Astronautics and Human Space Technology Concepts | Lluís Foreman | Skillshare

Astronautics and Human Space Technology Concepts

Lluís Foreman, Aerospace Engineer

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6 Lessons (1h 17m)
    • 1. Presentation

      2:10
    • 2. Key Technology Concepts

      6:34
    • 3. Cold War (First Part)

      16:53
    • 4. Cold War (Second Part)

      23:26
    • 5. United States - USSR Cooperation

      11:56
    • 6. Private Companies

      15:50

About This Class

In this class we will discuss some of the Key Concepts for Human Space Missions and, more importantly, we will review the Historical Evolution of Human Spaceflight from its beginning to its current situation. 

My intention is for you to grasp many concepts related to Human Space Missions Technology as it has been developed from World War II to today.

As always, feel free to contact me for additional information. I hope you find this course insightful!

Transcripts

1. Presentation: one mission. - Major event coming exit sign, booster shutdown and separation way are expecting contact. Stand by for confirmation of contact Catcher way engage, uh, blackened and mechanical connection. 2. Key Technology Concepts: Hey, guys, welcome to these first class off this course in the introduction and specifically the technology that we will be mentioning throughout the course. Okay, on, in this case will be mentioning key technology concepts which are important for the future off humans in space. So, first of all human spaceflight missions, as you know, basically take one person while astronaut from the surface off earth to a specific orbit. Right? So how do we achieve that? The first thing we need is a rocket. A rocket is a required propulsion system that will actually take some specific payload or, you know, some astronauts or some cargo to space, right? So they must be able to carry safely astronauts. OK, so reliability is an essential point to rockets. So the design of the rocket may vary, but the requirements given for human flight are essential. So again, rockets, what they will do is provide some kind of technology which can actually take one person from the earth's surface to one specific orbit. This is the whole purpose off rocket. OK, now, spacecraft are they actually required technology to transport humans into strategic locations or to fulfill their own mission So the spacecraft themselves are what is the most important part off human spaceflight missions. So it is due to the conditions off an insulation inside off the spacecraft that we will actually have humans insulated from the outer space. So rockets are only basically a mean okay, a means to get people to get astronauts from the service off to one specific orbit. But the spacecraft itself is where the astronauts will be inside of okay on. The spacecraft will actually be on top off the rocket. Right? So the most important part is this spacecraft, right. So they must carry safely ash notes in the same way that rockets have to. Okay, on spacecraft also have some kind of proportion in order to fulfill the mission or to target some, you know, some destination or other. So we're going to the international space station, for instance, or to traveling throughout the moon. You know, for many different kind of missions, right? So another topic which is essential for human spaceflight missions, east space conditions. Right. So, because we are in space, we actually, you know, we will have to face some off the realities in space like that we have a vacuum, which basically means that there is no pressure. There is. There are no particles okay on space, radiation and temperature, which basically means that because we are in vacuum, we don't have conveyed confection on. That means that the temperature may be very different from, you know, when we're facing towards the sun than in the back in the shadow off our spacecraft on that can actually provide, you know, can actually induce many problems to the spacecraft itself. On also, radiation conditions from, you know, gamma rays come all particles that may be coming from different parts of the universe. And how that may affect, for instance, physiological effects on humans. Some are, you know, realities like fuel fluid redistribution or psychological effects. Okay, we will be discussing this throughout the course with the time now, the important part for humans baseball admissions is that we have life support systems so away, off, you know, sustaining having life in, you know, in our spacecraft. Andi. Yeah. So that would be cowed to provide life to our spacecraft on how to survive in now, inside of our spacecraft. Right on also some other safety concerns. Okay, right. So basically, what we have in terms of the technology off spacecraft right now is the development of spacecraft capsules on also space it. Now we will see that there is also different kinds of technology and it isn't. You know, we don't have to actually go in space capsules, but these are the most common right now that are being developed. So spacecraft capsules are basically main structure accommodating. Okay, May instruction. Accommodating accidents. This is what a capsule is on. Geometry is defined by The purpose is off the mission for the reentry purposes. Many more on must withstand conditions on the outside and inside off the, you know, off the whole vacuum system that we have on the outer space. On also the conditions that we need for our astronauts to be safe, pressurized on many more. Okay, inside of the off the space, it's actually quite complex to analyse. And in this court, who will do it in detail? Okay, Spacesuits, actually a very important key topic. Auto to be taken into account when going to space suits must be designed to separate human physiological conditions on does that We are exposed toe when in space. They are essential when humans are in direct contact with space on designs have varied over time. Okay, so, you know, different technologies have bean approached on. Many more will be approaching the future. Okay, we will be discussing this indeed held right. So, you know, as an example of what it looks like to be in space Right now, we have the international space station, which is a basic example of current mission in space where astronauts are required to be inside the international space station or either to perform what is known spacewalks. Okay, on the outside with, you know, with specs. Okay, we'll be discussing what Theis tomorrow means on how you can actually go from the inside to the outside and the different conditions that you have to withstand. Currently, many experiments are being performed at the International Space Station on the international Space station for the last is actually a corporation off many countries around the globe for scientific purposes. Okay, So without for the ordeal, we can go to for the classes. As always, if you have any doubts, if you want to have more information on some of the topics, let me know, and I'll try to provide as many information as I can to you. Okay. You can notice that this course is made for you. So again, any doubts Just let me know. OK, so let's go to the next topic. 