Beginner Colour / Color Theory - Expanding the Colour Wheel - Working with Hue | JW Learning | Skillshare

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Beginner Colour / Color Theory - Expanding the Colour Wheel - Working with Hue

teacher avatar JW Learning, Drawing the Body, Head and Hands

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 2m)
    • 1. Trailer

    • 2. Hue Scale and Recap

    • 3. Expanding The Colour Wheel

    • 4. Problems With Yellow

    • 5. Hue and Value

    • 6. Reflected Colour

    • 7. Colour Palette Overview

    • 8. Colour Shapes

    • 9. Light Side Rendering

    • 10. Dark Side Rendering

    • 11. Background Rendering

    • 12. Final Details and Assignment

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About This Class

In Lesson 3 of the Beginner Colour Theory Series we have a look at the second of our three colour scales Hue. Hue isn't as easy a subject to tackle as Value because if we're not careful with how it relates to Value then it can easily overwhelm our paintings.  In this lesson we'll break down the Colour Wheel into more detail, have a look at what the affects of Black are on our Colours, see how reflected light factors into our colour choices, and we'll finish it off with a painting demonstration designed around our three primary colours of Red, Yellow and Blue. If you are using digital drawing applications I recommend Affinity Photo as it has the best mixing tools for digital paint. If you're using traditional paints I recommend starting with a cheap set of water based or acrylic paints, oils tends to be a little tricky to begin with. Red, Blue, Yellow, White and Black is the minimum that you will need. Other colour options are explained in the video.  The pencil sketch for the exercise is available in the course notes.

Expanded Colour Options:
Cool Yellow - Lemon Yellow
Warm Yellow - Cadmium Yellow
Warm Red - Cadmium Orange
Cool Red - Alizarin Crimson / Permanent Magenta (little darker)
Warm Blue - Ultramarine Blue
Cool Blue - Cerulean Blue / Cobalt Blue (little bluer)
Ivory Black
Titanium White

Software Used:

Continue with the Colour Theory series: 
Lesson 1 - Introduction to Colour and Harmony
Lesson 2 - Value in Shape, Form and Composition

Meet Your Teacher

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JW Learning

Drawing the Body, Head and Hands


Hello, I'm Josh, never ending art and design student.  Drawing and painting can often be intimidating for people who have never sketched in their life but what if I were to say it's not as scary as it looks?  I'm looking to pass on the knowledge that I have learned to people who are new to art, casual hobbyist looking to improve, or to those who are looking at art and design as a potential career path.  The lessons I've put together break down the process of drawing and painting into small yet manageable pieces that allow you to absorb the material without overwhelming you with information.   The aim is to give you simple tools to build complex creations.  The lessons are structured like a pathway, starting from the basic foundations and fund... See full profile

