BARTENDING 101 - Full Guide For Bartending | Kristoffer | Skillshare

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BARTENDING 101 - Full Guide For Bartending

teacher avatar Kristoffer, Student

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (43m)








    • 9. IX - DARK N STORMY

    • 10. X - OLD FASHIONED


    • 12. XII - THE END

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About This Class


In this class, I will be teaching you the fundamentals of bartending. This class is suited for people who are completely new to bartending. Once you complete this class you should have a basic understanding of how to make classic cocktails at home. In addition to this, you will learn the basics of different ingredients and how to properly use bartending tools. This class covers things like:

- Bartending Gear

- Stocking Your Bar

- Bartending Techniques

- How To Make Classic Cocktails 


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1. I - INTRODUCTION: Hello and welcome. In this class, I will be teaching you the fundamentals of bartending. This class is suitable for beginners with only little or 0 knowledge and bartending. Now for reference, I worked as a bartender in a nightclub. In this class, I'll be teaching you things such as bartending gear, stocking your own bar, bartending techniques, garnishing cocktails, bartending slang, and much more. After I've taught you how to use different bartending techniques and gear, I will teach you five different easy and classic cocktails. The cosmopolitan, the screwdriver for Tom Collins, dark and stormy, and the old-fashioned. So without further ado, let's get going. 2. II - BARTENDING GEAR: First up bartending gear. Now, to get into the basic thing is you will need in terms of gear. What I have in front of me is a very basic and cheap bartending set for beginners. This set only cost me about $15, and it has the most fundamental things that we need to get started with bartending. Number one is the shaker. The most obvious member of this set is the shaker itself. This is the cup in which we'll be mixing our cocktails before pouring them into a glass. Now, shakers come in two different ways. The first is the type that we see here. The shaker has a detachable laid and another opening in the lead with a filter for extracting only to liquids inside the shaker. This is in many ways, a very easy to operate system. Take off the lid when you're mixing your cocktail, shaker, put the lid back on. We didn't need to shake it and make sure that the cap is on. After shaking, simply remove the cap and poor the cocktail into your glass. Now, the other way the Shaker system can work is that instead, you will have to shake or glasses, both without a lid. One can be of metal and one could be if glass. Both can be made of metal. Both can be made of glass. Now, this system is slightly more difficult to use, but it is considered the more professional way of mixing. In this system, one of the two containers will be the smaller one. And together they can seal tight while shaking. Mixture cocktail in the smaller of the two containers. Once you're done, growing the larger container down over the mixing glass, making sure that one side of the glasses are touching each other. Now, simply punch the end of the larger container down and this should create a liquid tight seal. You can now shake the containers without any liquid coming out. Once you're done, lightly tap the side of the ludus will break the seal. You can now pour the containers contents into a glass. And that's the two ways of using a shaker. I would personally recommend that you start off getting a set using the first and easier method. All right. The second tool is the strainer. The tool we just used to pour our cocktail from the sugar glass into the serving glass was a strainer. The reason why we use the strainer is that we want to prevent anything that isn't liquid. And part of our cart sail from coming with the coxal from the shaker. So the serving glass. Later, I will teach you that when you're mixing and shaking your cocktail, you do it with ice. But we don't want the ice use when shaking in our cocktail when serving it. We just want the liquids. The strainer makes sure to keep the ice cubes in the shaker and only letting the actual cocktail into the serving glass. In addition to the ice. Certain drinks will also use other ingredients, like large bits of fruits or vegetables in the mixing process. But again, those lumps aren't supposed to go in the final drink. So the strainer is also used to filter those from the liquids. A measuring cup. The way we keep track. A measuring cup, the way we keep track of how much liquid we're putting into our cartel is what this measuring cup. Now the measuring cup holds about $0.02 leaders in the short end and $0.04 leaders in the larger end. Now, although using this is quite simple, I still want to share a few tips with you. When using the cup. Make sure you're holding it and pouring it either over or right next to the shaker glass. This makes it much easier to simply dump the contents into the shaker cup and prevents having to do an awkward balancing act. When you're pouring into the measuring cup and it is just about to be full. Tip the cup and port into the shaker while still pouring in the cup simultaneously, pouring unsold the cup is completely full. Before dumping its contents into the shaker, makes it likely you will slightly over pour the cup and spill. Now, should it happen that you need to pour hot liquids and so they're like coffee, a