3. Cold War (First Part): Hi, everyone. And welcome to this first class in history. In this case will be speaking about what was the Cold War era and how it affected the development off this technology regarding humans in space, on the development off rockets. So, first of all, the first thing we need to actually mention is How did all of these begin? How did the venture to human spaceflight ideas become a reality? So we have from the 19th to 20th century, actually some literature from Jules Verne, for instance, from Earth to the moon and around the moon on From Rights of Wells, the first man in the moon. It's actually quite interesting to know that, you know, science fiction was kind of a way to developing new ideas on developing new concepts which could be used for space flight. You know, Andi. It wasn't, though, until the development off some theoretical approaches such as constant, constant in sealed cops key, Which will you Maybe some of you know him from his equation on rockets? It's a very important equation which relates the amount off mass propellant that we need on how the Rocket actually will perform on Robert H. Goddard which was actually a P Ania in the rocket technology on I believe he actually developed the first concepts for liquid proportion, which was absolutely fundamental for the development of rockets at that time. So we also have some other rocket engineers and, you know, other people related to astronautics works such as Hermano Beth on Dworkin, off from Brown, which were especially important at, you know, beginnings. Andi, meet 20th century for development off the first Rocket concepts, especially from China. Von Braun, who actually developed the V two rocket by, you know, for the Majesty Andi later on actually was invited to the United States very kindly to develop the Saturn five. So, as always, there's a lot less plenty of rocket engineers, plenty off physicists, mathematicians who developed a lot of theory regarding houses. You know how to fly on space. Andi, you know, there's so many that I'm just gonna mention these four because I believe there are probably the most important ones, but there's a lot of more, you know, a lot more on if you're interested in the theoretical basis I recommended, you actually look for it because it's very interesting and it kind of explains how all of this started so back to the Cold War era. The first program, the first technological program he noted to get humans to space was actually developed by the Russians. This problem was actually named the Vostok programme. Andi, It actually was able to put your IQ gathering which was the first astronaut ever, or the first man to fly on orbital flight on orbit back to April 12th 1961. So this is very long time ago on the idea for the Vastic problem is actually that they had this kind of, you know, spacecraft, which is kind of small, which was able to transport only one person. And you could imagine that this person was actually quite tightly fit inside of this. Okay? Inside of this capsule on her combined all of this, some spacecraft in order. Teoh, you know, combine a summer sums just sufficient space for them. A person who was on board Andi also some technology, you know, in order to adapt to the atmospheric entry, for instance on, you know, different technologies which were not that much developed at that time but were put together in order to fulfill are some person actually going to orbital flight? Right? So as I mentioned, the Soviet Union actually opened the area off. Man Space flight one single, complete Earth orbit was performed by the Vostok one program which 108 minute flight writes relatively, you know, a short flight, but that's kind of normal. Kate, this was for you recovering in 1961 and was really, really quick flight. But it was a complete orbit around the earth flight. So as I mentioned, able 19 12,061 on from there on. Then we had several Vostok launches which were performed until June 1962 with six cosmonauts inboard intel. So six launches six cosmonauts. This is the idea. Okay, um, the results. Well, we have up over 16 cosmonaut days, which means that 16 days were actually spent by different kaz minutes in space. Using these captured okay or their capsules of forced up two votes took six. Andi, actually the You know, another interesting fact is that this, you know, Soviet Union was the 1st 1 to put a woman in space. This was in June 16th in 1963. So what else Now we can focus on the mercury problem with which waas the you know, the equivalent, but from the United States, which actually allowed Alan Sherpa to be the first NASA astronaut to fly. But in this case, in super orbital flight. So the difference between orbital flight, which was the case off the Russians and suborbital flight it's actually that orbital means it's just a physical definition. It means that it was able to perform one orbit on Earth or more and suborbital flight. It means that it didn't really reach to get to a whole orbit. And this was actually a problem to the United States because getting on orbital flight probably meant that the technology was very enough to put any kind of device on any points on Earth. Instead, suborbital flight just meant that you were able to get to a certain quite. But you are not able to, you know, have the conditions such as velocity, such as the technological advancements in order to get to orbital flight, which was, I mean, the difference may seem relatively small, but it was actually huge at the time. Alan Shepard was actually flying with the Freedom seven capsule. And as I mentioned, the Soviet Union was clearly more advanced due to their orbital flights. In addition, this was performed on May 5th 1961. So we have in the same time. April 12 1961. The Russians actually flying orbital on this guy's the NASA United States are flying only suborbital. It wasn't until John Glenn, who was the first NASA astronaut to fly on orbital flight on May 16th in 1963 when we actually got to an orbital flight. And in this case, it was actually a three orbit. Right. Okay, so it performed three orbits around the Earth. Uh, this was inside the Friendship seven mission. Which is this one over him? Okay, Andi, the idea is that using this Mercury program specifically, I think the president's heaven in some other technologies, the either state was able was capable of actually reaching 34 total Earth or it's OK, combining all off the flights. It's quite interesting to mention, you know, the geometry off this capsule is actually quite different to the geometry off the Russian, but the idea is quite similar. You just put a person inside, which is kind of the goal that you're looking for, especially to fright the enemy right here. He won, You won Russians, and you want the United States to know that you are so the power. So you make sure to put one person on board. Friend Andi ought to have this kind of conical geometry on below, which is related toe the atmospheric re entry, which is just the idea that when you're flying at a certain certain orbital flight, you are actually going at very high speeds on in order to re enter the Earth. What you need is this kind of geometry in order to reduce the amount off. Thermal, Um, you know Keating on the spacecraft itself and it's actually quite interesting to know that both technologies we're actually using this because if they if they hadn't Bean using this kind of technology which was developed previously, probably this would have bean such her success. Okay, so you can see different elements like in this case, them you know them the astronaut would actually go inside half their off the capital like this on the capsule is a bit different, but in general terms is quite similar once, right? So what else? The Russians, Of course, we're not that happy and want to do more. Wanted to advance more. So they decided to actually continue with the foster problem with Woods was called Divorce court Program. If that is the correct pronunciation, which was just a continuation. Okay, So a solid fueled rocket was at it to the top off the capsule in order to perform maneuvers in order to have more control off the spacecraft on the missions would actually be, you know, from 15 to 20 day missions long. So this is quite different to just 100 minute long mission, right? So the missions were actually quite different. Onda, the Votes court program was actually focused on getting some firsts. So this means the first multi manned spacecraft on to be orbiting containing two Astros. Okay, as you can see in this image is not very clear, but the idea is that it was able to contain it was able Teoh, you know, I have to ask Minority and the inside Onda, actually the first ever ever. It's really okay. So the first ever spacewalk, which was in March 1965 on this is the image off Aleksei