Basics of Animation with Tom Bancroft | Tom Bancroft | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

5 Lessons (1h 4m)
    • 1. Basics of Animation Introduction

    • 2. Animation Concepts

    • 3. Timing and Spacing 1

    • 4. Timing and Spacing 2

    • 5. Assignment

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

If you have been a student or fan of animation, you have certainly heard about the Principles of Animation that were introduced by Frank and Ollie in their book the Illusion of Life. After decades of studying and teaching animation, Tom Bancroft has some new ideas about how we should be looking at those animation principles.  In fact, when it comes to animating – to moving characters – there are two principles that are more important than all the rest. The other principles are very important, but these two principles are the key.  In this course, Tom Bancroft explains the basics of animation and these foundational principles that are key to animation.

This is a great opportunity to learn from a professional animator with decades of industry experience. During 11 years at Disney, Tom Bancroft had the opportunity to contribute to some classic films including, “Beauty and the Beast,” “The Lion King,” “Aladdin”, “Mulan”, and “Brother Bear”. He was also a character designer and director for Big Idea Entertainment, makers of the family-friendly “Veggietales” video series.  The experience at Disney, writing art instruction books and teaching at a university and online has given Tom  a unique perspective on teaching the principles of animation.  In this class, Tom will impart some of that knowledge to you!

In this Basics of Animation video course, Tom Bancroft, teaches the basic concepts to get you started in animation.  In these video lessons, Tom will take a different look at the twelve principles of animation, beginning concepts and what in takes to create movement.  By focusing on principles that create the illusion of movement, Tom helps you to get the basics down before you move onto more advanced principles.

Video 1: Introduction

Video 2: Background & Animation Concepts

Lesson 2:  Spacing & Timing Part 1
In the video lesson, Tom shows how to use spacing and timing to move objects in animation. Other Topics include slow-ins, slow-outs and frames.

Lesson 3:  Spacing & Timing Part 2
In this video lesson, Tom walks through the process of animation using a rolling ball. He then increases the complexity and has the ball moving on a roller coaster.  

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Tom Bancroft

Author/ Character Designer/ Animator/ Director


Tom Bancroft has almost 25 years of experience in the animation industry, most of which was for Walt Disney Feature Animation where he was an animator for 11 years. He has been nominated for Annie and Rueben awards, spoken at the Kennedy Center and awarded an entry into the Chicago Children's Film Festival.

While at Disney, Bancroft had the opportunity to contribute his talents to 10 animated feature films, five animated shorts, and numerous special projects and commercials. Among the classic films on which he worked are, "Beauty and the Beast," "The Lion King," "Aladdin," "Mulan" and "Brother Bear." He was also a character designer and director for Big Idea Productions, makers of the family-friendly "Veggietales" video series.