somewhat common cocktail ingredient. Make sure you hold the cup in the opposite end of the end you're pouring into. Thought coffee will very quickly heat up the end that you're pouring into and it can burn you. Next we have the butler. The model is used for squishing larger ingredients in your cocktail. This would be different types of fruits or vegetables, like limes, to extract the juice is for flavor. Again, I will give you a little tip. When muddling lines for cocktails, make sure it's your only press down onto the limes. Don't do a turning motion, but the modeller doing a turning motion while applying pressure to the lines will not only extract a nice judicious you're looking for, but also the more bitter taste of the lime shell. And then we have the pincer. Now, this pincer is simply used for grabbing ice cubes and putting them into your drink. Personally, I like to use what can only be described either as a small one had to shovel, or as a really large spoon to grab the ice cubes instead. Often you need a lot of ice cubes and the pincer can really only grab one at a time. Okay? That was a quick one. That was a quick rundown of the most fundamental items you need when mixing cocktails. Now let's get into stocking your bar. 3. III - STOCKING YOUR BAR: Okay. So once you do you have on hand it says if alcohol and other ingredients in your bar. Now there exists almost endless periods and mixers for making cocktails. And for most people, it isn't really financially feasible to own everything. So what I will be going over here is what I believed to be the most essential items for being able to mix different classic cocktails. First of all, let us talk about different spirits. So number one is vodka. Vodka is an essential spirit to have that goes in a lot of very well-known cocktails. Also, besides carte sales, vodka is in general, very good when mixed with most sodas and juices for a simple alcoholic drink. Now a lot of vodka brands will, in addition to a traditional vodka, also sell VOC and with different flavors and fused. If there is a distinct flavor you really like, you can go ahead and get that. Butt. Highly prioritize getting a good on flavored vodka before getting into different flavored vodkas. An unfavorite vodka is just so much more versatile and useful since it can go in any vodka cocktail. And then another ingredient can supply the flavor. By picking up a flavored vodka, you're painting yourself into a corner. So make sure you always have that on flavored vodka on hand. Now, besides that, getting a good and smooth vodka is also extremely important. The simpler a cartel is, the more important it becomes that the ingredients are of high-quality, bad quality vodkas have a tendency to be really harsh going down, and they can ruin even the best cocktail recipes. For an example of a good-quality budget vodka, I have Smirnoff. Vodka is still 10 times and therefore is really smooth and not harsh on the throat. You don't have to get a spurn off. But when looking for a vodka, tried to look for how many times it's been distilled, as this could be an important indicator of whether or not it will be good or bad. Ram is also extremely essential because it goes in a ton of different cocktails. Now, again, there are different types of ROM, primarily white and dark and gold. Besides that, just like the vodkas, you can find ROM with different flavors infused. Again, I recommend that you get one of the more normal rums before branching out it's a more specialized runs. The main difference between white and dark rums are that the dark rums has been aged in barrels and tend to take on a stronger flavor. This makes white rum more low key and tends to work better with other ingredients, while a dark rum is more powerful and can also be drunk straight. Then we have Jin. Jin is also very fundamental to have, and it goes in a ton of popular cocktails. Out of the three spirits mentioned, Qian is probably the most popular one to drink straight. But besides that, it is really versatile spirit that is used in both simpler and also more complex cocktails. Jin is probably most famous for being the key ingredient in the classic martini. And just like with vodka, and really also with rum, Having a good Jin, especially if it is the centerpiece of the cocktail, is very important. So these are the three spirits that I would ask of you to have on hand as a minimum. Now besides these, there are some others you can acquire that are also important, but just not quite as fundamental, I would say to cots on making. And so that would, for example, be it's Akiva. Tequila is a very populous bird and is also used in some cocktails. Tequila is of course, also very popular for doing straights, a keyless shots with salt and limit. It goes in a few popular cocktails like the Long Island. But if it isn't in your budget, then you can skip it. Tequila also comes in a lot of different variants, but the two biggest variants are silver and gold. And in terms of characteristics, they have a lot in common with the white and dark rums discussed earlier. Like the white rum, The Silver Tequila is a simpler product with a less intense flavor, meaning that it blends a lot better with other ingredients in cocktails. Goal tequila has been aged just like dark rum has, and also takes on a more intense and very flavor. Just like dark rum. This means that it can overwhelm other flavors in a cocktail and therefore might be better for shots are straight drinking. And then we have Triple sec. This is an orange flavored liquor that goes in a fair