Leonov, who was the first person ever to dio ever on every simply a spacewalk. Okay, on you can see, this is just, I think, thesis off course, not reality. But this is the idea off whole spacecraft how it looked right on how the astronaut was actually able to go throughout his space over here, right, These, you know, cylindrical device, kind of cylindrical path to go from the inside to the outside of the spacecraft and actually perform a spacewalk, right? So, of course, you know, you know that the United States were not happy to hear that the Russians were trying to do that. So they actually also wanted to do extra vehicular activity ever on spacewalk on day just to find Andi designed the project. Gemini was force NASA's second mind spaceflight program after the Mercury program. So in this case, the idea is that to astronaut crew were able to be fitted inside one spacecraft like this. Okay, As always as I mentioned before, you can see the geometry kind of resembles Mercury's one. Andi, in this case also, I think they had different elements, different proportion elements in order to perform another. So I was kind of the parallel to the divorce court program. Okay, The United States and Russia were competing in very clear terms. Okay? They were trying to do basically the same. So you can see extra vehicular activity from ever on the spacewalk. This was actually the image taken in this case. Project Germany actually pioneered orbital maneuvers on Also, it intended to develop space rentable, which means getting from one spacecraft to another or contacting once based up to another cow to approach one spacecraft to another right, which is complex, usually on docking technologies docking where just related to the fact off getting the two spacecraft to contact on Also maintain contact on be able to dock and be able to, um you know, um, I would say contact one another. Andi, be fixed one to another. Okay. On the main objective off the pressure, Germany was actually to develop space technologies enough to be able to land on the moon on the Apollo mission, which would come late. Okay. Why is this important? Well, I think it was President Kennedy, actually, um, proposed in 1961. I guess that the United States should try toe land on the moon by 1970. So product Germany was actually kind of a way to getting to know more than 10 melody on space on how to develop a bit. Wasn't wasn't actually that competent, you know, it was, of course, a competition to the Russians. But it also proposed how to get more knowledge out of these kind of technology in order to land to the moon. So the Apollo program, which went from 1969 to 1972 he is actually the third manned spaceflight program on was probably one of the most known programs from from NASA. So the objective off this case was actually landing the first humans on the moon. As you all know, it was conceived in previous years. Actually, Eisenhower was the 1st 1 to mention the possibility off going to the moon. Onda later proposed as a very clear goal by Kennedy under the Cold War. Right. So the idea was also had, you know, of course, it was a competition with regards to the Soviet Union, but there was also scientific exploration intentions off the moon. Okay, Andi, In the end, a total of 12 astronauts were able to walk on the moon. Okay, we all know from near Limestone Elder Will Aldrin and Michael Collins OK, which were the three to perform this operation. It was near Lampson and Edwin Aldrin that we're able to actually work on the moon. But in total, 12 astronauts worked on the moon, combining the different missions. There's always this debate on whether this happened or not. Uh, well, if you're in my opinion, I believe that because when they were in the Cold War era, if they hadn't bean there, if they hadn't reached on the moon, the Soviet Union would have made anything, you know, because they were in the war. Of course. So the Soviet Union was the most interesting part on trying to see if the action, actually the Apollo program was able to land on the moon or not on the conclusion is that the Russians were not able to prove that this hadn't happened. So my guess is that this happened and this was reality just because the Russians were not able to prove this wrong. OK, so this is my take just to mention it. Okay. Andi. Yeah. So Apollo 11 was the first spacecraft ever to land people on the moon, which is quite astonishing on inspiring accomplishment. So here you have the different missions off the Apollo from NASA. OK, all of this one's, which are the different, you know, symbols, different elements. Okay on. Do you also have, ah, picture off the lunar module over here? Which was the lander on? Do you know that didn't a technology and all of that. And interestingly, also, this is Ah, photo I You know, I hadn't seen this before, and I think it's quite interesting because you have the mercury from technology, the Gemini, which was the development of mercury. And then you have the Apollo. Okay, They all kind of fit in the description, and I met before in order to avoid some fleeting. So this is all in terms of the, you know, the beginning off the Cold War era. Let's go now to the late part of the Cold War 4. Cold War (Second Part): Hey, guys, Welcome to the second class in history. In this case will be discussing the late called war era and how it affected developments off technologies from both Russia and the United States. So a Z I mentioned before we actually left the previous class speaking about what happened with the polar mission on the Apollo mission, as you know, was focused through landing on the moon. So you may imagine that the Russians were not happy with the idea that the United States would actually try to perform a landing on the moon. So they decided also to develop a program which was related to that aim. Right. So the so use program was actually developed on oriented to human lunar, orbiting on lending. So again, similar to the United States, the Soviets works, actually successfully developed a three person. So you have spacecraft which was thes over him. But the end one rocket required to put the so youth into orbit, which was this rocket over here actually ended up failing. So you may not have heard off the idea off Russians going to the moon because off this rocket, right, Because this rocket was actually unable to perform correctly on these, you know, actually left the Soviets behind the United States. Maybe for the first time in the space race. So, yes. So the idea is that the Soviets ended up, you know, shutting down or closing the moon race was which was actually won by the United States. So the program actually continues to be operational today, right? So the Soyuz program with this kind of technology, right, actually operates and keeps taking people astronauts to the international space station today. So it's kind of ironic that the, you know, the program actually currently transports as of today, American astronauts to to the to the international space station. Okay, so it's kind, you know, it's interesting to know that how the soldiers program was actually ended up failing on that moment, but actually now is operational. Also for the Americans, right? What else? Um, since the Soviet Union was not able or capable to getting to the moon, they actually decided to develop a new kind of technology. Was, which was actually, um, at that time was actually in the interest off many different rocket scientists and rocket engineers. You know, physicists and mathematicians who said that probably the best way to, you know, improve from that point that technology in space was actually to do to develop Andi, construct on manufacture a space station. Okay, you know, some kind off spacecraft big spacecraft with different models which would actually be cut, you know, consistently put into orbit for many time for many years, probably. So the idea is that the Russians developed Salyut program between 1971 in 1986 in order to develop a crude space station. So the idea was