Astronaut Animation: Motion Graphics & Rendering in Cinema 4D & Redshift | Don Mupasi X Visualdon | Skillshare

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Astronaut Animation: Motion Graphics & Rendering in Cinema 4D & Redshift

teacher avatar Don Mupasi X Visualdon, Visual artist.

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

38 Lessons (3h 33m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:09
    • 2. Installing Plugins, Software & Hardware Requirements

      9:28
    • 3. Project Overview

      5:26
    • 4. Making The Ocean Simulation

      12:42
    • 5. Adding Detail To The Ocean

      1:30
    • 6. Making Preview Renders

      4:04
    • 7. Finding A Character Model

      4:08
    • 8. Rigging & Animating Character With Mixamo

      3:58
    • 9. Importing & Scaling Character

      8:50
    • 10. Character Keyframes & Timing

      3:24
    • 11. Attaching Character To Ocean

      7:20
    • 12. Camera Animation

      9:53
    • 13. Adjusting Character Arms

      8:00
    • 14. Creaking More Ocean Layers

      10:31
    • 15. Redshift - Basic Nebula Material

      5:44
    • 16. Redshift - Basic Render Settings

      9:08
    • 17. Redshift - Main Nebula Material Continued

      6:01
    • 18. Redshift - Astonaut Image Textures

      7:28
    • 19. Redshift - Normal & Bump Maps

      4:15
    • 20. Redshift - Copying Materials

      1:32
    • 21. Redshift - Visor Material

      1:35
    • 22. Redshift - Water Material

      6:51
    • 23. Redshift - Large Water Layer

      6:51
    • 24. Redshift - Cleaning Up The Render

      3:23
    • 25. Redshift - Other Glowing Nebulas

      8:24
    • 26. Redshift - Lighting

      11:05
    • 27. Redshift - Camera Tag

      6:30
    • 28. Redshift - Final Render Settings

      4:56
    • 29. Redshift Bonus - Denoising

      2:34
    • 30. Redshift - Final Output From Cinema 4D

      2:01
    • 31. Exporting Extra Fog Layer

      5:14
    • 32. After Effects - Import And Color Management

      4:45
    • 33. After Effects - Post Effects & Color Grading

      5:44
    • 34. After Effects - Fog From Depth Layer

      7:11
    • 35. Final Export From After Effects

      2:24
    • 36. Premiere Pro Workflow Tips

      4:03
    • 37. Best Youtube & Instagram Settings

      2:16
    • 38. Final Outro

      1:18
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About This Class

In this class, you will learn how to create a floating astronaut scene in Cinema 4D and render it with Redshift Render, the GPU based Render Engine for Cinema 4D. In addition to learning the full step by step process of creating this scene in particular you will also learn several general techniques, tips & tricks to working with Cinema 4D & Redshift Render.

Important Additional Class Notes & Files - Google Drive Link

The class covers the following topics and more that you can use for your animation and motion graphics projects in general such as:

  • Creating on ocean simulation using a free plugin for Cinema 4D called Hot4D
  • Rigging & animating characters with a free tool by Adobe called MIXAMO
  • Camera animation in Cinema 4D
  • How to instal 3rd party plugins in Cinema 4D & Integrate them in your user interface
  • Creating a scene & animation that loops seamlessly
  • A cinematic lighting style in with Redshift Render in Cinema 4D
  • Atmospheric and fog effects with Redshift Render
  • Output/render settings from Cinema 4D & Redshift. Optimizing for both quality & speed
  • Importing the rendered sequence/s into Adobe After Effects
  • Using Adobe After Effects for the finishing touches, applying glow effects and color adjustments.
  • The best final export settings in Adobe Premiere Pro for Instagram and YouTube.

The class is probably more suitable for intermediate to advanced users buts its also detailed enough that beginners should be able to follow along without too many problems either. If you get suck on any part of the class, you can ask your question under the class and I will answer your question as soon as possible. Remember to share a screen with your question which will make it easier to understand the question!

If the class is too advanced, no need to worry! I have several other and more beginner friendly classes for Cinema 4D on my profile, one of which is a complete masterclass aimed at absolute beginners and people who have never opened the software before. You could start there and then come back to this class after!

Thanks for watching, and enjoy!

Meet Your Teacher

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Don Mupasi X Visualdon

Visual artist.

Top Teacher

I am a freelance visual artist from the UK. I make retro & space visuals and loops. Most of my work is for musicians, so I make visuals for music videos and sometimes visuals for live shows and concerts. I also do a lot of personal projects and post them to my instagram @visualdon.

My main apps for creating visuals are Cinema 4D and After Effects. 

