Auto to Manual: The Technical Basics of DSLRs for Video and Photo | Rando Martins | Skillshare

Auto to Manual: The Technical Basics of DSLRs for Video and Photo

Rando Martins, Filmmaker | Storyteller | Camera Geek

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9 Lessons (24m)
    • 1. Welcome

      0:57
    • 2. Project Overview

      1:17
    • 3. Aperture

      4:25
    • 4. Shutter Speed

      6:20
    • 5. ISO

      1:33
    • 6. Combined

      4:08
    • 7. ND Filters

      2:42
    • 8. White Balance

      1:53
    • 9. Conclusion

      1:01
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About This Class

Shooting manually with a DSLR camera can be very intimidating, but fear not! After taking this class, you'll be fully in control of your DSLR.

In this class, we’ll cover the fundamentals you need to know to switch from Auto to Manual mode. By the end of this class you’ll have everything you need to know to make the technical become instinctive so you can focus on telling your story.

Transcripts

1. Welcome: Hello. Hello. My name is Rando, and I'm gonna teach you how to use one of these today. This is a DSLR camera, and they shoot photography and video. And this video is actually for both. If you want to get into video, if you want to get in the photography, this covers the basics of both because they're both interchangeable. And from what I've learned, from what I know, I've traveled a 1,000,000 places, done a ton of things of cameras, and the biggest thing that I needed was not only to know how to use this, but to know how to use a camera instinctively. So that means getting all the technical settings out of your head. You have sunset happening is gonna be awesome. You got captured and you're not gonna be stumbling around your f stop your shutter speed or what is all that even mean? Like that's not the time. Teoh. Sit down and you learn how to do that. So right now, this class, that's what we're going to do. And, uh, yeah, let's just dive right in this. Learn how to use a DSLR from the ground up 2. Project Overview: So this is the project overview. So what we're gonna do is you can either upload to videos or two still images your photographer, video, whatever you want to dio and take two images that have a different depth of field. So have a subject, and then a background that's blown out. So on the lower end DSL ours, it's actually easier to zoom in on your kit lens. That's what a lot of that's what I started out with. That's what most of you probably are starting out with. And if you zoom in, you'll be able to get more of a depth of field. And if you were wide, so have a subject and focus and then the background out of focus. Now take another image and have that background in focus. To do that, you're gonna need to control all the other settings and get an image. It's exposed properly. I would suggest doing this in daytime with photography would be the easiest. But if you were in a dusk sunset hour, you could shoot video at 1/50 of a second and still have the ability to control with your eyes so 3. Aperture: Whether you're shooting video or stills, your aperture or iris is a key part of exposure image as well as showing creative effects. So what we're gonna do is actually show how the aperture works and is very similar to the human eye. So, as you can see here got lens. This is what the lead in the back of the lens. So this is what's actually projecting on to your sensor. And as your aperture goes down, notice small. That's getting so what that's doing. Just like your eyeball in the daytime. It's opening and closing, based on how much light you have to work with. Now there's a side effect to this opening and closing, and that is depth of field. That's your cinematic look that's artsy. It's all it's. It's a tool you need is a filmmaker or photographer to show exactly what you want to show in your image, you can use it to exclude or include things in the background. Boca is the term that's used for whatever is blurred out in the background. Or maybe Boca balls, which are those out of focus circles that in the back of movies and photos, so your aperture is measured in F stops, though higher numbers actually a smaller aperture and a smaller number is a larger aperture . So if your lens opens up to 1.41 point A to 0.8, those are actually letting more light in than an F 45.6 lens. And another thing to add here is that people often refer to lenses, is fast or slow, and when the lenses fast, it's actually in reference to your shutter speed, which we'll talk about later, but a fast lenses, the same as a wide aperture lens. A lens. It lets light flood in a slow lenses, one that has a smaller aperture and doesn't allow as much light to hit the sensor. So if you see here, we're going to control the aperture with my thumb here, and this is on the five D mark to every cameras different. But the principle is the same if you find where to control your aperture. This lens is a digital lens, so the like the lens aperture isn't manually controlled like the other lens. It controlled through the camera itself, which is really nice when you're shooting, so every single lens has an aperture, and they all open at different sizes. So this lens, if you can see this, is a Sam Yang 24 1.4 14 24. So this has a maximum aperture of 1.4. This is what 1.4 looks like on the lens, and this is what 1.4 looks like on the camera. This is what 5.6 looks like on the camera, and