also to obtain long term research goals, including astronomical, geological onda, other, more militarily focused, like recognitions stations are they also wanted to track on understand the effects on living in space for humans. Andi. In the end, they achieved many records such as longest duration, docking and crew rotation. So this complex technology, actually, you know, was developed in a way that it ended up being with outstanding results. So good job in this case, okay, because there was this was a really great approach to a new technology on this was developed by the Russians on today continues to be one of the main, you know, ways that we can obtain data from space with the international space station, which was actually development. The continuation off these crew space station on many other space stations that came later . Okay, so you know, as always, the United States in this case actually was interested also in developing a crude space station. I believe it was after they saw that the Russians were interested in doing it, you know, it was a war. Fine. Andi, you know. So the Skylab program actually developed from 1973 to 1979 right? So the idea, first of all, the Skylar program was actually the last launch ever off the Saturn five rocket. So the Saturn fire focused is the iconic rocket that probably most of you know, that launched toll off the Apollo missions on department. You know, all the missions that went to the moon, so it has kind of, you know, an emblematic sound, But this was the last launch off the Saturn five rocket. To be honest with you, I think that NASA Wedneday's when they stopped with the Saturn five rocket. On further on, they kind of went to, you know, a condition which was not improving enough for the space agency. And I think that probably the best years where, actually with Saturn fire filled so the station had to be repaired. Okay. The Skylar problem be employed, you know, ended up having some difficulties on the launch. I think with a conditional it was a 75 rugged with the launch on Had a substantial loss off some part or the solar array. OK, so actually them, you know, when launching the Skylab space station had difficulties and hap some damages which were very difficult to soft. Um, the you know, the space station was actually launched unmanned on, then three manned missions actually went to visit the space station. Okay, so the idea was actually this to first make a launch off the space station itself on, then continue with manned missions, actually visiting the space station on making operations. It had several, you know, scientific purposes, such as the study off the coronal holes off, son. You know, on also the study off the astronauts adaptation to microgravity, for instance. And in the end, it was very, you know, trust and all turn in order to get more information into life science eth resources and other in 1979 it fell back to Earth on. I believe it actually motivated a lot off public opinion on that, and I believe that it's completely natural. But it was actually I'm I believe he was controversial and had, you know, as always, many people on earth we're worried on whether it would, you know, actually failed to some specific points and kill people and all of that. So, you know, it's kind of interesting how all of this technology is developed throughout the years on the public opinion. Sometimes it, you know, it takes some time to get people, um, really focused on the technologies and really believing into technologies themselves. And I believe at this point, NASA did a good job in terms off promoting all of these science. Like the study off, the colonel holds off a son on many other studies which were focused to scientific purposes . Also, I wanted to know that the Russians also the days with a stallion program, and I believe this is probably one off the key points at which you could see the political stress off. The Cold War era was sometimes mitigated in order to get, you know, more scientific purposes inside off these kind of technology, especially in the idea off the space station. Which space station is very related to the idea of getting scientific date. Okay, You also have here never. Okay, spacewalk from from one of the Astros on the on the on the space station on. Do you can see the, you know, the geometry of the space station. So at that point, we actually had a kind of, um, off a moment in which it appears that the space called war era, specifically the space one it may have, you know, arrived toe on end. Okay. The cold competition between Russia and the United States Catt arrived to it. And but this was not the case. However, it appeared to be at that moment. Okay. Inte det inte relations between Soviet primer Leonid Brezhnev on President Richard Nixon. They actually negotiated did the tented village in relations where they would explore cooperating for space purposes. So the idea would be a Russian on the United States cooperating force based purpose. This was actually quite interesting at that point because it implied having two main powers in space era to actually cooperate on this Could be it could be understood by many people as a good way to advanced technology. However, this was not the case, Okay? At least at that stage later on, it would be the case. So the negotiations results in the Apollo. So used test project, where on Apollo spacecraft would actually, doc. Okay, get fixed to this. So use 19. The docking was produced in 1975 and symbolised a diplomatic and political alliance. Well, you know, it's kind of interesting to know this. It may be a bit more political bird. Yeah, it's okay. However, rather than cooperation, competition continued to go on. So as always, the United States continued to develop new ideas on how we could actually, you know, perform space operations. Andi, try new technologies. Right? And they actually came to a conclusion off, I would say, an epic kindof transportacion system, which was names actually, in the space transportation system developed by NASA, which is a complete system of reusable manned space vehicles to further the space technology and reduced costs. So, you know, it's kind of interesting to know that that states this was the idea Andi. The school space transportation system was actually combined by these four main elements. So, first of all, permanent United States Space station. So a space station developed only for the United States. As I mentioned the political issues, Okay, I went already again to competition with Russian. So the Russians would also try to do the same reusable, chemically fueled Earth. The station shuttle on the idea of the shuttle may sound familiar to you. Okay. Space proposed a model or space tuck who was actually named also for orbital operations Onda, a nuclear propelled spacecraft for interplanetary missions. So you would say this is, to be honest, very ambitious. Okay, so first of all, you know, creating a whole space transportation system with four types off spacecraft, each one carrying one specific function. To be honest with you, this is absolutely very, very ambitious. Okay. And at that point, the United States knew that. And it isn't because of the, you know, the of the technological part only, but because of the funds off NASA. So NASA actually wanted to do this, I think, with the support of the government, But, you know, it couldn't be done because off the funds, so all these vehicles would be modular. The idea is that they would they would be modular so they would combine to, you know, they would dog to each other efficiently on additional propellant. De efforts would actually orbit Earth to provide extra fuel. So if this is wasn't actually enough, they would also have propelling Deputy in order to get more fuel on space at all time. Right? Well, in the end of the program failed. Okay, Yet resulted in the development off the space shuttle program, which I guess most of, you know. Okay, you could see the shutter are right on the freedom program, which the