Beginner Figure Drawing - Drawing The Arms | JW Learning | Skillshare

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Beginner Figure Drawing - Drawing The Arms

teacher avatar JW Learning, Drawing the Body, Head and Hands

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (1h 14m)
    • 1. Trailer

    • 2. Shape of the Arms

    • 3. Gesture and Construction

    • 4. Upper Arm and Shoulder Line

    • 5. Shoulder Blades

    • 6. Forearm and Wrist

    • 7. Demonstration 1

    • 8. Demonstration 2

    • 9. Demonstration 3

    • 10. Timed Drawing Session

    • 11. Timed Drawing Demonstration

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About This Class

In lesson 13 of figure drawing we'll finally be tackling the arms. In some ways, arms a little easier to draw initially, but things can start to get complicated once we start adding in rotation and muscle areas. So in this lesson we are going to break it all down and figure out the best approach to constructing them.  As always, there will be a series of lectures, followed by some demonstrations, and at the end of it all there will be a timed drawing exercise session for you to follow. This lesson also works well with the How to Draw Hands lesson.  

Figure Drawing Series:
Lesson 1 - Gesture and Construction
Lesson 2 - Dynamic Forms
Lesson 3 - Construction of the Body Parts
Lesson 4 - Proportions  

Head Drawing Series:
Lesson 5 - Constructing the Head Part 1
Lesson 6 - Constructing the Head Part 2
Lesson 7 - Constructing the Head Part 3

Intermediate Series
Lesson 8 - How to Draw Hands
Lesson 9 - How to Draw Hair
Lesson 10 - Introduction to Light and Shadow
Lesson 11 - Drawing the Torso
Lesson 12 - How to Draw Feet

Meet Your Teacher

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JW Learning

Drawing the Body, Head and Hands


Hello, I'm Josh, never ending art and design student.  Drawing and painting can often be intimidating for people who have never sketched in their life but what if I were to say it's not as scary as it looks?  I'm looking to pass on the knowledge that I have learned to people who are new to art, casual hobbyist looking to improve, or to those who are looking at art and design as a potential career path.  The lessons I've put together break down the process of drawing and painting into small yet manageable pieces that allow you to absorb the material without overwhelming you with information.   The aim is to give you simple tools to build complex creations.  The lessons are structured like a pathway, starting from the basic foundations and fund... See full profile

