to the previous steps to see where we went wrong. So you can think about this is kind of like layers were stacking on top of each other. Um, so that's something to think about. Um, another thing out, kind of want to talk about is style. So style is something that comes, you know, much later. You know, the best way to achieve style. Where do you want to be realistic or photo realistic. I should say, maybe you want to be more expressive. Maybe you want to you what you are to be very loose. You want things to be exaggerated, more abstract. All of that style, the different styles. And you can look at our history for that, from Picasso to Renoir to whoever, Um, the style that you use for your idea doesn't really matter cause it's all built upon the foundation. And that's why this part of learning and so important, because it's going to give you the freedom to use Teoh infuse your style. So when you start to think about your art, um, he started to think about the finished product before you learned the foundational principles, then you're kind of getting way ahead of yourself. And that's typically where I think most beginners fail is that they are perhaps impressed or influence by a particular artist, and they go right for that in product. So that artist has probably gone through many of these stages of building their foundation through structure, gesture, whatever route they took to get where they are, Um, but that development, that work they did to build that foundation has allowed them to achieve a style that looks pleasing and is desirable. And, you know, in this day and age, when we're dealing with the Internet, social media, Pinterest instagram, so on where were so influenced by what others were doing? Because everything is accessible now and for a beginner, that's good. But it can also be bad because we get to a point where you know, we're like, OK, I just want to copy, but this style of art that and again, this comes way after all of this. So years of building the foundation, um, are going to start to reveal a style that's natural and uncomfortable for you, but without the structure, without the gesture and without having some knowledge, then the style is only simply going to fall apart and caused mawr disharmony than harmony. When you start to understand the process, you start to build things more gradually and you're going to see that the style will actually come very naturally. And when things fall apart, you have you know how to go back and backtrack and bring things together. So that's just an introduction real quick into the idea of art and what aren't really is. And remember, we can't really paint. We can't really paint a Christmas tree. We can only paint the parts of a Christmas tree, the gesture of a Christmas tree in the symbol of the tree. And the more the more of, ah, the more the better catalogue you have of shapes on, the more you understand about looking and observing these shapes of your subjects and then interpreting them, putting them down on the page, hiding the different parts, connect and flow to each other. Ah, that that's going to be the key to making your symbols and your ideas um, mawr effective, and in the end you'll be more successful doing it. So that's the introduction part and now we're going to kind of breakdown a little bit more of the shapes and this three dimensional idea and then talk a little bit more about the the kind of the gist of this course and what's behind it with this whole structure in a gesture idea. 4. Structure Basics: All right, let's move on and kind of break this down a little bit more and going to elaborate a little more on structure. And we've determined that structure is mawr effective. If we use ah three d form, okay. And we've also determined that structure equals the parts and the parts again, we want to make it mawr three D. So three dimensional and parts okay, that that's what we're dealing with There is this other part of structure that's going to become more important. And that's going to be perspective. And don't stress out. I know perspective can be breaking out a calculator, doing the math and all those things, but we're going to simplify it in this course and make things easy. But perspective is certainly something that we will have to consider, right? So we've looked at three basic shapes so far, and so let's look at those again. So we have the circle. All right, we have this idea of a tube, and then we had this idea of a cube. Um, so in this case, we're starting to see some of the perspective already, uh, in this little cute, um, we're starting to see direction and so on. But is with these three shapes right here, these three forms that we can almost draw anything. And this is the simplification part that I was alluding to earlier. The key to drawing the key to learning is to simplify the process so you don't become overwhelmed now. The key also is, um, being able to draw over the form. So in other words, if if I were to say, Take this idea of a tube so that's let's look at we just write that down so we don't forget . So we'll say no movement over the forms again. That's the key. So if we take this idea of a circle, we can turn that into an egg. So what to say, over or noble. So we'll say that has this sort of shape. And again, this is just a modified circle. So what you're dealing with is a contour. So in other words, um, when we look at this, you're only moving your eyes only moving around the contour. So if you not even short a contour is the contour, there would be the edge of a shape, form, object or whatever. So if I take that same idea and will use the say this tube now only draw it like this. So again, we're only seeing the contour. So I want you to move over the form that I need to start adding this sort of direction. Okay, so now, now you're starting to move not only around the form, but you're moving over the form, all right, bouncing back and forth. And that's that's much more effective then this sort of thing. And we say, if you were to look at the figure, um, you know, we have a silhouette, right? You have a silhouette of your head, neck, shoulders, arms and so one. So you have this sort of thing, and that doesn't really give you anything other than a flat rendering of the figure. So it's on Lee. When Ah, we start breaking this down into forms, um, that we start understanding direction, we start understanding volume, and it starts to take on ah, much different meaning. So that's just kind of a quick look in comparison to how the form is interpreted through a contour. How you look at it versus how you looking at it here and the thing about it is a lot of the information about a figure is located on the edges. Um, so we have to start to investigate kind of what's happening in here so that we can start to get this idea of a more sophisticated three dimensional structure parts into the figure. All right, taking this a step further and really just to bring clarity to what I am after here, I'm just so again we're on the same page, And you know exactly what what we're getting at here is that structure is simply movement over the form. Okay, movement over the form and not around the form. Okay, so we're not looking for this. We're looking for this. So this idea is what we're doing. And we're going to avoid that idea for reasons I've explained. Ah. And then also, for reasons I haven't yet shared with you, So when you're way are working this way again, we're talking about three D parts, very a catalogue of shapes. So 123 But again, these can be modified. Um, and I'll get to that in a minute. Um, what that does is that helps to construct things. So what? You're doing when you're in this structure phase is you're basically trying to come up with ways to construct or lay in. You're your idea, and and you want to start to look at things differently. And I think when I say that I'm talking about what I mentioned earlier. No, I don't want you to draw a form. I want you to come up with a shape that represents the forearm. So again, that could be a tube. Um, And the reason why is and to a lot of this is kind of like sculpting. So when you're a sculptor, you're thinking mawr about form. So you know the different sides of it, the volume of it, and you're thinking over the form and not the contour of it. Because that's a a good way to think about how this sort of idea, because you're you're always looking for You're the best possible route. And the reason why is and the reason we simplify things, even like taking these three shapes is it's because we can again have a simple method. Okay, Everything that we do, we want to. At this stage, we reduce it, we simplify it, and we do that because is quick, we could easily say Okay, I see that pose. Now, this is what I'm going to use. And you can put those ideas down in a matter of seconds. Months, you're more fluid and you're experienced. So if something is not right, then or if is correct, then you can take it further. But you can also redesign it or reconstructive quickly. And that's that's key. Okay, so we start to do contours and you start to do all this other rendering and sophisticated things. Um, in the beginning, and then you get to a point where you invested this time and you go, Oh, my gosh. I mean, this is the gesture there. Everything is completely off. Then It takes a lot more work to go back and redesign it. When you're dealing with these very simple shapes and you're laying things and quickly, then Tennessee. Okay, well, you know, I can take this to tweak it, twist it, make it shorter, make it longer. I can make this circle into a Mormon oval or the next shape or whatever. And you could redesign it fast on the fly and also that the other thing is, Ah, you can exaggerate or are animated, which is a very, very important once we get into the gesture. In other words, if he had this figure, I think we can see me here. We can and he say This figure is kind of hunched over and you know, this leg is maybe bent, and this one's here. You may say, Well, I don't know that that's that's a little bit stiff. So maybe you want toe animate that mawr so we can bring the figure over. You can thrust this leg out and weaken. Thrust this one forward, and we can kind of make the figure appear as though there's a lot more going on them. Then what is actually there. And that's important, too, because you know, you're the way you animate things and the the movement of it. The story behind it often times needs to be animated or exaggerated. And again, having the simplified method behind you, um, will allow you to construct things to lay him in and to give you this feeling of movement over the form, and you can get your ideas down quicker. If there's ideas don't work, you can redesign them. Ah, and if they do work, or perhaps you want to add more to it, then you can animate it and make more of it in a very fast way. And that's something that is very important for figure drawing because it's so easy to get locked into unnecessary details or to copy what you see. And then you end up with this very stiff wooden looking figure. Okay, the last thing I want to touch on, um for this particular piece of paper anyway is characteristic Very important from that. All the forms that we use have a or represent the character or characteristic of what of what it is we're trying to say. So if if you take for example, ah forearm So what kind of use this right here? You may say in the simplest form that we can use the tube. I'm going to say this is the top of the forearm. This would be the bottom or what to say, the wrist. So giving you something to think about now you may a development of that or something more characteristic, may say, Well, it seems like that narrows as it goes to the wrist and you would be right. So you could say a good development would be taking that idea and saying This is more characteristic of the forearm because it is the tends to get wider here and narrows. And now, if we start to look at the sides of a forearm, another characteristic or development, maybe to say, Well, let's kind of see this muscle or I don't really have a prominent muscle having been working out. Sorry about that. But let's say a development, maybe to start with a new novel. Ah, and then it tapers here. And then maybe as it gets to the base, it turns into this box like form. Okay, so it kind of gets very square, um, towards the wrist. Ah, and then it goes out into a tube, and it kind of goes around these muscles and maybe even kind of has this idea of a combat bows a little bit, so that could be uneven mawr, um, further development or characteristic of what we're doing. So that shape could Look, I'll do this with a pencil. So it's a little bit cleaner. Could start with this sort of idea coming down, then it gets to this very box, like, ah, subject. And then it kind of goes back out on Maybe we can see down for this example into it. Okay, so maybe this, um, would be more characteristic again of that forearm. So these are the These are the things we're going to try to start to develop as we move forward, breaking the body down and into parts like we talked about right with the structure. Ah, and then coming up with this simplified method of construction so that we can lay things in quickly. If it's a problem, we can redesign it. And of course, in the end, we wanted to be interesting to look at, and a lot of times that means, you know, we want that to be slightly exaggerated, but it also again, we need that characteristic quality that's important. If you start with something that's too generic for forearm that say, then then you have more work to do. You got a lot more steps to jump through until you get to something that is probably mawr suited for that. In other words, if you were trying to sculpt ahead, even you start out with this big things like this. Now, you know, you've got a chisel, chisel, chisel, chisel and do all of this work until you finally get to a point where it starts to look. They're like an actual head, so you got a lot to do. So what we're trying to do is to eliminate unnecessary steps and get to a point where we've got ah, these wonderful, simplified volumes to lay in and construct our parts of the gesture, okay? 5. Gesture Basics: all right. So I told you were going to kind of work things kind of back and forth. So we'll talk a little bit of structure, a little bit of gesture and then so on. So I think it's important to mix and mingle. So again, this one will cover a little bit of the gesture ideas, and then we can start to bounce back. So again, gesture. We talked earlier, and I mentioned that is basically how things connect and relate to each other. So if structure is movement, um, over the form, then we can kind of think about gesture or I'm sorry, if structure I'm not sure if I said this correctly. If structure is movement