freedom problem was actually a program to develop a permanent united space station. So again, three and four were cancelled on propelling de puts weren't even. I think they wouldn't even be developed it all but one into space station on space shuttle . They would be developed or they would try to develop it. Right? So, first of all, the first thing we need to know is the space shuttle program developed by NASA was approved , but freedom, which was actually the name for the space station, would not be developed. So we have going back to here, OK? From this four kind of rockets from this co four types off spacecraft, we would only have, in the end reusable, chemically fueled earth to station shut. Okay, on this would become the space program, however, and I want to focus on this that eat the purpose off the shuttle in this, You know, in this overall view, was actually to make connections between Earth on the space station continuously. Right? But if we only have one off the four spacecraft that we developed before, I have to be honest with you. Why do we really need a space shuttle program if it hadn't actually any kind, you know, he didn't have the purpose that it had before. He didn't have the purpose of going to the United Space Station because it wasn't developed . So the idea is that actually, the space shuttle program was bit confused at the beginning. But, you know, with time into scored better on and more clear purposes were defined. But it's kind of intriguing how you actually develop one off these four options on don't have your purpose. Clear right? It's kind of interesting to note that this technology I would probably not be optimized all the time because it had been developed for another kind of problem. So going back to the space shuttle program, the ambitions off previous programs were actually cut Teoh reusable space shuttle orbiters . It's quite interesting to know these orbiters would actually be reusable okay, on which would be launched using an external propellant tank on Day two. Solid Rocket Boston boosters. Okay, East over here. So the space shuttle would also have a propellant plan right to help with orbit on docking , especially the fall space shuttle program actually operated from 1981 to 2000 and 11. The reusable orbiters launched missions such as the hobbles Hubble Space Telescope, International Space Station, Competence Space Lab from the European Space Agency and many, many manned missions to the International space station. So, as you can see, even if the even if the purpose was not to find as a permanent United Space station three idea in the end is that it became quite years for in order to perform a lot off manned missions. Okay, however, the space shuttle program was actually finally retired after the death or 14 astronauts into failed launches. There is some some more technicalities, ism when you know and why it was actually suspended, but I believe it was the president of the United States. Cool. Actually announced the suspension off the space shuttle program because off the continues failings and some, you know, problems that had with technology and also with funds. So the space shuttle program was actually, you know, one of the most ambitious programs, especially in terms of the space transportation system, but ended up not being enough for the United States. Andi only was operational to 2011. So, to be honest with you trying to be, um, I would say, too ambitious, but not have the purpose clear. And maybe, you know, with difficulties on wanted to make some spacecraft to reusable. So, you know, I'm kind off looking for the spacecraft to be absolutely reusable for, like, 2025 times would actually convert or make NASA complex, you know, operational status, which would actually end up with the ending. Andi, you know? Yeah, the ending off the space shuttle project. OK, this in turn 2011. Okay. So, just to mention the space shuttle program was actually composed off different spacecraft which were named Colombia. Which was this one challenger discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. It's interesting, you know, that most of them just look almost exactly the same. Okay, you should focus only on the on the plane. Kind of looking part of the off the you know of all of this because this is the excellent space shuttle. OK, But the idea is that, for instance, the Columbia mission 28 28 times this plane was actually propelled into space. So you can imagine that, you know, having so much guy so high ambitions for reusability andi that would actually, you know, become a problem for the United States on for NASA. So just to make, you know, clear on a brief description of all of this Columbia was actually one of them. You know, 1st 1 I believe, 1981 study 90 anyone. But in 2000 and three, the mission was actually destroyed, killing the seven people on board Andi. It performed a total of 20 admissions. The challenger performed a total of 10 missions from 1983 to 1996. Andi, also the seven people on board were killed on the last one. Okay, After armed, attend missions, the discovery was actually, you know, and you kind of approach to the technology. And it did a total of 39 missions from 1984 to 2011 and he was actually retired, so it didn't, you know, it wasn't destroyed. It didn't kill anyone on it took up to 252 astronauts, which is, you know, really good number. And I believe yeah, discovery was the cut, the best numbers in terms off all of these ones. Okay. In 1985 the Atlantis was developed on 33 missions would be carried out from 1985 to 2000 and 11 on also Endeavour from 1990 to a bit later to 2011. Okay, so, as always, many, many astronauts Or, you know, at least crude astronauts were actually sent to the international space station. Too many other places. But the idea is that even if the number off astronaut was really high, if we actually add up all of the astronauts sent by the space shuttle program, the fact that there were severe severe deaths. OK, in both Columbia and Challenger, I believe, was the main challenge for the space shuttle program on would end up being the main castle off these programs. Okay, To end a bit off part of the Cold War era, because in this stage, we're actually getting into a new kind of error. The Soviets also developed a kind off reusable space shuttle orbiter, which would be named Borden. Okay, they they basically copied the idea off the United States. Onda. The orbiter would be launched by an expandable rocket named Energia right on board and had no main rocket engines. Okay, this is main difference between boron on this patient, but was capable of performing a maneuver. Someone of US attitude control maneuvers using an additional smaller engines. Okay, so it was a bit different to the space shuttle, but the idea was almost practically the same. Tests were carried out on were successful, but because of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 the funds to the program we actually cut Andi Borden would actually count, you know would actually end up without being really tested in operational performance. So yeah, it was kind of sad to see the brand program not perform well. But, you know, after seeing what happened with the space shuttle, which was, to be honest with me, I don't want I don't want, you know, too much pressure on the on the space shuttle. The space shuttle performed a lot off operations and was incredibly useful for the net for NASA, but had some difficulties on this was actually quite fatal. So in the end, the fact that the Baron program was not developed might have been a good idea in terms off them in terms off, being able to get astronauts from from Earth to the space station, especially because now you know, you probably know this them Russia, not the Soviet Union. Russia is actually using them some technology that so used technology, which was developed, how we saw before, right? So, yeah, this technology and this Pacific air spacecraft is actually provide in connection between Earth on the international space station. So, um, if I have to be honest, I think it was a good idea, or at least it was a good result to for the program for the brand program toe actually end up at that stage. So this is all I think we can now go to further parts off history in the development off space technologies for human space flight. 