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1. Trailer: in less than three about beginning color theory. Siri's We're going to start tackling the Huse Kyle. We're going to have a look at the color wheel in a bit more depth and break down a few of the misconceptions associating with. We're going to look at how color and value need to work together, and we're also going to look at how reflected light will influence our color choices and at the end of the lecture will finish everything off with a demonstration that's going to be based around the primary colors. So if you're ready to take the next step in the color theory journey, break out the paints and brushes and let's get started. 2. Hue Scale and Recap: first lesson on color theory. We had an introduction to the three scouts of color, value, hue and saturation, and we made mention that one of the ways we can represent those three scales is in the form of an actual wheel without value being the axle out, Hugh being the tire and air saturation being the spokes of the wheel in lesson to we focused exclusively on value the relationship between light and shadow and what's the most important of all three scales? In that lesson, we said that value can help to offset any mistakes we make with their human saturation. But there's only so much that value could do to help the findings. We have two areas in our pointing that we need to distinguish from each other. But both of them have similar values that we have to start looking to Hugh, help us. On the surface, huge seems like a pretty straightforward thing. In theory, if we are painting the sky, we simply use blue. If we have pine trees, we simply use green. But the truth is it's very easy to get carried away with that coloring. We have to make sure that the color choices we make are working together without values, but they don't start to overwhelm our composition. We have to also ensure the color choices. We make work together as a team that they take into account light and other objects that are receiving that light. Even if we have a lot of colorful components to our composition, it's going to be important that there's still some type of commonality with their Hughes that links them all together, so let's start looking at this now. 3. Expanding The Colour Wheel: in less than one. We went over some basics about the color wheel. If you're not an artist and have never picked up a paintbrush before in your life, just about everyone has seen what the color wheel is and what it means within art. It's widely assumed that the three primary colors red, blue and yellow are the only cause you need to create the full spectrum within that wheel. The truth is a little more nuanced than that. Red, blue Yellow is certainly can, at least in theory, make a certain type of color wheel that is more or less true to that belief. But in reality it's a very big stretch to say that we can get the full spectrum of cull up using those three primaries alone. It doesn't matter if we are working with real paints or working digitally. The moment we try to make a wheel out about primaries were going to be missing colors. Part of the reason for this is that when we start to mix up primary colors to create out secondaries, oranges, greens and violets, what we're actually doing is starting to de saturate out colors. Any time we start to mix two colors together, we inevitably lose the original saturation off both, no matter how much we might want to make this violet purple mix look as bright and is saturated as its two parent colors were simply never going to get there using our three primaries a lot. No, only are we de saturating things is we mix, but we also mixing in different values as well. Every color along the huse Kyle starts at a different level in relation to the values cow. If we convert our colors into great, we'll start to see very quickly that all their colors on the Huse Kyle start at a different position on the value scale. So if we go back to our written blue, if we have a look at the equivalent gray for both, well say once it's roughly in the middle area of value scale. And once it's much low on the values Kyle, if both about primaries are sitting that low, then no matter how much we mix, the two were never going to get our violet being as bright and as vivid as its two parent colors. Now you might be asking yourself, Can't we simply just adding white to brighten things up, and that will certainly help to an extent. But what is only going to push things so far? Because we're not actually adding saturation back into that mix. This is just a lighter version off this violent we've created. We've still found to get anything close to this other, really vibrant purple. So if the old legend that we only need red, yellow and blue primaries to create a full range of color is a little bit of a lie, then what do we do to get out full spectrum? Well, the answer is, we simply expand the range of their highly saturated colors. If we need that super vibrant sign or magenta, we can go about getting it in one of two ways. The first is weakened, simply split out primaries in half and divide them by temperature. This means we will have essentially two sets of primaries, a cool set in a warm set. We can see out to read Seat one is shifting towards the oranges and the other is shifting towards the violets. This will certainly give us a greater range of control over the range of color options that we can produce. The colors that we combined together with These two sets will, of course, still start to de saturate but will still get a greater range of color options as a result , then just sticking with one set. The other option is simply to just buy or choose a color that we can't create if we aren't buying real paints. We are much better off buying that brilliant violet purple and using it right out of the tube, then trying to find the perfect red and blue pigments to mix together. And if we are working digitally, we are much better off selecting that violet or selecting that magenta strike from our color picker than trying to blend things together. Now you might be saying to yourself, Should I start using a wide range of colors or just the three primaries, plus black and white? And the answer is there's really no rule that says one is better than the other. Having a water range of colors from the stop is going to give you a greater range of control through a huge. But other artists are more than happy to limit themselves to a small appellate and work within whatever color spectrum is available there. A lot is ultimately going to come down to the piece that you're working on, what the overall color temperature is, as well as just personal preferences. Well, so try both and expanded and limited color pell and see which one works best for you. 4. Problems With Yellow: In our first color theory lesson, we learned that adding black or white to our color will shift its value either to the lighter side or the darker side of the value scale. We also made mention that black and white need to look at as essentially being a very light great and a very duck right, and that adding great into the mix of our colors will not only start to de saturate them, but we'll also start to give off the illusion that our colors are being shifted to a cooler temperature. So why are we bringing this up here again? Well, if we need to start shifting our primaries down towards the blacks, we're going to notice a particular problem with yellow because you always starts a lot higher on the value scale. It's going to be affected by the addition of Black to a much greater degree than what either blue or red will. If we start adding black, it's way all red