In 2005, Bancroft had his popular art instruc... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Basics of Animation Introduction: I have Tom Bancroft, and I've worked at Disney for 12 years as an animator, and in this course I want to bring you into the basics of animation. And I'm talking about hand drawn animation. I worked on Beauty and the Beast, Lion King, Aladdin, Pocahontas. And throughout all those years in those films, I learned a lot of really interesting things and key things to make your animation stand out. But we're going to talk about the basics. And really, you can't go anywhere up the scale of ability and talent and animation without knowing the basics. So in this, we're gonna talk about timing and spacing. What, and with spacing, that's really hard right is when once you've done that first drawing. Okay, all right here is gonna be here. Lay down the next piece of paper or the next frame, and draw the next one. Where do we put it? How far do I move that arm up? When I'm doing an action like hitting a ball or something like that, those kind of concepts start become more sent. Second nature, them or you enemy. But also, the more you analyze actions. And so we're gonna talk about that. We're gonna talk about how you space things, the timing, and how do you do a slow in and kind of create something kind of coming up into oppose and slowing into. You really read that pose and then zipping into the next pose? All those concepts are really important and much needed in your animation. I think you're really gonna enjoy this and welcome to the basics of animation. Good luck. 2. Animation Concepts: Hi, I'm Tom Bancroft. Welcome to the basics of animation, this class and especially this this particular video is really gonna go into the very beginning concepts of what creates movement. But today we really want to get dig into animation. Uh, this is one of the subjects. Even though I have been animating now for about 30 years, it's probably one of the hardest subjects to talk about. It's one that we've gotten probably the most requests about having So our instruction for it seems like a no brainer that I would want to jump into it. But I'll tell you why. I've been, uh, holding off. One has been technology for you at home to be able to animate from your home from your home office or at school or wherever you are. Um, we had to kind of get to the point where it was more accessible. And I think we're at that point now in time where you can, uh, using. I've had pro or a surface and have an app that's very inexpensive or free and be able to create this thes animation assignments. So I really hope that you will find that way to produce this animation and then exported as a Navy IR movie file and be able to upload it so that people can see your work. So that's gonna be one of the reasons why we've kind of waited to do this. Um, and we'll have some instruction on how to do that with some suggestions on ways to go about it. But there's many different ways and many different software out there, but secondly, is animation is complex. My background is to the animation, but, like I said, have also done CG animation, and we're gonna get into why. I feel like, uh, people have not necessarily given good instruction in animation. And I've really been thinking about it now for a few months on how to go about teaching the basics of animation. Because again that's been one of the most requested things on top by pro. The most requested subjects is I want to start animating How do I start? And so this. That's exactly what this lesson is all about. It's gonna give you the basics of animation, but let's also back up a little bit. I want to talk a little bit about the concept of animation. It goes back. Obviously, Teoh. Very early days of film animation is some of the very first film that was shot was animation not live action, believe or not, And so it goes back all the way to the beginning of film. Our frame rates that we refer to every day be a 24 frames per second to 30 frames per 2nd 24 frames per second was filmed when video came along. It got switched or converted to 30 frames per second. Just that's kind of all you need to know about frame rate is that your average film on is created and even TV Syriza's generally 24 frames for a second animation is generally 24 frames per second. The 30 frames per second would be more for a lot of the TV. Live action protections and things like that is that you start seeing that even in video games, a lot of times it's 30 frames for a second. There's a lot of background technical issues of why that is, and all that, but just just kind of make those two delineations very simply. That's kind of where that comes from now. The the animation principles, though, that we've all been. We've heard about 12 principles of animation now that goes back to the early days of Walt Disney feature animation. And it wasn't wall himself, but his animators that created these 12 principles and the two specifically, We're Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston. They wrote the book that became the Bible for animation, which was the illusion of life that came out. And I think the early eighties on in that book, that's where they first for the first time kind of stated these 12 principles. Now you could say there's more and there are. There's more principles, there's nor terminology that goes into animation on especially now in the CG animation world. There's even more terminology, nesting principles but terminology that has been created since then. But those 12 principles are still the foundation, and this is a very important point that I want you here. Those 12 principles are not out of oak those air still in use today, and they're the ones that CG animators use stop motion animators use and traditional animators. So none of this is old school too old to learn that things were outdated. This is all terminology and things that you need to know what whichever direction you go into. So the other part of history, which I just touched on a little bit, is what are the different kinds of animation? There's still a lot of people that get confused as faras when they're watching an animated feature film or cartoon like what kind of animation technology or technique was used to create that film. So the three big ones that I want to just talk about loosely is Stop motion, a traditional animation or two D animation and then c g or three D animation. So let's talk about those three. So on this side is CG animation. This. Most of the films the future films you see the Pixar Films Up Inside Out Incredibles. Those films are all CG animation, and I say CG because, really, while most people call it three D animation, that's not exactly accurate term for it because three D, when you refer to that, is usually the is when you have the eyeglasses and you actually see things that created, they've swept the colors or whatever and created that dimensionality of three D, and so it's not really an accurate term. CG animation is computer graphics, and that's where a computer animation comes out of out of that world of computer graphics and so really CG is probably the more accurate term. The other one is two D animation. So Tooty is our traditional animation is another term that is interchangeable, and that's where I come from. That's my background is traditional animation. That's the older Disney films, right? So anywhere from all the way back to Snow White to all the way up to one of the last Disney features, at least which would have been the winning the Poo feature are The Princess and the Frog. But, of course, the Beauty and the Beasts and the Aladdin's and Lying Kings. Those films, along with over DreamWorks films like Prince of Egypt