5. United States - USSR Cooperation: hi, everyone, and welcome to this new class in history and specifically would happened after the Cold War between the United States and Russia. So in terms of space and in terms off the development of place technologies, the United States and Russia decided to cooperate. This was small less Act 1991 after 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union on the new Russia government and the United States decided to cooperate in terms of developing space technology as I mentioned. So first of all, where was Russia? Russia was developing the more program, which was between 1986 and 2001 which actually consisted off a modular space station. It's quite interesting to note that more was actually referring in Russian to piece a world which is kind of a different folks toe war that existed between the United States and Russia just before you know, then basically the Soviet Union on the United States. So this more program was actually intending to develop a modular space station. Now a modular space station is actually just space station, which is consistent off different models or different T elements on the development off the same space station. So the idea would be that, you know, you could have a complex kind of spacecraft on space which was actually developed. Andi, constructed in different parts in different sections on all of them, would be integrated or assembled in one space station. So this is where Russia wars. At that point on the United States, As I mentioned before, as I mentioned in the class before, I didn't really have, um they had the freedom program, which was referring to the development off a space station, but could not be developed because of insufficient funds by the government of the United States. So basically, in this point off the history, you know, the understates didn't have a clear vision off clear purpose in terms of space stations. So just to make a clear observation off, the more program it was assembled in orbit. Okay, Technologically, it was assembled in orbit, which is kind of different than assembling and then just, you know, assembling at earth and then sending the spacecraft to to the, you know, to orbit. But it was actually assembled. So this means that different, um, voyages, different missions or different, You know, so use probes actually put different key elements on orbit. Andi more golden together and assemble them together. So at that stage it was the largest spacecraft in orbit, operated initially by the Soviet Union on later Russia. On it included many experiments in biology, biology, physics, astronomy and many more. So it was kind of a scientific purposed spacecraft which was a bit different to what we were years. At that point, it focused on permanent occupation off space on. In fact, it had 3644 consecutive days with human presence, which was amazing. It was, ah, great milestone at that point compared to previous missions to have a bit of an idea of how big I'd Waas it actually contained 350 cubic meters, which were pressurized for humans to be inside. Initially designed for Soviet Union purposes. As I mentioned using Proton rockets so initially it waas assembled using the capabilities off Proton rockets. Later, it become also our United States collaboration with some shuttles which would go to male Andi if I remember correctly. There was also some American astronauts going inside of summer, so it was the first time that we would get actually collaboration between Russia and the United States. After that, the developments off the international space station. Warshawsky, I would say, wants the most emblematic moment between the relations between the United States and Russia in terms of space technology on it also consisted of a mad modular space station developed by Russia in this case, Andi, also the United States. So it was a continuous cooperation between the two space agencies on how they would focus the technology required on the requirement record. You know, Aled, the requirements for these kind off technology on space. So it was the natural continuation off the United States Freedom Project which Aziz, you may remember it was canceled, which was failed to develop. Okay, the Freedom Project. It was also the continuation in terms of Russia off the more program with some new sophisticated technologies. In 1993 plans started and from 1998 the International Space Station was constructed by Russian on the United States. Quite interesting. To know that the international space station is continue has continually been working from that point. And it's kind of, you know, it kind of gets ah good idea off how space technology has evolved over time orbits. The orbit of this space station is actually 409 kilometers above the service off the Earth Andan inclination or 51.65 degrees which is relative to the equatorial plane. Okay, so the plane which goes which is aligned to the rotation off Earth So many space shuttle missions and Soyuz missions actually focused on assembling the international space station Onda later taking people taking astronauts to the inside off this international space station. Currently it continues to operate, providing lots off scientific data and conducting absolutely a lot off experiments. So the international space station has bean, I would say an excellent way to focus new experiment approaches in space on getting a lot off data how humans can survive in space. So, you know, to get a bit of on idea of what the International space station looks like. This is all the models which consists which you know which form the international space. If you can see that it was basically developed by the United States and Russia initially but later on some other missions by the European Space Agency by the Japanese Space Agency and also the Canadian Space Agency, developed many other instruments, many other technologies on board off the international space station. So here you can see a bit of the development off the different models and how they were assembled. Okay, Andi, also, you have here an image which is quite interesting in terms off. There are European Space Agency astronauts here from NASA, from Russia, from Japan, also from Canada. Okay, so it was really the idea off an international space station is very literal. It was a combination of many different countries in for one specific purpose which was plainly scientific. So good job. And I would say, Andi, the International space station, as you know, continues to be continues to run today, but it's probably probably in a few years it will get the International Space station will actually stop operating since many of the technologies have Now, bean, you know, are too old. Andi, many new options have arised. So probably my guess is that International space station will actually be up there for men for some years yet maybe five years, 5 to 10 years. But later on, it will be probably it will decay onto orbit again. Or maybe for, you know, for other purposes. But probably the international space station will end up soon. Another interesting fact between the United States and Russia governments was the so use, which is as you know, so use was actually developed very in the very early in the Soviet Union plant as we discussed before. And it actually demonstrates how Russia was able to continue putting astronauts into space , especially at that era when the space shuttle stopped when the space shuttle had to be cancelled. OK, so we have what is known in the United States is to post space shuttle gap. Okay, later than 2011 on gun actually going on right now, which is the point at which all astronauts from the United States cut to go, had