or all blue. We're not going to feel is if there's much of a color change that's going to happen because they both sit lower on the value scale. They have a shorter transition to black than what yellow does. The transition that they make is going to feel very consistent. But if we start adding black into a yellow, we got to find that the transition is far longer. We're going to find out yellow stuffs to shifting color and become more greener in its appearance due to the cooling nature of black and the cool, the color we mix in with yellow, the greener it becomes now. This might be all well and good if our composition calls for that kind of shift in yellow. But given yellow is a warmer color. What happens if we are painting something that caused that wont to remain present? What we need to do in that case is adding another color to hope with the transition. In other words, what we need is a darker version of yellow to help kick the warmth as we move towards the black. The type of color we need is one. You'll often seems sky during a very vivid sunset, a warm, dark yellow orange color that sits somewhere between yellow and black on the values scale. One of the most common colors to use with this transition is called raw sienna, a kind of rusty, earthy color. But there are a variety of other earthy, dark yellows that can also be used as well. If we start merging al yellow in without warm, DACA rusty color and then start merging that color into our black, what we'll find is the warmth and strength of al Yellow is being retained a lot more. We can see just how stark the difference is he with our examples. One of our yellows feels far warmer than the other, and it also feels like a bit more of a natural transition for yellow. So if you're having trouble with transitioning yellow into dark of values and can't quite figure out why it's always looking a sort of grayish green color and in a warm dark yellow into the mix to help boost the warp emperor along its transition into the shadows 5. Hue and Value: We've talked a lot in this lesson about getting the biggest range of color for ourselves. But none of that is going to matter if we don't ensure that our cause are working in relation to our values, as we made mention and listen to value is going to be the most important aspect of our piece because it's the area of color theory that is going to create form, depth, dimensionality, atmosphere and even mood. It's the framework for our composition without we are painting a bowl of fruit or epic landscape, the skeleton of the composition, if you will. All the cars in the world are not going to help us if they don't work together with our values. So if we consider value is being the framework 12 construction, then Hugh really needs to be looked at as being the brickwork, which is the next layer on top. If we start to ignore those foundations and overloaded image with colors that run contrary to our underlying values, then we really run the risk of losing all that initial form and dimension and even mood. We are much better off sacrificing our hue in this case and making more muted looking images that stick to those initial values than going overboard with the colors. Let's look at some examples, okay, so listen to about value. We talked about the importance of establishing the relationship between light and shadow, how we go about creating light and shadow shapes and how contrast helps to establish mood. So let's start expanding upon that without hue and start with a simple ball sketch in black and white. For this sketch, we've got a pretty dark background, a nice slide surface, and the ball itself is sitting some way in the middle gray area. Now, if we want to match these lot and shadow conditions in color, we need to ensure that the values of the colors we choose site consistent without black and white sketch here. If we have a look it out to color examples here, the one on the left has color values that very consistent without black and white skitch. The other one has color values, which are very inconsistent with that sketch. Comparing the two images, we can kinda tell one of these just doesn't feel quite right. Not only has the mood being changed dramatically from that initial black and white sketch, but feels like we've lost a lot of dimensionality in the composition as well. If we take the color out of both of these images, we can say we stayed pretty close to our original black and white sketch with this one here . So before we start putting colors down, we're going to have to pay special attention to where they are positioned in relation to the value scale and then make the appropriate adjustments with black and white to either increase or decrease that position. This is why it's always a good idea to do a little bit of a black and white sketch first, to establish the general look and feel of a piece because it gives us a reference point to work from. If we just dive headfirst into color, we really run the risk of making more work for ourselves. Now you might be asking yourself, How exactly do we go about establishing where all their hue sit in relation to the value skull? Well, a lot is going to come down to observation and, of course, practice. If we look at color, will weaken kind of group out Hughes into value groups. Al, yellow, orange and warm greens are on the lighter end of the value scale. Out blues and violence are on the darkest side and out more pure greens and reds run somewhere in the middle. This isn't going to be true 100% of the time, of course, but as a general rule, this is a pretty good place to start. If we're working digitally, we do have an easier option for us to be off. To see where our values up or we need to do is to create a new layer in our painting software, feel that light with black and then simply set the blend mode to that lay. It's a color that's an easy way to help us in this instance, judge the value of their colors. If we are working practically that, we don't really have that option. One thing we can do is take a photograph of their colored image with your smartphone and be saturated image with the built in editor. But that's not always going to be a super convenient thing for us. The other way is that we can simply try and train our I if we paint two colors of a similar value next to each other and blue or squint their eyes. We start to see an illusion happening where it looks like both colors are starting to blend into each other. If that illusion isn't happening, if one color looks as if it's sitting above the other, then it means the values aren't quite at the same level, in which case going to do then is to adjust their values to eat a B, lotto or DACA in order to make that illusion happen. So a few practice tips there to help us work out the value of their Hughes. 