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Today we're going to create this scene with an astronaut floating in space. Hi, my name is Don and I'm a visual artist based in the UK. Earlier this year, I created this animation with this astronauts floating in this spacey ocean. Since then, I have seen this re-posted in so many different places and people using it as their wallpapers on their phones and computers. I even got to produce a larger version which played at one of David Guetta's shows this year, which was really amazing to watch. So it seems this piece has resonated with quite a lot of people. It's also been the most requested class topic, which is why I am doing this today. I'm going to show you how I created this with Cinema 4D and Redshift Render. We're going to go through the whole process step-by-step, starting with finding a character to work with, then rigging and animating this. After that, we'll create the ocean simulation in Cinema 4D and then combine it with our character. Then in the Redshift section of the class, we're going to go through materials, lighting, and rendering. At the very end, we're going to do some compositing in After Effects. I've been using Cinema 4D for about a decade now. During most of that time, I always stuck with the standard render engine, but when I switched to Redshift, it really helped me to take my visuals to a new level. I'm hoping in this class I can show you some of that potential and how powerful Redshift can really be. The class is probably more suitable for intermediate to advanced users, but it's detailed enough that even beginners should be able to follow along without too many problems. As usual, if you get stuck on any part, you can ask a question below, and I'll get back to you as soon as possible. So with that plan, let's get started. 2. Installing Plugins, Software & Hardware Requirements: To start with, we're going to go over some software and hardware requirements for the class as well as some tips and tricks for just being able to work faster in Cinema 4D. Everything you need for the class is going to be available in this Google drive folder. Of course, of particular interest are the plugins which are going to be used throughout this class, mainly the HOT4D plugin, which is used to create the ocean simulations. I have compiled these various folders for the different versions of Cinema 4D and you just need to pick one which is going to work for you. Next, we want to go to this software and hardware requirements document. Scrolling down this document, we can see hardware requirements. All you need is any computer with an NVIDIA graphics card because Redshift is a GPU based render engine. Instead of using your CPU, it uses your graphics card to do the rendering. The more powerful your GPU is, the faster that's going to be. Anyway, that's it for this section. My own setup is a 2x 3090 GPUs with 24 gigabytes of memory each. It's quiet a fast setup as you're going to see when we go throughout the class. That's the hardware requirement. If we scroll up, we also have the software requirements. But there is something a bit more to say about that, which is that currently the best version of that plug-in works with Cinema 4D, R21, and R22. There are other versions available for older versions and newer versions, but they are missing some of the features. In order to follow the class as closely as possible, I do recommend going back to Version 21 or 22. If you have a Cinema 4D license, just go over to your profile and you will be able to download the legacy versions. [MUSIC] Just as a side note of making sure that I am giving you guys all of the information I can, this is the current pricing structure for Cinema 4D. You're going to actually bundle Cinema 4D and Redshift together since they're owned by the same company. It didn't use to be that way, but Maxon, the parent company of Cinema 4D bought Redshift, which is again, one of the reasons why this combination of 3D app and render engine works really well. It's been integrated properly into Cinema 4D. Anyway, it's worth checking out these pricing structures. For professionals this is where you would look and it's cheaper for schools and universities and it's even cheaper for students, you get billed 2.99 twice a year. It's very inexpensive, especially if you qualify to get this as a student. Anyway, that's it. I just wanted to make sure that I mentioned this at this point because I know there will be some people who may not have even thought about getting either Cinema 4D or Redshift. It's worth going and checking out the information on the Maxon website. Now let's get back to Cinema 4D and I'll show you how to install plugins. [MUSIC] Anyway, once you download the appropriate plugin, this is how you install it. In Cinema 4D go to Edit and Preferences. Then you want to open the Preferences folder, then go to the Plugins folder and this is where you're going to install your version of HOT4D. I am in version 22 of Cinema 4D and the plugin is called the same thing, even though it says 21, this is for 22 as well. Anyway, I've put the folder here and you see that's the plugin. In addition to the plug-in folder, we also have this 3DLL files, which we'll need to go to the root folder of where your Cinema 4D is installed. For my Cinema 4D, that's on my C drive and it's in this Maxon Cinema 4D 22 folder. That's these three files right here. Then you want to go ahead and launch Cinema 4D and the next time you are in here, you can go to Extensions and you should find HOT4D under that. If I get this and apply it to the plane, now you see this is working. This is the best version of the plugin in 22. It will be the same in R21. Now let me show you what this looks like in other versions of Cinema 4D that aren't 21 or 22, so 20 and below or 23 and 24. Because currently the latest version of Cinema 4D is 25. For that version, this plug-in does not work at all. You are definitely going to have to choose one of the older versions. Anyway, I have installed it here, HOT4D. Let's apply it to this plane. It looks the same at a glance, but when I hit "Play", we will see that we no longer have that automatic play function. With this version, you have to animate the time by hand. If I go to the beginning and set a key frame, hold control and click that, go to the end and then type in something like 100 and then set another key frame. If I play this is going to ease in and ease out. I would definitely have to go to my timeline, go to HOT 4D, open this up and make sure this is linear so we have that constant speed throughout. If I hit "Play", now you see it's animated. Now, another feature which is going to be missing is the loop function which exists in 21 and 22. That's why I wouldn't recommend any other versions besides 21 and 22. This is going to give you the best results and allow you to follow the class as closely as possible. Here is another plugin which is going to be very useful. I have already installed it, we will just need to place it in our interface. Let's go to window customization and customize commands. Here I'm going to search for Solo and it's the Magic Solo plugin. If I place this in my interface, this is used to isolate particular objects at any given time. When our scene is filled with several objects, it's going to be very useful for only working on one of them at a time. If I get a cube, just as an example, and with the cube selected, I'm going to click the Magic Solo button and there you go. Now we're just working on this one object. When I'm done, I can click that again and it will bring