Basics of Photography - Photography Terms and Types of Cameras - Digital/Film | Derek Huang | Skillshare

Basics of Photography - Photography Terms and Types of Cameras - Digital/Film

Derek Huang, Polyglot & Amateur Photographer

Basics of Photography - Photography Terms and Types of Cameras - Digital/Film

Derek Huang, Polyglot & Amateur Photographer

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7 Lessons (31m)
    • 1. Introduction to Basics of Photography

    • 2. Photography Terms Part 1

    • 3. Photography Terms Part 2

    • 4. Digital Camera

    • 5. Digital vs Film

    • 6. Why People Still Shoot Film

    • 7. Digital/Film Pros&Cons

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About This Class

When I first started with photography, I found myself constantly confused by the terms used in camera descriptions and those thrown around by photographers. As I devote more time to photography, I taught myself a lot of those concepts. 

I thought a lot of people would be in the same boat as me when first starting out. So I create this class on basics of photography. In this 30-minute class, I cover some of the important and common terms, as well as the differences and functionality of different cameras available on the market. 

Hope you enjoy my class!

Meet Your Teacher

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Derek Huang

Polyglot & Amateur Photographer


Hello, I'm Derek.

I enjoy shooting street and portrait. I have an ongoing project on Instagram.

Besides photography, another passion of mine is language. I speak 5 at the moment (Chinese/English/French/Spanish/Russian). I enjoy the process of learning foreign languages and cultures around the world.

I have a website where I share tips on language learning.