6. Reflected Colour: If you've covered the begin a figure drawing Siris of videos, you'll know that lesson 10 of that. Siri's focused exclusively on light and shadow. If you haven't seen that video and want to get a better understanding of what happens when light hits the surface of an object, alright, highly recommend watching that video in full along with lesson to about color theory. Siri's where we covered value, but just to do a little bit of a recap for this. Listen, we essentially said in that class that when light hits the service often object. It creates a range of value on out form, moving us from the brightest point where the light hits it through to the mid tones, where there's less light hitting the surface and then finally into the shallows. This transition can be looked at as being a series of corners, gradually shifting from the large values to the dock values. Those corners can either be very sharp on a surface that is quite boxy or can be very subtle on an object that is far more rounded. The latter we call a gradation a smoother transition from light to shut out when light is hitting an object. That object is going to stop reflecting that light back. Anything that receives light itself becomes a source of life. The ball last sketch. It is receiving light, but it's also reflecting that light back off its surface. And that's going to ring true for everything else in the environment. So the table this ball is sitting on is not only going to be hit by the same light, it's going toe also reflect that light back which in turn is going to affect the values and the color of our goal. That reflected light is not illuminating the shadows. Right now we are seeing things in black and white. But what happens when we start adding color well? The cause of our objects are going to start being affected by the cause of everything else within its environment. Here we have our Red Bull, which is sitting behind their yellow ball. What's going to happen when the light hits both objects is that our Red Bull is going to reflect its color back into the shadow of the yellow ball that ridden yellow will mix to create a raid orange reflected light that is going to warm the shallow side of their yellow ball. If we change it to a blue bull out, color will start shifting green. So the color of our reflected light is going to mix in with the color of the object. It's hitting now. How much reflected light bounces back up from one object to the other is going to depend exactly on how close they are to each other. If we push out Red Bull further away, less of its light is going to reflect back onto our yellow bull. Not only does the light source become weaker, but so does the strength of its saturation. And if we push things closer together, the opposite is going to happen. This is because we are moving the red ball either closer or further away from the original light source. The further away it is from that light source, the less strength that reflected light will have. Things start to get a little more complicated when dealing with multiple light sources, as well as working outside in outdoor environments. But this is the general starting point for reflected light in color 7. Colour Palette Overview: okay, Before we get started with their demonstration, let's just do a little bit of a run down off the colors were going to be using. As you can see in the palette here, we've got ourselves two sets of primary colors, one it's leading towards the warms and one that's leaning towards cools. We've also got black and white heat to either increase or decrease their values for our Hughes. If you're working digitally, I'm gonna put the hex codes on the screen now for each of these colors, and I'll also include them with the course notes to. Now. If you're working with rule paints, just get yourself a pretty cheap set of acrylics. Most beginners sets usually common sense of 10 or 12 and will usually cover this range of colors. If you wanna get a little bit more specific and choose your own paints, I'm going to throw up on the screen now, roughly would out the equivalents to these digital calls that I've chosen in our yellows. We've got a lemon yellow in a cad, me and yellow. We could also use academy and yellow and a little bit of white mixed together to get out cooler yellow. We've got a cadmium orange, which is out warm or red, and Elizabeth and crimson. Or we could also use a permanent magenta, which is a little bit dark up. And we've also got ultra marine blue and out cerulean blue. I've also got the option for a cobalt blue instead of cerulean. But as Cerulean Blue leans a little more towards the greens, so that's probably going to be the better option. We've also got just black and white as well. So we've got a sketch down with good out paints. Ready? We've got our values. Study in the corner. Let's start planning. 8. Colour Shapes: Okay, let's begin. We've got a lemon image here that we're going to create, and we're going to start with our light and dark values, as we have in a previous lesson with value. But now we have to start considering what the colors of these values that actually going to be just used a little bit of that, that pure, warm yellow and clearly that's no quite right for this particular value. So one of the lot in this up, a little bit of that limited color, and we'll just have a look at this so far. Yeah, that's probably far too saturated at the moment. So we're going to have this battle with their saturation as well. Zell values now. We haven't talked a lot about saturation in this lesson, which need to doll down to be too much. There dulled down the vibrancy of their yellow because in real life we don't actually have a lot of highly saturated things. Real life really is kind of a series of varying levels of grey look, a few splashes of like, super vibrant colors here and there. It would certainly help if we choose the right car that we've got a a range of DIY situations. Really, there's really nothing in nature that is 100% supersaturated. So I added a little bit of that boom red call to help bring out the oranges because we got a little bit of an orange hue to the overall feeling of this yellow. And I'm pretty happy with how it's looking. So just use that for the moment. Now we just really need a base color to start with. We can always come back later on and start to tweak things as we move along the most start adding in the different value changes. We have to start shifting hues anyway, So that's the lot side of L lemon kind of done. Now, I've just realised I've forgotten to put darker orange color here with the rest of your column mix. So we're just gonna actually mix one up. Now, this is probably not the right thing to do to create your own dark orange, but if you don't actually have a sort of earthy color available in your palate. If you're working from paints, for instance, and you I've only got three primaries, you can kind of make your own earthy brown wound brown color. This is a bit too like the month The value see need to be darkened a lot more, but we can actually mix Orion with a little bit of orange. It's are a little bit of warm read a little bit of yellow, a little bit of black. That will certainly get us that sort of earthy, warm brown color that we need to help with that transition for El Limon. As we said in the lecture, Yellow gets a little bit problematic when we need to retain its warmth whilst also shifting its values down to the shadowy side. So this is certainly going to help retain that warmth a lot more. We need that cool yellow. Then, of course, we just sort of proceed with the blacks in that instance is looking OK so far, probably to be a little bit darker, But again, we can kind of come back a little bit later on, fixed it up. Now we're going to get a cooler shadow developing the close we get towards the blue surface there, and that's because the blues obviously going to mix in with that woman area and create a neutral color. We're also going to get a little bit more saturation happening. The closer that bottom of the lemon gets to that blue service, you actually see a little bit of a blue reflection popping up in the reference image, creating almost a de saturated violet in color. So that's that reflected light. That's happening because the two objects are really close to each other, the lemon and the surface of the table. It's gonna be a lot more saturated that reflected light than if they were further apart for two. Lift this lemon up, have it sort of floating over the top of the table. Day would still get a little bit of that