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1. Trailer: in the next part of figure drawing journey. We are finally moving on toe. Arms. Arms, in some ways are a little bit easier than in other areas, but they also present their own unique challenges as well. We're going to look at how the arms moving, articulate, a zealous how they connected the torso along the way. We're going to do some demonstrations, and at the end of it all, we are going to do a time during session. So if you've already done the lessons on the tour seven the hand, it's now talk to do the area that's connecting them. 2. Shape of the Arms: in previous lessons, we've covered both the hands and the torso, but until now we really haven't had a proper look at the arms which connecting these two areas. Arms, for the most part, are pretty straightforward in their basic construction. Compared to other areas of the figure, it can be more or less broken down into either one or two cylinder shapes, depending on the position. So in terms of complexity, it's a lot easier to begin drawing the arms and other areas when we start moving the arm around, though, is where we're going to start seeing things shift a little bit. The range of motion and articulation the arms can produce is inevitably going to mean we're going to have to adjust their approach for its construction, depending on what the poses doing. That articulation is not only going to affect how we construct the arms, but it's also going to affect the shape in the construction off the other areas of the body which is connected to. So even though we're dealing with something that on the surface is one of the easier areas of the figure to construct, we've still got some work to do to make it look as if it connects well with everything else around it. So with that at the White, let's have a look at the arms in greater detail. 3. Gesture and Construction: now some of this. We've already covered a little bit in less than three when we were looking at constructing the body. But it's never a bad idea to do a little bit of a recap over what we've already covered. The first thing we need to be aware of with the arms is that they don't actually connected the torso. The arms are essentially floating independently compared to other areas of the figure, which is what allows them to have their wide range of motion and articulation. What most beginner artists tend to do when starting out is that they'll stick the arms onto the torso itself, which more often than not, leads to the images feeling very stiff and mechanical. The more we think of the arms is being these independent, free flowing structures. The more fluidity and rhythm will be out to get in out poses by their very nature arms a gestural because they have a natural curvature to the design, which means the vast majority of the time we're going to have some type of movement going on, and we want to be able to preserve this movement for Aziz much as we can win drawing, remembering that the arms are unattached from the torso is going to go a long way in helping achieve that goal. Now that natural fluidity and natural curvature of the arms comes with a little bit of a caveat, and that they designed this asymmetrical, even though we are essentially dealing with cylinder shapes, frail foundations. The truth is, if we don't make them look characteristic enough, they're never going to really look like arms. The irregular shape of their arms means we're going to run into a little bit of a problem without initial gesture and construction. When we start constructing the torso or start constructing the head thesis, metrical nature off the structures means what's happening on one side is also happening on the other. If we ever get stuck with these areas trying to determine their shape and position, we have a natural scent line to help aid us. The problem we are going to face with the arms is that what's happening on one side is not necessarily happening on the other, and as a result, we're not going to have that default gesture line available to us. So with all these lumps and bumps, from the muscles happening. What exactly do we do? What we need to do is initially ignore these lumps and bumps and look to the narrowest point of our arms as to where we started to find out gesture and basic cylinder shape. Once we've established, these basic foundations weaken, then come over the top with those muscles and Bonior structures. In previous lessons, we've talked about this being the connecting line. The point without construction pieces intersect with the gestural rhythms. This method is going to be far easier than trying to establish gesture through the center of the arm. It's not that this can't be done, but the fact that we are dealing with something that doesn't have an easy to define split for us means we run the risk of making life more difficult for ourselves and making more work for ourselves. If we are wanting to use that time efficiently, then this is going to be the much more convenient way to construct things 4. Upper Arm and Shoulder Line: Okay, let's look at the upper arm and more detail. Now, before we start constructing your arm, we need to get its placement right. The front and back placement off the arm is going to vary a little, depending on the sex of the person, but generally speaking, the arms. It's about the equivalent of one head with way from the head. That length will tend to be a little wider on the mail and a little narrow on female. But the width of one hit is a good starting point from the profile, the arms positioned more towards the back of the torso than the front. What many of us speaking artists tend to end up doing is we start positioning the arm directly in the middle of the torso. We have to remember the arm sit towards the back more than the front. The arms also aligned roughly with the back of the head end with the front of the neck. This will change a little bit, of course, when we stopped moving them around. But at rest. This is approximately where the opposition, another way we can work this out is to actually look to where both the Columbine and the shoulder black meat. This is our shoulder line. It's unnatural corner line for our arms, where these two bony protrusions mate, is exactly where the middle of the arms begin. In fact, these two areas are important landmarks because they act as a corner for the torso as well . If we have a look at things from above, we can see how these two areas meeting together, create not only this corner landmark for the torso, but also act as the connection point for where our arms are positioned. So in simple terms, we can say that the shoulder line is this starting point for our arms. Now the actual construction of the arms is actually pretty straightforward. If we look at the underlying structure of the arms as being just a basic cylinder shape, then