See full profile

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1. Introduction to Basics of Photography: Hello, everyone. My name is Derrick and is my course on basics of photography. So I started getting to photography after taking a one class uh, which is in charge of photography. In college, I became more interested in photography and started taking more pictures. But sometimes I find myself confused by those terms, say, in a camera description or those terms that generally thrown around by photographers. So, for example, full frame. I had no idea what full frame meant and why a full frame camera is better. So as I devote more time to photography, I thought it was necessary to figure out those terms. S I went on You go, I told myself as much as possible. I'm sure some of you can resonate with me, especially when you first start out. Therefore created this class, which is going to cover the basics basics of cameras to talk. So there are tons of different types of cameras with their own unique functionality. I'll divide the course into roughly two parts one on digital camera, and the second part is gonna be a film camera with an emphasis on digital camera, because nowadays more people use digital cameras But before we get into the cameras, uh, I'd like to talk about some of the terms because I think they're gonna help us understand the camera part better and later. So as you know, there are so many different terms and photography. So I've picked a few that I think are important and the ones I had trouble, um, trouble with when I start out. And hopefully I can talk more about different terms in the second of the third course. 2. Photography Terms Part 1 : so we'll start by talking of other key terms. Um, I'm gonna cover five he terms in this course exposure focal lens, full frame, Dynamic range and Zuma Prime Mrs. The First will talk about exposure. Exposure basically means how light or dark and images. So if you see a dark image, we'll see. We'll say it's under exposed if you see a light photo and we say it's over. Exposed, um, exposures controlled by three factors. Aperture, Shutter Spee and I was so Ah, due to the limit of time in this course, briefly mentioned them. Maybe we'll talk about those three terms more in the future, and shutter speed is the length of time your camera shutter is open. Um, exposing light onto the camera sensor. Essentially, it's how long your camera spans taking a photo. So if you shutter speeds too long, uh, moving subjects in your photo where were appear blurred along direction of motion and eh Pitter measures the opening space through which light passes in the camera, and they're usually denoted by an F number so low F number the notes at greater aperture, and that allows more light to go in, and I also stands for international organization of standard digitization, and it's standardizes sensitivity ratings for camera sensors. So, for example, during the day I was set, I so it 200 and at night I would change it to, you know, 800 or 1000 depending of the life situation for better exposure. So one rule of thumb is always, um, good exposure should be what you see in your eyes. So if you think this photo is too dark, then it's probably, you know, under exposed. So we would like to get a photo, um, in a good exposure. And here's a picture. As you can see, the one and left, it's under exposed, the one that right is overexposed, and the one that Mido is what we want. And now second term is focal in so focal ends. It's a measurement that determines how much of what you see in front of you. For example, a normal focal in 50 millimeter. That's probably what we see every day with our naked eyes than a shorter focal length. 24 millimeter captures a wide angle, so a wider angle is better for shooting landscape because because you want to capture mawr space. And now sometimes you see lenses that so if it says it's like a 7 72 200 millimeter lenses , that means it gives you a range. Um, and then you can adjust the rate range based on what you're shooting. So for 200 millimeters, you can shoot close ups. Um, for 50 or 70 millimeters, you shoot, um, you know, on the street, um, as you can imagine. So you want different lenses for different purposes? So, for example, then escape requires a different lens. A different focal, then, uh, close up, of course, requires another focal length. That's why we, uh we're talking about this because that's why sometimes people prefer specific kind of camera because it allows them to have different lenses instead of just one lens. Another picture. As you can see, the one the 1st 11 35 millimeter. It's a very close shot of this monster, and then as you as the number decreases, you can see you capture more space where you capture mawr. Uh, in this room, the focal lengths. Another thing, because you want to be able to I have the right lens for the right purpose. 3. Photography Terms Part 2: Now let's go to the second part of our terms. I'll talk about full frame, so it's in short FF. Um, so in those digital cameras, there are two type of types of sensors. Usually, they're full frame or a PSC. Um, and the cameras that are that I have full frame sensors are always more expensive and subjectively objectively better. Um, for example, sensor in a full frame camera measures 36 times 24 millimeter. Um, but then most DSLR and Marylise cameras. They have a PSC sensor, and it has its It's a lot smaller, and it measures around 22 times 15 millimetre says you can see a full frame sensor has more than 2.5 times the surface error of ah A a p A s C sensor. So what that means is, it allows war it last for ah, much larger pixels, so bigger pixels allows you to capture more light. So photography is an art of light. Pretty much so. More like gives you more options. You can, you know, produce more interesting, better pictures and ah, you know, the pros of full frame is a broader dynamic. Range would talk about dynamic range in the next slide and a better low light high ice I s O performers, meaning at night when there's, you know, limited light. Ah, full frame camera is able to produce better quality because there they have a bigger surface area, Um, of sensor. The cons, of course, is it's much more expensive. So for beginners or someone who cannot afford it, you know, for fame, four frame is not necessary in a way. And as you can see, picture on the left is taken with a full frame sensor, and the picture on the right is taken with the, um, at 1.6 times crop sensors you can see. You know, since it's cropped, it doesn't have as much pixels as a full frame picture qualities that different. And then, uh, the focal length meaning, uh, what we can see is the view you know is different, too. And nexus dynamic range shortened for D R. Dynamic Range describes the ratio between the maximum and minimum measurable light intensities, which stand which already on white and black ah, in dynamic range. When we talk about dynamic range, we can talk about that of the camera or we can talk about that of the scene. So the reason what denim range is important because, you know, not like eyes cameras. They can't perceive the same dynamic range as well as our eyes. So cameras with a greater dynamic range, um, you know, as close to our eyes as possible. Ah will retain detail to graded extent, and dynamic range is usually measured in stops. So here's a picture. As you can see, the picture on the right looks more colorful, colorful looks more I know like cooler in a way, since it's taken, you know, with a higher a camera with the higher dynamic range. And compared to the