blue saturation, but it's not going to be nearly as much. It's going to blend Mawr into being a very muted purple brown color. So when we start to regress from value to color, when we start having to juggle those two, we have to really think about what else is in the environment. Where are light source is coming from, and what's what's close to our object. In this instance, we've got the the red background that's really close to it, which is illuminating. The top part of that show is so it's so we're going to get a lot more red. It's gonna be a lot more reddish in that top part of the shadow compared to where the bottom is, where it's catching all that blue. So we have to sort of stop mixing ingredients now a little bit. It's a little bit like cooking in a white is natural formula for any of these colors. A lot of it is just going to be What if it's going to be subjective because we also see color slightly differently, So I can't give you an exact measurement for you know what that lemon yellow side is what that shadow saw. It is what the color is exactly like cooking. We're just kind of have to sort of season as we go little pinches of salt here and there, as it were. Or I think the shape for the lemon is down the shadow and light shapes. Let's move on to the backgrounds Now. I'm mixing in my two reds here because that's going to give me the purest red possible got out warmish red, which is leaning towards the oranges and our cool the red, which is leaning towards the violence. And by mixing those two together, we're going to get as close as what we can to, well, purist red. So this is a pretty good example of how having an expanded range of colors for ourselves gives us more options. A very vibrant red background. It's actually de saturating, cooling off a little bit as it approaches the lot. And we're going to find that with, Well, they're objects. Whichever part of the object, the surface, whatever it is, we're working on his capturing the most light, it's actually going to de saturate out Hughes a lot more. The form of the lemon more turns away from that light source. We actually get a lot more saturation in their color. In fact, it gets even more saturated just before it starts. Merging into the court shadow you might actually be able to see here in our lemon color feels a lot more reddish, almost pinkish, even just before it merges into that court shadow core shadow is that dividing line between the light and the duck saw it's the darkest area on out full. Speaking of shadows, need to put this cost shadow now, which is going to be the darkest area, which is clearly the darkest area of the whole image. And we're going to get the readiness of that background needing to shine through with this value. We don't just want to put flat black in with their shadows because it ends up looking very lifeless because a very dead color it doesn't actually exist in nature. Move on to the blue surface now because it got very warm light source. It's happening here. It's going to shift L Blue tablecloth to being a lot more violet E in its color, so you have to make the appropriate adjustments he to ensure that it works together with the rest of a image. The red, the yellow A pretty straightforward when it comes to working together because they have commonality. But a blue doesn't really have anything in common with the warmth of those two colors. So we're going to have to ensure that we bring up the temperature to be a little bit violet E. And I think we'll just use this one for the moment. I think that's good enough. You can see just actually with those little swatches just the difference that little bit of warmth starts to make. All of a sudden, this surface that L Lemonis sitting on now feels as if it's working a little bit better with the rest of the image. If we had just used that strike blue, they that dark blue origin, that more society blue collar, it just wouldn't work with the whole image. It would stand out. Feel off that little bit of violet mixed into it. All of a sudden we got something that seems to work a lot better. The rest of the image that's really going to be the key with working with color is ensuring that all the choices that we are making are working together as a unit that not one color is sticking out on its own. That looks like it doesn't belong there. So if we working with very bright primaries like this one, we still have to take into account what the light source temperature is. In this case, it's war. We have to ensure that the choices that we are making our adhering to the warmth off that light source and so our colors are going to have Teoh be adjusted accordingly. If it's a cool light source than our lemon is obviously going to start shifting to the green slightly, the red background will start shifting to the magenta is, and now blue surface will start shifting more to that cool blue that scion e color. There's a little bit of debate. It goes on actually with whether or not there's such a thing as a cool, a warm blue. The truth is, there's no real. There's no real temperature when it comes to the color wheel. It's all just a theoretical thing. We just reduce it to temperature as a means to make things a little bit more convenient for us. We associate the reds in the yellows with fire and hot things in for the blues and the cooler greens. We sort of associate deep blue ocean and ice and winter and things like that, right? So we've got our vice colors down that adhering pretty close to the values. We have black and white image. So let's now move on to rendering the lots out of element 9. Light Side Rendering: Okay, let's just evaluate things before we press ahead. Now we've got out basic colors, shapes, and I can already tell already that a lot of sort of this lemon is significantly higher in value than it should be compared to the original reference image. So we're going to have to stop, bring this value and also start shifting this you a little bit as well. Because not only is it sitting too high on the value scale, it needs to be brought a lot closer towards the Reds. So I've got a little bit of work to do on this light side, so we're not always going to get it right the first time. What we have to do is we have to ask ourselves a series of questions when we're starting to put down pint onto canvas, we need toe have essentially a Siris of Chiklis questions going throughout minds. We need to look at our example here about lemon and in relation to Hugh. At the very least, what we need to be saying to ourselves is Okay, what exactly is happening with this lemon image? First off, we need to figure out where are locking direction is coming from. We need to figure out where all light and shadow shapes are, which is what we covered with value. And then the next thing we really have to do is ask ourselves, Well, what is the overall color that's happening here with this lemon? And obviously in this case, it's a yellow color. But we have to ask ourselves, Well, is this yellow color a light yellow? Or is it a dark yellow overall? And then after that, we have to start asking ourselves well, in which direction along the huge scale around that color wheel. Is that yellow starting to shift? Are we starting to shift towards the cool yellow greens, or are we starting to shift towards the warmer yellow oranges? Is that temperature shifting to the warmer side of the spectrum, or is it shifting towards the cooler side of the spectrum? So when we start to add color on top of our values, this is where things start to get a little bit more complicated. So having this run down this checklist in their head as we are mixing things on our palette as we are putting our paints onto the surface