over the form, not around the form over the form them again, we can think about gesture as movement between. So the hand s so we have the say, the upper arm. I'll put that down here. How that connects what's between to the forearm. The risk connects to the hand. So you know those connections and how the parts relate to each other between the forms, the different parts, right? The upper arm, lower arm hand. That's what we're dealing with here a gesture. A lot of times, um, we can look at it. That's kind of the the long axis of things. So if I had no my arm out to the side and while I was kind of holding it in a very limp way from the shoulder, Then maybe the upper arm would kind of sagged down. Maybe I would want, um, from the elbow to kind of raise my forearm up a little bit and then I'll just kind of dropped my wrist. So we kind of have this s curve when we think about that. So that could be along axis of that particular or a long of that particular movement. So that again would be the upper arm lower arm. We'll call that hand. So again, taking those three parts and creating a long axis or gesture line to use to indicate that entire movement. That's the idea. So if you think about it, gesture can simply be the long axis. So when you say we take a tube, for example, So I want everyone draws a tube differently. But what I like to do is look at the axis. So what? Which way would that, too be moving in space and we can draw the to so we draw on edge. Maybe that could be an axis so that that can be a line that represents the middle. It can be one of the contours or the outside edges. In this case, just just say it's on outside edge. I can draw the other side. I draw on end here, and I can draw on end here. Now, remember that still two d eso to make this into a three the okay, I need to go around and then develop those ends. Ah, little bit stronger. So I could kind of maybe say, um, we have this sort of thing. Okay, so now that becomes a tube and has direction, But it also represents this idea of a long axis. We're probably gonna want to develop that a little more fluidly and perhaps more organically. Right now, I'm going to go off topic just a little bit. But it's going to hopefully make sense to you. So gesture, in my opinion, is But when things are alive, they generally will are made up of whether they're very fluid to say so. I want to say they're very fluid and typically they're made up of water. Right? Eso they're very watery. So when we think of a tree, our bodies on apple things on a tree, um, things in nature, right? They are all made up of water and they are very fluid. So they I say fluid. We can think of that as being curved, graceful or organic looking. If that's the case, so we can say they're somewhat graceful, they're curved, so on. So we have this sort of idea now with gesture and that you know, if we were to say if we were looking at a building Ah, very tall skyscraper, let me have gesture. Maybe this kind of very tall object reaching for the sky coming down towards us. And we have this. But this is not alive. Obviously, you know, they tend to to be much stiffer in nature. Then let's say something that is tall like a treat. So a tree kind of has these beautiful curves retail. Now you may interpret these curves through a straight line, so that kind of gets us back to structure, which I'll talk about in a second. But it's underneath it all. It's very flowy, very curved and somewhat graceful. So if we were to take that idea and let's go back to the gesture here and we've started to find our access point and let's say this again could represent upper arm forearm or whatever and we get our kind of Maine long access line, it's very flowy. We can get our next one here and now we can draw all of this stuff so that, um, becomes a little more lifelike. So it tends to be a little more live than let's say, something that's very straight and stiff. That tends to be a little more man made things that are no manmade or very box, like usually, ah, house a building, Ah, car and so one. So if you had another arm that say, I took this idea and that say, the upper arm and lower arm are moving in the same direction, so say they're kind of moving out like this. But then once we get to the wrist, it changes. So we had this kind of arm. That's kind of to say this is the shoulder. Um, it's kind of hanging out, and then is coming down Mawr when it gets to the wrist and it changes direction so you could have this almost esque her like this. But this, from the shoulder to the risks, could be interpreted through one organic shape and then curves back towards the hand. So this could be one, and this could be too. So if you have a lag, this kind of going out from the hips here, uh, and then the leg bends of the knee on, then the foot straightened out, so that could be something even like that again, you would have a curve here. Maybe on that could even go into this so we could interpret that is one. And then the foot comes out in a slightly different curves. So that is a way of thinking a little bit about gesture as well. Trying to understand, you know the idea of things being very fluid, because again it's all made up of water. Water tends to flow. Look at the how water flows down a creek or whatever. It's very, you know, goes back and forth over rocks very smoothly and gracefully, and things again tend to weave back and forth and a curved nature. If it's if it's if it's alive. So again, another idea. We can start to add on to, um, the gesture. And that's again very important as we start to develop these ideas of the two structure and gesture categories or ideas that we're going to use for this figure drawing process. 6. Gesture Basics Part 2: Okay, so if we look at uh huh you know these ideas and we're kind of on the same page here. We've got this curved idea. Things are live. Things are fluid, graceful, that so on. Then we get to a point where you want you want to say, if you making error, Um, which way do you want it to go? You're going to make mistakes and drawing. Um, none of us are perfect. And through this journey, you're going to do things well. You want to do things that need improvement and so on. So if you're going to make a mistake, in my opinion, you're better off to make things too curved versus being too straight. And really it's, you know, it gets down to mistakes, and how you push your ideas becomes start your style. So things become stylized. I'm not saying they don't need improvement, but, you know, if you look at some of the great artists, um, and all of them have a stylized way of doing things. Some artists really want dark shadows. So when they paint, they really pushed that idea. Michelangelo figures were very heroic and muscular and had strength. You know so. And he just used those ideas and used his way of drawing and seeing and even look as a mistake. I mean, perhaps the figure wasn't that muscular and so on, but he kept feeding that idea and was consistent. So again, if you're going to make mistakes, it's better off to be two curved versus being too straight. And I think you're going to find that that kind of keeps you in line a little bit and will make the your figures. Ah, little more lifelike and a little more graceful and dynamic. Um, So, for example, and sometimes to I guess I should say that, um, I'll just say, um, no, um, more curved. All right, that's good. Eso, um, and two straight. And we'll say these air, you know, mistakes s 02 straight. Maybe not good. Now, that doesn't say that. Um, you will come across something that is very stiff. So if you're looking at the same ah, soldier or something and he stand in there at attention Arms to the side, legs down. And here you have your drill, sergeant there in your face, grilling you. Um, then you know these figures tend to be very stiff and where these poses tend to be very stiff in nature. But again, that's just looking at it straight on access straight up and down, Looking at the front of the face could be the back of the body to now. But once that figure starts to turn even a little bit so it starts to look left a little bit, you know? Then you know you're going to start to notice curves, so you know, the you're gonna see a curve through the upper body shape. You see ah, more of a curve through the legs and it's going to become You're gonna see some of the curfew here. So, in other words, the face of this figure may have a center line here. So you're dealing with symmetry. Mom, you have a nose, eyes, mouth. So you know, these air very much symmetrical here. But as that face turns on, that center line comes over here. Then are you going to start to see how these features curb around this? So it's going to start to take on on that more curved Uhm I'm alive gesture. So I'm not saying that. No, you simply cannot use a straight line, Some poses and some instances may call for that. But But typically, when things start to rotate and you're not dealing with symmetry anymore than it's going to start to take on a curved uh, look. All right, So I'm thinking we're getting close to this part of gesture. Um, where we're getting up to speed with what we have covered so far in structure. Um, but if I had to some up gesture, um, I would say, make it curved. It's very important. I'll kind of go over this. Maybe with a blue that will stand out which it didn't I should left it orange, but again make it curved. And if you remember, right, or if you But we're to kind of remind you here structure is really dealing with corners, which we're going to elaborate on more. So you kind of had these two things you can compare and balance back and forth. Hopefully, um, you're starting to get a better feel for the to just structure, gesture and what they mean in general. And then, of course, we're going to know slowly, as I done start to relate them and apply it to figure drawing 7. Forms: all right. This kind of developed these this idea here. So we've determined that gesture. It's curves. We know that structure equals corners. So this is the kind of the big idea we're going to use moving forward here. We've also determined that, um, for structure. Now we're going over over the form and not around the floor. So what I want to do is just take this, um, idea of a circle, and that's his vows. Perfect of a circle is our draw. And I know I could go around it, Um, and over it. Oh, something like that. And we start to look at this and say Well, that it's really hard to determine the structure of this. I mean, this could represent a beach ball. This could represent a steel ball, anything. But we don't really know what direction is going or any sort of relationship it has in space. So let's take another shape so we can start to kind of break that down a little bit. And let's say we we have this kind of egg like shape like this. And now what we're dealing with is something that has ah, long axis. Okay, so if we draw the long axis from here to here, that's going to be shorter than what's here to here. So this shape is giving us form and position. So it's giving us ah, form in a position. Okay, has given us an axis. So we now know that is leaning here. And we have a slight. And we could also use this as our access as opposed to this. What's really if you divide this and half? I mean, all of these are equal, so it doesn't really give us the same amount of information that the egg like shape gives us. All right, so let's take this idea and develop it a little bit more. And to do that, we're going to bring back the other shapes we've talked about. So we'll take the same ideas a tube. So I'll get my axis very similar to this. And remember going Teoh draw the ends. And again we get back to this idea. Ah, having, uh, the long axis line eso from here to here. OK, so this gives us a direction, and then we have the side to side. Okay, so we're getting this from here to here We can also look at that from, you know, here to here was giving us this. So this is giving us a little more information than this. So the egg shaped gives us a direction along through the long axis because of a slight lean . But that's only really giving us one particular side. So what? I mean by that, um, if we draw the axis line here or shots say it's giving us one corner, so we in the corner isn't on the inside, so it's right here. Where were these? Intersect. So right in there. So that that's it and what this is doing. Um, so it's basically coming down, and then we're getting this wrapping feeling, So we're seeing not only this side, but we're seeing underneath it now, and we're seeing how it goes down here. So this is giving us to. So if we develop that a little bit more so I can kind of bring in You're the axis line. Keep this very simple. I'm not going to try to be fancy with the cube at this point. And this comes down, down, down. Okay, so now, um, this gives us three. So we have this direction. Right? So that's one then. We're also getting this so very summer to this. So this is coming down and then is wrapping around. Okay, so that's too. But it's also giving us this one. So we know this sort of information now. So we're getting this is giving us a tilt. This is giving us a tilt. Now, this is giving us a tilt. Plus is leaning leaning away from us when we know that? Because we can see the volume in the bottom of that tube. Okay, So that that's where we get the to on then This one is giving us one to three. So we're starting to get mawr information from that. We're getting more corners, and the corners are important for structure. And that's something we need to keep in mind as we move forward and we start to select shapes to do a certain job. Also, you know, this is kind of go back to this one. Um, the circle doesn't mean much to us until we can relate other things to it. So, in other words, um, if this was sitting here, I told you it was a steel ball then I don't have a lot and it's sitting on the table. I don't have a lot of information there now. If I were to draw the tabletop, then you're like, OK, well, I see. I'm starting to see this more now and then maybe there's another smaller ball behind it or something in the background. Then then you're starting to see no size. You have something something else to compare it to and related to in space. So this becomes a little more, has a little more meaning and a little more structure to it, because now we kind of see where it is and space. But these air pretty useful on their own. And they tell us a lot without using any other shapes to to help give it relationships right? So, again, this doesn't give us much information. It only gives us information once we start putting other things around it. Now we're on top of the ball looking down on it. It's larger than this one, and so on. When we start making the egg shape now, we can determine a lean because we have an