higher than immigration judge, the standard contrast looks a little bit, you know, bland just because there's not much variation in terms of the color. Next, Izumo Prime line. Let's, um, zoom meanings remain zooming out. You know, you must have seen those cameras where you can adjust. Um, you know, the focal length in prime lenses. They have a fixed focal length. So meaning if it's 20 millimeter, you can only use it for ah, 20 millimeter Focal then and zoom Lins. They have variable focal length. That's why you know, you can zoom in, zoom out in comparison prime lenses. They tend to be more compact and lightweight, since they can, you know, they just cover one focal in and soon millions is a good, you know, when you just have one camera. But then you know someone to shoot a variety of subjects such as landscape and portrait's or what I'm doing street photography. So I can't use the same focal in for landscape. Um, I can use the same, uh, focal in as of landscape for street photography, because then you will be, you know, out of focus in a way. And then my subject would not be that interesting because, you know, the focal length is different and prime lenses. They tend to have a larger maximum aperture. Um, aperture. Ah, a larger epitome means more light can come in, so this would be an advantage when you're shooting in low light conditions. Couple picked ah each picture for cleanse so and also I forgot to mention that you know, zoom lenses are usually more expensive because you know their function. Their functionality is better. Ah, and there heavier too, because you know is you can see they're bigger. Um, so on the left, you have 24 to 70 millimeter. That's the one I have. Um, meaning you. You know, you have a range of focal length, and on the right, it's only 50 millimeters, so you can only shoot of the 50 millimeter focal that. 4. Digital Camera: So now let's talk about camera. Ah, start off by talking about digital camera. There are so many different kinds of digital cameras nowadays, for example, with compact cameras, DSLR, Marylise cameras and of course, we have our iPhones, Samsung and also go pro. But in this course I'm gonna focus on compact DSLR and Marylise Just because, you know, I can compare the differences and then phone and GoPro is more specific because foam everybody has a phone and go pro is more you. It's like more use for adventure and other occasions when you really don't need a camera. So first so. But let's talk about compact hammers. Ah, compact. Come Ah, you know, you probably have seen it somewhere. Uh, it looks like the one in the picture. It's small. It's kind of like a rectangle shape. There is no, you know, a profusion of like the lenses a little bit and compact Ah, camera is also called pointed shoot because it allows anyone to capture beautiful images but simply pointing the camera at the subject and click clicking the shutter So it kind of does everything for you. You know it OTA meth medically adjust. Um it's settings so that it's well exposed every time. And then, um, you know, you don't really have much room with adjustment and anything like that. So it's simple. It's quick. Um, it's it's it's easy. You know? Uh, it's very light as well, So it fits right in your pocket or a small camera pouch. People think it's a perfect choice for photography enthusiasts who just want have the convenience of being being able to take higher resolution snapshots compared to like most smartphone cameras. But now it is. We have I from extent, which is in a way better than some of the compact cameras. So But, you know, still, but also it comes, you know, also compact hammer, there's the cons. So, for example, if you are, you know, if you want a particular, uh, setting, you can't adjust that it doesn't have the functionality. I'm also it comes with a smaller sensor because the cameras so small. So as a result, you get lower resolution. Um, the cameras, the quality is not gonna be as good as those that are from, say, a DSLR, you know, So you pick and choose depending, um, occasion. So if you want something that's easy to carry? Um, you know, never hurts to have a compact camera with you. And next is DSLR, which is probably the most common cameras digital cameras that people are using nowadays. So, you know, like you can detach. The lens is off a DSLR. That's why you know DSL. I was good because it gives you, you know, choices of lenses and for different subjects, whether it be landscape or whether it be street photography, you can attach different lenses to it so it gets the job down when it comes to of our of our variety of functions, you know, So you can, you know, set You can do different settings. For example, you can dio Why balance you can dio You know the shutter speed you can do, eh, Peter? So it gives you a lot more room to work with. And it makes your images more interesting in a way, because sometimes you know you can control what you actually want, You know? Said yes, always more expensive. So it gives the produces better image quality due to the fact that usually DSL ours have larger sensors. Um, also I talked about this in the previous section that, you know in DSLR you have the full friend DSLR Oh, you have the the crops Answer a k a. PSC Um so nowadays, professional photographers and video graph er's they mostly used SLR um, for commercial purposes. Ah, But however, um even though the sellers are more expensive and heavier, you know, there you can still find affordable. Entry level distillers are not too expensive, you know. So basically, the point is, dear sellers a suitable for almost every kind of photography out there. Whether you are a beginner, whether you want shoot lens gay whether you want shoot street photography, you can always find one. The assault of that fits you. But with the S. R you know, with better equipment, it comes with better, bigger responsibility. It requires know how so if you if you'll go is just two point and shoot, then you know there's no point in getting a DSLR. So in a way, you better know what you're doing with your dear seller. Otherwise, it's not with it, you know. And third option is Marylise camera Um, airless camera is also people call it like compact. This solares without the internal mirror that reflects light unto the sensor. That's why it's called Marylise, because there's no that there is no such mirror. Since that exists in this cellar, Fearless is relatively a new a thing. It combines two popular types of digital cameras. That, too, I just talked about it produces good image quality. It's like in between sizes, so it's smaller than DSLR lighter than did DSLR, but has way better quality than a compact camera. And also people use if a video, because it's faster, it's better. Um, and there's a picture of the comparison, the size comparison of DSLR Marylise cameras. You can see me airless cameras, lot thinner and definitely lighter. The one you know Khan of MK Marylise camera is that there's no choice of lenses so kind of mystics do. If you want to use just one camera for different uses. So if you just want to get one camera for all purposes, then DSLR might be a better choice 5. Digital vs Film: now it's the last part of the course. Film camera people always argue. You know, some people think film is better. That was shoot film. Some people say digital is better. So now let's look at this picture. Can you tell which one is shot with a digital camera? Which one is shot with a film camera? I'll give you five seconds to kind of look at it All right Now, the answer is that left one. It's shot with a digital camera. That right one is shot with a film camera. Did you get it right? It's fine if you didn't get it right. That's why I'm here to talk about it. So now that the next portion, I would talk about the differences a film camera between film camera and digital camera, and then why some people shooting film nowadays? 