this is what 22 looks like on the camera. So as you close down your aperture, you're actually reducing the bowler in the background. As you can see with these Boca balls. As I open and close the aperture, they also increase in decrease in size. You could even put a filter in front of your lens and control the shape of your Boca because this lenses around. But you can put whatever you want in front of it. There's a lot of things you can do with it, but let's go back to those Boca balls real quick. Notice how when I close the aperture, the Boca balls get smaller, which makes sense because the actual physical aperture is getting smaller but the image is getting darker. That's a side effect, which makes sense, right, because if you're apertures closing really small, you only have a tiny little hole for the light to come in. So in conclusion, just like your eyeball, your aperture opens and closes based on the light that's coming in. So if you want to expose your image properly just with your aperture, you will open and close it based on how much light you have. If you don't have a lot of light, open it up with light flood in. If you have a lot of light, it's a super bright day. You want to close it down so that your image isn't go over exposed. So that's been Aperture explained. Next up, we have shutter speed. 4. Shutter Speed: Okay, so now we're gonna talk about shutter speed. Your shutter speed is the second of the three major important things you need to know when it comes to video. There's no order, by the way. It's just for this lesson. We're gonna go in that order. So your shutter speed is the amount of time that each image is exposed to light. You say again, the amount of time that each image is exposed to light. Now, if you're shooting video, you're shooting 24 images a second or 25 if you're in Australia or 30 if its news, but but basically you're looking at 24 pictures per second or, if you're in photography, one picture per second or one picture every 1/1000 of a second. Basically, your shutter speed tells the camera when Teoh open and close the sensor. So here's an example of a long exposer shot I took in Australia. So this is when we're at a campfire and I was spinning a log with members on it, and I threw it into the late You see that spin and how it trails over the water. That whole process of the spinning and the throw was all captured in that one picture, which means my shutter speed had to have been to three or four seconds, five seconds, however long it took and notice it's at night time. Most long exposure shots were taken at night. There's a way to get around that. We're going to talk about it later, but for right now we're gonna look at the differences and went to use each shutter speed. Now this is where it gets different. For video and stills, the principle is the same. But for stills, you have way more freedom for video. Not so much. So let's focus on stills right now. When you're taking an image and you want it fast, you won't have a runner. If it's day time, somebody running. Usually things are moving quickly, right? So in that quick time you're gonna want to capture in a split second. Whatever is happening there, right? So here's an example of a blurry image. Here's an example of a sharp image. Obviously, having the sharp image is better when it comes to some things, but you want the blur in some other cases. So here's another example, but with the slower exposure, actually showing the motion blur So you actually adjust your shutter speed, depending on what your final image is supposed to look like. So you can use shutter speed aton of different ways. But no, there's also side effect on that side effect is that as your shutter opens, that's also more light coming in and burning in the sensors. So if your camera is saying a picture quickly, let's say like 1 4/1000 of a second. It's going to take your picture in a snap, right? Like super super quick. But if you're gonna take a picture out, say 1/8 of a second chip, it slows down right, And that's because it's lettingme or time, but more light, less time, less light. So sports is generally outdoors, and sports photographers have having awful in night time games because they need to get a super fast shutter speed, which means they're letting just snippet of light in right there. Shutter speed, super super fast. So I eso in their aperture need to support that. So that's your shutter, Speed explained. That's how much time your sensor says I'm gonna take in that image and it could be for superfast first blitz second in a split second image. Or you can have it slow for something nice and smooth. Or if you're shooting video by the fault, your shutter speed should be double your frame rate. That's an industry standard. 180 degrees shudder. They're all things you don't need to know, but basically want to keep your shudder. Double your framing. Your usually shooting 24 25 frames per second and you want to keep that at 1/50. 