all the additional muscle shapes that we need to create on top simply have to add heated. That underlying cylinder foundation, the most prominent area is the deltoid, which is this big rounded, almost T drop shape form. This shape is essentially draping over the arms, acting almost like clothing over a cylinder. This is far more noticeable when the arm is lifted. We can see here in this example how this to drop shape drapes over the arm and merges in with the chest muscles in the front and the lack muscles in the back. We can also think off the upper arm is being a cylinder shape being inserted into around it eg shape. Now the shapes of the other major muscle areas can more or less be defined as egg shapes. The sizes of these shapes are going to differ, of course, based on the athleticism of the person. And the shapes will also change, depending on how compressed the armies and what position is in. Even if a person isn't that athletic. More often than not, some definition off these rounded shapes will still be present. Now. We don't have to use rather shapes. Of course, for these lumpy A areas we can go for boxier structures as well. In fact, things tend to get a little boxes on the back of the arm. The closer we get to the elbow anyway, which is great because it makes finding a connection to our forearm a lot easier. Ultimately, what's important is not the shapes we choose but that they are connecting to the underlying cylinder structure. Ensuring out shapes are adhering to that cylinder up is the more important thing we need to be worrying about. They don't intersect with those gestures correctly, we run the risk of making out arms look like a Siris of loosely linked pieces. 5. Shoulder Blades: the shoulder blades are often an overlooked area because we really don't think of them as being part of the arms. So it's important to break down these into great detail as well. The shoulder blades are not attached to the back of the rib cage. Like the arms, they float on top of the torso, which allows them a great range of motion, which is going to help us with the arms. Articulation. The basic shape of the shoulder blades is a sort of triangular wedge shape. When the shape is at rest, it's side is always going to be running parallel with spine. That side of the shoulder blade starts to shift with arm stopped moving. Generally, the shape doesn't move. Too much of our arms are still below the shoulder line. But when we start moving our arms up past that horizontal point of the shoulder line, that wage starts to shift up dramatically. The more we start to move your arms up above the shoulder line, the more the blade starts to turn upwards. Things also start to shift with these weird shapes. When we start moving our arms either towards the front or towards the back of the torso. The shoulder blades can stop pressing really close together if we stretch our arms behind us or start separating a lot from each other if we stretch our arms out in front of us. So when we are constructing our arms from behind and also constructing the back in general , we have to pay special attention to where the shoulder blades opposition. As the movement is going to influence the shape of the areas around it. We're going to see a similar thing happened with the profile as well. When our arms are at rest, the shoulder blades only stick out slightly. We've got the rounded egg shape of the rib cage with shoulder blade, sort of chiseling out a little flat, boxy area almost like a straight line. When the arms are thrusting forward, that blade starts to curve around and pop out slightly, which is going to make this area look a lot more Bolkiah. So the shoulder blades have a lot of movement going on here that are going to affect the shape of the other areas connected to it. It's easy to overlook area, but one that we still need to study 6. Forearm and Wrist: the forum has a lot of natural movement going on, and as a result it can create all sorts of cool actions and rhythms, which gives us some really nice dynamic poses to draw. So it's going to be super important that when we start constructing the forearm, we capture enough of this rhythm in gesture. The upper arms, in comparison, feel a lots different straight up, and we want to ensure that our arms in general have a nice flowing rhythm to them. So we're going to need to rely on our forearm shapes and gestures to offset this stiffness off era Peron. So if the underlying structure of the upper arm is a simple cylinder, then the forearm structure is more or less a curved cylinder that tapers towards the end. We can use other shapes, of course, and other option would be having a box merging into an egg shape. We can even look at this as being a drumstick shape or a 10 pin bowling ball shape. But if we really want to retain the gestural rhythms of our forearm, then that curve tapered cylinder is going to be the much better starting point for us now to expand upon this a little bit more. We have two main areas of the forearm. We have the very bulky area up to where the forearm meets the oboe and the farm or flattened almost box shaped area towards the wrist. Now, because they have a lot of rotational movement going on in their wrists. The's forearm shapes and gestures are going to change, depending on where things of position the more we have our hands facing outward without palms facing out. The flutter al Forum shapes are, the more we turn our wrist over, the more lumps and bumps started. Former that forearm. The shape occurs because the bones and the muscles in the forearm actually cross over each other when we start to turn it wrist. In fact, this crisscross position occurs on the forearms are and then natural, relaxed state. If you hang your arms by your side, you can see how narrow your wrist looks compared to when you turn your palms outwards. We don't have a lot of big muscles as we approach the wrist, So no matter how athletic the character is your drawing, the concept we always want to have for ourselves is bulky shapes as we approach the elbow and narrower shapes as we approach the wrist. Now going back to that tapering cylinder and in particular, its curved shape. You might be saying to yourself, Does this curve in this sun direction all the time? And the answer to that is, no. That curve gesture is going to change, depending on the position off not only the forearm, but the entire arm itself. The easiest way we can work out whether that gesture is curving up or down is to figure out where the point of the elbow is in our arm. If our elbow is pointing more towards the ground, al just shit will come up. If it's pointing more towards the sky, then our gesture is going to start curving down. The more extreme the position of the army's, the greater the curve becomes. The asymmetrical nature of the arm means there's never really going to be an area in the middle