and Things Like That, were All to Me or traditional animated feature films. Now we still see to the animation alive and well in TV production. So a lot of the TV shows that you enjoy from like Steven Universe SpongeBob most probably 80 to 90% of them are all still traditionally animated or or what we call two D animation. Now there's a sub sub offshoot of two D, which is what we call flash animation or puppet animation. Or, UM, you know, things like that and that and those and even tune Boom harmony is a form of that, and that's usually like vector based, the puppet animation that they refer to in that and T would be where you have, like, there's a little bit of, ah, you know, a build to the to the drawing. But it's still flat to the artwork, and you're just being able to move it around, kind of like in the computer like a puppet, so those terms can kind of start getting a little blurred. But that is all still, within the two D world. Were drawing need to be created first to make that animation kind of come to life, then the last one is is a puppet animation or stop motion animation. Now stop motion animation is really the best term for that. That's the one that goes all the way back to the beginning of film. Some of the very first animation it was ever created. Waas was stop motion animation and those air films like even in the live action films of the early say Twenties and thirties and forties like King Kong, the very first King Kong and Ray Harryhausen was a famous stop motion animator where he built these puppets that really had socks, sockets and stuff. They actually had an armature to them, and he can move them one frame at a time. And you still see stop motion in the like of films like Coraline and Paranorman and things like that. Some of those films, um, narrow stop motion animation. So that's still alive and kicking. So that was some of the background that I kind of wanted you to know, because there are some confusions about the history of animation a little bit, but also what are the different forms? And so, really, if you just kind of categorize them into those 33 terms, I think that's all you need to know. As faras, what kind animation is You know, a lot of my examples that I'm gonna be showing you are gonna be hand drawn. It is my background, but I also think that it's baby just an easier way to communicate. Some of these basic principles is with drawings and two D animation. And so that's what a lot of this class is gonna be about. But I don't want you to think that it only applies to two D, as I mentioned before. Ah, lot of these 12 principles, all of them still apply to getting the best performance out of a character in CG animation or stop motion animation also. So please don't think that you have to be a great artist. That were. Then you have to be a great even two d animator. The better you are at those things I will say will make you a better say CG or stop motion animator because the principles really do translate very well, so But let's move along into this and get into the nitty gritty. So, uh, again as I went back and forth on how to go about teaching this class and how to teach the basics of animation, I'll tell you a little story, which is the very first time I did this. I'd been at Disney for this, was back in the nineties and have been at Disney now, at that point, probably four or five years, and I was a beginning animator and Disney did a lot of educational things with different schools and functions and things, and they would get asked to bring somebody over to talk about animation. And so I I was elected do one of these trips, and this trip was to the Washington. I was going to speak at the Kennedy Center, and that was really exciting to me. It was one of the very first trips I was doing officially as like a Disney animator. And one of the things was I was gonna speak Teoh, a bunch of students and most of war, elementary age not too young, but they weren't quite high school. A couple were still in high school, but in general this sort of, I don't know about 8 to 12 or 14 age, which was a good group to talk to, and a lot of them were artists. So what I did was I lectured about my career, and I talked about how Disney animated films were made and just the basics and things like that. But then after that, a really intense group, about 50 of them, the hand picked and their instructors. A lot of these are teachers that were from different schools around Washington. I was going to give a workshop. So for that more intimate group of, say, 50 people, I was going to give a workshop and it was gonna be about this, the basics of animation. And so I thought, Well, this is easy. I must admit, I didn't really do any studying for it. I didn't really create any notes. I thought, Well, this is the easiest thing in the world. Been doing it for at least five or six years. By that point, I just thought it was a pro, and I could just go in there and just teach him, and I did in that I had a white board there and they had a bunch of tables there, and they actually bought them peg strips and paper so they could be all ready to go and create their animation. And pencils were all on their tables. Two. And so I went through on this white board and talked about the principles of animation and told them how to do the bouncing ball assignment. A lot of you guys have seen that in a lot of books like The Preston Blair Book and even I think Frank and only evident in the illusion of life and on we will be talking about it later on. But the bouncing ball assignment really encompasses about 345 of the main kind of principles of animation that you need to know to create movement. And so I'm going through that on a white board. I'm drawing the first drawing of the ball here, and then I draw here. And then there's the fifth, and here's six of them going through the whole process, and I'm trying to extract them so that they're doing it as I'm watching or what as you're watching me, they're doing it also and what I realized when I started walking around after it. Given that instruction to look at everybody's assignments, about half the crowd recreated what I drew on one piece of paper. They hadn't. I forgot to mention the thing to put down the next piece of paper, due the next drawing and then the next piece of paper, and then do that drawing and then the next, so that at the end you have a stack of 10 12 15 drawings that you could flip to create the illusion of movement. It was one of the most key and won't most basic kind of concepts. But I completely forgot because I learned it very early on in my in my career, but I wasn't communicating it. And so that's why I really feel like this is a hard subject to talk about and to boil down . Very what can be complex, constant concepts and start over again kind of restarting the beginning and say, OK, this is a pencil. This is a paper we put the next piece of paper on. And so that's kind of where I'm coming from. I told that story to say I've really thought about these 12 principles and how we communicate them, and I really feel like many places tutorials. You see it gleans over some of these very important concepts, and I want to dig a little deeper and kind of, uh, cut him up into pieces a little bit for you. That's what we're gonna do next. Okay, As I was saying, a lot of how people teach thes concept of the 12 principles animation, we just kind of go through them all. And here's this one, and here's this one here is this one, and I'll get to what the all those are. But what gets gleaned over a lot is the fact that only two of those concepts are what actually create The illusion of movement is backing up a little bit what we're really doing . We were creating animation is creating the illusion