of the canvas is going to help simplify the process for us a little bit. There's no point in sugarcoating any of this color theory is, without doubt the hardest area in all of our. We're trying to juggle three different scales, trying to retain form or trying to make temperature work together. We're trying to make sure our colors work together as a team that we don't have things that are overly saturated, so there's a lot we are going to have to think about. So I'm working on this more shadowy area on the lot side, and we have to make sure that when we are fighting in this area that it is not as dark as the shadow on the shadow side of things. We need to ensure that whatever transitions we're having here in our values, on a lot side don't conflict with the transition of values that's happening in the darkest side. We need to maintain that we always going to have a light side in the dark side. If the values on our shadow side are very similar to what's happening on the light side, then we're going to start losing all the form all of a sudden that noise rounded lemon starts to look a lot flatter. So even when we stop putting out colors down, we have Teoh make sure they are working with those values. So that's what we're going to have to start juggling. But we've got the additional challenges. Well, when we start working with color is that we're going to have a different levels of transition to the shadows. Then if we were just working with black and white because yellow is starting significantly high up in relation to the value scale compared to Raedle blue, that means its journey to the blacks into the shadows is going to be a lot long compared to the other two primaries. So you've got that additional challenges well, and when we start to look at all these Skiles and all these measurements and all this and mixing that we've got to do starts become very obvious. White collar theory ends up being a very difficult subject matter. It's also why we need to break it down step by step. There's no point throwing all of this information at you all at once because it's just going to become way too overwhelming so getting my highlights in now and we don't want to use pure white for our highlights. Its something that, let's be very much aware off is a tendency to for people who are just starting out to just dive head first and use pure what for our hearts. We always want have a little bit of color mixed in with that highlights. So it's gonna be very tempting to just Deb in a little bit of pure white near, but always makes a little bit of the hue that were working with In with that highlight, it's gonna be the same with shadow areas. What we don't want a flat black, As we said in Los via the the addition of black really starts to dead and things if we don't mix it in with something else, we don't have black in nature. And so it's really important to mix a little bit of coloring without blacks just to give it a bit more life. So I've got a lot more form going on now. Develop this have Farmall settler transitions from a subtle of value changes and subtle our ships and Hewas well, we go back to the start of our video, we can really see just how much things have changed. All of a sudden, that very flat surface that was clearly shifting towards the wrong end of the color spectrum has now started to feel a lot more three dimensional, starting to feel like something we can almost pick up. This is exactly what we are looking for. This is where the importance of value comes in. We can sacrifice a lot with their Hughes and without saturation as well, because they're not nearly as important as what value is because it's ultimately going to be. The thing which is defining the shape of all forms is going to create depth and dimensionality. We were to ignore all veil values here, ignore that light and shadow side and just pump it full of brought saturated colors. Then we're not really going to get a sense that what we're creating is a lemon or the very least, something that has form. I haven't quite got the saturation right with this image. It's a lot more vivid and intense than what reference in which has. But as long as I keep those values right underneath there, it's not really going to met it too much. If the end result is something that retains form but loses a little bit of believability because the saturation levels are quite writes, well, the huge choices on exactly right then that's going to be the Ben. A mistake to Mike. We could shift this whole lemon to being more reddish in its color, almost magenta, like even, and we may lose that sense that what we're looking at is an actual lemon. As long as we've got that form underneath, it's still going to look like an object of some sorts going to look like some type of fruit . But there's only so far that value can take things. If we need to make a very specific decision about what the object is, then, of course, the huge choices are going to matter a lot more. So if we need to specifically define this as being lemon, we're going have to make out a few choices that relate to that. But at the same time, they're going to have to work with those values as well, so going to come down to what exactly it is you're trying to achieve, weaken, create faces and create human figures that have wildly different skin coast to what we having reality. We're doing some type of alien creature designed. Perhaps we've got those strong values in place, which are helping to define the shapes of that well, that Faysal that figure. Then we can kind of go wild with the top of skin calls that weaken Mike, vivid greens and blues, pinks, Whatever it is, if we are building a house, the first thing we want to put it is the timber framework to get some sense of what the overall structure is going to be. That's kind of what value is for us. It's that underlying foundations. We don't just dive headfirst into laying bricks for building house. We have to get that frame working first and foremost. Otherwise, the house is never going to be properly built. And so really, he was that first layer of bricks that we're doing now. We've got a timber framework in place with our relationship between light and shadow. Now I can start thinking about playing those bricks scene. So we've developed things enough for a light side. For the moment. I think we've got out values and our Hughes working together enough to start creating that sense of depth and dimensionality. So I think we'll pause this year for the moment and then move on to our shadow side. 10. Dark Side Rendering: All right, let's move on to the shadow side. Now the first thing we've got to do is actually fix up these values a bit, because now that we've fixed up the values on the lighter side, we can clearly see that the show is sort of out. Lemon is clearly off, so I'm going to put in these neutral brown colors. He, too, so start shifting it back down in its value to help bring some form together. We can kind of see just how much we've sort of lost our form with the shutter values now, because of how lot they are going to be a lot darker than we've currently got here. At the moment, we're going to get a bit more variation with their Hughes happening in a shadow side of things, and that's because we've got quite a lot of reflected light happening. We got the red background, which is reflecting up to the top right of our shadows in in the bottom left of their shadows. We've got the but the blue service there, which is reflecting up a swell, so it's not just going to be a neutral, brownish color that's happening on this show side of things. We're going to have to think about exactly how these reflected lots of interacting with this shadow