where it's just the straight line, so you're either going to get the arm curving down or up in a very extreme or a very subtle way. So that's how we go about creating the arms. Let's now move on to some demonstrations 7. Demonstration 1: Okay, let's get started with their images will start putting in our shoulder line first and foremost. Now, something I forgot to mention during the lecture is. Actually we've got an additional Marquis force, and that's the trapezius muscle, which merges from the neck into the torso. That's actually going to be another landmark for us because it connects into that shoulder line. So an additional landmark, an additional positioning mark for a torso. Now just trying to get in this upper arm first and foremost notice how this is actually quite straight compared to the forearm. This is the straightest part, probably in the entire body. Now, if you want that really nice curve gesture throughout our arms, we're going to have to make sure that Al Forearm is offsetting a lot of this stiffness. As we've said in previous lessons, we want to look for the longest possible curved line available to us. In this instance, it's the curved line that is closest to the torso, just a small shape here for the hand. We're going to go too crazy with details for the hand in this lesson. So now that I've got those foundations in place, I can start putting in over the top the more curved and rounded shapes for our muscles and Bonior areas, all the while trying to ensure that they are adhering. They are locking into place on top off those cylinder shapes and those gestural foundations . Now, you may very well be asking yourself, Can we simply not just put the egg shapes down first and fires? And there's no rule that says you can't. In fact, if you look at paintings from the Renaissance era, you'll see a lot of the figures in their arms and their legs, especially they'll have these sort of egg shape structures built throughout. In fact, they'll feel very lumpy and bumpy in the night. If we only use egg shapes that we really run the risk of making our arms look and feel very loosely connected. It's gonna be far better for us if we have those cylinder foundations first and essentially glue these parts on top of it. That will ensure a nice, consistent gestural with them throughout. Now this might seem a pretty straightforward posed to begin with, but actual fact this is actually a very tricky posed because of the front on nature off the position of the figure. What ends up happening is that thes cylindrical nature off the arms tends to flatten out, and trying to get its perspective right ends up being a lot trickier than what it would seem in this instance of taking the best guess and said, Well, I think the upper arm is tilting away from us a little bit and the farm is positioned a little bit closer towards us. So it sometimes we're going to come across poses where we just, for whatever reason, can't quite figure out where things that positioned in and in those instances, it's just better off just taking your best guess and giving it your best shot. We're not always going to be right When it comes to our choices. We just kind of have to live it, learn from it. We gotta do just take your best shot and then move onto the next one, which is what we'll do now. Okay, so I've got a nice bending here, which gives us an easy to define corner for this pose, and we've got a lot of four shorting that's happening as well. So so a little bit easier in some respects and a little trickier as well. So it pros and constant all these images that we have to go through. So we're just establishing that trapeze him in that shoulder line first informers and then starting to really feel my way down this pose again, we can get a sense of just how much straighter and stiffer that upper arm is compared to the forearm. We've got these really nice curved rhythms, especially in the lower part of four on there that are merging into the hand whilst the upper arm is feeling a lot more rigid. So this is really where our forums have to come into play and start loosening up that stiff a part of the upper arm without forearms are equally as stiff and straight as our up arrives. Then, ah, whole arm is just going to end up looking very mechanical, and that will be great way maybe doing some type of android character or some type of soldier in amber. But we really need those forearms to do a lot of the work here to offset the stiffness of the upper arm, so we have to be aware of that Okay, so we got a little foreshortening going on in this pose, and this could get tricky for some people. Sometimes a good idea is to actually, if you feel like beginning stuck, it's just to draw a little bit of a diagram like I'm doing here just to sort of get an idea of where things that actually positioned. We've got the upper arms sort of moving away from us, tilting backwards slightly from us. And, of course, the forearm is coming towards us in a very extreme way. So if you ever having trouble with anything, always put these little notes down for yourself, whether it's small little shapes or little arrows indicating things, whether it's for forms of the body or even lighting conditions as well. Whatever information you need to put down to help you construct these parts is perfectly fine. And it's only when you really have those foundations down it place. Should you really start thinking about putting in these additional secondary structures and gestures because we essentially won't be working from big to small? Get these bigger areas in first these big foundations and then starting to do the more refined detail work over the top of it. And the risk is is if we dive headfirst into doing those details and is a pretty good chance that we're going to have a less successful pose because we've taken some short cuts along the way. So it just be mindful of this. It's going to be a little bit more work and will require a little bit more patients. But in the end, it's going to be far better for us to take this approach than just diving head first and startling details. Okay, well, consider this one done and we'll move on to out next demonstration. 