access point. Okay, so we have one particular length. That's longer than the other on. And we can determine ah which way is leaning So the egg can be leaning this way or that way or in a combination of ways, it can be this way as well. Now, when we start to use the tube now we can start to see ah, lean, but also a tilt. So now, because we can see the bottom, it's tilting away from us. And of course, I can exaggerate that a little bit too. So if I were to put a little bit of perspective into it, um, I can make I can make it more dynamic. So that is we can now see the tapering of that tube as it moves into the distance. Okay, um, again, 12 corners. But with the Cube, obviously we're seeing a lot more. So now we're seeing that extra dimension, which is right here. So now we're seeing the look, the lean, the tilt. But also, um, you the volume of it, that health How? Um, I think that may be so like, let's say, if you were drawing a torso and that torso was leaning away from you, then it may look something like that. So this will be the side of the body here. This would kind of connecting to the abdomen. So here you would have you know, that Chester pectoral muscles, ab muscles and so on. And then maybe you have a head back here, so that's giving us again Mawr more information and dimension. And, you know, with drawing the figure, you're going to be dealing with some very dynamic poses. Figures are going to be lying down. They're gonna be standing up, they're gonna be leaning, tilting and so on. So lean. And then a tilt is again how that's moving forward towards you or away from you in space. So if you think about it, this starts to give us position. Um, and we kind of touched on this earlier perspective your equals position? Well, they're very similar. And when we start looking at perspective, and this is something you should definitely study if you appreciate fine art, um I mean, there is a certain amount of math that goes behind it, and then we start you get station point, Spanish ing points, horizon lines and so on, so it really can develop into, um, something very massive, but again, we're going to simplify that. So when we simplify it, we're simply going Teoh, look at the position of things, and when you start looking at the position of things we're going to focus on to, we're breaking down into two parts. So basically, it's going to be the position off the the model that say so would say of the form for now. So where is that At what you know. And then, of course, it's going to also matter a lot about, um, your we're on, see our position relative to the model. So are you standing up there looking down or you down? Looking up in the model model Up on stage is a model on the floor, your own stage and so one. And those things are important because you know where you're standing and looking at. The model is going to have a lot to do with the perspective in the position you're going to be drawing. And obviously the viewer that is looking at your drawings is going to be sharing the same vantage point, the same position as you are, and those are the things that you're trying to convey to your viewers. So now I'll get a fresh sheet of paper and we'll start to break down this idea. But we're going to do it just kind of using a pencil or even this. Just say this marker right here. 8. Forms With Perspective Part 1: all right before I cracked forward, I want to remind you that you know the best way to understand any of this stuff once you really start sinking your teeth into it and we started advancing into the drawings and examples that I will do for you is, of course, you know these air basic ideas, but you still have to practice them a lot, and I know that's kind of preaching to you a little bit, but the more you start to develop these ideas and work with them on your own, the more you go back and watch some of these videos, especially the ones that sometimes seem challenging to you or more challenging. Ah, the better you're going to understand it and the better you're going to interpret it and then therefore, implement it into your drawing process. So I just want to know, make you understand that these things need to be viewed several times, and you, of course, you'll have to practice them quite a bit to make them your own and to really understand it to the point where you can walk up to a beginner artists and explain some of these things to them on your own. All right, so let's look now. Look at this idea of structure. So we talked about this before, so structure equals form plus positions. I mean, we talked about forms that say you we have this tube idea has a center line. It comes down once you start drawing nipples than we understand theirs. Allene perhaps is leaning away from us because we can see the bottom. And so one. We had this idea of, ah box type thing and we could do the same thing. Now we know we can do this on. And now we have a side because we can see the side here to get our nipples, get a 3/4 view and so one so form plus ah, position. And remember, position has to key things. You have to understand a mess. The position of the form. You can think about that as the position of the model. And of course, the model will be broken down, will be broken down and two forms, which is what we're doing. And then the position of you, the artist are you. Your position also is the position of the audience. So they're looking at things from your vantage point. I know nothing to take all of this to the next level. We have to start to look at, um, this idea of perspective and I taught mentioned it before, but we're going to kind of elaborate on some of that now and the way it was explained to me , and I think the best way to really describe it. Let's say you're standing here looking at looking up at this huge or just looking at this huge building. I mean, bump that up a little bit more. Um, and when you stand here, whether you're looking down, up or whatever, and you're standing in this upright position and you're the same in this case, you're looking straight ahead. You, your you have a certain high level. You take that I level with you wherever you turn and look. So the difference between eye level let's say the horizon line is if you're standing out in the landscape, you can see far enough and you're looking straight ahead. I mean, your eye level and the horizon line will be the same. But obviously, if you stay in there at that same landscape instead of looking down or straight ahead. You start looking down or up and obviously the horizon lines not going to go with you. It's either going to go below your eye level or above your eye level, depending on which way you're looking up or down. So let's say you're looking dead ahead. So in that case, your new the things that are eye level to you will be straight. Okay, so let's say, for example, this building has a series of windows. Okay, So these windows as they go, what are going to become mawr exaggerated que in terms of the curve. So basically, where you're seeing here, I level those windows will almost appear Where should appear somewhat straight now, as this next row of windows you start seeing here, then they're going to become more curved and even more curved. So they're going to take on much different look and then everything below you is going to start to curve the opposite direction. Okay? And I can feel it all that end. But I won't worry about it. Hopefully you kind of get the point. So again I level things that are curved around this form will appear straight again below it. We're dealing with this above it that we're dealing with that. Okay, we get way up here and things look, you know, very, very curved. Okay, so you had this idea of these curves and then again, this idea of eye level again, I'll say, We'll say this is ah, level. So that's something very important you want to start to. I have to kind of implement into your drawing. So we start drawing features and the body is leaning away from you. And you may have these too symmetrical body parts and say, like the nipple, so that nip those dimples aren't gonna be placed if you're looking up at the figure. So where were we can see the bottom here and we can see the bottom here. So we started looking up in this kind of round form. Then we know that's gonna go like that. Even the shoulder line and the different features will start to you start matching the hips , different things, and that's gonna have to go around that form in a way that reflects your position. So that's something about perspective and a quick lesson about some of the ideas we're going to start to use as we move forward. So the next step, you know, to kind of build on this idea because this is a very vertical building. So it's sitting, let's say on flat ground and it's not leaning or not leaning, but it's not tilting in any direction. So it's not tilting away from you. It's not tilting towards you a very vertical position. So remember the the pencil test now and for this one, I'll just use this for a second. So if you take something like this, he hold it directly out in front of you. Um, you hold this line right here at eye level. So look, move my right eye over my right shoulder, looked down my right arm and look at that mark. And again, I'm holding that. Basically, come on, arm out. I'll get my holding it up a little bit and there's my pen. So I want to hold that mark of that pen at eye level. Okay? And now I start to move my arm up, so I kind of start to take my arm up here with the pen. So we know holding that that mark right there at eye level That that 10. That mark on the pen, it's probably going to be straight. All right, I'm just gonna put yell for eye level. So there we go. But when we hold it up here, it's going to change, Okay? That that same object, I was going to look different now, but because we're going to start to see the bottom. So you gonna start to see the bottom? I'm gonna do it very crudely and simply here. Ah, And then when we get to the top, that's that Arc is going to change, right? So it's gonna look like that. So if you're looking up here, the bottom of the pen is below eye level, so you can start to see that. And then, of course, the mark on that pen changes to it goes flat, which is here, right high level to a curve. And that's just moving it, Um, up, up. And let's say down, you know, down. Obviously, if we take it and we hold it down, then I'll do this and blue just so we know we take our arm, we move it down, we're holding that pen vertical. So it's not leaning or tilting away from us in any way. It's still perfectly vertical like so. So when we start to get to this position now, it's going to change. Now we're going to start to see the top of the pen and the bottom of it will look like this . And then that curb of the camp, I'm going to start to look like that. And so those are the things that we were going to start to have to understand. Moving forward. Now, if you're sitting here or standing there, okay, and you're holding that pen and now this. Say you take it up. Not only are you holding it up above your eye level, but you're not holding vertical anymore. You're now leaning it. Okay, so you're taking the pen. That is what Somewhat vertical. And we're leaning it away from us. So now it's going to get even more interesting because now the lean is going to allow you to see Mawr off the bottom. So if this were here, so now, as I lean, notice how much more exaggerated that ISS. So it's not just above you, slightly is now leaning away from you, so That means there's going to be, um, or of this going on. So you may see, um, that much of the bottom and then is moving away from you in perspective. And then this will be exaggerated to You'll have a much greater arc and a much greater are there. Okay, so you're starting to see Well, actually, the pen will start to appear shorter and again. You'll start to get mawr visibility of the bottom. And obviously, when you take the same thing and you hold your arm down and let's say you lean it away again, away from you here, then you're essentially doing the same thing. So it's just going to be the opposite. So again you would see a lot more of the bottom, and it's going to lean. Lean away from you with all of these arcs are going to be more exaggerated. And you know, these shapes here are gonna be more exaggerated. So that's just something to keep in mind as you move forward. And obviously, you know, if you're holding the pen out in front of you, just eye level and then you tilt it. It's the same thing, so if you held your arm out and then you lean this, then you're still dealing. You're still dealing with the same thing, and and that probably should have been angled up a little bit more. But that's OK. It's the same idea. That's just something that adds a little more complex city to it. But again, we're trying to develop these more complex ideas. Are you using a very simple method? So that's just adding a little bit of again a little bit of perspective to the situation, understanding your eye level and understanding how, um, arcs certain shapes. Things like that change as a lean and tilt away from you and, of course, how they are impacted, you know, through that I level. So let's say this is kind of heading down this way. So you know that I will be moving down. You're seeing the bottom here, and the top is moving away from you. So you're really start to I see it and exaggerated, exaggerated arch, as opposed to something more subtle like this when it is perfectly vertical. All right, 9. Forms With Perspective Part 2: okay. Just when you thought you were done, there's one more version of this. So we've got this very vertical thing happening, right? All these And then we have this one. We're things where you're taking it and you're turning away from you. What happens? Let me move this over a little bit. What happens if you're standing there? Hold your pen and let's say you're holding it up now instead of the pen leaning away from you. What happens when it starts to lean back at you? So, basically, you're taking this. You're moving up above your eye level. Remember, your eye level is really there. Ah, and then you're starting to You're looking up at it, though, so your eye level kind of goes with you, but still you're taking it. And now, instead of doing this, we do this. So we start to move it this way. And what's gonna happen eventually, is this going to go from this sort of idea? As it rotates back, it's going to start to flatten out and cancel, cancel out this sort of thing, and then eventually it's going to start to take on a different one. So let's say this is leaning Mawr extreme like this. Then you would probably have something that where instead of seeing the bottom, remember this You're going to start to see the top, so it may get to a point where it's here and you start