few cocktails. This is one of the more popular that occurs out there. But whether or not you should pick it up depends a lot on your own taste. If orange flavored the curves sounds nice you, that you might enjoy a lot of the cocktails that it goes in. But otherwise, you might want to stay clear of it if the budget is tight. Now, besides different spirits and the curves, what else should you have on hand for cocktail making? Limes and lemons are used in a ton of different cocktails and are really the only two fruits that are so universal with m by attending. They are both youth as ingredients in the actual making and shading process of cocktails. What are also used a lot as garnishing for your cocktails. To add a bit of extra flavor while also enhancing the look of the cocktail itself. Lime syrup. Now I just mentioned actual lines. So you might be a bit surprised to find this here as well. Lime syrup is very popular ingredient in a lot of current sales. And you have the choice between using actual lime juice from a freshly squeezed lime or using a lime syrup. Actual lines that you squeeze yourself to use in a cocktail are lot more fresh and tastes better in your cocktail. But making just a single cocktail that might require a whole lives and make, and storing large amounts of limes with a limited shelf life is often not feasible for the average person. Lime syrup, while not as tasty, is a lot more convenient to have, I would suggest either just buying the lime syrup or buying limes on a need basis when you know you're going to be making cocktails. Lots of ice cubes are also really important. You'll be using quite a lot of these. So I suggest having a lot on hand. Now, of course, ice cubes aren't just ice cubes. They come in a lot of different shapes and sizes. Unfortunately, the best eyes for bartending isn't really accessible for the common persons. Ideal cartel ice cubes are larger and require a lot of effort to make. The reason for this is that the larger the ice cubes, the longer it takes for them to dissolve and begin to dilute the cocktail. But in addition, shaking cocktails with smaller ice cubes can click the smash them up and liquefy them, and dilute the cocktail before it even hits to serving glass. The smaller fees yourself ice cubes will do if you can't get anything else. But ideally, try to find the pre frozen larger ice cubes that you can buy at the grocery store. Sugar is used in a lot of cocktails. You can either have it as an actual sugar in the form of sugar syrup. Sugar syrup is often also just called simple syrup in cocktail recipes. So don't get confused if you see that instead. Ceramics. Ceramics is a powder that is mixed with water to create a mixer that is used in a lot of cocktails. Alternatively, you can also use actual lemon juice, but storing them it used to have it ready for cocktail making can be a bit burdensome for the average individual. A single bag of SAR makes will also provide you with a lot more than a single leader of actual lemon juice. Club soda. A lot of drinks uses this for topping off after the shaking process is done. Okay. So what was left out of this list? First, whiskey. Now, whiskey is an excellent type of spirit, but whiskeys are all age for longer periods of time to take on a very potent and strong flavor. And this makes them more suitable for straight drinking. There are some simpler cocktails, like the old-fashioned, centered around that potent whiskey flavor. But most popular current sales stray away from using it as ingredient. If you like whiskey than by one, absolutely. But I've lifted out of this list, since it isn't a very versatile component in popular cocktails. Now, let's get into the mixers. So in a list of items I just mentioned, I included two different mixers, club soda and SAR mix slash lemon juice. The reason why I only included those two is because they are the two most universal. And besides just those two, it can be rather hard to have mixers on hand that are very versatile. Most cocktails require some very specific mixers that don't go in many other cocktails, like orange juice for a screwdriver, or cranberry juice for the cosmopolitan, and ginger beer for the dark and stormy. Besides that, certain mixtures might have a limited shelf life. For that reason, it is hard to just have all different kinds of mixtures on hand at all times. So for the kinda mixers with a longer shelf life, like different flavors of soda, think lemon or tonic and so on. These you can stock up on and keep on hand whenever you need them. But for mixers like different fruit juices and other mixes with a more limited shelf life, you're better off just buying them only when you need them. All right. That was just about everything for what I think you should have stocks in your bar. Now it's time for us to get into how to garnish the cocktails that you're going to be making. 