8. Demonstration 2: Okay, let's move on to do it. One from the back. Now good. A very well defined physique. For this image. You could see the arms pressing backwards. He which means al shoulder Blade, is going to be compressing more towards the spine. Mobile deceit is those three little dimples on the back there, that sort of indicating where that triangular wedge shape is for the shoulder blade so that shoulder blade is not always going to be easy to see, especially if the back or the arm in particulars in a more relaxed state. But in this instance, we've got very nice big crunch that's happening due to where the position of the army's now it might be easy to misinterpret the position of both the other arm in the forearm. In this image, it almost looks as if the forearm is sticking out towards us. But it's ever so slightly bending away from us. And the reason we can tell this is that we've got actually a couple of little landmarks here where the elbow is. This too little dimples, which a little bit hard to see here because one of them's in shadow. But what happens is when our arm starts to bend. This triangular patent forms with these landmarks the two little dimples and elbow. When the arm is completely Streit, those three landmarks actually line up. And that's because went out forearm in our upper armor out straight. They actually look into each other so that try and get landmark actually turned into moralists a straight line between those dimples and that elbow. So we've got this little landmarks that we can use. Vote not just the are, but we've got little landmarks scattered around the body as well that are going to help us with not only the gesture in construction but, more importantly, the positioning of things as well. When we start to get these images like this one, which is coming out towards us, we're going to need all the help that we can get. So it's not just these triangle patterns here on the back of this arm. It's thes skin fold. It's that shadowing whatever little things that we can actually find and find relationships to, to help, to find out forms and help to find our construction parts. Because theme, a problem we're always going to have, especially with poses that are sort of coming out towards us is trying to get the sense of death. Correct. So getting that three dimensionality into that flat two D service making that arm because if it's pushing backwards and making the shoulder blade crunches real challenge that way, I don't have to continuously tackle. Okay, so we've got what I'd probably best describes of a ballerina type of posi, a model for this image. She's a lot thinner than a last model who's far more athletic. But you can still see that the rounded shapes that we have going for out muscles and burn your structures on the arm still very much present. He so it's not gonna matter too much just how athletic the person, whose or how much weight they actually Karius well, always going to get that semblance off these lumpy areas that are sitting over the top of these cylinder structures. We made mention in the lecture how this upper part of the arm almost feels as if it inserts itself into the torso, and we could see quite easily how we've got the feeling that this upper deltoid part in this upper chest muscle area almost feel as if it's draping over the top of this cylinder shape. The thing about those chest muscles is that actually going to follow the direction off the shoulder. So if we're moving the shoulder upwards above the horizontal of our shoulder line, then those chest muscles are going to follow along with whatever the shoulder line and the deltoid is doing. Fabric draping over a piece of cylinder is probably the easiest way to go about constructing this part of the arm. But we've also got the cylinder inserting itself into an egg concept that we went over in the lecture. So we'll have a look at that as soon as we finish this one off and started to fire this a bit more. You can see these rounded shapes is still very much present, despite the fact that her body frame is a lot thinner than the last model. So, as we said, we're always going to have these rounded shapes present near. Of course, we can square things off as well if we ever run into trouble with curves because they can prove to be a little bit problematic, especially when it comes to positioning things we can always sort of chisel Elway through it and then just softly curved things off at the end of it. So we're not bound to just using these rounded spheres and these rounded Saunders. Of course, if we need to use more boxer structures, that's perfectly fine. And of course, that's going to give us far better positioning as well. So there's going to be options for boxes and squares as well in our designs. So let's just have a quick look as we finished this one off at the alternate method we could use for inserting our arms into the torso of had a look at the fabric and the other option we've got. Of course, as we said, is the cylinder inserting itself into an egg another way. We can kind of look at this is if you've seen the underside of a mushroom. This is kind of the same structural sit up. He we've got sort of the stem of the mushroom, inserting itself into the underside of the rounded top. We could also think of this as being almost like a plunger that you'd used to unblock a toilet as well. So a couple of ways we can go about looking at it. But the main idea we want for this particular area is the upper arm inserting itself into those upper torso muscles. You could even end up combining the two ideas as well. We could start off with their sort of plunger slash mushroom idea and then coming over the top without far more fabric slash drapery style concept that's folding over the Silna. So we've got a couple of options here for this upper arm, so feel free to play around with it and try out which one works best for you, right? We'll finish this year and move on to doing one final demonstration. 9. Demonstration 3: all right, We've got one final demonstration, and then we'll move on to doing out time drawing sessions. I've got the head and torso in place or writing will start working on these arms, and I'm going to both arms for this image. And I've chosen this image in particular because it's a good demonstration of just how much the elbows can actually influence not just the gesture, but also the shape of the arms. The old was out really a natural corner point for us. It's the transitional point from the upper arm into the forearm, but they're also going to help determine what the shape of their gestures are. In the lecture, we said the arms are essentially going to swing in the opposite direction to where the elbows appointing. So this front elbow is pointing down, which means this front arm is going to swing up in the opposite direction and that back over pointing up means that back arm is going to swing down. Now this poses very dynamic, so you may be asking yourself, Well, is this always going to be the case? And more often than not, the elbow is going to dictate where these gestures and where these shapes start to be formed, regardless of whether or not we are dealing with something that is extreme is what we're dealing with here or whether the arms are in a bit more of a relaxed state. There's always going to be that curvature, which is happening with the arms because they're asymmetrically designed. They don't have a natural Centrepoint like what happens with the torso or the head. The only time we won't get any of that type of curvature is probably if the pose we're dealing