seeing the top of it. And then as the bottom moves away from you again, you know you're going to get this sort of thing. So obviously the same is gonna happen here as you hold it away and you turn it towards yourself again. You know, it's going to do the same exact thing, so you start to see how that works. So if this were the top of the pen, they would look like this. And the bottom is curving away from you so you can see the top of the pen now. And if you hold it up below you and you start to move it, then obviously it's the same thing. You're going to start to see the top of the pen and then you know it's going to move. The that's going to move. The bottom's going to move away from you in space, noticed to when things start to tilt away. from you. They paper a little bit. Okay. So and the more things tilt away from you Ah, the more they taper. So if you're getting an extreme tilt, it may look something like this And you really get that feeling, you know, that is moving away from you in space. And then, as as that lessons a little bit, it may taper less. Uh And then, of course, maybe even less again. So that feeling of the illusion of depth is what you're trying to create. So again, do these pencil tests because their role easy to do. And it's going to help you start to understand a little bit of what you need to know about perspective. And of course, these ideas were going to relate in layer on top of our figure drawing. Now I want to get back to this for a second, and even in this can apply to all of these. Whether you're standing here holding it vertically up above, um, here, holding up or down and it's tilting doesn't matter. Um, the thing I want to kind of go back here and talk about is I level from my level things or straight So in other words, if you were to take this pen idea and you're holding it up and instead of it leaning the top of it leaning away from you, you have it leaning back. You get to a point again. Where that curve starts to level out, you may be able to see the bottom, but we end up with this kind of almost flat, um, shape. So that's no longer a form, is it? Remember, early on we talked and mentioned that a shape is different than a form because of form Has this idea of going over the form over the form over the form, this sort of thing. This we feel like we're going around it. Okay, So if you if you're in a situation where this is coming back towards you and it looks flat , um, I say pick one or the other. So either pick something that has a little bit of underneath, lean or pick something like this. So try to avoid this situation. Even if you look at our looking at it, use like man, that's just I can really see that she is straight on. You know, you're better off to go here. We're here because it's a much mawr dynamic, um, and pose or form to look at than if things are straight. So if you're going to pick, if you're going to goof up, goof up with one of these versus goofing up with something that is stiff and it doesn't have ah form, it doesn't have volume, you know, in the idea of moving around the form versus again like this. So we want things that are interesting to look at and more dynamic. So just know when you make an error or if you're in a position where you need to make changes, air one way or the other and pick a side and then go for it. Okay, so hopefully some really good ideas here you can start to implement, and your figure drawings were going to again. Layer these on top of what we're doing. But just remember, you know, things that are vertical. If you're above it, you can kind of see on top of it. But you can only see a little sliver. Um, again, all of these may become gnome or exaggerated curves. So we start with a subtle curve as that kind of moves down that may become were exaggerated . Ah, when things were tilting, eso at the top of this right here was tilting towards you. You're gonna have ah, much greater view of that. OK, so you're going to see ah lot Mawr of this side. Um, and it's going to move away from you. So we got that sort of thing now to exaggerate that even mawr. And to make that more dynamic, we can use this tapering idea. So because the bottom is moving away from you and the top is moving towards you, um, things get a little bit smaller as they move away. Okay, so So we're dealing with that sort of thing, and that shows, and that is now has a lean to it, doesn't it? So if I want to draw this idea without the lean, then I could just make it more vertical like this. Okay, so I'm kind of getting this here, so this can get the idea down to, but I just think this is more dynamic with the tapering of the edges. And of course, we taper too much. Then you may get on top of it a little bit too much and it may look a little bit too short . But again we will measure and kind of do different things as we move forward to make sure we don't know error too much. 10. Simple But Characteristic: All right, let's talk a little bit, Maura, about some construction ideas. And I guess to do that let's just say we are dealing with some. Let me bump this down a little bit. Go. So remember, structure is all about trying to keep it simple. So simple forms. But, you know, we wanted to be I want that to be characteristic and one of the I guess at some point, um, you have to decide. Ah, form. You kind of go to form on. So, you know, we all probably will have our opinions on what that should be. But for me and what you'll see, you'll see me use a lot his idea of a tube again. This is a very straight tube, and as you know, um, it's more of a structure than it is a gesture I remember. Gesture tends to flow and curve a little bit more structure. Sometimes, you know, has more corners, and so on. Eso This idea of a tube is wonderful. You can give us an access, they can give us a few sides, and we can get our around the form construction lines. So, for example, um, let's say we're drawing an arm, so I'll do this more with the gesture line. So let's say I kind of go to the inside. Now let me do this with my worn out pin here. I want that to be a little more sweeping, so that arm is coming down. I find the width of it, something like this, so that may start out a little bit whiter, then taper as it gets towards the elbow. So let's say that is, um, slightly above our eye level so we can get our over the form lines, do a great job that needs to be more parallel with each other. And then we have our forearm. That maybe is well, that's a sweeping back this way. So there's Anel bow eso weaken. Say this overlaps a little bit. So you see the overlapping of shapes and lines that's perfectly normal and very useful. So let's say we can extend this to so that too. I mean, that could come down farther than you think it needs to be until you figure out exactly. You know where the, you know corners are, and then we've got our forearm. All right. Moving out. This way so that that works pretty well. All right, so that's the beauty of this is it gets gets a lot of information in there in one pot. Okay, So what I mean by that is you may have a deltoid, the deltoid. Maybe a little more egg shape. You may have a bicep. You may have. Ah. Ah. Muscle here in the forearm as well. So you have all of these egg shapes. All of it kind of is consolidated. End of these two ideas of a tube. Um, and then, you know, once you get this nice flowing, too in these nice rhythm through here, didn't we can come in here. Maybe an ad. I'll go a little bit actually darker here, so we can we can add a deltoid. Maybe this egg shape. It was a little bit bigger. We have a mussel there. Maybe we have ah, kind of longer muscle there in the form. And maybe this, you know, kind of gets the price up. Maybe we get the bicep here. Um, so then we start getting all of these kind of eggs within that nice flowing curve of the arm without disrupting it a little bit again. Getting this idea down this gesture down quickly is the key on, um and it's a much better alternative, in my opinion. Ah. Then looking at the arm and saying Okay, well, I see I see the X shape of the of the deltoid. And then you see this egg shaped of the bicep Oh, not come down here and I see the forearm. And then next thing you know, you have this sort of rhythm going on, and it's a little bit bumpy and it doesn't flow as nicely as you hope it would do. And so that can be a little bit of a challenge. Plus, you're having to draw a bunch of forms sometimes to get where you want to go. And that's why I kind of like this idea of the tube, because again, you can encompass a lot of information into one and is somewhat versatile, and it's very gestural, so it helps to create that nice flow that curving action through the different body parts. So let's look at the the box for a second. So you have talked about and then box doesn't have to be straightened stiff, so let's I mean the box Come, bulge. Things really running out of ink. The box can bold on the ends. And it can curve, you know, so that we can have ah, this sort of thing. So that doesn't have to be stiff. You can bow, uh, and so on. And I know this particular form, as I've mentioned, is very useful because it gives us more corners. But the problem is, when you're trying to relate this to certain body features and body parts, it may be very difficult. Um, and that's because you have this interior line right here. So, for example, let's say this is a figure that's lying down. Maybe there's an arm coming down on, and they're just kind of relaxing on the floor. Okay, Uh, so you may see that the center line, you know, maybe something like this. And we know we've got the nipples, something like that. And you have to decide when you're looking at a figure this in this pose like, where is this corner wannabe? A lot of times, that's very, very hard to find. And you say, Well, where does it go up here? Where does it go down here? so trying to find those corners is a challenge. So my idea is and my theory is ah, tube could do the same thing so you can take that tube. So find the length, right, we can find them the width on. Then we can kind of start to put these sort of blinds them so that tube sometimes can do the same thing. And then you have your center line. You figure out where everything is on then if you have to start to modify this and at a corner, then you can. So, like this were our center line down our figure. He started with this idea of a tube you can put these nipples in. They could say, Well, you know, maybe right here, I'm going to modify that tube and pull Make it in two from this straight angle, so kind of tweaking it as you go. But the wonderful thing I think about a tube is it's pretty easy to bow and and away from you. So, uh, let's say, for example, you had this to that's coming here. Maybe it's going there, See that? And they say This is the shoulder area. We have a center line coming down here. So we're like this. See that? The bottom half of that can blow away from you. And then, um, the top half goes in a completely different direction. So you're getting this kind of curl effect. And, of course, um, we can use that in the opposite way, too, so it can kind of bow away from you. Uh, and then it can start to come towards you so we can do something like this. Leave that's center line, actually, move this. An airline in here. This So we're getting this kind of bend. Where is coming towards us? Here is going on, you know, kind of away from us, though eventually it'll level off, and that's going to start to occur this way. Now, obviously, that's very exaggerated. Um, but it's pretty useful that way. That's why it's really effective and very versatile for figure drawing. But again, when you're dealing with this sort of thing, you're dealing with a box. I mean, there may be certain features or certain pose where you just can you can locate the majority of those corners pretty quickly. Say Okay, I can see you know, the you know the side of the risk you here or here where I can see this kind of box looking shape. And I just think that's probably best use to describe the bend or whatever is happening in that body and that, and that's fine. But again, I still feel that the tube is a great way again to get that simple yet characteristic idea down. And then you can always come back and even modify it slightly if you need Teoh. And I guess the tricky part is we know we can't exactly make a figure out of just nothing but tubes, but then just look like a worm on the page. So eventually you're going to have to add and render the drawing with more details, and that becomes the challenge. And obviously, if you're dealing with, say, a figure, we can put the your nipples on it here, something like that, and then, like, Well, it's kind of bowed out from us. So now we're starting to get you're the shoulders, you know, the rib cage, and then you start adding, we got you know, the hips, the buttocks, and so all of these kind of egg shapes, and I'll actually do this with something a little bit darker. Um, so we started doing all of this, your arms. So it starts to lose that flowy. I feel, um, and that that can happen. But it is. You still have a much better chance and retaining this idea of Ah, um, you know, smooth gesture. If you start with something as organic as you possibly can eso through structure, we're thinking about structure. You know, I guess my my thought is, um, try to use as much of the gesture qualities as you possibly can. And again, that's that's why I like the tube because it retains a little bit of that, then, obviously, when we start to render, we just want to keep in mind that we don't want to disrupt that nice flow. So that's just kind of something to keep in mind because it was so easy to start out with his nice tube. And then the next thing you know, you're putting all these jacket marks all over it, and then it just becomes you're very robotic, very stiff and and it loses the flow. So, um, just something there to keep in mind as you go as we start again to layer. I know this is a lot of lecturing going on, you probably chomping at the bit to get going. But I think once we start, you start absorbing this information you start to grasp, you know that idea structure and then know that you want Teoh retain as you to create structure that you want to retain as much and include, you know, I should say to I think you can still see that, that you wouldn't know much of that gesture as possible throughout the process. I mean, that's that's going to be, of course, the challenge A Z, you move forward. And of course, we're going to know I'll do a lot of demonstrations and we'll talk about these issues moving forward. So the I guess the last thing I'll se on this if you're if we get back to that idea of you're characteristic a lot of times, the model will bring some months, some character to the table as well. Every subject