to take off, had to be lowest okay with Russian technology, which is kind of an interesting point. So once the space shuttle program was retired in 2011 the United States astronauts on also other astronaut from the European Space Agency, used Russian Soyuz program, which is the combination off this rocket on this spacecraft, OK, which was on top of the rocket Here, you can see an image. Okay, two reads the international space station. So it was an international effort. Okay, Andi, the technology was Russian, but it has bean, you know, to the advantage off Europeans. Andi Americans. Now, this solution became reasonable. Since no NASA manned rocket okay during after in 2011 was able to get funding from the government, I was able to actually perform any operations which would imply putting man to the international space station. For instance, the launch off the United States, estimated from Russia, has been sometimes controversial but effective. Okay, on commercial private spaceflight, as you know, is getting closer. So this post space shuttle gap is actually closing on, probably at 2020 2021. I'm not sure right now. We will already have manned missions by Space X, I believe to the International Space station. For now, I think that's basics has only provided some material. Some card. Where to The International Space station. But manned space flight has not been provided yet by Space six. Here you have an image. Okay, which I found is quite interesting off three astronauts on in the back. You have you have the capsule, the Soyuz program capsule, and it's also interesting to know that you and see the Italian flag. So from the European Space Agency, the Russian ones from from Russia, a national from Russia on it's not very clear, but this is, Ah, badge from NASA, which is a united space United States astronaut. So you can see the combination off different international astronauts going together for the purposes off the international space station. So with this, we we end up with the United States and Russia cooperation after called war. Now we will discuss bid off what commercial private spaceflight ace and how it will affect the future. 6. Private Companies: Hey, guys, welcome to these new class in history. In this case will be discussing what private companies based flight ISS on how it will affect the future off humans in space. So, first of all, there are many companies right now that that developing spaceflight in terms off, you know, companies which are private Andi, basically I will be discussing this for because I think they are the most influential right now. Andi, they all are based in the United States. If I remember correctly on it doesn't imply that this is necessarily the future off how spaceflight private companies in space without looks like. But it is for right now. So in the future will discuss a bit better how maybe companies will be developed in different countries and different regions off the world on how that may influence the spaceflight in general terms. So, first of all, we have blue origin which is developed right now by um by the Amazon CEO. Christian vessels will have Space X who probably most of you already know we have Buoying the traditional aircraft aviation company, which is now well it has been developing some spacecraft for sometime on also we have burgeoned Galactic, which is one company which is developing some kind of a bit different type of space flight . So first of all, the first thing I want to commend is the commercial crew development, which is Sisi Death OK, which is a United States funded program to stimulate the development off private crude capsules. So in this case, we're just specifically discussing about crude capsules. OK, it's not about designing rockets. It's not about designing any kind off technology which is different to this. Specifically, the CC death is project developed by NASA, which intends to allow some private companies or, you know, give funding to private companies in order to develop specifically crude capsules on this is mostly because, you know, NASA was stuck after the shuttle with no private with now crude capsules. So they ended up deciding to actually let the company's let private companies develop this kind of technology. And right now we have a competition between Well, we had there was a competition between if I remember correctly five or six different companies. But right now the two, which were funded by NASA, are actually bowing on space six, which kind off one the funding from NASA. Okay, so this crude capsules are meant to without developed in order to go to low earth orbit. Okay, on also in September 2014 the contracts were awarded, as I mentioned before to both space six on Buoying companies. So it's not like they have a competition between themselves, but rather they were both awarded to. Okay. Each will supply six flights to the international space station. So in this captain, developed by point, you will have six flights and also six flights for the space X Dragon. I think it's the name for it. So we also have some different companies. Like, for instance, blue origin. Blue Origin is an American aerospace manufacturer company founded by Jeff Bezos, who is the CEO off Amazon. There is one interesting fact. I remember speaking to one off the sa members on the on some mission developed by by the European Space Agency. I think it was specifically there were set emission which fled Teoh a comet. And they actually said, If you want to start a business, if you want to start a private company, the first thing you have to take into account Sorry, in terms of economics is that you will probably have. You will probably require to have a $1,000,000,000 to start with. Andi. The economics off by, you know, private space flight will probably mean that from one billion you will go to one million. So it's not. It's not the most profitable business there is. Okay? It's kind of complex to get a good economy going off flowing with this kind off private space. Right? So this is why no, Those many companies are actually being developed right now on why those which are being developed are actually funded by people who have a lot of money. You know, Jeff Passes is the CEO of Amazon. I'm pretty sure he has a lot of money to spend on, you know, technologies such as this one's. You also have l A mask. You have different companies which basically all have a lot of money. So it in my my idea would be that it is quite difficult to start a business like this if you don't have uneconomical strength from the beginning, OK, so going back to blue origin its aim is to develop technologies to enable humans private access to space. Okay. Also, with developments off the off these rockets, which have reusable rockets, they want to lower costs and increase reliability. One. I think this is quite interesting because it's kind of a difference. Maybe between blue Origin and Space six, Um, CEO said. They are great out team photo shooter, which is I think it's Latin right. Which means step by step ferociously on this means that you will probably see book You don't see Bruijn us, you know, it is not as popular as space exists because they go one piece at a time and that is actually good because, you know, Amazon was also delivered developed that by that on. What it implies is that they won't try to be too ambitious at any stage off the developments off the rockets. But whether they will try to make everything they do correctly precise on, then go step by step ferociously actually going into orbital flight, probably in the future. So blue origin taken to count these companies probably going a lot of places in the future . Okay, Um yeah, as I mentioned the future off Buhari itchiness to go or be told before, but if I remember correctly right now, blue origin is staying at suborbital, so that means flights which are not capable off, you know, going around the earth at least one time. Okay, Right. So burdened. Galactic is another company eyes an American aerospace