4. IV - GARNISHING COCKTAILS: All right, So besides just the cartel itself, it is also very common to use garnishing to improve your cocktails. I will be showing you the most basic of garnishing techniques. And I will also go a little more in depth and surely some of the advanced garnishing techniques. Now, the two most popular fruits for garnishing cartels or limes and limits. These two will be used to garnish in the vast majority of cocktails. Making a simple garnish with these two fruits is very simple. Let's start with a line. Simply, take your lime cutting board and a knife, slice the line down the middle so you get two halves. Now you can cut a larger slice from the inside of the cut line. Now you have a round lime slice. You can make it cut into the round slice to create an opening for sliding and onto the rim of the glass. The other method is to take your life that has been cut in half and slice it into a series of line boats. They can be dropped into the cart sale or stuck onto the rim of the glass. Now for the lemon, You can do the same two methods as for the line. But for the lemon, There's also a different technique. Take a lemon and a peeler and peel off a nice slice of lemon crust. This can be twisted over the cocktail to release the juice and run around the rim of the cocktail glass, left on the rail of the cartel glass, or dropped into the cocktail itself. All right, Now that we've covered the basics of garnishing, let us get into the more fancy stuff. The above information is really all you need to be able to garnish most cocktails. But garnishing itself is a craft within Bart's ending and can get both very advanced and very stylish. I will teach you a couple of more advanced garnishing tricks that you can use in your cocktails. The easiest of the more fancy garnishing methods is the twist. As the name suggests. This is a peel of lemon or lime. Twist it. To make this take either a lemon or a lime. Now, you can either use a peeler to peel off a long strip of the lemon or a lime like I showed before. Or you can instead slice off a round slice and then use a knife to remove the pulp in the middle. The peeler method is probably faster if you're experienced. But it can't be a bit tricky to get a long and good peel. So I would suggest using the knife method instead. Now, take a look at the inside of the strip of limit. Notice that underneath the yellow skin there's a layer of white pulp. Way we twist the lemon into it's twisted shape. It is important that there is the correct amount of white pulp on the peel. If there's too much pulp, it will affect the taste of the cartel too much. On the opposite end, There's almost no white pulp and it's just yellow skin. You can't Swiss the appeal into the twisted shape because there isn't enough substance for it's a maintain the shape. So make sure you get the correct amount, which is about something like this. So now simply pick up the peel and simply twist it into it's twisted shape with your hands. Once it reaches its desired form, simply place it on the side of the serving glass. Now, besides using fruits to garnish your cocktails, you can also coat the rim of the glass with different ingredients to add another touch to your cocktails. Most often, the glass is coded with either sugar or salt. The way this is done is by taking a liquid with adhesive property and first coding the rim of the glass wood that this is often a Serb, like sugar syrup or something else. So let's say we're making a very sweet cocktail. And we also want to coat the relative serving glass with sugar. You can dip your finger in the sugar syrup and then run it around the rim of the glass. This will coat the rim with the sugar syrup and allow the actual sugar to stick to the glass. Now, simply take the glass and turn it around and then debit into the sugar laid out on a flat surface like a normal plate. Spin the glass around a bit, move it around in the sugar. After just a few seconds, you can take the glass up and the rim of the glass should be fully coated with sugar. This was just a few ways of garnishing your cocktails. But remember, there are many more. And you can take your level of garnishing to whatever level you want. It is really only your own creativity that sets the boundaries. Just remember that the garnishing actually has flavor to it. And overdoing the garnishing in a cocktail that doesn't call for it can't disrupt the flavor of the cocktail itself. 5. V - BARTENDING SLANG: Parts of being slang can be a bit of an important thing to know. Especially if you're dealing with other bartenders for people who just enjoy cocktails and frequently goes in bars. Now, bartending slang can get pretty savvy and pointless. If you Google bartending slang, you will get a massive list with a 100 plus different words and phrases. There is seemingly slang for every little thing that might possibly happen in a bartending setting. So today I won't bore you with all of those points, those words or phrases. And instead, I've picked out just the most important and fundamental terms on the rocks. This is almost certainly a phrase you've heard before. If you've been in a bar or watch movies with a bartending seen on the rocks means that you want your drink served with ice. Now, for the vast majority of cartels, they come with ice to begin with, or aren't supposed to come with ice on purpose on the rocks almost exclusively applies to when people order hard liquor a load, like a glass of whiskey or rum with both of those drinks, no standard for whether or not they should come with ice really access. And so often people will specify what they want by either saying on the rocks or using our next term. Neat means you want your drink served without ice. Again, as I just explained, this is mostly used in connection with drinking whiskey or rum on its own. Mix. Ology is the technical term for mixing cocktails. Most people won't use this word and I'm just using parts ending as a substitute word instead. But it can't be useful to know this slightly more technical word. A wet drink. It means it's a drink that is made with more mixer and less alcohol. Aka your want your drink less strong. Doubled just means that a drink has doubled the amount of alcohol that the