you paint or draw whether sir figure a barn one old Chevy, they'll have a certain characteristic to it. So, um, if you're drawing this very heroic, um, muscular figure we can use. You're these very thick. Both of my running out now ago, I wanted something a little bit darker. Bear with me so we can use these No ideas of these very thick, muscular limbs. And that kind of represents that strength and your girth. Everything of the strong, you know, biceps or something. And if you're dealing with the subject, um, you know, that is, um, not as muscular than obviously. We can make things appear. Ah, less muscular mawr thin and so on. So that's kind of Ah, just again. Something to keep in mind as you move forward. Some different ideas on structure. Um, kind of maintaining gesture through the structure process of giving you some a few things to kind of watch out for again. I don't want to say this is absolutely happy How you need to do it. It's just some suggestions. And something's Teoh. Keep in mind, um, as you as we move over. Okay? 11. Pencil Method: I think for this demo, and to get this point across, I'm going to use my king size Sharpie only because it's I think work is easier for you to see. Ah, this light value against his dark. Of course, it's, ah much bigger. Uh, so anyway, if if this is what I call like and what some instructors use as the, um, the pencil test and it's no different than what I've already shared with you about the tube . So we know the tube. If you just look at the contour, doesn't tell you much. But once you start adding the ends and you start adding you going, you start going over the form, then things change them. Now we start to understand the lean and the tilt of it, and so this is basically what we're doing. But the reason I'm sharing this with you is because typically when you're drawing, you may not be drawing with a Sharpie. You may be drawing with ah, pencil even this kind of very generic pencil here and they haven't eraser. So the eraser is this kind of shiny cap against here. Some some pencils are they may have sides to him. But even still, there's a band or some sort of branding on it that gives you this idea of something going around the form on this case courses the cap, the cap and so on. If you have a pencil that is doesn't happen. Happens to be very generic. A doesn't have anything. You can always wrap a piece of tape around it if it's long as the tape is. Obviously, Kant has a contrast to the pencil color. But anyway, so, if I were to hold this up to the camera here and it's very flat, then obviously that we could use that idea to draw this. Now if I were to take that and now bring it towards you. So notice the line right here at the bottom of the cat where you could look at the silver part. Doesn't matter. So as I take this towards you Okay, that is that is going to change from a straight line. Okay, so I'll make this a little bit bigger. Taller? I should say that's a This represents the cap and we do this exercise one more time. So now that is changing. So that straight line becomes a curved lines. You're getting that. You're also starting to see the top of it. You're starting to see this. So now he can get in here and say, OK, using my cap or my drawing device, I can determine that I'm getting this sort of lean okay, coming towards me. Um, so that's coming towards you now. Obviously it goes away so it can go away in an extreme way so you can get away, like just like this. So you're basically taking that and trying to determine which way is going now that that's forward and back So well say, that's actually leaning forward. So that's coming towards us. And in this case, leaning back, he can see that is moving in a complete opposite direction. So this is moving back this way. So we're starting to see the bottom is moving away from us and a Mork extreme manner than say what? It was moving towards us here. So we're getting this sort of thing. So this is moving away. Obviously we could get a lean to so with a lean, we're getting this so we could determine that is leaning because we can look at the angle of this. So, for example, if Howard and it's not really moving away from you, so it's only leaning left and right. And here it's leaning and moving away. So I'm going to get to that in a second. So here, would you say, is going like this so I can look at this angle and go. There we go. So we start to quickly get down a particular lean of it just by using our pencil. In this case, I know I'm using a Sharpie, but just know it doesn't matter and obviously weaken go the opposite way as well. Okay, now progressing forward here. Um, I alluded to this a second ago, so we've got the leaning or the leaning Rather now we want to think about the tilting and the leaning. So if we have, this would indicate a lean okay. And then these this is a tilting, right, because tilting um, Elene is left and right. Maybe. And then a tilting is where things are moving away from you or towards you. So let's say if we want to capture a lean and its hilt. Okay. So you can take this. We can lean it and then we can tilt it. So now we know, based on two things. So we've got this idea where the cap is moving, the changes moving left to right. But then we also are starting to notice the ring moving in that direction so we can match those angles and determine that we're getting this sort of idea. So we're getting a combination of all of it. And of course, we can do this extreme that we can do this like this. What? You're getting these extreme angles, where the base, the bottom of it's really exaggerated. And then that top is, you know, barely visible. All right, so we got that sort of thing happening. So using this as a demonstration and showing you these ideas is one part one. But part two is you. You use this as you're trying to determine the lean and tilt of a particular pose. So, for example, I'm right handed. So when I'm if I'm going to use this, I'm going to take this with the capital and obviously, because that's what I need to measure. But that's a pencil would hold it like this. And since I'm right handed, um I'm going to shut my left eye. Keep in my right eye open. I'm going to hold this out and basically excuse me for the bump. Lean that left or right and try to find the angle that say off a torso. So if my model is leaning the say to the left and I can take this, hold it right in front of my over my right shoulder, and I'm looking down my right arm all the way down to my device. And now I can lean that left until I find the angle. You know, that axis line of the torso And then basically, if I determine and I could do it like this since this is black and if I determine now, hold this up to the image of the model. So if I had the image of, say, on a screen or whatever, basically holding that up to the screen, I'm looking at it and I'm trying to find that lean. And now what I do is I just take that directly down to my paper. And typically when I'm drawing, I would probably be at an easel, or I would have my board a little more perpendicular to me so that I'm not drawing down. But basically I would take that angle once I find it and I transfer it to the paper. So I'm going to go to my smaller mind. So this is my access line that Okay, well, that's That's the center eso coming right down the body here. And then I can kind of put my sides that like that. Now that's a lean. But let's say the say also that the torso is tilting as well. So maybe the motto is leaning away from us, bringing the lower body and the legs perhaps closer to us, moving the head farther away and bringing the abs closer to us. So I'm trying to get a feeling of not only a lean but a tilt, and then I can start to determine. Two are using this and just trying to feel the tilt off that. So if I say okay, well, the model is moving away in this direction. I can start to get these over the form lines. I know that's very dark. I use this one because it's not really is running out of ink, and I can put these light lines in. But then, you know, I can start to put in other forms. So, you know, this were the, you know, the pec muscles. This could be coming down to the navel and so on, but basically getting these cross forms where that's starting to give me the feeling of the torso leaning away from me. So again, a lot of instructors call this, you know, um, a pencil test, and that's perfectly fine. You can call it whatever you want. Um, but basically kind of looking using your drawing device as a measuring tool away, too determined. Ah, the form in position. So when we look at foreign position, you know, again, we're trying to figure out some of the structure ideas off the of the pose and whatever it is we're trying to draw, so that that may be very helpful. Um, and you know, the you're the lean coming down in the upper body kind of moving away. But we had this kind of lean, and then maybe you start getting into adding these other other parts. The body where, um, you get the lower body in, you get a leg in there, and you know it starts to no take shape once you get the other parts in there. But again, I think a very useful tool to use when you're drawing. Um, just anything with a line like that, You may have a dedicated small stick, um, with a piece of tape on it, whatever it may be. And just again right handed. So I take this and I move it. Basically, I want this pen in this case right over my right shoulder. Um, I'm looking over my right shoulder with my left eye closed, so looking only with my right eye. And then once I find no the lean and the tilt, I could just take that right down to the paper and transfer that information. So if I were to talk a little bit about what we learned in gesture and apply it to even something as crude as this, um, and start to relieve a little bit to the figure if we were If you were looking to see if the torso, for example, and would just I'll just do a simple structure here form. Let's say this represents the torso. All right, So you have you know, that Pec muscles or something in here on and then at the top of your rib cage. Um, there's a little notch. Okay? Can almost run your finger up the center in between your, um, the rib cage there, say, the middle of the rib cage all the way up. You'll feel a little not right here. And he come down to the bottom of the rib cage. There's let's call these Eiffel Process again, Another little indentation for most people there. And then we come down again. We have the naval when we come down again, and then we would get to like, the pubic bone area. So basically, if we start relating this tube to a figure, we're gonna start to come up with, um, like landmarks, different things. And again, we're going to talk about this more later. I'm just kind of getting ahead of myself a little bit even. But I think it is kind of staying on topic with what I'm about to say have said about the figure in this lean is that we start getting these points that lineup when we're dealing with this very stiff vertical position, which we know we don't want I mean, we've already determined that structure is good and structure involves corners. That's fine. But if we wanted to kind of take this idea of using your No, this pencil pan, I know it's a pendulum will say the pencil task your lean in, lean in your tilting you're finding it and you're putting it down in this very straight way . Um, but then what you can do is start saying, okay, if I know there's a notch and we're looking at the torso here. So this represents the torso for now. And there's a notch right up in here and the bottom there's another landmark. And then we know that the naval is here, and then perhaps the pubic bone is here. Okay, so we we can start to determine that. Okay, I want to refine this line. I can find the angle using the same methods to hold this out to the image of rotating, tilting, leaning whatever I gotta do and then looking at the angle from here to here. So basically from this point to this point and say OK, that's that's pretty spot on, and then I can say Well, as I get from these I, Floyd to the belly button. Okay, Is changing its going mawr here. So now I can say Ok, well, that's coming here. And then maybe as it gets to the pelvis area. Ah, and to the bottom of the sea, The crotch area. Ah, it's kind of way over here. So the the angle starts here in a very crude way. But then I can see it goes here and then here, here. So I start to see these points, and I started to say, Ok, well, I've got this this this and this. So again I starts to curb, so it will start to kind of get this very organic curved back in it. So again, when you're dealing with structure, you may have to start with this very crude way and again, that's just kind of getting your idea down. And then as you refine it ah, you will determine that. Okay, well, it's actually Mawr, um or like like this. So you say Okay. Once I started bringing in gesture that I know I'm dealing with something that is ah, slightly mawr curved. But again, you're gonna need some or information about figures and body parts and things like that to , um to bring that forward to the next layer. But I just wanted to point that out now and kind of tie in a little bit of the structure, Um, the gesture into this whole idea of using the pencil and also give you a little bit of a tease into using a little bit of anatomy there, I guess Teoh find the more specific relationships between along that line and but will end up being like more of a curve. 