of movement. Obviously, that character, but being drawn or in a computer it's not really alive. Whether we caught two D drawing or three D animation on a computer, it's not even really three D in the computer, right? We're still seeing on a flat screen. And so it's just appearing to be three D. But it's really a two d plane that we're viewing it on, just like we're looking into a piece of paper when I do a drawing. So they're really not that different, Um, but certainly thinking about all 12 principles at once is the most intimidating thing. So when I teach beginning animation classes like this one, what the first thing I see in the eyes of the students is a little bit of fear, because if I just go down these 12 principles, the one thing that you're going to do first is you're gonna try and consider every single one as your drawing or as you're on the computer and you're going to either miss a few of them or you're just gonna get so intimidated by the pressure of knowing all 12 of those that it it starts kind of bogging you down and you start creating stiff performances and stuff like that. So this class is gonna be so basic. We're not getting into the performance side of animation. We really are talking about movement on. That's the other thing is that people layer on performance things to a little too soon. What I want to talk about are the 1st 2 principles, and we'll get into the other 12 literally these air the 12 which is, you know, there's squash and stretch, and there's solid drawing and there's arcs and drag an overlap and follow through. Those are just a few of them. The two that really matter the most is spacing and timing. Now spacing isn't in the book The Franken Ali book for the first that they wrote about the 12 principles spacing is I mean, timing isn't timing is one of the 12. But spacing isn't what they consider spacing. They talk about with the example of slogans and slow outs. But I'm gonna talk about spacing because spacing and timing those two concepts are the key to creating all movement. We can talk about the most basic thing of a square moving from left to right across the page or a screen and all that is intel this spacing and timing, Um, but we can talk about then even more complex things. And as we get into the more complex things like character performance like myself right now , as I'm talking to you and I'm moving my arms around, I'm moving on arcs. I'm I'm creating dialogue with my mouth, those air all more, much more intermediate to expert kind of concepts. So but let's talk about the 1st 2 which is the the two that really get, uh, kind of moved past very quickly, and one of them is spacing, and so we'll start with spacing in just a second. But I want to talk about that concept first, because through that we also get the timing. Um, and also it's the concept that when you're sitting down to do your first animation. I guarantee you, when you do that first, drawing your great I know how to do this. The second drawing is the hard part, right? Where do I put that second drawing? And that question that you have in your head at that moment is one that everybody who's first animated for the very first time, even the intermediate to even possibly the master has hits them right away. And that second drawing is Where do I place it where I move. If it's just even part of a drawing like the arm, how high up do I need to draw in this next drawing? This did, giving deeper into spacing a time he's gonna help you answer those questions, doesn't give all the answers, but I don't want us to clean over it. We need to talk about it, and that's what this class is all about. So let's get drawing 3. Timing and Spacing 1: All right. So, spacing and timing, we're gonna start with spacing. So now imagine that this line here is sort of the on your page on your screen through the middle here, and this ball is your first drawing, and you're gonna end up with it over here. So this is imagine, that's the same size. But you wanted to start there and go there. You can get it there so many different ways. But what? What it's gonna take is moving, of course, doing more drawings in between. So spacing is gonna be involved. So I know if I'm starting here and ending here, um, I can do, Let's say, uh, we'll do fairly. I'm just do this straight ahead and we'll put one here, and then we'll put one here. No one here. They will put one here. Now, what I've created here is, and now remember, I'm gonna I'm gonna show you something really quick because because remember my story that I told of being a Kennedy center. Now, I want you to remember I have these drawings here they've already pre done because this is just to remind you that in this example, just like I was talking about in the Kennedy Center. I want you to realize that these are supposed to be on different pages or indifferent frame , so that would really look like this. The first drawing would be here. This drawing would be on another piece of paper or different frame on the computer. This one would be on a separate, different level or layer frame. And so that way I would end up with them moving across the page. You can see that like that. So I'm only showing you that just to say right off the top of the bat before we get into this, that these air not supposed to be all of one, Frank, that these were separate frames or several separate pieces of paper. Separate drawings. Okay, I'm just doing them together as an example. So if this was drawing one that's drawing, too, that's drawing three. That's drawing 45 and six. Okay, so what I've created here is my first animation. If I were to shoot each one of these frames and then view it, it would go across the page you would animate from there to there. Now, what it won't do is have any kind of feeling of anything less than even timing. So this would be completely even. Because while I didn't measure in general, these are about the same amount of space. Correct. So this would give me a very even pace. Okay, Now, here's some ways to change that. So I'm gonna start with again. This would be my first drawing. We're gonna call this the last drawing, and what I'm gonna do now is I'm gonna do same thing. I want to fill this gap with other drawings. But what if I did this? This is our first concept of using spacing to create timing. So now we're not. This was spacing. This is spacing also. But now we're starting to include the concept of timing because I have 123 on Lee four drawings now with much more space in between. Correct. So what I have now is still even timing is still even, but it's much quicker. It's a very basic concept, but one that gets gleaned over often in that with you create timing through spacing. That's one way to do. Great timing is through spacing and controlling spacing. So we're gonna get to the 2nd 1 in just a second. But there's only two ways to create timing on that spacing, and the 2nd 1 will get to in a second. Now, I want to keep talking about spacing. So here's another line. And again, the second example of the third example, which is Start there and here, Um, and now we're going to introduce the idea of obviously this is gonna go much faster. That was the one thing I didn't mention. This is even timing, even timing, but much faster writes gonna get there much faster. The distance it's going is his wider, So it's gonna become a faster movement. So now what do we do? We can create. Um, What I'm gonna call were a slow in over here, which is I'm going to copy this. I'm gonna start my next drawing here. Now, I'm gonna put a little bit of this in. There were also now the next ball number three. This 123 Look at the distance has changed. So it's slower here. Faster here, and we're gonna have this would be about the same