back everything else. This is a very useful plugin which I really like using a lot. Anyway, make sure you save this layout, otherwise that will be gone the next time you relaunch Cinema 4D. Go to Window, Customization, and then Save As Startup layout and it's going to be there the next time. Here is something else which may be useful. If you go to my introduction to Cinema 4D guide, Lesson 2 talks about navigation shortcuts. This is going to allow you to move faster within your Cinema 4D window. I'll go ahead and check that out if you're not sure how to zoom around the scene as you see here. It's explained there in a lot more detail. Then one more setting I would change here is in Edit and Preferences. Let's go to Units. The time unit which I use in my timeline over here is this SMPTE. By default it's going to be set to frames, which displays like this. But I prefer to work in seconds this way. You can still see the actual frame numbers above that. Anyway, so you get the best of both worlds. Anyway, that's it. I just needed to go through a few basic things such as being able to get the plugin working properly so that we're all on the same page for the rest of the class. [MUSIC] 3. Project Overview: We're now going to go through an overview of the project and just talk about things that we need to keep in mind as we go through the rest of the class. This is the final scene in Cinema 4D. We're going to end up with something similar to this by the end of the class. We can see the various ocean simulations involved, the materials, and so on. I wanted to just talk about these aspects of the project. I've got the doodle to just to help me draw over the interface. The layers, that's this colorful patchwork. This was just a way of being able to see the objects in my viewport because if you have ever worked with redshift in Cinema 4D, you will know that certain types of shaders do not preview very well in the viewport. Let me show you what I mean. If I turn off the layer color switch, it's going to go gray momentarily and then just turn into this sea of black. Now the only thing that is previewing somewhat is the astronaut himself. Then everything else is just not very good. The solution is to use the layer manager and then go into Options and enabling layer color. The layer manager is on the right side of the interface. If we go to layers, you can see I have these various layers and these correspond to the objects in the scene. If I double-click, that creates a new layer, and I could, for example, move the astronaut into this new layer. It's going to take a few moments. That didn't work. It's because the geometry itself needs to be in here. There we go. I can change the color of this to anything else. It's just easier to now spot the various objects in the viewport when the material previews don't work so well. That's that. If you didn't know about the layer system in Cinema 4D, now you do, and it's going to come up throughout this class. To add to this, we want to talk about the overall look, because all these layers that we see here, they were built together that way to produce the final look that we see in this example. Each layer we see in cinema 4D is a different layer of the final effect. For example, the very top layer, that's our nebulas instars material. Then directly underneath it we have the refractive water material. They are two separate layers with two separate materials. That's this layer, the very top one, and the water layer underneath it. There were points earlier on as always developing the idea initially, when I was still trying to combine everything into one material and a single piece of geometry. I just couldn't get it to work. Then at some point I had an idea to split it into two layers. That produced much better results. That's what we see going on here. Then that's the approach I took for the rest of the scene, such as these two glowing sections further behind, that would be this yellow patch and this greenish one. Then the largest player in the scene is the one that reaches the furthest out toward the horizon. That's this purple layer. It fills out the rest of the scene. Of course, all of that will be covered in more detail in the relevant lessons. But for now, I just want to finish off by talking about optimization in the sea. We see that this mesh just by looking is very detailed. That's because it's the one closest to our character and camera. If I go to display and growth shading with lines, we can see how dense this particular mesh is. Then going further out, these meshes are less detailed. The least detailed of all is the large one that reaches out the furthest. Keep that in mind as we are building the scene. We are using several layers of this very detailed geometry. It's definitely a good idea to be as economic as possible by allocating the detail where it's needed and then optimizing for the rest further back. But that's it. That's a quick overview of the scene and what you should expect throughout the class. 4. Making The Ocean Simulation: The main effect in this whole thing is of course, the ocean simulation. Let's see how that was done. This is where we left off in the previous lesson. We now want to jump into a new scene and recreate these various ocean surfaces. They are actually all the same. Or rather the simulation applied to these different pieces of geometry is the same. Obviously, some are larger, some are smaller, some are in different places. But the baseline ocean simulation is the same. If I go to Window, I can jump to a new version where it's just that base simulation. You see that the playback speed is very slow in cinema. I have displayed the FPS at the bottom here, and it's barely going above seven or eight FPS. Later, we're going to go through how to output some preview renders as you can see here, so that we actually get an idea of how fast or slow everything is moving in the scene. For now, we just want to focus on actually building this. By the way, if you're wondering how I am displaying my FPS in the project, if I press Shift V to bring up the Viewport settings under the HUD tab, there is a Frames Per Second control. Anyway, so we need to start from scratch. Once again, let's go to File and New Project and bring in a disc shape. This is going to hold the ocean simulation. Let's go to Extensions, HOT4R21 and get the HOT 4D plug-in. Make this a child of the disk. If I hit Play, this is what we get by default. There aren't enough segments on the disk to do much. Under Rotation and Disc Segments, we actually want to see these segments. Let's go to Display, Gouraud Shading with lines or use the keyboard shortcut, which would have been N, followed by a B or NA to get back to the original. But then yeah, N plus B is a gouraud shading with lines. Going back to this, the outer radius is going to be 375. We just need to zoom out a bit here. Then the segments were as follows; 250 for the disk segments, how many rings we have. Then rotation segments is going around, which is how many spokes we could say. If we go back to the clean view, so of course we need to change several of these options in the simulation before we get to what we have in the final scene. But before we do that, I'm going to press Control D to bring up my project settings. I want to drop the FPS from the default 30-24. I'm also going to set my timeline to 16 seconds. The reason for picking 16 seconds is because later when we bring in the astronauts animation, that animation is about four seconds long and it's looped. That would fit into this longer animation four times. This is also going to be