12. Facing, Leaning, Tilting Rotating: Let's break down some or ideas on drawing the figure, and we pull this down a little bit. Okay, so let's say we're gonna have some facing positions here. We stand here. Let's say you're standing at the mirror in the morning and you're brushing your teeth. It's a very upright ah position. So you're probably square to the mirror. You're brushing your teeth, coming your hair, whatever. Let's say you're standing at the water cooler. You're talking to your coworker. You're standing here in a very straight upright position. Let's say you go home, you wanna study some anatomy of figure books and chances are you're getting these figures in a very stiff upright, standing there with nothing very dynamic going on with their body. So we started dealing with poses, though, and professional models and trying to capture sitting position, different things. You're going to come up up against poses that really aren't like this. So we, even though we spend the majority of our life in these and we see the majority of our life in this sort of, you know, stiff, upright position, Um, in reality, we start drawing what? Whatever you're doing. Character animation just express the figure, paintings, Whatever you want to do with this figure drawing course, then chances are they're gonna be very different than what you're seeing here and what I explained. So in other words, you may have a situation where you know, the lower body is in profile. So the figure No, mate. Maybe standing aside to you like this. Okay, so this is just your typical side position, but maybe the upper body starts to rotate towards you. Okay, so they were getting Assad position here. But then this upper body is rotating, and then we end up with almost a front view here, so and that's kind of what's happening with a lot of things. So you're getting these subtle twists, turns, leans, tilts, and we need to start. Teoh, take some of these basic shapes and we need to apply them to a figure again. This is just going to be a quick breakdown. I'm not going to cover every single thing you need to know here about dealing with different facing positions, but they were going to talk a lot more about it as we move forward. But I want to introduce this idea to you. So let's say, for example, and I think in order to really understand it, let's say down the center, let me draw this a little bit bigger. So let's say this is our head, neck, upper body and here Ah, lower body here. Now we have the arms, which don't really matter right now. So down. If you followed, took your fingers and ran down the center of your neck, he would come down to this little notches called the Super Sternal Notch set the very, very top middle of the rib cage. So we have that. And so we come down again. They grabbed this one and we get another. We follow the sternum down the center of the rib cage, and we get another little kind of notch or depression. There in the body that's called the Seifried process. They line up. We follow that down again, we get to the naval area of the belly button. If we come down even more, we can get down to what's called the pubic bone, which typically don't see unless you're dealing with a nude, include figure so collectively, um, through on the front of the body, were getting this center line. All right now on the back of the body is basically the same thing. So we have to say Arms, upper body again. That doesn't really matter if it's clothed or unclothed now. So let's say if you took your hand your fingers bring it down the back of your neck. You'll get what's called the C seven most of the seventh cervical vertebrae. Now you can see the spine because you know the meat you know of in the flesh on each side of the body here kind of go out. So the spine is slightly in and it comes down. I got your lump, your Jurassic Arch, and here the lumbar lower back of the spine. And then we get into the pelvis area. So again we have this vertical line. We can call it a landmark whatever. But you're going to use these center lines very important. Under this was kind of leaning a little bit. But as you move forward and you're going to compare like you know, this upper line may be moving here when you start to line up those points and from here to here maybe going on this so Eventually you're going to compare some of these landmarks to each other and the relationships of what they have to each other. But for now, just know that these things exist. Now the beauty of this idea because you have a certain amount of space, you have a certain amount of space from the center here and from the center here. So it's a woman and two. And of course, it's the same on the back. So you're going whenever you're dealing with a dynamic pose, we want to look at these center lines and there'll be a ton of other landmarks to we talk about. But just to kind of simplify things and get you going, you're going to compare and determine how much space you see on either side of that center line. Okay, so and that's going to help you, um, understand and draw some of these dynamic twists that we talked about. So remember the say we have a figure that the lower body is like in this profile position within. The figure decides to rotate this way on. We're starting to get almost a 3/4 view. So the figures now looking at us through the upper body. So we want to be able to capture that. And it's not easy to do. You may see it and you understand it. Visual leave. But once you start to draw it, then you like. Okay, I can do that and you start growing it, and then it is kind of unwinds and you end up with this very Undine Amick wooden, stiff looking figure. So that's safe. For example, um, we had again this idea of understanding the space from the middle left Middle right. And let's say we were dealing with a back pose, and this figure is kind of like Ben over. Okay, so we have a situation where the figures been over here. And let's say this is my center line. Now I put a bunch there several lines just so Aiken have options and now decide which mom works best. Now, what I like to do and what I've been taught what really works well for me is to look at the what side has less space. So in other words, I'm dealing with a situation where no, I'm in it like a 3/4 view so I can see less of this side and mawr of that side. So I'll go to the side that has less space. Okay, so let's say it again. This is my spine coming up and around. Okay, so all kind of determined how much space is here now? I'm not looking at the upper body, so the upper body is is over here. So if I were to draw the lats on, I'm gonna talk about that in a second. Let's say that upper body is in there, So I'm gonna come way down here by the waist and say, Okay, I can see that I've got about that much space from the from the spine. Teoh here. And what I will do is I'll draw that all the way up. Now come down, come across to the other side and determine how much space see there. And then I'll draw again how much space I see there and then from here. Um, you know, you may not know, like how long that tube should be like, should it be longer, shorter or so on. And then what I like to do is come to the short side. Okay? So basically, when you're dealing with a situation like this. You have one side over here that stretched. Okay. And over here, you're dealing with one side that's pinched. Okay, then what I do is I come over here and I try to look at this space. So I'm looking at how much where everything is here. So if I look at this side now, C Okay, I've got this coming this way. I can see that. I've got a pinch. I can see this waste coming down. And I could see this leg coming out and that can look at this angle here and go. OK, then. I've got the upper body starting to flare out here. Then all of a sudden, I've got the shoulder girdle area here. And so what that's going to do is make it much easier. So I'm not gonna come on this side to, like, start to understand the the length of the tube. I'll come over here once I understand where my tube is, and then I'll start to say, OK, what What's this angle look like? And then I'll get my pinch here, and that's going to help me determine. Ah, were the top of that tube is all right. I know this is a lot of information coming at you. Don't Don't split it be because we're going to talk about it more. I'm so that the rotation of that to maybe here and then as it gets to the bottom, maybe it starts to move away from us. So we're getting that sort of thing. Okay, so hopefully that starts to make sense. So basically, um, what I'm trying to get you to avoid doing is like coming in here starting with shoulders. And so it was really wide. And then you get down here and it starts to kind of fattened up or or loosen or get to narrow and you start to lose is very dynamic pose. So again, you're gonna find that center line, whether it's the front or the back. Get that angle in there, get that curve, and then measure here to hear how much is on the thin side, the more narrow side, and then draw lines straight up. Don't try to go out to the shoulders. Don't try to do anything else and then come back over here. Determine how much space you see here. How much space is from the center line to the right again. Draw straight up and then you can come back and find the pence. You know, where is this pinch happening? So basically, what you're trying to do is draw first, draw this tube like this, that's that's first and foremost. And then you're separating. Your separating the shoulder girdle area from the lower body could see the shoulder girdle area you can look at this is like an inverted V almost. I mean, it's more dynamic than that. But let's say I started, like, really saying Okay, well, this is working good. I can start to get in here and kind of place this shoulder girdle area here and maybe on this side, we're not seeing as much. So is doing this. And then, you know, maybe this arm is moving away from us out in space with hand flowing over. And then this arm, you know, was moving. I can kind of Look, now I've got my pension, please. And I've got all of this happening. I can start to see that I could start to, you know, place my leg and I can see the arm comes down and here. So then, you know, I could easily come in here and start placing the tubes, you know, for the arm. And then I've got my spine going up. So I know pretty much, you know, where all of this? You know, the head. All of these things start to kind of fall into place a little bit better. So again, we know we're going to talk about these things a lot more. But you know, it's important. I'm going to say take of this green and kind of mark, that shoulder girdle area that sits on top. And then now we've got that pitch happening. Once you make that read, and then we've got that stretch eso that's going to start to help you simplify. And then that's always the key, right? I mean, we always want to create and develop an easy way to approach figure drawing. And this, to me, is a really good way to ah start to use some of these ideas. And then, of course, things maybe need to be changed. They may need to be exaggerated and so on. So I think this is ah, really good starting point for using some of these simple shapes. And again, this is nothing more than a tube, a nen voted triangle and so on and then using this idea of, ah, direction in the tubes. Um, now, of course, we're dealing with a dynamic facing positions where there is a slight twist, you know, in the body and so on. And again, this is all about getting your eye Downes quickly, fluidly on, then so that you can say, OK, that works, that doesn't work or what on whatever. And then, you know, we could move on, make changes and so on. But this again is a good idea, something to think about and I think is a very useful way to to lay in some of these more dynamic poses. So you're going to find that as you move in, whether you're drawing figures or whatever, but as you continue your drawing ah, career or creative endeavor facing it isn't a problem. It's not a big deal. You only really dealing with a two dimensional thing. The leaning leaning back and forth isn't a big deal, because that is just simply again deli with two dimensions. Uh, you know, the problem happens. Ah, when we start dealing with this idea of, ah, tilt when things are moving towards you from a two dimensional surface or away from you, and trying to capture that on a two dimensional surface is always going to be the challenge in your figure drawing or any drawing or painting. And we have tohave. There are some ideas and some techniques to do that in your landscape. Painter has much more of a challenge because they're trying to create miles sometimes and miles of perspective, whereas figure drawers. You know, we're dealing with feet inches sometimes, so we know it's less of a challenge, but it's still very, very difficult to do. So again. You know, these things were going to elaborate on as we as we move forward and we're going to continue to develop tools, continue to develop your vision and things like that to move forward and then strengthen and develop a lot more of these techniques 13. Connecting Line: So, um, one more idea here, I'll share with you and then we'll look at some of the Masters work, see if we could identify some of the things I've shared with you in their drawings. Perhaps even in a painting I haven't really decided but on. Then we'll move into some demonstrations and then you'll have an assignment. So you have to start to get ready to get busy. So gesture. I want to elaborate on this. So again, we're kind of bouncing back and forth here. Um, kind of pull that down. Somebody go up here a little bit. So gesture is, you know, there's this term that artists use and kind of are synonymous with. Gesture is the fundamental design line, so we'll say abbreviate to make this faster. And then also it's the connecting line. And that's super super important because things always kind of come back to the gesture line and you'll see once you start getting into the drawing aspect of this, how easy it is to lose it, and we end up completely forgetting about it as we started drawing. So let's say, for example, and I did a little thing like this before about this. Do it again real quick. Let's say you have this arm that's coming down and you're like, Man, I'm really feeling you The gesture of this arm and I got it. Weaken. Put thes over the form ideas there, Um, and then I know that's very light. I'll try to make that a little bit darker lead of you get another Sharpie, which I will. So there's your beautiful flowing gesture. And then, of course, you get in here. And like I mentioned before, you start throwing the shoulder of ice up, trysts up and all this other stuff and the gesture is completely lost. So you know, we come up and we do all this sort of detail rendering shading. And then that's where the thing and there's no consideration to the original gesture line. So basically, we've lost the idea that it's the fundamental design line that you're going to use, and it's also the connecting line. I think there's a few analogies here I could use. Let's say you you're looking at, you know, maybe in space or something, or your way out looking at this curve of the earth, and there is a notion eso that ocean. The water is kind of flowing around that curve. Uh, you know, you may get a wave and, you know, make rest or whatever, but it's still keeping and form and keeping in line to the curve of the earth. So that's one thing to think about. Let's say if you've taken my had drawing human head beginner head rowing course, Um, we've got this basic idea. Uh, we're gonna have to go with this one. I know you guys can't see that. We kind of had this to say basic shape of the head. And if the front of the face is here So we had the forehead, you may come out a little bit with the bone structure, and then it comes in for the eyes right there and then, you know, it may go back out for the nose, and then maybe where the lips are, it's out beyond this area. But then it comes back in, and then we have the chin that wraps around and goes back. And then, of course, we have the hair structure