1 50 It is healthy because anything after that your friends will be to Chappie and fast motion video isn't gonna look great. So as I'm editing this, I wanted to point something out. Um, here in when I'm speaking, I'm just gonna play frame by frame back, see how my hand is moving. Um, it's got that blur, like, if this is a picture, that wouldn't be a good picture. Day has. You can't see my hand, but in a video when you're playing it back, it's got a natural motion blur to it. And that's the point that I'm trying to make with this is that that motion blur is actually a good thing, especially when it comes to smoothing your video out. So here is an example of when I did not have an indie filter and I was not able. Teoh add motion blur to this shot. So when I play it back, you see how choppy the background is. Does it go frame by frame? This background is actually to sharp right, and as you're watching it, it's almost too jagged. The street here is slightly blurring just cause I'm hanging outside of a van and it's moving very fast. But, uh, it's it's still not as smooth as it could be compared to this footage. While I was driving through Nepal, you can see the foreground here. You mean a You see, the foreground has, like, all that motion blur. All right, you kind of see what I'm getting at with that. So, again, this is Onley, Really? For video for photography, the choice is really up to you and back to me. Ask motion video isn't gonna look right. So that shutter speed explained it's the amount of time each image you're taking on your camera is exposed to light and your subject as well. So for video, you're gonna want to double your frame rate for photographers. You have free rein. You can control your image completely. Whatever you want to do is one shot. Take it so that shutter speed. And the next thing we're gonna tackle his eyes, so 5. ISO: So the biggest thing you need to know when you're changing your eyes so is that it's the camera sensitivity to light. Do your cameras. I have so settings. All varies by camera, but the higher the year s O, the mawr gain is applied to your camera sensor, which turns your image brighter. Now there is a side effect, so typically you want to shoot as the lowest I s o possible. That's actually a standard. Not many people are gonna argue with that because the higher your i s so goes the more grain or noises introduced. So you want to know is the image. And this is what annoys the image looks like compared to a clean image, you definitely don't want to have a noisy image. And this is something that you want to get your shutter speed and aperture to allow your eyes. So to go low on the five d mark to I don't like to go past 12. 50 I s So that's usually my limit for stills. About 2500 is the limit for me. I just don't like introducing noise if I can avoid it. So that s so. It's basically the gain that your digital sensor applies to the image that your lens and your shutter speed are creating. So in the next video, we're gonna learn how to tie these three exposure settings aperture, shutter speed and I s O all together to create different images in difference in areas. Have a look in the next video is gonna be cool. 6. Combined: So now we learned aperture. We learned our shutter speed. We were in the I s. So is we're gonna put things into play and adjust different settings. So I'm gonna go here with the camera so we ever lends here shooting at 1.4. And if you notice I have my lens here and focus in the background is nice and blurry, right? That's Boca. So out of focus light there. It's actually the monitor from the camera. It's That's an artistic look. Okay, so right now I'm shooting at eso 6 40 at 1/50 of a second at F 1.4. All right? So as I stopped my aperture down the images a darker Okay, Right now I'm at F 5.6. Now, if I wanted this image properly exposed, I can't change the aperture because I want my image to have less step the field So apertures out. Now all I have is my shutter speed in my eyes. So to play with now, I could change my shutter speed, but I'm in video mode right now, so I don't want to do that. So I'm at 1/50 of a second and video and this is the last thing I have is I s O. That's a literally the last thing I have. So right now I'm gonna click all the way up to 6400. I s o if you notice that's okay. It's really not. I would never use that, but it achieved. What we were looking to do is to actually stop our aperture down in this light setting. It's a low light setting, so it's not doing too. Ah, but you can see this is a prime example of how having a lens that can open up nice and wide , how that helps in low light situations. Because especially if you're shooting video because I can change my shutter speed, I can stop my shutter speed down, right? And the image doesn't change. But I don't want to do that because in video, it's not good to do that. So I found this really good diagram on Google. Uh, if you search the three elements of exposure here, you go here and zoom in. Um, these are the three elements of exposure. We have shutter speed. I s O aperture, Um, and you can see how each one. The at the side effect that I was talking about was motion blur for shutter speed noise for I s O and focus shallow focus for your aperture. And as you scrolled down, you can see that the aperture irises like black and this is actually gonna be what you're project will be is taking two images, one excluding the background, one including the background, the typical sports example, Which is good, because as you have fast motion in your shot, you wanna have a faster shutter speed or else a soccer player he would have blurry legs. So this is a good example of shutters feed. And I s O. Of course you have digital noise. Um, the only side effects of I s O, of course, is noise. So the lower the better. This is a good chart to refer to. If you ever get confused or you ever need a reminder, Um, how aperture Shutter speed and I So what they do if you notice down here, there's actually nd filters which are also part of exposure. Sometimes if you have your image dialed in your the right amount of depth of field in your image and you have the right amount of motion blur, and your gain is as low as it can go. But if the image is still too bright, Utkan throw on an ND filter. So that's what we're gonna talk about in the next video is nd filters and what they can do to help save your image in certain lighting situations. 