looped, this ocean simulation. Everything will be looped from start to end. That will make more sense as we go along. But for now, let's just go for 16 seconds. That's 384 frames at 24 FPS if you are working with those units instead. Then let's keep this playing so that we can see what the settings do when we change them and what effect that has on the overall simulation. I am going to bring up my FPS again. Under the HUD display in the Viewport settings, let's enable FPS. Right now we're getting a really good performance of around 60. Starting with the ocean resolution, if I bump this up to 256, it creates a more detailed surface, but the performance has dropped now. Then we do that again, go to 512 and it's the same thing. It looks more detailed, but the trade-off is the playback speed. In the actual final version, I was using 1024 by 1024, which gave me the most detail. At this point, the performance will no longer be useful for previewing this in real time. That's what I mentioned earlier, that in a separate lesson, we'll go over how to export some test renders, just so we can continue to preview our animation in real-time. But from this point on for the rest of the project, we are going to have to deal with this very slow preview speeds. It's also a good idea to save the project now and then just in case we run into any issues. I've done this a few times before. Let's come up with a different naming structure here. If I'll call it new_ocean_#1 or something. Let's just go with that. Next step in the list of settings we have the ocean size. As the name suggests, that's to do with the overall size of our ocean. If we go to 1,000, that's going to create these larger waves. From peak to another peak, it's a greater distance than before. If we go the other way and bring this down to say 200, you see it has the opposite effect. Now everything is so much closer and we even start to see some repeating patterns, and that's not very good looking there. Let's go to 1,000 and changing the wind speed has a similar effect. If I increase this to 100, it's going to give the impression that this is a much larger ocean surface. Now the waves are much larger and they appear to be moving slower which again contributes to that sense of feeling like a larger scene. Wind direction just means which way the waves are moving. I'm actually going to leave it at 120 for this. But the way this is calculated is if we are looking into the z-direction, this blue axis here and let me get the Doodle tool for this bit. Imagine this is a clock surface. Right down the middle, would be 90 degrees, and right angle to the right is 180, and then this would be zero, so it goes around in that direction. Right now at 120, the waves are moving away from us and then slightly to the right, so somewhere there about. Let's go back to our Live Selection and get rid of this Doodle and look at the next setting, which is the Shortest Wavelength. If this were a higher number, such as 10, it means that the smallest waves are going to just disappear. Now everything looks a lot smoother. The lower this number, the more smaller details we're going to have in our scene. The default 0.01 is fine. Then we have the approximate wave height, which is set to 30 currently. If I bump this up to 100, you see it just creates taller looking waves. Let's drop this down to 50 though, that's what I was using before. The seed value just changes the random simulation you get. I settled with 12,349. In the original scene, at the point where I brought in the astronauts and tried to do my camera animation, I had just been using the default 12,345. I realized that I didn't like the way things were lining up and so on. I kept flipping through this until I got an arrangement I liked and that just happened to be 12,349. But in your own scene, that could be any seed value. Go through this and see what works for you. Next up is the active chop, which curiously if you turn this off, the simulation speeds up. We can now preview this a bit quicker. It's still not real time, but it's certainly faster than a few moments ago. I'm going to turn it on because we do want to control this choppiness control. Let me show you what this does. If I bump it up to two, it creates this effect where the top of the waves are pinched. I think it creates a sense of more detail. I think it looks more realistic. You don't want to make it too high though, because at some point, the waves do start to fold into themselves and it can create some pretty ugly geometry. You would have to just lower this to minimize that particular artifact. In the end, I went with 1.85. Even though it's still does fold-over in some areas, by the time I applied the various materials and did the lighting and so on, it wasn't too obvious, so I was able to get away with it. I wanted that effect to be quite strong generally. Then this places here where it's too much, they faded into the rest of the details anyway. But be careful with this. Further down the list of settings we have Damp Reflection, Wind Alignment, and Ocean Depth, all of which I didn't change, I just left them at the defaults, but feel free to play around with them and see if they do anything. Then we have Time Scale, which has to do with the overall speed of the simulation. Now, we don't really have a good sense of the overall speed right now. But once again, because I've done this project before, I know that this needs to be much slower. I'm going to go for 0.085 which is going to seem really, really slow. But that's what worked for me in the end. Directly below that we have the time loop frame. This just needs to be the same as the total number of frames in your animation. For me that's 384. I'm going to set that to 384. It determines the point at which our animation is going to loop. So 384, right at the end there. The animation or the simulation just goes back to the beginning. That's how it's looped, very straightforward. That's it for the baseline ocean simulation. As I said earlier, all the other pieces of geometry will have the same simulation apply to them, they'll just be positioned differently in layers and such. But it's going to be using similar settings as you've just seen here. 5. Adding Detail To The Ocean: [MUSIC] We have a pretty good level of detail right now, but it could be even higher. We are going to control this using just the segments. With the camera set to this position, I'm just going to render a single frame, which looks like this. Then let's go back to our disk shape and bump up the segments to the maximum which they go up to which is a 1,000 in both sections. Already we can see an increase in the level of detail, the waves. Some smaller ones have now appeared where everything was a lot smoother before. Anyway, let's do a direct comparison to the picture viewer, you can see it's quite a big difference. It's great that we can do this. It means that whilst we are working on the project, we can work with lower values, which means our scene just performs a bit faster. I know it's still quite slow, but trying to play it back a 1,000 by 1,000 is going to be even slower so we calibrate the level of detail based on what we're doing at that time. Then when we're happy with everything. [MUSIC] For the final render that's when we come back and just maximize everything so that looks as good as possible. 