recipe says that it should have. This can cause a little bit of confusion. As you need to understand that double doesn't mean two drinks. It also doesn't mean that the entire drink should be double size. It just means doubling up the amount of alcohol used in the drink. A chaser is a separate drink for you to consume immediately after drinking another drink, typically a shot or other strong drink. Now, certain drinks incorporates a chaser in the recipe and actually call for you to drink separate drinks in order as a part of a shared drink. Chaser, however, can also just mean drinking something immediately after a shot. Simply to wash away any strong slash bad tastes from your math. 6. VI - COSMOPOLITAN: All right, now to get into specific drinks, first of all, the cosmopolitan. The cosmopolitan is one of, if not the most popular cocktails in existence. It has existed for just about 100 years, but really exploded in popularity back in the 1990s with its frequent references in the Sex and the City movies, considered by many to be a very girly drink. I can tell you that as a man, it is very delicious and I highly recommend trying it. So to make it cosmopolitan, you need the following $0.02 liters of vodka to touch liters of Triple sec, 2's as leaders of lime juice. And 5 says liters of cranberry juice. You simply makes all of the ingredients in your shaker with ice cubes and shake the cocktail. You then strain your cocktail from the shaker and into the survey glass. There should be no ice cubes in the survey glass, then garnish with a lie. So okay. 7. VII - SCREWDRIVER: The screwdriver is another really popular and also extremely simple cocktail. Also some 70 years old. This cocktail has become increasingly popular in more recent times, and it has a ton of different variations and spins on it. To make a screwdriver, you need the following $0.05 a liter of vodka and sends as leaders of orange juice. This is one of the easiest cocktail CMake and a great place to start for a new bartender. This cocktail doesn't even need to be shaken. Instead, we build a drink. Building a drink is where instead of shaking the drink, you simply pour the ingredients directly into the serving glass. The cartel can be garnished with a slice of orange. Okay. Okay. 8. VIII - TOM COLLINS: Tom Collins is a very popular Jin base cocktail in existence for almost a 150 years. This is a symbol Jin GARCH e-mail that has a lot of history behind it, but has managed to stay popular ever since its inception. So omega Tom Collins, you need the following for us as leaders of gen 6, as leaders of ceramics, wanted to use as leaders of sugar syrup and club soda over topping off. The Tom Collins on its own is a very popular and symbol Gin cocktail. But another variant of the Tom Collins is the cucumber Collins. Easily be made in the exact same way, except that four slices of cucumber is muddled in the mixing glass before shaking, then the cucumber lumps are filtered off when pouring. The cartel can be goddess with a slice of lemon. So okay. 9. IX - DARK N STORMY: Dark and stormy is a very popular and simple cocktail based on dark rum, supposedly invented during World War 1. This cocktail has a lot in common with the Moscow Mule. Now it's omega dark and stormy. You need the following for us as leaders of dark rum, 2 says, the years of lime juice and topping off with ginger beer. This is another card sale that is built into serving glass and doesn't require any shaking. The cartel can be garnished with line boats. Okay. Okay. 10. X - OLD FASHIONED: The old fashion that is one of the most well-known cocktails out there. While it is very simple, it is also one of the most nitpick cocktails that is out there. Old-fashioned aficionados are very particular about how they like their old-fashioned. So to make an old-fashioned, you need the following. For us as leaders of bourbon, whiskey wanted to use as leaders of sugar syrup, and three dashes of Angostura bitters. This cartel also doesn't require shaking and is simply built in the second glass. The cartel is garnished with an orange peel that is first run around the rim of the glass and either left on the rim or dropped into the glass itself. Okay. Okay. 11. XI - CREATING YOUR OWN COCKTAIL: All right, so now I've taught you how to make five of the most popular and easy cocktails in existence. These are the cartels I will suggest you use in the class project at the end of this class. And also the cocktails I suggest you start out by making yourself and tasting. But a big part of the fun and Cox filmmaking is the creation process of making new cocktails and putting a spin on pre-existing cocktails and experimenting with different ingredients. So I also want to briefly go over the basics and some of the tips for creating your own cocktails, the do's and don'ts, and how to properly balance your first cocktails. The best way to solve experimenting with creating your own cocktail is to take a preexisting cocktail and put a spin on it. By doing this, you can retain the main structure of the guard sale and the ratios between ingredients. But by switching one ingredient or maybe adding another one on. So the cocktail, you can drastically changed the cocktail to make it your own. Before when I showed you how to make Tom Collins, I mentioned that there also exists a spin on the cocktail called a cucumber Collins. The only difference between the two cocktails is that you muddle slices of cucumber in the shaker along with the normal ingredients. But just doing that, the cartel is drastically changed and