with only has the upper are visible. If we're drawing an image from the back, and maybe the arms are reaching out to the front and we've only got a little bit of that upper arm that we're dealing with, that we're probably not going to get much curvature at all because, as we might mention earlier, the upper arm is the stiffest part off the figure. But if we are dealing with the entire arm, then we are going to have some semblance of curvature throughout the design, so that elbow is not only going to be an important market for us in terms of it being a corner for the arm, but it's also going to help us figure out where our gestures should be going. If we run into a situation where we can't necessarily figure out where the elbows are positioned, then we just have to make an educated guess. At that point, if you think the elbow is pointing up, then swing the arm down. And if you think the oboe is pointing down, then swing the arm up. All right, coming up. Next is the time during session. Now, normally, we do a series of two minute drawings, plus a series of five minute Turing's Now, because the arms have a bit more movement going on. We're going to allow an extra minute for the earliest sessions, so we're going to have a Siris of three minute sessions and then a couple of five minute sessions at the end. So sharpen your pencils and get going with that, and then afterwards will come back and do one final demonstration with my demo 10. Timed Drawing Session: uh, way way ? No. You know. Yeah. - Yeah Uh . - huh. - Uh oh. - You ? Yeah, more, but yeah, - but yeah, yeah. 11. Timed Drawing Demonstration: All right, let's get going with this time demo. So got a pretty outstretched arm to begin with. And actually, these are the posters. I don't enjoy doing all that much, actually, because I don't have much movement in them. And I really do like my arms. Having a lot of fluid movements and dynamic positions involved just ends up being a lot more fun, actually, because the arms are probably the probably the most dynamic area outside off the torso. And so it's really fun to really play around with how much you can, you know, rotate things and twist things around and get these real kind of cool bendy gesture rhythms and instructions in place. So I kind of find these was a little bit boring, But we start simple, and we work our way to the more complicated pieces. Always good to start easy and just sort of do a bit of a warm up and shake off the rust a little bit. But sometimes we've got kind of do the boring places as well. We can always do the rule dynamic, exciting stuff. We've sort of gotta eat out vegetables a little bit. You can't always have dessert, got basic structures, no real form to them yet is gonna put in a little bit off the deltoid shape as well. It's actually not a bad idea to put that shape in as an initial foundation on top of those cylinder shapes, although we really haven't got any form to them at the moment. There more or less still just boxes at this stage. But if you want to add that deltoid muscle in just to start getting the characteristics of the army in place, that's perfectly fine. Then just start working. You wait down the arm from that. They're always looking for the easiest to draw things for us, the easiest to draw shapes. The end up being is characteristic as we can of the parts that withdrawing is putting this bicep muscle in getting that corner and trying to find the the corner there of the four onto the upper arm. A little peek of the elbow there to help to find where that corner is and moving on to the egg shape upper part of the forearm. They This pot actually can get a little bit tricky because of all that twisting and turning that can happen with the wrist, how it in turn over it can turn out really going to get varying shapes here. Just do to the man of twisting and turning that's going on. As such, it sort of becomes a little bit difficult sometimes trying Teoh mentally remember exactly how the shapes have formed, depending on what the risk is actually doing, how it's turned over or how it's turning out. So it's a little bit tricky, but the basic idea weaken sort of have for ourselves all the time as sort of default option is that that box shape sort of merging into that squashed egg shape. But that egg is going to change a little bit here and they the box not gonna move too much . Let's move on to the next image a little bit, the head and the neck. In first and foremost, they don't necessarily have to do this if you're just working on the arms. It's a good idea to get a little bit of the torso in at the very least, but you don't really have Teoh get the scene. Trying to get that shoulder blade definition got the shoulder blade sticking out a little bit here, putting that corner, and we can see a very defined flat plain on the top. That's the corner market for us for that shoulder blind, which is wrapping around and meeting up with the the Columbine from the front. It's the center point, really for arms. In fact, where that highlight is, as you can see in the reference image is actually pretty much with us. Two pots, mate. So I got that landmark there that we have it at disposal starting to wrapping these cylinder shapes as we can see. I haven't really got any of that for, I mean just yet. So I'm going to do that bit last, just work on this upper arm, get thes muscles in Mumby areas down, making sure that they are really adhering to to that cylinder shape. Don't really what these feeling is, if they are not locking onto this, it's just gonna end up making out arms, look very, very disjointed and not really connecting with each other. So the arms we really want them to feel as if they are connecting that upper arm into the into the forearm, that forearm into the hand as well. Always good to get a little bit of the hand into these tough of parties is really Teoh To get that sort of s shaped rhythm that's being formed here, you got the fingers curling round and snaking down into that forearm into the upper arm. So these are the top advisers actually prefer, because there's a lot more going on he and what you might actually notice. Here's wells at the elbow starts a square off a lot more to look point er when it's sort of at a 90 degree angle. But once it starts to sort of move beyond that 90 degrees and gets more compressed, that forearm, then it starts to square off a lot more. So just take special attention to that working in the back of this torso. Now we can see how much it sort of flattens at the back here. The root cage itself is quite egg shaped is naturally egg shaped, but the the shoulder boys really start to flood in a bid outs. So just another thing to take notice off. What exactly are the shoulder blades doing? They affect everything around it. Let's move on to our next image. So I'll see if I can get both arms. And I mean, we're only gaining a little