distance, but pretty far away. And then we're going to start overlap E so five starts slowing down considerably. Six is very is overlapping those to remember. These are different levels so we can overlap them. And then maybe I'll even do another one here, which would be seven. And then basically here. You can't see it at all. But there's eight, and then our last drawing that's already there. Nine. And what I've done now is is it is in betweens. Yes, and we'll get into that I want. I don't want to think about keys or breakdowns or in between those terms you probably already heard, and we're gonna get to those another time. But right now, when you look at every drawing as being equal, and that's because I want you to consider these concepts are spacing in timing and not necessarily think about them as keys breakdowns. Okay, obviously this is a key, and that's a key in all of these examples, because it's where it's starting. It's where it's stopping, and so that's all you really need to know. That makes the more important is it's starting the stops, but I want you now. Consider that the drawings in between, which is where the word in between comes from, uh, are doing something new that these weren't again. These were even timing. Now I've created timing. That's not even What I have now is a slight slow out here. Then it gets going faster. And then it really slows down here as he's start to overlap and they kind of are going half , half, half, half there. They're slowing down incrementally. And what that's doing is again. It's creating timing through spacing. But it's doing in an even more varied way. So these air, even both of these examples one and two but three is creating timing. That's not even so. This is varied, very timing. Is this the introduction of that here? Now that that sounds like very, very simple concepts? Right? And it is. But it's not simple, though It's basic. It's, I think there's nothing simple about animation, but it is a very beginner concept, but it's something that gets lost a lot when you start converting these balls into characters. Um, so what else can we do? We can now add for number four here. This is our star, and this is our stop. We can now, this will be example for again. I want to add very timing to this. And what I'll do is I'll create a slow out. This is called a Slow Out is one of the 12 principal concepts, but it really does just involve these two concepts facing in timing and a slow in here. So the slow out again, I'm just gonna do this straight ahead is will be here. We're gonna barely start moving again. Remember this on another piece of paper And then we're gonna make that gap slightly bigger and then slightly bigger, like that. Look, see how they're barely overlapping now and then here. Maybe it's just barely touching. That's creating a strong slow were slow. It started to move faster. Then we really get the gap going. Really get to get going here and then say, Then we do. We kind of re create what we did here, which is the slow in. And then we start. Really, uh, you know, half, half. Ah, basically to where can you can't see it? At least not in this illustration. But now we have a slow out slung out of the start position and going fast and then slowing it. And when you think of a pendulum, right? A pendulum that goes back and forth, like on a clock. That's exactly what it's doing. It's a, uh, if this is sort of the start position and that's the stopped position. It's going back and forth like that. But it's slowing in here, slowing into this position. And as it goes this way, it's slowing into this position. But it also is repeating that, as it comes back down is slowing out right and then moving faster in the middle. It's slowing in, slowing out, slowing in, slowing out, so you can do the same thing with this ball here. If this was going to roll across the page, it's going to slow out, go faster, slow in. Then you can reverse the drawings, reshoot them, going the other direction, same drawings. And now it's going to slow out, go fast and slow it, and so you'll get the same kind of feeling that you would in this pendulum example. The only difference is this has got an arc to it created an arc. This is going on a straight line that's doing the exact same thing, these exact same principles. So what is the second principle to tie me. Okay, The only other way that we can change the speed of our animation is to get out of here. His frames. So changing the frame count is how you can also do it. So let me show you in this example here that have already drawn uh, this was maybe a little bit clear is that I'll start with the even one if I shoot this for , uh, well, say, four frames that X represents frames, but this one in the mill only for one frame. And this 1 may be one frame. And then this 12 frames on that 12 frames. And this 1 may be again four frames And what I mean by that. Okay, So frames there's 24 frames per second. Okay, 24 frames per second makes a second of time, uh, in film. And, uh, that's all you need to know. A Sfar how long that is. So that's equals one second. Okay, So if there's 24 frames per second, what that means is is that there's that many frames for a second, that many drawings. If we're gonna do something on what I call ones, which is what the's are. If I shot this on film or on under my camera, think of it very traditionally. Uh, like a photographer would shoot one drawing for one frame, one frame, one frame, one frame that's called once and a meeting on once. When you say I'm animating on twos, that means that you're animating the same drawings. But now I'm gonna expose this for two frames, two frames, two frames and two frames. And that means that now that's gonna move. What twice a slow as if it is if it was shot once. Now back to this example, this is a little bit more complex. So if I said I shot this for four frames and shot is obviously an old terminology, but on a computer you would just change it to four frames. Um, what that means is that's gonna be exposed or seen by our I for four frames rather than one frame. This one's gonna be such seen by our eye for two frames. This one's gonna be seen on Lee for one frame. That drawing is only seen for one frame, one frame again. Here's two frames that will see this drawing and in this one is four frames and know. This sounds very basic, but it becomes the framework for how you figure out your timing. And what I've created here is, in a way, what I've done with this very even timely timed drawing. If I were to shoot this at this timing, well, I end up with, believe it or not is very close to this. No, it won't be a smooth because that more drawings creates more smoothness, right? But while there's less drawings and they're evenly spaced because I've now time them out for four frames, two frames, one friends that's descending and then one frame two friends, four frames that's us ending in the amount of time we're seeing it. I'm creating this slow it slow out and slow in, just through my home explosion that frames. So now I've added onto this concept of spacing with frame count, and I'm creating almost the exact same thing, the same feeling that this will have, at least in time again. This will be much smoother because there's more drawings that to make this feel very smooth , but this will give us the same amount of time in the same general feeling. It's just gonna be what we come or posed out you wanted. You'd want to add these in betweens in, in between these drawings to get this as your final result. But this will feel the same way because of were using spacing and frames to define our timing. Well, sorry we're not using spacing again. This is even spacing. But we are using frames to create, uh, timing. So now we can push