takes on a very different flavor. Muddling pieces of fruit in the shaker and then fills, drag them off when pouring the cocktail is a very easy and quick way. It's infused a cocktail with a new flavor. But let's say you want to start completely from scratch. You want your free silent and not use a pre-existing cocktail as a starting 0.1 of the most important things when doing this is to make sure that the ratios of your cocktail is correct. If you put in too little alcohol, then to drink, we'll take water down. And if you put in too much, it will be virtually undrinkable. Obviously. Sometimes you want less alcoholic drinks that fit well in tall glasses. And sometimes you might want stronger cocktails that go better in small whiskey glasses. For each of these decided drinks, I suggest these rough ratios for tall drinks. Force deciliters have strong liquor to censor years of syrup or other flavoring. And eight to $0.10 liters of mixer. And then for stronger and smaller drinks, for sense, liters of strong liquor wanted to says liters of syrup or other flavoring and six centimeters of mixer. Now, obviously certain cocktails get even stronger with even more lean ratios. That what I just suggested, the old fashion that I told you previously is a good example of this. But as a beginner, I highly suggest that you stay away from experimenting with very strong drinks like that. Because the total amount of liquid in the drinks is very minimal. Every small drop makes a big difference. And experimenting with very concentrated drinks like this can very quickly go sideways. Besides this, I also want to give a couple of other tips. First, be very careful with how much Sarah you use in your cocktails. Serbs are super fun. They're convenient, they are easy to use. It's easy to store, relatively cheap and quite concentrated, meaning that it is very easy to infuse your cocktails with a lot of flavor by using serums. But one of the main dangers of syrups, besides the fact that there is the intensity that can overwhelm a cocktail, is the fact that the consistency of syrups is heavy, sticky, and leave a pretty bad feeling in your mouth. In the ratios used for our toll drink that I showed you before, everything combined would make a total of $0.16 liters of liquid, of which only $0.02 leaders would have been syrup. The reason for this is both that to six liters is enough to add flavor to the cart sale. But also that having large amounts of mixer and alcohol drowns out and dilutes the consistency of the syrup, meaning that you don't feel that sticky and heavy texture in your mouth. People often get really captivated by Arabs and quickly decide to add two different syrups to the same cocktail, or God forbid even three. This makes the total amount of liquid in the cocktail that consists of Sarah. Very big and with insufficient mixture to drown it out, you can quickly start to feel like you're drinking straight honey because the thickness of the syrup sites to come through in the cocktail. So I suggest always sticking to just one cr per cocktail and using it sparingly. Secondly, I highly suggest that you experiment with using more than just one type of spirit in your cocktail. Often, when creating a cocktail, people will look at their spirits, vodka, gin, rum, and pick a single one and use that spirit only in the cocktail. But using two different spirits is an easy way to introduce more flavor to your cocktail. One of my favorite cocktails is called the elder product. And like some of the other examples I've given, the cocktail uses $0.04 liters of liquor. But instead of just using an unfavorite spirit for all $0.04 liters. Instead, the cocktail uses $0.02 liters of vodka and $0.02 leaders of elder flower liquor. By doing this, you introduce more flavors into the cartel while still using the same total amount of spirit in the cocktail, using two different spirits, one of whom may be flavored is an easy way to introduce a more varied flavor to the cocktail. And negates the need to use excessive syrup, like we talked about before, or other ways to introduce flavors who are cocktail? Alright, so finally, in terms of creating your own cocktail, I want to teach you how to think about ingredients as categories, not as their individual ingredient. Often when you look at spirits, Lakers, syrups, and other ingredients, you tend to think of them as their individual flavor or brand. Smirnoff vodka, bourbon, strawberry syrup, ceramics. But instead of thinking about all these ingredients individually, instead, think about them as their broader categories. So instead think strong, smoky, fruity, and sour. By thinking this way, instead, it becomes a lot easier to understand how these different ingredients might work together or against each other. Do you want to make something fruity with something sour? Or could smoky and floral be a good combination? Use these categories to mix and match your cocktails in a more exciting and easy to understand way. 12. XII - THE END: Alright, that was it. You should now have a basic understanding of the tools that bars into Hughes how to use those tools correctly, and how to make five of the most popular and easy cocktails. What I want for you to do is for your class project is to attempt to recreate one of the five cocktails I just taught you how to make an upload a picture of the cocktail as your class project. Also, consider watching the class eight cocktails for beginners after this class, as I will help you expand your repertoire of easy cocktails. Thank you for watching. Have a good one.