and all that stuff. So what's happening is, um, you know, this is coming down out beyond what could be considered our main gesture line for the mask of a face. It's coming back in this touching. It's coming back out. How and is touching again, and it is coming back out and the check and go off down here or whatever, just depending on the model. So we're coming back and we're touching that, right? We're touching that, and that's giving us that connecting line that I'm talking about. And that's what we have to keep in mind as we move forward again, make it real bumpy, and all of a sudden you get this huge wave is cresting wave and it still it comes back and it follows that curve. So those are the things that typically happen when we start piling on structure. Um, we tend to to miss out on this, and that's why I want you to keep in mind that beautiful connecting line so that when you start rendering things you we can go away from it a little bit. But then you come back to it. But don't trying out Teoh, you know, invade it and then come way out and invade it and kind of stay in line with that beautiful gesture. That's that's the ultimate goal. No, as you we started layering because imagine if you're going a full blown painting, you start out with this very light gesture drawing. You may add a certain amount of details on it. Next thing you know, you're adding color. You're adding details. You're adding highlights and different things that could be in the eyes on the nose. And, you know, the end result is it's usually very broken and disconnected from your original gesture. And that's that's what you're trying to avoid but never were developing this kind of core figure drawing. Okay, so let's do another example then of on arm. So let's say the arm is bending back and c we got this way and maybe this is our elbow. Okay, so the we got this sort of action going on, so we know this represents our main gesture line. Right? So whenever we're trying to figure out the gesture line, we're always trying to go to the longest. Her the longest points. So from going from the elbow way up here to the shoulder, and I know this forearm probably gonna start right in here then this becomes the longest line. I'm going to elaborate on that in a second. So again, let's say I get to the phase where I'm adding a shoulder so the shoulder is coming down, and then maybe I'm seeing the trysts up, come out a little bit and then back into the elbow, which may know, bend down. So basically, it's kind of like this wave where, yeah, it breaks away from it. But hopefully my gesture line. It's close enough that a lot of this sort of thing will break away. Come back, touch it, come back, touch it and so want. So this beautiful gesture becomes sort of it like a home base for things to go on. You will come back. You'll connect with it. You'll break away a little bit. If you have two, you'll come back and you'll connect with you can take a leg and kind of break it down the same way. So if you had a say, a profile view, you can say you know it's coming down. Maybe it's arm or taper a little bit whiter. He decided to do that so we get down here towards the knee or whatever. Um, so this this is our to and our gesture, you know me, maybe curving something like this. That's our gesture line. And then, of course, you know that a leg. So I'm going to kind of shade all of this in, but a leg has a lot of flesh, a lot of muscle. And so let's say this is the front of the leg. So you have a muscle that comes out, and then maybe it comes in towards the knee and it straightens out. So you may have something like this and the back of the leg. You may have a hamstring, It straightens out. And then, you know, we hit that gesture, and then it comes out again with the calf, and then, you know, maybe in here it starts to curve like that. So again, um, it's all going to break away from it in place, is gonna come back and touch it. And then so one. And of course, some legs may come out obviously a little bit more, So you could have some hamstrings or I'm sorry. Muscles in the front that come out like this. Go win and you may have some ham strings that come out and come in Mawr than worker vicious . You may have some calves that bulge out here. Eso it. It doesn't matter. Um, but you're you're always trying to keep in mind this idea of the main overall gesture. I'm going to bump that up a little bit so you can see what's going on. So I mentioned the longest curve of the longest, Um, line is what you're shooting for, for your main gesture line. So if we kind of took that idea of, you know, the arm right here, this would be the shoulder trysts up elbow in this saying the shoulders coming in here it could be a bicep, but basically that this line here may maybe this law So from here to here, But from this line to this to yell bow, maybe the greater line for that pose and typically is the outside yourself from the outside to the elbow was longer from the inside to the inside of the arm or elbow. So where the forearm stars so typically that's going to be your longest curved. Let's say you're looking ward thinking about an upper body. So the upper body a lot of times, we'll tell you, too. So let's say your you're dealing with oppose and let's say, for example, the figure is leaning this way. So we had this sort of thing. Ah, and we have the center line say, coming up here. So it's a slight 3/4 view. So the spine is heading here. Maybe the chin is raised and the figure is looking back on. The hair's falling this way, and maybe the arms were dropped. But when we look at this side, we know this side is going to be creased because we talked about that earlier. Three. This is going to be the stretch side. Okay, so that's going to have ah much greater curve, okay. And what you're trying to do is again you're going to eliminate all of this shoulder girdle area we're in. Simplify that and we're going to try to find the longest point from here to here. And we can't even capture ah lot of the lower body or the pelvis area in here as well. But then on the crease side, you're gonna have all these different, you know, increases and lumps and things bulging. And here So what you're trying to do is get the happy medium, right? So you're trying to kind of average all these out and say, OK, well, I can kind of see that my longest sustained curve is here, and then my shortest is here. So this is where we're going to kind of measure things out. And this is where we're going to find, um, you know, our longest curve to create that beautiful, long gesture. So that's going in that case to be right there, so it doesn't matter. You condone, um that what pose it is or the say it's from the back. You know, this is all the same, so we know that you're gonna have different points. So I talked about the super sternal notch life. We process the naval from the pelvis, all that stuff we kind of touched on. But they're from the back. It's the same thing. And from the side, you kind of have the same deal. So if if the the figures keeled over here, let's say you can see a slight 3/4 view so we can see some of this back and over here because this is stretched. Then we know this is going to be pinched. So you may have some creasing going on in here. Maybe the arms hanging down, um, head hanging down or whatever. We could even say Maybe this leg is coming forward out here. And this, like, is going back, whatever the case may be. So what you're trying to do again is determined where that longest gesture line is. So you want you get that long flow here all the way out and then and here again, where we have different creases full with different things, you're simply going to take all of this stuff kind of average it out, find that happy medium and, um, and draw. You're to been there. So you're you're gonna have things that move no, away from that a little bit. Maybe I will come back in touch it. And so one, you have things that kind of bulge Move away from it. Here. It may come into it here in a bold move away, but we always come back to that gesture line. All right, so those are the things you're trying to find, um, from a profile view, it's really no different. Um, so if you had a figure standing here in profile, that figure may be leaning towards you may be bending, Let's say is bending backwards. So it's just gonna be thinner, right? Then with a 3/4 view. So say that neck is going back. Chin is going back. Arms, arms, everything kind of flowing back. So again, you kind of find this the front of the body coming down and then you're gonna have this side of the body again. The birth things are there bunching up, um, and different things. So you kind of find again that happy medium, the average here and you get here. But your main jet long gesture line is from here to here. That's what you want to capture right there. You find that center point, you measure your distance here. And, of course, on this side, you can really start to where the for that pinches. You can start to get your measurements so you can start to figure out a with the thinnest point is here glues or bunching up here, arms going back and so on. But that's that's kind of what you're what you're dealing with. So we had the trunk of the body. I mean, you can really bulk a lot of information into a tube idea with the bulk of the body, and you can really simplify things quickly and easily. So that's that's kind of what you're after. And and hopefully this gives you some more things to sink your teeth into as we get ready to move forward into some of the demonstrations. 14. Longest Sustained Curve: Some of the goal here is to always look for the longest sustained curve whenever you're trying to develop these gesture lines. Ah, Chou Jih, Before about looking at the torso, I showed you a version of the legs. If we were to break that down, even showed you the arms. I mean, the arms, typically that tries up the back of the arm is going to give you that longest curve. Um, the forearm you can see here, Um, you know this from risk to he elbow. That's my longest sustained curve. This tends to be the inside tends to be a little bit bumpier. So if you look at the leg, let's say from the back view, we have this kind of thing coming down. So this just draw a curve first and I'll explain it. So let's say it's coming something like this down towards the knee, okay. And then we get to the calf. So let's just look at the upper leg first. So I'm going to say, um, this will be the outside. So again, a a back view of the leg. Ah, this would be the inside, and then this would be the outside so this we determine that this is our longest sustained curve. And we do that because when you start looking and if you take some time and you should look at the leg you had these thighs and different things that come out and here, and they kind of come back, they bump, and then maybe it goes down and to the knee where things may get a little bit straighter and here. But if this were the outside, that would be like a muscle tissue, that sort of thing. And we get to the need to make straight now on the inside. Things tend to be a little bit bumpier, Um, and again, you know, it may come up to a situation where you feel the inside. I works better for you, and that's fine. But you know, the inside you'll have a muscle that comes out, you know, come back in. And then it may bold back out again where the knee connects. So you'll basically have that sort of rhythm going on with the inside of the leg. Um, so for me, I would try to get out here as much as I could, you know, and create that to and then add minus two. It s so when you're dealing with the inside like this, you have a bump, you know, comes in, it goes back out. You're just trying to get the happy medium. You know, you're just trying to kind of look at this and go, OK, maybe right in here is about where I want to place that and knowing that I'm gonna have to come back and I'll refine that later on. That's that's perfectly normal. I mean, that's that's what it's all about. Um, so then we started looking at the outside of the leg from a back view like this. Now then what you're gonna find again is that here is going to come in and it's going to go back out. So let me get one of these pens. So I'm going to do the outside contours. So we kind of come back out nice and smooth pretty much, and then it kind of has a gradual taper towards the ankle. Now on the inside, um, it's going to get a little bit bumpier, so it tends to kind of come in a little bit here. This muscle tends to be shorter on this side. So we get this sort of thing, then it kind of comes back in, and then it may kind of go out towards the hourglass shape towards the ankle, but ankle bone. So again, taking those ideas in mind, I would say, Get your longest sustained curve in there, right, And here and no, let the inside kind of again find that happy medium. And you get your tube in there and then knowing that, okay, I'm gonna have to probably come back. Add this little bit of meat here and it may flare out a little bit and there and then come back in. So again, this is a shorter muscle. By most and most counts. This tends to be a longer muscle. So, you know, that would be to me. You're the primary line, and then where your longest curved. So that's kind of some things and some ideas that think about as we get into mawr figure drawing. I started. We started doing demonstrations. We're obviously going to be touching on this. I'm going to be pointing out different things, different situations, but I think collectively what we've covered so far you should start to hound, be building a really nice base for figure drawing. Now it should be fired up and kind of see that. Hey, this thing's approachable is simple. I could do this and again in to do it with simple shapes is the key. 15. Master's Analysis; Gesture & Structure: All right, let's have a look at this one. First we have point out a few ideas and then we'll kind of go from there. Eso The first thing I want to mention is all of these. We won't even look at these mawr. Finished sketches were Just look down here and just start looking at all these curves. All of these wonderful curves as a way of just kind of getting those if he was loosening up or what's going on. The I believe this is a Raffaele. I believe I'm wrong. Correct me, but just kind of getting ready for all of this. And look, a even this idea of going around the form to get that movement in that volume of the upper leg. Those are the things that are very important. These are the things we're going to focus on because these are the things that I'm teaching right now, and we're gonna move through some of these basic ideas and then go to some or in a more advanced off. But for now, I just feel all of that her that's happening whenever you start studying these drawings, whether