that even further and make this even slower now that we already have built in timing. This is what I like to call built in timing where we have just through spacing, we've created timing how many drawings we created. We created more drawings, and we space them where the closer together here and closer together here, further apart in here that's given us timing, but add frames to that too. Now, if you're drawing one is on for two frames. Your drawing too that's very close Here is to drawing three is too. And then I start going to one one frame, one frame, one frame, one frame and then keep one from here, but then go to to to to What I'm gonna get is even slower, so very slow. And then it takes up and then goes very slow. So just using, controlling the spacing and the amount of frames that we used, I get I can push it even further and get even more very timing out of that. Really, This is the concept, spacing and timing. There's gonna influence everything you do in animation. So I wanted to go over that very slowly and very methodically. And I'm hoping that you get this concept because as we move forward, this is gonna get repeated over and over again, but in more complex ways. 4. Timing and Spacing 2: Okay, so now we're over here. And what I want to show you now is basically what I just showed you on the drawing table. I want to put it to work here and and show you the examples that I just gave you. But you let you see it in motion. So we're over here on my sin Teak. We're using a computer program. It's still two d animation. This is hopefully the way you're going to do it. This is probably the more expensive version of that. This is sort of the professional level, but this is everything I'm doing here you can do on on and iPad or anything with the very inexpensive app or even some free ones. So again, search out that the best way to do that? I'm not teaching about how to Teoh use software. So I'm gonna be going through things here that I'm not exactly explaining of how I'm doing it because of what I want you to learn is about spacing and timing, not about how to use this software. So this is TV paint software. It's a good software. If you want to do some very high end sort of feature animation quality to the animation, but let's dive into it a little bit here. So what I've created here is basically what I created on that sheet of paper, which is just a line that's gonna be my line. What? I'm gonna call my background now. I'm gonna create my drawing A what? Should be my start position. And I'm gonna jump ahead to my last drawing, which is gonna be over Sorry, Like table better so I can see things. So say that this of this trying iss the last one. Okay, drawing 11 over here is right here. I'm just eyeballing it, but I'm making about the same size. Okay, so now I have I mean, a foot between a and there's my first drawing. There's my last drawing. I can now go in and do what I'm gonna I'm gonna give you a little bit of terminology here too. So this would be a key. I'll put that k there, and then this drawing would be a key. Um, And now, when I when I want to add my middle in betweens, I can't even get a little bit fancy. And I'm gonna change my color here and do them in a different color that I could call this metal one. I'll put one right in the middle. Groups started throwing it on the wrong frame. I go to you sake, drawing number six year. And we'll call that the middle drawing that in blue. We'll call that a breakdown, Some breakdown just because it's breaking down the movement from this key to AKI Uh uh, this key and read to this key over here and read. And so that breakdown, which is drawing number six, is doing that's breaking it down. So I put it in the middle, so just creating even timing, Um, And so right now, what I'm gonna do then is going to be a little bit more creative. So now I have 1234 drawings in between this first key and this breakdown. And so with those four drawings, those in betweens, uh, maybe I'll do those in, uh, green. Well, I'll change my color for these in betweens. So I have, like I said between kay and be here this 1st 1st drawing, and in this middle, I have four drawing. So what I'll do is I'll work backwards. And what I'll do is I'll create these kind of even. So this is just a slight bit of overlap. And that would be drawing number five. This drawing them before will be again. Pretty even. It'll have maybe just a slight bit more of overlap. Withdrawing five. We're going backwards again. Here's drawing three. You know, this is gonna have you the more overlap. Basically, halfway in between my first drawing and my third drive. And now number two is gonna be even more halfway in between drawing one and three and that's gonna give me a real may slow it. So I just created a slowing. Now I'm gonna flip through that. You can see it, right? Starting to move on. Let's do the same over here. So for I have 1234 drawings between my breakdown there and my last key. So for those four drawings and I'm gonna work forward, I'm gonna do again. Kind of copy what I did before, Which is this one barely touching. So these three in the middle are gonna be pretty even, right? But they're fast. They're the faster paced drawings. And then now I'm gonna start overlapping more between. This is still pretty evenly spaced between here. But look, it's starting overlap that last trying. So it is slowing it already. And again. I'm gonna cut this in half. Maybe. Maybe I'll even kind of make this a little closer to the last drawing because you can see it's it's really starting to slow. I have two more drawings, so I'm gonna know half this one halfway in between this one and the last one and one more drawing and to that 1/2 way too. So it's gonna have even even a little bit more of a slow in at the end here than that I had at the beginning. Okay, Now, uh, if you can see down here in the timeline, each one of these is on for one frame and you can tell that because it's it says that says 1234567 So there's 11 drawings, all in ones. All right, so now we have it all animated, and we have a nice slow out from the first position. It goes, the quicker in the middle, and then a slow in at the a t the end you can see that in these drawings right now. Nice spacing. Bigger gaps in the middle. Um, I erased the B in the case. There they were a little distracting. The house exciting part where we get a hit play and watch it move. We'll get there. So I thought that was a lot quicker and you thought it was gonna be. And what we have here, though, you can see it's a little slower at the beginning. A little slower at the end. Really kind of fast up to be in the middle there. All right, But now what? We have timing wise. Let's talk about timing. So we've talked about spacing. Let's go back to the timing again. What we have is very even timing and that everything is on for one frame and we can see that here in the timeline they're all 12345 all the way across. So in this program, the way you make you can make, you can extend here and now that frame drawing one, I'm gonna turn off the the onion skinning now drawing one is on for two frames. I'll make drawing two on for two and so again, that's gonna give it even slower in this middle part. And as it starts picking up speed here in transition into once and so I'll keep these two on for 11 and then here I might start slowing it down and make that two to to two and in the last one for two. Okay, now watch the difference. When I go back to the beginning radically different, right stretch out my background. Okay? Wow, Radically different, right? So now we're seeing really a much better timing for this, A little bit more natural feeling of it's still slowing out, and actually, it's slowing out even more. But we're