manufacturer company founded by reaching Branson. So also a guy who has a lot of money. Okay, if you don't know who reaching brands and it's just quickly Googled for him on, I'm sure you will recognize his face. So commercial spacecraft. Okay, this is Virgin Galactic is commercial spacecraft focused on suborbital flights for space tourists. So it kind of has maybe a more specific purpose in terms off economic goals. OK, since it is very defined to getting suborbital flights for space tourists, it also reads outer space already in December 2018 on in the future, they want to go orbital with human spaceflights. Now, this technology is actually quite interesting and it's bit different toe blue origin, space six, because it is actually based on this kind off aircraft, this kind of airplane okay, which is you can see is actually defined this mothership on SpaceShipTwo. So mothership is you can see these future large Onda whole wing. Okay. Going across the whole aircraft fuselage on this future large, which is, like the main the basis off all of this aircraft, which it would be the mothership. And then you have this kind of, you know, this fuselage, which is actually another spacecraft, which is the spaceship two. Okay, so the idea off this is actually having this aircraft go at a very high altitude and then deploying the spaceship two for it to reach to some suborbital mission. Okay, on that will be. So the tourists part will actually be the part in the middle, which is the SpaceShipTwo. That's where I understood. I think this is the the idea. Okay, this is the they're collected. The Virgin Galactic SpaceShipTwo has seen. Probably from the mothership. Okay. When actually going, you know when when expanding through the nozzle. Okay, what else? Um, yeah, I wanted to mention a bit more space sex because I know that spacings is probably one off the most popular private spaceflight companies, and I think it's important to get to know the technologies that are developing space six. Okay, so it's basics isn't like American Aerospace Manufacturer Company developed by CEO Elon Musk. As I mentioned all of these guys who probably seen Elon Musk, Richard Branson, Jeff betters okay, they're all basically, I would say, people who have a lot of money and can spend on developing technologies such as this one. This doesn't imply that the future off economics in terms off aerospace companies may vary over time, but right now it's it's a bit stuck to that. Okay, So initially focused on developing spell a small rockets that was basics. It already had the, you know, big plans to go to Mars. Okay, the space excess. I think it's been known for having a very ambitious plan for the future. And they've always said that the main goal or the latest goal is actually to go to Mars. So currently they have performed are no Earth orbit operations to the International space station, using the folk unknown Brockett, which is any off this one. So I think right, it would be one of the from the heavy. It would be any off this bullishness. This is the folk unknown rocket. The company aims to studying how to colonize Mars. That's actually true. Also, they're also looking for? In terms of economics, I think it's basically Are they looking for tourism in terms off circum lona secretary project, Which would mean going around the moon and coming back toe worth something, um, in terms off, You know, the performance off this technologies is actually the best performing company in V tvl. So vertical takeoff. Vertical landing rockets, right. As you all know, probably on Falcon heavy, which is this one over here is actually the most powerful rocket today. So it creates it can generate the most thrust off all rockets, which are actually being developed right today plans to develop the Big Falcon rocket and starship. Okay, which are this curtain, These technologies off here. So the big Falcon rocket is all the you Quincy over here, which is has the first stage. And then it has the starship on the on the top part off the rocket right on the starship is actually all of this. It is meant to be developed, I think, to go to Mars to go to the moon. Probably. But the basic aim for space six right now is to develop a starship which is capable off performing a bit similar to what we mentioned in history were mentioned when NASA was developing the all off that plan to getting four types of spacecraft into orbit on going to different places, going to interplanetary with development of the space shuttle, the space International space station and all that. So the idea is it is very ambitious. From Space Six On it is to develop bilk Falcon, rocket and Starship and to make Starship actually a business. OK, that's the whole idea on how to get the starship to go to Mars and actually land to Mars on even colonize Mars. So I would say, Yeah, the Big Falcon Rocket and Starship. They look pretty, pretty intense, pretty ambitious. Okay, on. They probably will succeed if that's the, you know, the resources their economic resources on if Space X continues to be economically stable on growing. So I would say Space six looks really good right now. There's a lot off opinions. You can go you. It is easy to go to YouTube, and you see absolutely a lot of opinions regarding what Space X will look in the future. From my point of view, I think that it is a very good idea to be developing space companies such a space X or blue origin on all of these companies because it does look like the future is quite private. So in the past, we also had well, you know, we we had NASA. We had the Russians, we had European Space Agency, whatever. But right now, what is looking to the future is actually private companies, and I think that's basics and blue origin are doing an excellent job. So if you're interested in working with basics and working with blue origin, whatever cos you think, or even in smaller countries, as far as I know, there's some companies in Spain. Some companies in Germany which has grown to develop some technologies regarding two rockets. But right now they aren't going to, you know, too fast or too, because it's a very ambitious project. So what I would say is, if you are interested in this kind of technologies, apply and try to work there because there was there is absolutely a lot off future in this kind of technology. Andi, if you're really looking for it, it would be amazing to be honest with you guys, I think there will be absolutely amazing toe work for these companies on how will probably try to apply for them. Okay, on. I want you to apply for them. Also, if you think that you are able to perform some kind off technological advancement to this one's if your engineers if you're physicist, if your people who just have some ideas, that's that's very welcome in all of these companies, I can assure you that. Yeah, just apply. Andi. Yeah. Try to aim a sky as possible, as always. Um so I wanted to make this like slide. For What's your opinion on private companies? There is a lot off debate on whether these companies will succeed economically where they will succeed in terms off science. In terms of getting people onto Mars, for instance, I would like to know your opinion, Andi, As as I mentioned before, I want you to make sure that if this is the kind of job, if this is a kind of technology that you would like to be working with, make sure that you apply. Make sure that you study that you understand all over the topics which have related to this . Andi you will have probably a very good option in the future to get into these kind off aerospace companies. Okay. So, yeah, I think we can go to the next topic. Andi. Yeah, as always, if you have any doubts, if you want to mention if you want to add some things to these course, if you want to make some differences, you know, just let me know. And I am completely open to making any kind off changes or making any kind off, you know, specifically explanations or additional material to all of this content. Okay, so let's go to the next topic.