6. Making Preview Renders: When using this option simulation plug-in beyond a certain point, we won't be able to preview our project in real-time. So to get around this, we have to do some preview renders. This isn't just useful for this project in particular, is useful in general. Anytime you end up with a really heavy scene in Cinema 4D, with and no smooth playback. It's very useful to know how to do a preview render. In order to output some test renders, we are going to be using the viewport renderer. Let's go to our render settings. By default, we have a render setting, which is just called my render setting. We can actually copy this, and click the second one. When it's white, it means we are now in this new copy. Let's call this one test. You have two sets of render settings. This can be what we use later for the actual output when we go through redshift and all that. But for now we just want to do our test viewport render. Let's go to renderer and change it to viewport. In here, we can basically just leave it as is we don't really need to change much. Perhaps one thing we could do is in the filter section, we could disable the web clean, the axis and the word axis. It just means that, when we output the test render, these lines in the interface will not be there, so it may just look a bit cleaner. Next up is the output itself. So 1280 by 720. That's okay for preview purposes, the frame rate should be 24, which is the same as our project. The frame range, I'm going to set to all the frames. Then in the save tab, we want to set the format to MP4. Then we need to specify a path for that. If I open this up, you can see I did this before this test render over there. I'm going to call this one test render O2 and then hit ''Save.'' For all of my renders, I always use the render queue. So if I go to render, add to render queue, it's going to ask us to save what we have done. Click ''Yes.'' I would then just go to jobs and then start rendering. Because it's just a viewport render is not rendering any effects, no materials, no lighting. We're just trying right now to preview the overall motion of this simulation we have just created. Then if it happens to be too fast or too slow, we go back to the settings, make some changes and then run another quick test render. This can be done at any stage throughout the project. We are just trying to preview the sim right now, but even later, when we add the cameras and other things, then that we may want to do tests, the two. I know it's a bit tedious, but it's just something that, if you use Cinema 4D for any length of time, and start doing more advanced projects, you're going to be inevitably building heavier sims, where real-time playback is no longer realistic to expect. Anyway, in which case, make use of these viewport renders, because they don't take that long in the grand scheme of things. This would be the preview in this particular example. Now we can see our ocean simulation, in real time and they're full speed and that only took about a minute for me. Of course, your own mileage may vary, but generally, it's going to be pretty quick. 7. Finding A Character Model: The next few sections are all about our astronaut character. In this first section, we're going to go through the things you should keep in mind when picking a character to work with. This is our scene in Cinema 4D after we have attached the astronaut to the ocean surface. This preview is pretty slow, so I outputted a test viewport render just to see that in real time. This is where we are going to get to at some point, but before we get to that stage, we need to find a model to work with, and there's a few things you should consider when choosing one. Then we are going to rig and animate it with Mixamo, which is a free tool by Adobe for rigging and animating characters. Then after we've done that, we will come back into Cinema 4D and attach it or combine it with our scene. As far as finding a good model to work with, you want to look for something in a relatively neutral stance. This is a good example, just standing the arms to the side. This would be pretty easy to deal with when we get to the rigging stage in Mixamo. This is on cgtrader.com and there are of course several other marketplaces you can find this kind of thing. I've just searched for astronaut here. There's a whole bunch of examples we could pick from and maybe you've actually got your own model already or maybe you've made one even. On this page, there are some examples you would want to avoid when using Mixamo. Anything with a big backpack or other objects attached to the character, Mixamo would have a hard time rigging this. This example over here wouldn't be too bad because even though it has a backpack, it's quite small and it's not wider than the main body, so Mixamo would handle this one just fine, but things like this over here, again, would be quite difficult. Something like this could work although I wouldn't be too sure. I've used this specific model before and there was a few issues when I tried it. This example would be too bulky also and definitely this one. Generally, Mixamo works better when there's just a simple body there without too many things attached to it. You also want to look for a model with good materials and textures, and we are going to see this later in the project when we get to those lessons. Then the file formats, you want to make sure that at least OBJ and FBX are available. These two will upload directly to Mixamo without any conversion needed, but there are other formats such as ABC which would open in Cinema 4D but you would have to convert to either FBX or OBJ before uploading it to Mixamo. Let me show you the export process for that. If I go to a new project, I'm going to go to file and merge, and this is just going to bring in the file from Mixamo. This could be a C4D or an ABC or another format that Cinema 4D can open. Once you have it in Cinema 4D, you can go to file and export and then you can choose wavefront OBJ or FBX for Mixamo, and it's just that simple. You output this to somewhere on your drive and then upload that to Mixamo. 8. Rigging & Animating Character With Mixamo: In some, you can see my character is already here. We're going to re-upload this shortly, but also there is a character's section in Mixamo where if you wanted to just try these as a test and then when you are comfortable with how all of this works, you can then go and purchase a custom model or make your own and upload it instead. But then we also have the animations section in Mixamo. If I search for swim, this is the treading water animation I attached to this particular model. But of course, let's just redo all of this again. I'm going to go to Upload. This is the version from CGTrader. It's quite a small file, so it shouldn't take too long. In fact, this processing character bit takes longer than the upload. After the upload is finished, we are going to be greeted with this orient screen. This is just if your model was facing the wrong direction, you can use these buttons to adjust it. It needs to be facing us like we see here. Then click next to the place markers screen where we can place these guides on the model. You see a quick guide over here. The wrists would be roughly about the elbows. Just try to do this as accurately as you can over your model. This is perfectly symmetrical. With use symmetry selected, it means that I just do one side and then it gets copied over across automatically. But if your character isn't as symmetrical as this one, you would untick this and then you can freely move each point independent of the other one. The final one is going to go about there. Then we have the skeleton LOD or level of detail. The standard is the default. But we could go down to three chain fingers, that's the only difference I have seen between these