side. First and foremost, just want to get this Dhaka area of asset. I get this value looking rot before we start worrying about the huge changes in the saturation levels, and we're going to get this high level of saturation. Heil level of saturation, I should say on the showed a side of things because and lemon is sitting very close to both the surface off the table as well as that back panel. We've got a very intense amount of saturation happening that top left of their shadow because the back panel was red. It's hitting onto a surface which is sort of orange, yellow in color because of where they both positioned on the color wheel in relation to each other. They've got a lot of commonality, and so they really going to start to work together to retain a lot of saturation. There, the blue surface set out limited sitting on. Once it starts to interact with shadow closest to it, we're not going to get as bright and as saturated reflected light hitting it. We have orange yellows and blue violets of mixing in with the Charlo. We start to get more muted colors, so a reflection isn't going to be nearly as sexual writers. What's happening with that back panel, the bottom of their share aside, is going to start shifting to something of a muted violet. But our orangey sort of transitional part there and the warmish collar off the blue tablecloth and we're sultan make sail two colors. Here. They're going to start to sort of start canceling each other out. It's because our engine violet are on opposite ends of the color spectrum in when we start to mix, cause that are on opposite sides to each other. Together, we start Teoh get more neutral colors, but because of the close proximity to the table, that saturation is going to be a little bit more vivid. Then, if the lemon wasn't sitting directly on that surface, so we're getting a more rain neutral color here, but it's going to start shifting to the violent side of things. We start mixing out compliments together, compliments being calls on the opposite end of the of the color spectrum of the color wheel . Then we start to get his really rich. Neutral colors is very warm tones. We've got two ways that we can reduce our saturation and our colors. We can either do it through compliments, drew calls on the opposite end of the color spectrum, or we could just simply use graze. Mixing through compliments is more reflective of what happens in real life. That means we've got a woman cool option. Then if we need to start de saturating our colors. As we said earlier in the lecture, white and black need to be looked at as cooling agents. So we start mixing those in with their Hughes to de saturate our colors means we've got a cool option for our de saturating. It was a warm option. If we do it through, I was the opposite each other. We'll cover more about complementary colors in the future as well as analogous colors. Do complete lesson on that. This image reference was actually set out to be quite extreme in terms of its saturation and was simply done in order for us to get used to the idea of our huge scale working in relation without value scale so It's all about trying to find commonality and try it of colors. It's about getting out. Read out, blew out yellow on their permits, toe work together. Primaries sit equidistant from each other on coal will. If we were to draw a triangle over those three colors, you'd find it's equal all the way around that the hues that have nothing in common. We can't create them and on the run than never going to get closer to each other. Because of that, we have them all on canvas, and we don't do anything with them shifting their values and shifting the hue, going to stop fighting each other. So we're going to have to find ways of bringing them close together. We've got saturation as well, so we've got a couple of ways we can go about bringing harmony to these calls that have absolutely nothing in common. So that's a pretty decent starting point for us, for the shadow on the light side definitely feels like there's form going on here, and that's going to be the most important thing, of course. So now that we've got some pretty rough foundations in place for your lemon, let's not moving on to the background 11. Background Rendering: all right, I've done a little bit of clean up in between. The video is just to talk about the lemon and make sure the little whites, but not shining through anymore, you know, to work on the background. We got a little bit of a gradation off value and a gradation of saturation as well happening without read panel in the background as well as the table surface that L. Lemonis sitting on, we're going to get a lot more of a de saturated light of value in the left of their red panel. It gradually starts to shift not only in saturation value but in Hewas. Well, it's a little bit cool up a little bit more of a quality column as we approach the shadowy sawed that red panel because you've got a lot less light. She's being received, so the more light objects are receiving the list saturated things start to become, and the more it moves away from that light source, the most saturated things start to become. This limit is turning away in the more that form turns away from that light source starts getting more the pinky orange as it starts to approach its shadow side. And for this flat plane, it's gonna be a lot more subtle with this flat plane. But we've got this gradual shift from the sort of muted pinks into the more vibrant Reds and then starting to transition from that raid slightly into the red violet area. So it just straight up used some of that cooler rate for us. That volunteer aid strike from our panel because it seems to work reasonably well. If we need to adjust that we can. It's got a dark enough value and it's shifting in the right direction on a huse Kyle, we need to come back and fix that we can later on. But we'll just use this for the moment so we can start to see how that transition actually starts to help. Now, without overall image, it was very flat that back panel and all of a sudden now it's working a lot better out with their limbs world. We develop that to feel far more three dimensional on by adding in these light and dark areas to this back plane all of a sudden starting to work a lot better with that lemon starting to feel like we've gotten actual environment now, as opposed to a series of flat shapes. So things started to come together. No need to just dark in this bottom part, this back panel ever so slightly a little bit of black into this mix, I think that's going to start to look a little bit better. Just need to help that transition a little bit more. No, I've said it countless times already over the last two lessons, but you can kind of see why value ends up being the most important aspect of things. We can't just rely on our Hughes to get us out of trouble. Have to ensure that these underlying lighten shadows shapes and these gradations as well. Gradations are really the ones that are going to help bring a lot of form and depth, and everything's like mood and atmosphere were doing a landscape painting. Doing gradations is really gonna day give a strong sense of depth and perspective to things , so colors have to really come along a compliment. All this we don't really want them to overwhelm. We don't really want to have to rely on them to get out of trouble as well so you just start working on it. Cost shutter from this lemon looking very flattened, lifeless. At the moment, we've got a little bit of gradation happening where it's hitting that red panel. We've got a little bit of raid reflection that's coming back off the lemon onto that car shadow and illuminating that side a