bit of that far arm to start with that torso area first and just flattening off the shoulder play area just a little bit. Then if the guy too crazy with flattening that off, still going to get the sense of that, a shape structure of that route catch getting the corner and again trying to find It's a little bit obscured from this perspective that shoulder online, and we're gonna get these instances where we're not gonna be able to see where that that Columbine is. That landmark says no, always a very good landmark for us. It's a great indication for a corner of it's also it not necessarily a great corner as well . It's enough for us to work with, but occasionally we're going to get poses like this where the arms up, thrusting forward, it's going to be a little bit difficult trying to find out. Where exactly is that shoulder loin for us working in the wrists? Forearms here, typing that down, making sure it's type a ring down, trying to feel my way again, trying to feel in that that round us that egg shape of the deltoid also look at it as being a to drop shape, maybe even something like a leaf shape as well. Whatever shape you I wanted to find it. As I think I'm just trying to get that that corner, that top plane is really going to be a good landmark for us. For this particular parties, you could say all nice and flat it is. So you can always try Teoh if we run into instances where l landmarks aren't super visible . And next best option is actually to try to look for something else in the vicinity that's going to help with position of things with how things ah structured way, the gesture Is it going especially for positioning? We really need to find landmarks that going to help too. Define where all shapes are positioned in three D environments are gonna elbow here, just sort of wrapping around onto the forearm. That forum is moving away from the viewer and the white. The oh by was sort of folding. There is helping Teoh reinforce that idea. That the forum is is sitting in that perspective that little folds, little wrinkles, clothing, sometimes even hair is well, that's going to help a whole bunch of little things that we have to look careful that it going to help really define the songs. We don't need a great deal of them just enough. We don't need to go to crazy with skin folds and wrinkles and things like that. Okay, let's move on to our next image. You can see he in the reference how much the shoulder blade is actually being pushed up because of with white. That's going down. So we really have Teoh. As we said in the lecture, we have to really be aware of when we start doing back poses not just necessarily back poses at the arm. If you really figure out what's going on with that shoulder blade because it's going to be affecting the shape of the torso from the back, depending on where the arms are going to be positioned, it's going to change because it's a very fluid pot off the figure. What helps to make those arms really mobile and have lots of articulation, so they move around quite a bit. They can you sort of shrug your shoulders. They can go up when you thrust your arms forward. So start to curve around about a lot more. And of course, if we sort of art shell arms back, it's not sort of crunch together as well. So we got a good bit of definition. He for where that shuttle blood is. It's sort of very, very flattened running along with the spine. It will sort of stay along very parallel way with spine up until we start getting the arm past the horizontal point of that shoulder line, starting adding little bit more, former the back here. It got a little bit more of, ah, bulky area at the back and it starts become a little bit flatters. It starts. Teoh come towards that elbow so the muscles are sort of more towards that top 2/3 from behind. It's a little bit more of flatter area, a little bit more of a boxy area to as we get to that elbow at the back, sort of chiseling my way down this arm, trying to feel my way working towards the wrist and I really haven't got the really have got the shape right of this arm. It's actually a bit too curved in this instance, the on the reference images actually bearing little white. So it would actually make a lot more sense in this instance to draw that arm a little bit straighter than what I've actually got down here. So we are gonna have times where that arm needs to be a lot more rigid. So I forgot. Opposed. Like this way. There's a little white. So being pressed on it over doing some type of, maybe superhero pose where they lifting something up, something haunted the sky. Then, yeah, there are gonna be instances way a straight up version of their arms is going to be necessary. So it's not all Kercher's. We need a little bit of stiffened straightness occasionally. All right, the first of our five minute poses. So just gonna work mostly on, um, that's closest towards us. Got a lot of four shortening going on here is gonna be people fund, I think trying trying to get this right. This is sort of really challenging ones because we've got some really unique perspectives that we're looking at here. We normally don't see the arms from this perspective from underneath. We get a reasonable idea of what they look like from the side, from the front from the back. We have to sort of start looking at it From this perspective. All of a sudden, all the shapes that we sort of get used to drawing start to shift a little bit. So it's always good to sort of challenge yourselves with these talks. Opposes really trying toe Think as I'm drawing this, that this part is this upper part is inserting itself into that Siris of upper torso muscles and again, using these using these skin faulted help to fine the perspective where things Aaron, that upper arm is sort of coming towards us and getting those folds to really adhere to that and represent that idea is going to be vital. We don't have those type of things, like skin folds in other areas that air adhering to that, then out shapes and never going to look properly three dimensional. Getting that long gesture line in for a forum. Wanna look to the longest curved line available to us with their gestures? We've said that previous lessons and this one's going from that elbow pretty much all the way up into the palm huge curve. They're a little bit fortunate here that models got an item of clothing which is actually going to help us. To define the shape of were out risk is what positioned it's in and kind of see just how boxy this ends up looking you can sort of do. This is a cylinder shape, but it's a lot more squarish and round things as we count towards the forearm. But you can see if we go back to previous images that we've been drawing. You just see how different these flatten ball structures actually look in this perspective compared to some of the other ones. That's what's a little bit difficult, sometimes trying