various LODs. It's just what it does to the hands. But standard here should just be fine. Then we click "Next" and it's going to spin around for up to about two minutes, it says and then let's see how the rig turns out. If this works properly, you should get a preview of your character moving around. I can see that all of the joints and all of that working properly. I can click "Next" and then "Next" again. Now, this is the same thing we were looking at before. My animation is already set. But I could click on some other ones just to see how this works. We'll go back to this version. Depending on the animation you pick, there will be various options over here with these sliders. The only one I changed here was the overdrive which controls the speed of the animation. I lowered this to about 25. I wanted this to just move a bit slower. If I go all the way across, you'll see it's going to be much faster. But anyway, once you are happy with the settings, you go to download and it's going to be an FBX. I will also choose 24 FPS, which is the same as our project. Then without any change in anything else, we can download this and open it in Cinema 4D. 9. Importing & Scaling Character: In this next lesson, we're going to look at scaling in Cinema 4D. It's quite a long section given that it's just about a single topic but it's one of those things where it needs to be covered correctly because if you get it wrong, it's going to cause you a lot of headaches at any point throughout the project. It's also a topic in Cinema 4D, which is often overlooked especially when we're dealing with red characters, so I thought I would take my time in this section and cover it as carefully as possible. Before we attach the astronauts to the ocean surface, we need to make sure that the scale and size of the astronaut fits into our scene and also the timing and keyframing. In this section, we're going to start by looking at the scale. Let's go to an earlier version of the project before we brought the astronaut in and I'm going to go to file and merge objects. Here we want to pick that treading water animation we downloaded from Mixamo. Just click "Okay" on this FBX import window and here we go. If I zoom out here, we can see that the scale of this is completely wrong. But before we fix that, it's a good idea to just have a look what's happening here so it's obviously our character and all of the various body parts which are being moved by the skeleton structure underneath all of this. Over here, the default rig from Mixamo is just called Mixamorig:Hips. This is the main parent object. Under this you'll see all of the other parts that make up the skeleton structure so we'll come back to this later. But for now if I click on the main object, which I'm going to rename to astro rig, you can see that we can move it around. We can even rotate this. If I press "R" to bring up the rotation, I can spin this around. However, what I cannot do is try and scale this down, so if I press "T" and just try to scale this down as normal, you can see it just ends up deforming the geometry instead so we need another way to do this. In a new project, I'm going to go to File and merge once again. Just as a quick side note, if you cannot see the joint structure inside of the character in the viewport, go to filter and make sure that joint is enabled, otherwise you will not see that. On its own this may not look like it's out of scale but if I introduce an object of a known size, such as the default Cuban cinema 4D, which is 200 centimeters across or two meters, we see that he is just simply too large. Now, I have worked with this character before, so I know that it's simply just ten times larger than it should be. So what I'm going to do is press "Control and D" to bring up the project settings and we're going to scale the whole thing down using this section. Under scale project, set the current scale to 10 and the target scale is going to remain at one, and we're just converting centimeters to centimeters here but this could be from any unit to any other one. Anyway, because of this ratio of 10:1, the new effective scale is going to be 0.1 or 10 percent of the current size, so I would just click "Okay" and now you see the whole thing shrinks down to size. This is definitely the best method for scaling down rigged characters and also, because this is animated, it makes it even easier because all of these values would have been scaled down by 10 proportionally or based on whatever ratio we scale down the whole project. That affects the size and the position of everything and it's all done at once. Now if we compare this to a cube, we're going to see that it's closer to what I would say is normal or real-world scale. This is something I've tried to do as much as possible in all of my projects, especially when I'm working with the humanoid characters like this. Because it means that if I'm building a scene with other objects, such as vehicles or buildings, if the relative scales and sizes of those objects are close to normal, then it's going to be easier to create a scene which looks more convincing. Anyway, this was a very simple 10-1 reduction. But say you didn't know what that number was. What you would do instead is find out the total size of the current object and then target it to be a different size. It is similar approach, but just works a bit differently, so let me show you what I mean. If I create a null object and then drag everything under this. I just missed that here we go and then click on the "Null" then over here under position, size and rotation, we want to change size to size plus, and what this does is, it displays the overall size of the whole object. Here if I look at the Y height, it's telling me 183. So that's being measured from the tip of the shoe all the way to the top of the head. Just to prove this, if I insert a cube, just scale it down then move this further up, place it under the null, and click back on this. Now we see this height has increased because it's measuring from the tip of the shoe to the cube now. Make sure that when you are measuring this way, there are no stray objects outside of what you're actually trying to measure, so then knowing the actual size of the object, I could take that, copy it, press "Control D" again, go to scale project and that's going to be our current starting scale and then I can target this to any number that I want. Now this is already to scale, so this is purely just an academic exercise, but if I go to the target scale, let's set this to 200, say I wanted this to be just a bit taller and you see it jumps to that new size. It's a similar approach except we're just using a known size and then targeting that to be any other size that we want. So then what I would do here is go to the null object. Let's right-click and delete without children. That's going to get rid of just the parent object so we are left with the same hierarchy we started with. Then I want to save this new version, let's call this astro 1. If we go back to our scene, this one here, let's get rid of the giant version file and merge again, and this time it's the new to scale version. We have some leftover materials from the big version so let's right-click and [MUSIC] delete unused materials just to clean this up as well. That's quite a lot to say about scaling in Cinema 4D, but I think it was important to go through that in that much detail. If you end up adopting this kind of workflow, you're dealing with large scenes and models from different sources then it's important to know how to handle all of that in the single projects. 