little bit. So we have to start working that in this world. Start gradually shifting that down, too, The dark areas as well. So all these little subtleties, the subtle gradations, thes subtle changes of direction and changes of planes on our forms. When we slowly start to build all of those parts up, we really start to get a sense of life with an air image. All of a sudden, those flat playing colors now have a new meaning to them, and we can get real subtle with old. This is Well, this is how we get greater realism to images. Ricana finally doing something he that is very rough in its shape and its design. I'm not gonna spend two or three l's on this. We're just sort of putting in a rough shape of the moment to get a general idea off how we go about working with both human value at the same time and a little bit of saturation as well. We can't really talk about the hoosegow without ever talking about the saturation scale as well. The kind of links values a little bit more separate because it's sort of dealing with the relationship between light and dark, which is which is on its own scale. If we have a look at the color wheel, as we've seen in during the lecture and during the past couple of lessons, we've seen that the value scale is its own thing we can separate it from but human saturation. The main objective of this entire lesson is being to sort of expand the idea of what the Huse Kyle is because, as we said in a lecture, this always been a little bit of a misconception about what out primaries can actually do in regards to painting and why we're never going to get the full spectrum of colors loan with just three options. And this red background is actually a pretty good example off. What's a good idea to have two sets of primaries, a cooler sit in a warmer, say, because if we didn't have that much cooler option for us, where Red's then there's a good chance that you would just use that warmer red. It would look a lot more money in its color. If we start just adding black into it, that saturation would be retained as much. So having that cool up read option has helped not only with the transition of values but is helped to retain the level of saturation as well gives us fog gray to control. So I think I've done pretty much all I can for this back panel for the moment so that we might start moving on to that surface of the table. Now we need to make some adjustments. Of course, you've got to locking things up a little bit on the left hand side and even de saturated a little bit, too, and start to shift our values a little bit. As we start approaching the right hand part of the table, which is catching a lot less light, it feels like we've got a greater shift in temperature. Going on here as well feels a lot warmer on this left hand side compared to what's happening on the right hand side as it starts approaching. That shows get that transition going here. But to make sure that we retain that separation as well, we don't want the shadow side of things, too. Fuel as warm is what's happening over on the left hand side here. So again, these are the talk of questions were going to have to ask ourselves, Break things down, step by step. As we are applying paint to the canvas, ask ourselves, Well, what's happening with light and shadow is that several temperature warm or cool? There are colors shifting towards the lighter side of the darkest side, and also the purity of the color is, well, what level saturation things, Aaron and just on purity. If we're working with real points, it has to be known that we're going to get a lot of different results. Depending on the choices of colors that we actually select. We start mixing those paints together. We're going to get a variety of results in terms of value, hue and saturation, depending on what type of pigment that we've chosen. There's a bunch of different red colors out there that are going to give us widely different results and we start mixing them in with yellows and blues. And it comes back to this idea of having essentially two sets of primaries. I warm on a cool estate because it gives us greater control, greater range of manipulation. We have a looking out to blues here on this palette that quite extreme, we simply used the in between blue. The average between these two dry and warm will call it up. We're never going to get the range of choice. We can push it to a certain direction so far before we start losing a lot of the saturation . Whereas if we have our two options here, we can really extend that range of temperature choices. So having an option for warm and cool sets of primaries is going to give us a wider range. I've got a wider range of blues here than if we only had that one. I've got a great deal more control. We want that middle blue In between these two, we just simply mix them together. We're looking for the full of strange of saturation is going to give us the best results so we don't have to work with two sets of primaries. Of course, there's is a great benefit also to just limiting yourself to one set. A limited palate can actually produce really good results, but also try that expanded. Say as well. See which one works for you. And don't be afraid also to use colors that you can't makes. Even if we are expanding our set of colors here, they're still gonna be times way. We're going to need a certain call that would just can't mix. So if we need that really vibrant purple color or that really vivid green or really deep sighing color, then we're much better off. In that instance, just purchasing that paint was selecting that color from the color picker in our digital program. And just using that and trying to mix it will just be too hot, too much work, and it will never get us the results they were looking for. So these are our foundation's done for our lemon, and if we just compare them now to out reference images, will is out little value study here, a saturation levels. Ah, a little off, of course, but overall, the Values game is sitting pretty close to the original image, probably a little bit too high and value on the lot side of things. The shed. Assad seems a lot closer to the original image, but we've got out foundations in place. If we need to stop making those adjustments to our values and Hughes, we're in a much better position now to be able to do it. 12. Final Details and Assignment: Okay, so this last video is just going to be some further detail into the image. Now. I've already recorded this painting process because there isn't actually a great deal left for us to cover for this lesson. So the remainder off this lesson is just going to be this painting demonstration, a little bit of music underneath it as well, So feel free to either. Just watch as this painting progresses or feel free to paint along with it as well. The one thing we do need to make mention off is the class assignment for this lesson assignment is to paint your own lemon image. Both the reference and the sketch is available in the class notes. If you want to do your own sketches perfectly fine now, this reference image was Sit around Primary Colors. We've also got a second image there that's going to be available in the Kloss notes that a sit around secondary colors, So give that a shot as well. Take the same techniques that we've used for this lemon image and try applying it to that second image. And if you want, try your own, set up his world, find some objects around your environment that are brightly colored can be primaries or secondaries. It doesn't really matter. Set this up and tried painting from those as well. So that's the assignment for this lesson. Practice that up and I'll see you in the next lesson, you know? Yeah, yeah.