to develop a bit of a database for that upper part of the forearm because it just can change so much can flatten out. It can stop bulging up, can do all sorts of things, depending on how far we start rotating that wrist around. So I've got these foundations in, and what I'm really starting to think about now is how much more can I actually push this? What other sort of secondary lumps and bumps am I seeing on this, especially this forearm structure. First and foremost, not a great deal left to do with the upper arm morals. Just trying to find the more refined details starting Teoh. It's time to pencil these in. It's refined things a little bit more because at a certain point we're going to start to want to, you know, maybe do some shading, maybe do some rendering coloring. And we really want to get enough information down before we really start doing any of that . If we wanted to start doing a shading out coloring and whatever on top of the if, we don't have a decent enough foundation in place, and we can really start to make life a lot more difficult for ourselves. So you just have to sort pay attention and carefully analyze things. Just slowly start to work things up one piece of the time. You got five minutes just giving us, ah, a lot more time to just sort of stop and slow down and think a little bit more. We've got less time on the clock than we tend to panic a little bit and say, Oh God, am I going to get this old time in the two minutes of the three minutes, five minutes gives us a bit more of a luxury. Find the elbow bits just pushing out that forearm, check a little bit more. Didn't think I had that quite right and just defining it a bit better. The longer we have, the more careful the choices we can make. It was but a little bit of the hand here just to finish this one off. It was good to put some part of the hand in there, even if it's just sort of a rough shape. We don't have to go crazy with details, but it's also a good idea to practice drawing the entire hand structure along with the arm as well. So I will finish this one up here and we'll move on to our final image right onto our final image. We've got quite a lot going on here. Our movements and torso is bending over as well, so I do carefully planned this one out, but very good physique on this model as well. A lot of lumpy and bumpy areas. So again to be careful about not losing that underlying cylinder foundations for ourselves , not to go too crazy with these lumps and bumps is always the temptation are supposed to kind of exaggerate. All these muscle areas be super crazy, and it's going to be times for that. Of course, we've got superheroes that we're creating all fantasy warriors going to be instances way when we can really start to exaggerate those those deltoids and those biceps and triceps make really cool King hero characters. But even if we do that, even if we do, you know, create the Incredible Hulk Oh, Superman or whoever it might be, we still want those lumpy, bumpy muscle areas to add he to those cylinder gestural foundations, but also especially for doing male characters, heroic mile characters, we can start the box things off a little more. We talked a lot about egg shapes and still into shape, so it took a little bit about boxes structures. And if we ever want to do sort of hero type of characters, doing those slightly boxier structures is going to make them look a lot more formidable. A lot more strong female characters. You probably don't want to do that too much. You could sort of push it a little bit, but even if you're sort of doing you know one woman top of character or she hooked up with character, you don't necessarily want those muscles to be as squared. You sort of want to keep those a little bit softer, a little bit feminine. So the general rule of thumb is boxer structures for the men and curvy of structures for the women some recently have of how things are at the moment, so very challenging poses one. I may not even get a great deal of time, too. Probably work in the other Rahm because this one very challenging. It's sort of rotating over, and the wrist is rotating as well. So there's sort of a lot to consider here before even stop thinking about the other. Rahm would much rather get this one part done in the five minutes time, then rush my way through it because at the end of the day, that's just going to end up with a better result. The clock is always really just there in order for you to make a decision, because if we sort of have unlimited time, we could get a little bit obsessed with what we're working on. We can start worrying about whether things are looking right, where the things a position correctly and inevitably what ends up happening is that we could start to get a little bit overwhelmed. So really, the time limits that we have, Ah, really, about getting you to get something down, to, to make a choice and to sort of learn from it, because we're going to make mistakes along the way. Of course there's there's no doubt about it. We can always stopped the clocks, of course, and work in their own pace. But there's also going to be a real benefit and sort of getting ourselves to make a choice one way or another. It also gives you a good idea of just how far you've come. If maybe a year ago, you could only do the upper part of that arm in five minutes, you might find that 12 months later you can now do the entire arm in that five minutes time . So it's a good way to sort of track your progress as well. Now made a little bit of a mistake that you might have just seen their I I just realized I put a gesture long that was running counter to the direction of where the arm should be going. We got the elbow pointing down that really should be going up so bad, Tho. Well, as we start to wind down now, I hope this listen arms as being of use for year. Now. This is probably best worked in conjunction with less and eight where we cover the hands. So probably not a bad idea to watch those two classes back to back. So we talked about constructing the hands and listen. Eight. So feel free to go back over that one first and then follow up with this. One don't necessarily have to follow things exactly in order as there currently presented, but there's going to be additional images for you to practice with that will be available in the class notes. Feel free to look for your own images as well, and also, it's not a bad idea to sort of check things out in the mirror. So have a look at your own arm. See how they moved, try to work out, you know, things that constructed there as well. So it try and work through real life as well. If you've got maybe a friend or family member who can sort of pose for you, oil remains do that because it's going to be beneficial working from not just images book from real life as well. So in the meantime, keep practicing hard and I will see you in the next listen.