10. Character Keyframes & Timing: We looked at the scale in the previous lesson. We're now going to look at the timing. Let's go to this new version. When I click on this, we can see that the key frames run from zero to about four seconds. By the way, I need to name this again, this should be code Astro Rig. Let's go to Window and timeline and the actually see where they go up to. In the timeline we can navigate the same as in the viewport. Press 1 to pan around and 2 zoom in. Looking at this, it stops just after four seconds and one frame. We need to just retime this slightly. If I select this over here, I can get this handle and then just move it to four seconds. Going this way would extend it and make it slower. Then we can make it faster by a lot. But we just want to move this to exactly four seconds, which is here. That's the first step. Now it's still stops after four seconds, we wanted to repeat and continue for the rest of the animation. Let's go back into the timeline window. If by the way, you cannot see the key frames of your objects, you want to press Alt and A, and that's going to either hide them or reveal everything that should be here. With this, by the way, it's all these nested joins once again and each one has its own key frames. There's a ton of key frame tracks. But by selecting the top one, we can grab all of them at once. I'm still just going to open up the first one though. Let's say position x. This is the initial run of key frames which ends at four seconds. Let's click everything again. In the properties over here, we want to use this after control to change what happens after the initial run. Change this from constant to repeat. Now you see this black line is going to change. It's a repetition of the initial set of key frames. Now it's going up to eight seconds. But we want this to go all the way to 16. If I zoom out here so we can see this. Let's go to the repetitions, and I'm going to increase this to 1, 2, and 3. Now it stops right at 16 seconds. That's why it was important for that to be four seconds so that it divides neatly into the 16-second timeline. If I scrub through to near the end and play this at the very end here, it's going to loop and jump back to the beginning. 11. Attaching Character To Ocean: Our read character is now fully prepared for this scene. We have covered the scaling and the timing. Now it's time to attach the character to the ocean surface. To attach the astronaut to the ocean, we're going to use something called the Constraint Tag. We'll see that shortly but before we just need to do a few things to the character. The astronaut already has this up and down motion as he is floating in nothing. But we want to remove that because that's going to come from the movement of the waves instead. If I go to the Astro Rig in the coordinates, that motion is coming from this very first level joint. We have other animation of course, but this one, let's go to the position. Select all of these, press "Control" to add to the whole selection, and we are doing the same for the rotation too. Let's right-click, Animation and Delete Track. This removes the entire set of key frames and for some reason it's only done the one there. Let's try that again. Everything is selected. I think we need to click on the "P, Animation and Delete Track". Now it removes everything. With that done, let's also switch off the simulation for this next part, and then create a null object. Place everything under this. This is going to be called our pin. This null is right on top of the ocean in the center. We need to bring our astronaut down to that point. That was another reason for removing the key frames on the Astro Rig. Because if I just tried to move this down, it would have jumped back to its original position. The reference point here is there is a strap across the chest. That's roughly the position I want to use again , this right there. Let's go to the Rig, and I think this ended up being about negative 25 for the Y position. Then I will zero out the X position and Z position too, heading rotation and the banking rotation. I will leave the pitch which is leaning forward or backwards at about 35. The astronaut is is too far forward though. We want that pinpoint to be some way inside of his chest. If I take the whole rig again, we're going to move it back to about here. I just moved it to when his head comes up to the green axis there, about 25 works. Now the pin null is right in the center and he is placed over that. Next, let's get the Constraint Tag. Right-click on the "Pin", go to Rigging Tags and Constraint. This may have been under a different menu in older versions of Cinema. You want to just go looking for this in these sub menus. But once we have it, let's bring it in. In the Settings we want to enable the clamp. Let's go to the Clamp tab. It's going to be clamped to the surface, and the target surface is our ocean simulation. This glow disc shape, drag that to this box, and then finally, we want to lock the position. Those are the steps involved in this very quick setup. Now it means if I take this disc shape and move it around, it's going to move the astronaut with it. More importantly, when I re-enable the simulation, that's going to be the case. Again, it's going to move with the ocean because it's pinned to that specific area, and if I play this at the very end, it's going to run back to the beginning and loop, which is exactly what we want. Now that we know how that works, let's say we want to do some changes to the mesh. It just means we have to come back and update the whole setup. Let me show you an example of what you may want to do. If I go to the Glow layer, in the original I actually took the whole simulation and spun it around 180 degrees. It's something I did at some point, when I think I was trying to animate my camera and I just realized I preferred the waves going toward the camera. I didn't want to change any of the sim settings. I just took the whole thing and rotated it 180 degrees. I could go to this, just type in 180. That actually stuck on pretty well there, but just to make sure what I would do is switch off the sim, go to the tag and unlock it. Go to this pin, and just make sure that it's set to zero position on everything. That's fine, actually. However, if I wanted to change the level of detail of the mesh. A different example where you would want to update the setup after making a change would be changing the level of detail. On the disc, if I go to the Segments, let's go for a 1,000 and a 1,000. When I do that, we see the whole thing shifts to somewhere way over here. We would have to go back to the tag, unlock it, and then disable the sim. Go to the pin and move it back to the center, then lock it again, and then re-enable the simulation. Now it should stay where it says supposed to. I think he is too far out of the water here, so I am going to just unlock it once more. Disable this, move the whole rig down to negative 30 on the Y position, and then update everything. [MUSIC] But that would be it. That's how the constraint type in Cinema 4D works. 