7. ND Filters: So what happens if it's a super super bright day? Okay, and you stop your lens all the way down to 22 which most lenses go to, and you're letting a little light in through your apertures possible. Let's say your shutter speed is also maxed out at 1 12,000 Whatever your camera allows, your shutter speed is maxed out and your eye eso is at 100. Okay, you can't lower your eyes. Soto. Lower your exposure. You can't stop your aperture down The laurier explosions already all away can't speed up your shutter speed to take more time away from your image. So what do you do? It's still overexposed. You have nothing. So that is where and D filters come in. All right, let's see. We got this camera was just started, according So let's pretend it's super super bright outside. And let's just say I cannot expose this image any darker, this nd filter to put on it's essentially sunglasses for your camera. So this is great if you want to do a long exposure photography shot in the day times. So an example of that is a river running in the daytime, and you're trying to get that smooth, silky water look. This is an image I took in Honduras of a waterfall. So for this image, I had a 10 stop and D filter, which was a spy, essentially the sunglasses and nd filter in front of the lens that took 10 stops down for my image. So getting this shutter speed at Visit daytime is impossible that the light would just be too overexposed. But because I had these welding sunglasses pretty much on top of the lens was actually able to take an image. I believe, over 10 to 12 seconds, I'm not exactly sure. And it came out really smooth because over those 10 to 12 seconds, the water was flowing and pulling a flowing. And then when the shutter stopped when it closed and sealed in the image, every single drop of water that came down the waterfall in those tangible seconds burned into that sensor and gave that smooth, smooth look. So Andy filters, it's will add on. It's a luxury in some cases, but necessity and a lot of others. So I definitely want to add an nd filter to your kid. It is a part of exposure, and I consider it a fundamental part of exposing an image properly 8. White Balance: so the last thing I want to talk about is white balance. Now. White balance isn't exactly exposure, but it's the last thing you're gonna need to know to get your image correct. So white balance is measured in Calvin's, which is a scale that's used in reference to the color temperature of light. So if you can see here candles like that warm, warm light 1000 Calvins and then you're going to sunrise a sunset as it gets warmer, you have tungsten light, flash overcast guy all the way to a blue sky. So those are examples. That's a good sharp. And as you change, if you notice on your presets, 3200 is tungsten. White fluorescent is 4000. Daylight is 5200 flashes 5900. Cloudy is 6000 and Shadia 7000 and you can use those presets. I personally like to use the actual numbers, but setting your white balance for a shot. Generally, if it's daytime, you're rolling just 5600. That's what I said it to all your images. Good. This is huge for video because, especially with video directing, it's gonna be a whole lot harder than stills so if you can instinctively nail your wife balance along with your exposure settings, you will be so far ahead of the game. And this only comes with practice. This isn't so on my five d mark. Two. There's a white balance button on the top again, every cameras different, but they all have a white balance control setting. Have some fun and find it, and you'll be able to control it. So that's white balance. It's a very, very important thing to do, not as much for photography, especially if you're shooting in graham mode, which means you'll have wave more control of your images post. So that's the fifth and the final thing you'll need to know to get your image looking right and to do it instinctively. 9. Conclusion: so in conclusion, using your aperture shutter speed and your eyes so you're able to craft an image exactly the way you want it. Now, sometimes you're gonna need an nd filter in those certain light situations, we're gonna want longer, shorter exposure times practice this go out, shoot on em and is your friend. Wanna go shoot on manual? Get to know those settings so you can have full control over your image. For every scenario you want to get off, auto, you wanna learn this thing is the best thing you can do. You can get thrown into any situation, and the content from this class will take you through. And you will be able to get the image exactly the way you want. Teoh. So from here you can take it the video route. You can take it the photography, right. But no, they both are so intertwined. Film does change some of their terminology and certain things. But these are the core principles, the fundamentals. This is huge, and I'm honored to be a part is super fun and go shoot some awesome images. Take care, guys.