6. Why People Still Shoot Film : so I just want to quickly point out why I knew the one on the right is sharp with a film camera. Hey, some my limited knowledge of, you know, different cameras and film versus digital. The reason why I think the one that right this film is because if you look at the background, it looks kind of grainy. You know, Uh, that's one big characteristic of the film. So now let's talk about the characteristics of the film. So there is a few a list of you. First, there is a magenta skin tone, so the skin tone looks a little bit different. It looks closer. I don't know if it's closer to the real life. It's got like, um, a gentle tone to it. And then skin complexion looks blotchy. Um, there's less than immigration, you know, that makes the picture looks more normal because usually in your real life, I don't know. There is, for example, the picture I just showed you there shouldn't be that much, um, dynamic range because it's it's shot in like a daylight, and it opens shadows when it's over, exposed. And also there's this imperfection that brings more charm to image because I think if you, you know, go go The process of the film, which is very different from digital there is, you know, there exists imperfections, and some people love it about the family because imperfections brings more charm. And last, Minnelli's film feels more grainy. Uh, that's how I had identified the film. And overall, many people think there is a certain aesthetic and look, you know, to the film that this joke and never achieve. And that's part of the reason why some people are still shooting film nowadays, even though there are so many good digital cameras out. Let's talk about why people still shoot film first, of course, is not nausea. So your grandparent's you felt back then there was no digital camera and a lot of the, you know, the negatives you get. You dig out of the basement. They're from film. So a lot of people shoot because, you know, because of this one time, they saw a negative. And then that kind of started their passion for photography. And it's a meth methodology meth methodical approach. So as you know, a typical roll of film only has about 24 exposures so you can just click, click, click um, with whom? You have to be very smart and methodical about it. Because then you Bernie money pretty much, um so that that makes people more, you know, excited about photography and also the pictures that permanent. So they're stored in negatives in a way you can make digital permanent as well. For example, you can put it in, like out, but it's not physically permanent. And some people love to hope. You know, the physics, physics, the physical natives. The next film cameras at cheaper mm depends, but usually yet films film cameras at cheaper and usually they're more compact, um, and lighter than a DSLR. Next is it just looks better. As I said, some people think there's a certain pathetic that digital cameras can never achieve. So for them, films look better. Another reason would be they want to be stand out. They want to be different. They want to stand out. Um, because there's the majority of the photographers nowadays. Shoot digital. So when you see someone shooting film, you know it's you sent out because you're like the minority of the photographer community. I love this about film. There is this element of surprise. You can't review photos because some people, when they shoot digital immediately after they take a few snaps, they started checking the pictures. I don't like that. And I like that about film because there is always this element of surprise. You know, you could shoot, are can shoot two pictures and then you didn't really think about it thing when you actually see the results, one of them might be really good. So you never know. Not last but not least, shooting film ings. You have to know every aspect of what you're doing because there's no like viewfinder. There's no such saying. You can pretty much, you know, see the result as you shoot. So you have to adjust the aperture just how you know everything works. So you have to make sure you know everything what you're doing. You have to make sure every aspect is one point, because otherwise they would look horrible when you get them out. And that's not good, because it costs money. So, yeah, here are eight reasons why people are still shooting film nowadays. 7. Digital/Film Pros&Cons: Now we would talk about the advantages and disadvantages of film and, um, Digital. The first aspect would be resolution because it's important. People always want a better resolution, right? So with digital image sensors, we determined resolution by counting the number of pixels within a given area. However, Jim doesn't have pixels. So analysis of films resolving power is calculated through angular resolution and after doing all kinds of tests, um, carried out by industry experts. So they find out that you know, 35 millimeter film camera, which is the most common one that you pick up from the flea market. It's probably not gonna up perform the latest digital cameras. Iver. If you're shooting film with medium or large formats, then they can deliver, um, and exceed the best resolution off a digital camera. Okay, so the second aspect is digital noise slash film grain. So did it. Annoys or film grain is usually the random appearance of you know, those small textures with being of to talk within a photo with the film. Grain is the result of small chemical particles that have not received enough light, and with digital, uh, with the image sensors, noise is the result of one that signals created by the cameras digital's, uh, circular system. And generally the result shows that digital has less noise. Like I mentioned before, some people actually prefer the more noise look with the film, so it's very subjective. Third aspect is dynamic range use of E. There used to be like a huge debate, you know, about dynamic range. But nowadays this is no longer that there is no longer the huge debate once was in the past and in that apartment did you know, always performs better. Um, then too eso there is good in bag. No, some people don't like the look of hi did digit dynamic range again its subject last cause and convenience. This one, um digital always, you know, has a much more expensive upfront costs because you're purchasing expensive digital camera . However, assume cameras always cheap when you first get it. But you know, people we should film, they will spend a lot of a lot of money film rose and development costs. Um, as for digital shooters, you know, they don't have to worry about that because they just can't thinking just plugging into their lot Laptop and convert the pictures into, You know, whatever they have, uh, they could just save it in USB, so it depends. You know, um, overall, in the long run, it depends on how often you, you know, develop films and stuff like that. Thanks, guys. This is the end of the course. Thank you for listening. If you made it to the end. I hope that you really learn something today. Really happy to do more of these. Just let me know in the comments section so you can check out my I just started off, so But you can so check out my work on my instagram. It's It's at the underscore, HC. Why? Uh, yeah. Thank you.