getting a nice zip in the middle now, and really, that zip was already there. It was built into the drawings. I just kept those on for one frames those couple in the middle, as you can see here, drawing five and drawing six or still on ones. And but all the rest I put on two twos. The slow it, the slow out in the slow in. That really illustrates what we're talking about a second ago on paper, let's go even further, and I'm gonna do like the first frame on for six frames and the last drawing, I'm gonna add making a six frames and the drawing before it. I'm gonna make it on four frames. This is just being more noticeable. And the drawing over here, the one slowing out of this one. I'll put four frames there. Watch the difference. Well, again, I'm gonna stretch out by my background a little bit. War. Here we go. Look at that. So you can really see the difference. Now, you remember the 1st 1 where it was Just zip it. Now we have a nice move, but look at that night, zip in the middle like you can really feel that zip. And I didn't change the middle that I I change the ends. I added more time to the slow out and the slow end, and it made the middle part Phil faster. It's not. It's exact same drawings and the same timing seems facing, but because it's slower on the beginning of the and it feels like has a boom or zip. So that's the kind of thing I want you to do with timing and spacing is play with it really kind of think about. The difference of the feeling is is pretty big when you're talking about how many frames you had to a drawing and the distance you make between the drawings. All right now I want to add, now that we've done that and we've talked about timing and spacing before we go into the other 10 of the 12 principles. And again, those those are all things that will just make make your animation smoother, nicer, more finesse, more subtlety. But really, I want to lock in the timing and spacing. That's what this whole assignments about. I want to add to it. One other concept, which is there's 1/3 concept that really is. I think the only other concept that you can, and it's more like a B. It's not a whole another concept. It's more like adding a beat B two timing spacing, and this other one actually creates movement also, and that size again, these air a concepts and this is sort of a B, which size. So, um, let's talk about size just briefly because I want you to consider it. If I were to animate again this ball and let's see, let's say I made it very quickly. Um oh, and another layer really quick. That one off. Okay, so let's do this as quick as we can. If I animate this ball and I want it to be coming at you, like was a baseball, it just got hit at you right now. Obviously, um, I can do that by doing, uh, Well, I wanna make this exactly the city by just having it Amit across right. And how I space that out. Obviously imagine those are all the same size, but it would just look like it's moving across this way. Now, if I want to really make it feel like it's coming at us, I'll do this. And then I will create another drawing on another layer. And I'll do this now What I'm doing, if I go between these two, right, so now it feels like it's coming at us more because obviously it's growing. And that's the illusion we're creating again. This is just another illusion of movement now, Did you that what we want want to do is just do it in real time. How I do that is noticed that I'm playing with the spacing Right now, it's even spacing. But I am growing it slightly as I go begin about the same overlap. I'm trying to just keep it on a basically a straight line to But again, notice. The three overlap is about the same, but as and drawing this, making it bigger and bigger just by eyeball just eyeballing it. All right. And here we go. Hit, play. Well, there it goes, right? So and what others on it's there's a project. But do you see that? Okay, now, even obviously that doesn't feel like a very fast pitch, does it? But we just added a new concept. I did even spacing, but all I did was have it grow in size, and that gave the illusion that it's moving. And actually, it makes it feel like it's moving a little faster, doesn't it? As I grew it a little bit more, I change the size of a little bit more drastically at the end. It feels like it starts to speed up a little bit. Okay, now, but let's do that now and play with the timing, which is how this is right. Okay, but comes let's do this. Let's add um, the first drawing. Let's put that on for four. Drawing for frames. The second drawing again. We'll do like about two frames. The third drawing two frames, uh, fourth drawing to your frames. Maybe in the fifth. But then we're gonna go once. So then in the middle here, it's gonna go extra fast all the way to the end. Okay, So I just in timing alone, I created a slow out. Now look at it. It feels like it's a little bit further away, and it's taking some time. And that's how things work in the distance to right? Is it things further away? Look like they're moving slower until they get closer. And then also it goes a lot faster. And that's kind of what I've just created here is a feeling that it's further way and it goes fast as it gets right close to us. Now we can do. I can't even get a little bit more fancy. And let's turn on our onion skin. Yes, so we can see them. Why don't we just delete some of these? Let's change our Our spacing now are just change the timing a little bit right by adding a little bit of a slow out here banana. Let's start making this less even by. I'm gonna delete a couple drawings. It's formed, keeping these on ones right here. And I'll do it. This one, too. I just don't need him. That's him with maybe I guess we'll delete this one, too. No. You know what's gonna happen, right? Um let's see. I'll put this on start. Really? If we're really gonna get a lot of speed out of that right now again, we have drawings, are a little closer together, and they're timed out slower. And then, boom, it really gets moving because we've taken out so drawing. So there's more spacing. I mean, less facing less bigger gaps between these drawings. And on top of that, they're growing. We just added 1/3 tier toe timing and spacing, which is size and creating. Being able to change that size is gonna really make a difference. All right, so I'm setting us up for our assignment and let's get to that. I really didn't want a in this in this. In this lesson, I really didn't want to get into squash and stretch and all that. So like that bouncing ball assignment that I talked about at the very beginning that it shows a lot more of the 12 principles, or at least two or three more, which is squash and stretch. And how you get more pliability out of things, that stuff that I want to say this again that goes into a whole nother direction, which will obviously help what we're doing here. But on the arcs and things like that, I mentioned arcs a little bit when I talked about the pendulum. Those kind of concepts are going to make things look more graceful and things like that. But right now, I want you to get a good hold of how important spacing and timing are. And then, of course, size. That's gonna be 1/3 sort of half thing, which is just more of an addition. And now I want to do that with the assignment, which is let me turn this off and go to this level. Sorry. Okay, here we go. Okay. So what I want you to do is I want you to create basically this a roller coaster, a squiggly line as your background, Um, and that squiggly line you just stretch this out. And I might have been a demo it for you. Um, but I want however you make this squiggly line, you don't need to copy mining. Exactly. You can make your own school the line. It can have more ups and downs or whatever, but imagine it's a roller coaster. And what you want to do is you wanna have your ball follow that squiggly line so your school, the line is gonna be your background. So make that your bottom layer, and then you add another layer on top of that in your whatever program you're using. Um, actually had a whole nother. You live here skating on, um, and when I can dio Yeah, um, I'll start this out. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna I'll probably do it straight ahead. And we didn't get into what those terminology is. But straight ahead, um, and we will in other lessons, um, straight ahead just means that you're doing one drawing drawing number one you're doing in the next frame drawing number two. Next frame drawing number three. A lot of my examples I've been doing have been straight ahead, except for when I showed you posed. Oppose. Which was when we do the ball from the, uh that was on the left. That was our first drawing. And then I did the last drawing so again that I called that one key and that one a key. And then I added a breakdown in the middle. Anyway, that was opposed to post. But I want you to do this straight ahead. I think it's gonna be easy to do it straight ahead. And so, as you can see, what I've done here is I've drawn that we're gonna use spacing, timing and size for this, especially size, because I think it's gonna make it more intricate. Imagine that this ball as it's going up and down is getting bigger. I'm gonna show you that, and then I'm gonna and then maybe our last pose as it goes off the page might be that big. Um, so imagine that's also happening. That's gonna make this even more kind of complex. So this is a little bit more of a complex thing. You know, we don't have not saying make a jump and land, because then we get a discretion stretch. But I'm gonna show you very quickly what I'm talking about. So I'll start at the very top of this hill, and then I'm going to the next page I've been have it start to kind of slow out, and then it's going to start really moving here. I'm gonna try. And you don't have to do this fast, by the way, and make it bigger as I go. And but down here, it's gonna go just a little, Maybe slower. Certainly gonna go slower up this hill. Yeah, I remember that. Keep growing it. They're really gonna slow it down here. Seeing how they're really close together again. I got it. I want this to feel like this. Hills are getting closer to us. So I'm gonna make this ball continuing Grow. Now I'm gonna space him out. That's going down the hills of the spacing and size is gonna get further apart again. It's going to slow down a little bit here. Yeah, and it's going to slow down just a tad at the very end here because that at the top of the hill Yeah. What do I get when I shoot it? And where actors play What? Okay, So now it's following an arc again. This is the Ark is another term that will get into later. But just by having the bottom of it touched this this, uh, it's actually following an art. So it creates kind of a smoothness to it that we don't get with a straight line. But as you can see, it's getting bigger. There's a little bit us of slow ends and slow out. I'm gonna push that a little bit more. I'm gonna go back to the top of my arc here and just slow down a little bit by putting these three in the middle, that one and this I'm gonna put him on twos. So basically, I'm gonna make it two frames instead of one. I'll make this one too, So that's actually four drawings. But I don't want you to copy exactly what I'm doing. That's not my intention. I want you, Teoh create your own curve and your own animation. I'll start my first drive, start on for four frames. Then I'm gonna add this one on for two frames. The next one, Number three drawn number three. I'll put on for two frames and then I'm gonna let it go fast. So keep all this someone's ones here. That's twos. Jump to the end of my animation and over here at the end of the hill, where it starts to slow down. I'm just gonna put these last two drawings on for two frames. Okay, so that's my new in position. And I gotta go down to my background and extend it because it's not as long. So this stretch that that way I left. My last frame is 42 so I had to make sure my background is 42 frames long to Here we go. I want to hit play, really get that nice feeling of the slows and the quickness. Quick, So quick. So and that is all. And it's growing. So I'm getting that kind of a feel to, um, it's a little subtle, but if you compare the last drawing to the first drawing, it's not so subtle. But it's happening over time, so you're not necessarily seeing it. And really, if you do this size part of it successfully, you should be able to compare the first drawing the last drawing. And they're very different that maybe it's doubled in size. Maybe tripled, but you shouldn't necessarily feel it. It's gonna You're gonna just It's happening eventually. Overall drawings. And that's when you're the most successful on creating the size changed throughout. Okay, that's about everything I have for you. I really hope that you enjoy this lesson and that you'll continue on, you know, but doing this assignment and posting, and I'm really excited to see what you do. Thank you so much. 5. Assignment: Well, hopefully by now you've digested all of that information on the basics of animation. It's a lot right. It's a lot to think about. The hard part is, is that you're having to think about all those things while drawing right drawings hard enough, oftentimes, and to get the control and the consistency. But now the next drawing the next, drawing the next drive but then also thinking arcs and timing and spacing. It is a lot. I get it, and it's death state practice. And that's why this assignment so important, you have to now take all that information and really give it a try. And I want you to swing for the fences on this one. This is both fun and a little bit challenging, but also easy at the same time. So what? I made up a new assignment. I've never seen this done anywhere else because you've heard of, like maybe the bouncing ball assignment, where you just have a ball bouncing up and down or maybe even bouncing across the screen. This one is just a ball, and that's great, cause I will help. You kind of have to take on too much as far as a character walking or something like that. But it's gonna be a ball moving in space and with different timing. So basically, we're going to create a little bit of a roller coaster just just by using a line right, a curved line, and then we're gonna add the ball to it. And another level, of course. And now have it go up and down those those ramps, right, as if it is a roller coaster and then at one point at the end and maybe have it or even in the middle, have it grow inside. So it feels like it comes at us and away or something like that. So I really enjoy that. I think that's the majority of what you're going to get out of. This is, is, you know, not only be able to control the sides, and that's gonna help. It's going to slow it down, the bigger it gets, so that comes at us. It's either gonna go faster or slower, depending on how much you space that in general, if it comes at you, it's gonna go a little faster, right then as it goes away, it's gonna go a little bit slower. And that means more drawings right closer together. So it is a lot of the same things that you're gonna learn in a bouncing ball without the squash and stretch. We kind of have taken that out because I really want you to concentrate on spacing and tiny , those two concepts. And I think this one shows that nicely. So enjoy that. And I hope that you can upload those people can see him too. But thank you so much for being a part of the basics of animation.