their masters or contemporary artists or whatever. Um, you pay attention to how you know what's underneath it. If you can find these drones like this that are unfinished their sketches, they're working out ideas. And that's wonderful. Because then you can really get a sense For what? The artist, the tools they use to get what they wanted to do. So when you start looking at, um, say the baby here, you can start to feel some of these kind of egg shapes that are going on another egg shape . You know, Right, Mayor, for the lower leg, you can feel kind of kind of longer egg shape here because that is moving away from us. This is moving towards us. If we go around the form, we can see the volume in the direction of that within was drawn. And this moving away again. We can kind of look over here and see some of these lines here. How that volume I was kind of moving away from us in space. And then that leg goes away, we can see no the circle all the way around in that arm. We could see this nice curve going all the way down through that nice sweeping flowing curve and how it meets, you know, this curve that could even go right up into the arm right up into that forearm. And then this all breaks down and that's curvy through the forearm and so on. So, you know, very muscular, you know, at this point, but things things would be softened up, especially once you start getting these curves and cheeks on what? Not of the head and kind of see loose indication of where the side of that face would be seeing these curves move right down the face of the baby. There again, this is kind of moving, um, away in space, this moving away in space. But yeah, really good to try to recreate some of these things sometimes as well. Again seeing this, um, everything putting put together through eggs, curves, very flowing lines again. Looking at this curve, you can see that line coming through the shoulder through the neck rather down to the shoulder, down through the arm and, you know, even echoing that off to the side there on the head. So head is looking down, right? That means that too, um, idea could be effective as well. it was looking down. You may get back to this. Um well, let's just keep it simple. Let's just take the idea that this is a curved feature of the head and we're seeing how that curve lines up all the way. So the eye sockets, how they kind of go away disappear, come back, knows the mouth, all of that. And you can see the construction line there, that layout line, you know, getting that initial curve and and now again, disappearing through the eyes. But the main points all kind of echoing that curved feeling. And look at this one right here that this curve the center line coming down, he can just see how the head line through the eyes, nose, mouth and even Chen underneath the chin. All kind of plays that up. So we start to really feel the curved volume of that shape. So I think a really good example to start with, I believe this is a whole buying. So, um, much more muscular, um, and Bumpy, like I mentioned before. But let's just look, for example, at some of these curves here moving through the legs, moving through okay, around the form around the form. Um, let's look at the upper body. So we put that to buy D in here, moving away from us there and then bending and then kind of moving away from us here. So it's got that nice art. But look at these. How everything lines up on that. These curved lines as a move down. Look how some of these muscles and different features support that idea. There was always a note. There's some sort of subtle mark that's made these things can break away from it. Come back to it. Breakaway, come back and a little bit strong there. But we can just see the bumpy rod here. I do think we we look at some of the underlying look at this two coming right towards us, really trying to feel that arm moving towards us and kind of moving off to the side here but really seeing these kind of flowing movements. And then, of course, once the muscle's or late over, it's, um, the much more bumpy for this for this style. They hold binds pulling off here. But look at this head against construction lines going around around in the center line coming down in here, head way back for the ear, way back here on the side of that body. So again, another really good example. I think of some of the ideas we've been working with and talking about another whole bind and what I want to pay attention. Mostly, here is a look at these raw marks down in here. I'm You can see, Even though the style is bumpy, I do think these less detailed and finished sketch work in some of these places. You can see those curved, initial thoughts, and then everything is related over that. The detail is, um is later over through the muscle. So a lot that's covered up. But I think you start to see some of these ideas. Um, well, yeah. I mean, you see the curve through here fruit here, looking through the back. That, too coming up has a twist in the body there. So he took your shoulders, this idea of a tube really bending so the would come down and that sometimes all you need to get a twist down is that curved access point. And, you know, once you start laying in the details saying arm breaking away here, Bending down? Yeah, this arm extending up and back over I saw you need still that you could take de mystify a twist in the body sometimes by simply understanding or using this idea of a center line or curved center line. Well, so I developed a little bit more. So again, you can see this shoulder coming down again. You could see that s curve off switch colors, um, s curve coming down and then back here, right, That represents the center line. But front back, my man. He had this wide shoulder girl area, and we're looking at it from an angle. But so basically, you can, um, indicate twist in the body by just kind of using that simple idea of of the curved or the s curve. Right. So that could be anything this could be, um this could be the lower body leg out here, moving this way. So, leg, maybe moving away from us here. And then maybe we're getting the upper body. And here, So arm, arm up you had. And so this back I would be getting hidden something like that. Shoulder I nipple nipple. And then starting to now morph into the back here. So sometimes that's all you need just at, ah, basic idea. A little trick up your sleeve to fuel twist through the body bubble bubble. We will talk about this, you know, a lot more in detail later on. But anyway, that's moving on now, and we'll look at this one. So, um, great flowing curves here from Raphael. I mean, just look at the curve, and then you've got all these volume lines supporting the movement around it, showing direction again, egg lots of eggs in this one. But, um, how this one? You can start way up here, and the line may stop writing here, but you can see the shading how they're certain. There's always something that artists try to do to indicate that. So the subtle movement through the center line, the belly button, the line, the sternum coming up the net, feeling those eggs that big curve around the bat from the flowing lines, very water, like flowing through the hair, very sweeping and organic and curvy. We took the volume of, say, almost an egg shaped here and how we get that movement around the egg right for the facial feature so the eyes nose mouth can. So if I take that away, we could start to see all of these subtle curves into that suggested heavily and then it may disappear. But then they always kind of come right back and, um, into the artists, working out some of the details and the rendering again movement around that volume. But they're done with very curved, sweeping lines. Ah, very volumetric is well to support the center lines to support the movement around the form . Our last one man just pretty much the same thing. I mean, we could even come right down here. Teoh this one and look at these kind of curves that are just kind of put on the paper. Um, but never really finished followed through with anything. But just who knows? It could have been a warmup mark or whatever, but just everything done with these curves, even though again the rendering and the finish detail work, Maybe, Ah, bit bumpy on the outside, the contour. We can see how and let's say are two maybe went down here. Um, but look at how all of this detail you'll start to see it now good packs underneath on the all start to echo the movement, the direction, the sternum, a little something here, the belly button and so on to reinforce that access that center line. I'm a box construction almost here to get that face in the mask of that feast your weight in the back here, Seacon start to see that change. I talked about that and the drawn the human head course and won't get much into that. But because certainly see some of that box construction evidence. Looking at the curves all the way down that leg and supporting the movements and more of a diagonal way, but still in the general direction is that the volume is moving. In this case, knees bent is moving away from us. I'm here we can see is moving more towards us. Has been back here, and it's coming right at you almost. And we can see through the shading how allow that supports that idea. So, you know, if you really look at this unfinished arm and those curves used Tulley, all that stuff in are the main things we want to search for now. Because if you just get in here, like God is one of the copy this contour. Then you can copy the contour. But unless you know, um, how what's underneath at all, Then you have a hard time really doing these things on your own, then your force just to copy things. Look at this. Almost box construction. I talked about that again in my head drawing class where you had the cheeks. Why this part? This is all moving into the side of the body. This kind of being the front of the body, you know, coming through here, front. And then and then we get the side, you know, here. So again, box construction tubes, eggs, uh, ovals, all of these ideas on and simple shapes, curves and corners, right? The help us put our figures down. I mean, that's the key. And that's what I wanted you to take away from looking at the Masters. 16. Drawing Tips: All right. So if the 1st 1 I'm going to do a back pose here, but a few things, these could be reminders also, uh, just some good advice, I think to when you're getting started. Eso I've talked a little bit about landmarks. Um, so whenever you're I'll come over here, uh, starting with something especially new. You can always start with this vertical line and there, this is late. I'm gonna draw a little bit later. Um, I'm getting away from my sharpies and my markers. And this is a prisma color pc. Non 45 kind of a brownish red. Um, and this is just some decent drawing paper. Pretty smooth, but I'll leave a link and informational materials in the material section. So when you're starting with a line of vertical line like that on what you can do, it started to line up some of those landmarks. No, When you're dealing with a back, you may not have as many as the front of the torso, and I've talked about that earlier. So the front of the torso they had that the pit of the neck or the super sternal notch. Um, so this is the head net coming down shoulders. So the pit of the neck right there the super sternal notch come down to the typhoid, Come down to the navel, Come down to pubic bone almost the bottom of that crotch area. So all of these points line up, so in the back, though, we don't have as much. But there's no there's any light source whatsoever. We can always look at the spine how it moves down the back so the spine tends to be a little impression or indentation. Um, and then they're the flesh kind of goes up and mounds over each side, so that creates a little bit of a shadow. So if I were to use his vertical line idea and then I could just take my pencil, hold it up to the model and get and say, this is the middle of the spine. So if this is the back of the head now, So if are spying comes down here and again, this is a not a very dynamic pose. These are legs. Um, then I'm gonna measure the angle of that spine and I'm gonna use a vertical line is reference. I'm not gonna hold my pencil up and try to match the angle of the spine. I'm going to just hold it up vertically and try to see right down the middle. Okay, so this is the point I'm looking at right there. So if I hold that up to the middle of the spine there, I can see how the angle my longest sustained curve, which is on the left side here, relates to that straight line. So again, what I'm doing is I'm holding it here, and what I'm seeing is that longest sustained curve is moving out like this. So again, that's a really good reference point to try. You can, even if you want, draw this kind of across idea. And that cross idea can be the point on the shoulders. So if this were the again the back So this is the back of the head. Net comes down, the trapezius muscles come out in the front. You had these clavicles that come out and there's bony landmarks right in there where the shoulder starts and the trapezius muscles. He's all connect right here. So these bony landmarks are visible from the back to now. Whenever the arms were raised. You don't see the bony landmarks so much. But what you see are these creases where the deltoid trapezius muscle and all of these connect. So what you can do is again hold your pencil up along the shoulder and I'm wholly I'm not holding in an angle. I'm just holding it perfectly. Horizontal was best I can right along the shoulder line. And what that does is that helps me hash out and find the angle of that shoulder. So again, all I think, pretty good tips and trying to understand the relative angle of things are using this. Another thing I wanted to point out is this right here. So you see that corner So all of these lay in line. So whenever you're you're start you're drawing. You're going to see me do this in a second. Ah, you want to keep things fairly light. So I'm not putting in a really dark line, Okay, if you do that in the beginning, by the time you actually get things ironed out and you get it where you want, you're gonna have a super dark line, and it's gonna be a little bit confusing about where your decisions are. So by starting out light, I could do several. You see, do several curves that indicate maybe the longest sustained curve. And then I can decide later on which one works best, doesn't need to be here, doesn't need to be in And so one Then as I make my decision, then I can make things a little bit darker as I go. So we're gonna start light, start with several lines. I'll go beyond the corner. So if you know your corner is in that area, we want to shoot past it, Okay? And then that way you can come out. Come in later and you put your ro