12. Camera Animation: With our character now I've touched to the ocean surface, it's time to do the camera animation. We have a few things we want to do with the camera animation. One is we generally want to follow where the astronaut goes, so that he is always in the center of the frame. Then secondly, we want to add some subtle rotation to the camera so we can tilt the horizon at a few points. Let's see how that's going to look in cinema. Let's bring in our camera and look through it. In the object settings, I'm going to change anything. This is just the default camera with a 36 millimeter focal length. Let's go to the coordinates though, and zero out the rotation and the exposition. For the y position, we just want to have our astronauts be somewhere in the center of the frame. It looks about 20 is going to be fine. Then we don't want to be too far from the astronauts, but also not too close. I ended up with negative 235 on the z position. Right now this camera is right down the center of the x axis, so it's just pointing straight that way. We would want to adjust the camera to follow him like this. We can do this whilst looking through the camera by going to the exposition and then moving it that way. I will also set this to 20. Of course, these numbers would depend on your own scene. If you have a different simulation than where the astronauts is positioned, is going to be different from what I have over here. The general idea is to just follow wherever he goes. Let's go to frame zero and key frame the x and y position. Also I forgot generally I want to point this camera down a bit. In the rotation pitch, which is up and down. Let's set this to negative 4 or 5, let's say negative 4. Let's go to the end of the animation and key frame these two again. Controlling and clicking to confirm that. Then I want to go back to the middle of the animation. We have to follow him again and maybe bump the camera up a bit and we can adjust the vertical height. I think about 19 or so will be fine. Then we can save these key frames. I went in between the first two key frames, now I am going to go in between these two, and that's how I am going to animate all of their camera positions for this, just to go to several key points and then let the camera do what it wants in between. This one is already quite centered, left to right, but I am still going to make a small change, just saw that we keep the camera moving always. Vertically I definitely want to get away from the waves. Again, let's key frame that. We're now going to jump to the other halfway point between eight and 16, which is going to be 12. This time we're doing it more of a left to right adjustment and then a small amount vertically too. Then let's jump to two second intervals just to make sure we're following this as closely as possible. At some points by the way, when we are using this pin setup with the constraint tag, you may find your character just floating in a completely random position. If that happens, just scrub through forward a key frame or backwards, and it should snap to the correct position. This is going to show up in the final render too on the first frame and we're going to have to take that frame out. It's just a weird glitch that happens anytime the clamp is used. This could be one of those points where we could also output a test render just to see what we have in real-time. This is the scene now with this initial camera animation. Next step we want to do the rotation where we're tilting the horizon a bit. Let's go to our camera. Once again, we're going to begin with the heading. Let's go back to frame zero. I'm just going to type in one degree. It's not going to be too much variance for this. Let's set that key frame, then go to four seconds. I will set this to negative one, so it's pointing slightly to the other direction. The heading, by the way is the side to side the rotation. With those two keys placed down, I'm going to go to the Window and timeline. Let's open up our camera and we want to find the rotation. It's rotation H. Let's go to the next point, which would be eight seconds. If I type in eight here, it's going to go exactly to that point with our marker. Then I'll select these two key frames and copy them across. Then do that one more time for the end of the animation. Now it's longer than it needs to be now. Let's remove this one and then just time these ones. They hit those exact second times. This is 801, it should be eight and 12 and 16. Just some minor adjustments. We started with one degree and it's going to end up with one degree, which it needs to be the same at the start and at the end. Next is the pitch. With the pitch at the beginning, let's set that to negative 4. Go forward to four seconds again and do negative 5. Just a small movement down. Negative 5, then we can go to our timeline again just to copy that across. Or if you prefer to stay in this mode where you specifically just key every single time, that's okay too. But I think it's a bit quicker this way. If we are doing some fairly simple values anyway, we can then just tidy this up. [NOISE] Next is the banking, which is tilting the camera left and right. At the beginning, I actually want to be just at zero. Let's key that. Then go forward to four seconds once again. I'm going to do negative 2.5. Then key frame that. I would jump eight seconds all the way up to 12 and then reverse this. It's going to be 2.5. Let's key that. Go to the end, which is going to be 16, not zero. The value for that is going to be zero degrees. Once again, just making sure the start and the end frame are the same. In our timeline, this third rotation is much slower and more deliberate. I didn't want to have it changing and tilting the horizon too quickly. That's why we only have four key frames. One other small difference between this and the final is that I can see a bit more of the ocean in the back on this version here. We need to tilt this whole setup by a few degrees. For this, I'm just going to create a null object. It's going to be right in the center of the scene by default for its position. Let me look out of this camera is second and make this camera a child of that null object. It keeps all of the animation we've just created for it. Now I could rotate this null object up and down and it's going to tilt the camera this way, but the cameras still keeps this animation. Let's look through this to see the difference in their perspective and just want to see a bit more of the ocean behind here. We were at zero degrees before. I'm going to go to only about negative 5. But that would be it for the camera animation. [NOISE] At this point I would definitely do another test render just to see the final result. 13. Adjusting Character Arms: After I finished my camera animation, I noticed that there was some points where the character's arms we're just too far above the water surface. I wanted to fix this and I'm going to show you how I did that. We're going to fix this issue by my newly animating the shoulder joints on this character. Inside of the rig, we have to dig down a few times before we see the shoulder joints. If I go to the right one, for example, I can change the rotation pitch and you see how that lowers the arm back into the water. We are using these shoulder joints because one, it's definitely the best method. It's nice and easy. Secondly, too there are no key frames on these joints, because this problem could be fixed by going down further to the arm level. We do a similar adjustment. But there's already several key frames on the arm joints. It would be very difficult to try and change those. It's worked out very conveniently that this particular animation is set up this way. That's a nice coincidence that's worked out in our favor. Secondly, we are going to be focusing on a few key positions, so much like with the camera animation, where we just went to certain intervals and then let whatever happened in between those two intervals. It's going to be a similar approach with this animation. Thirdly, this problem is going to be different in each scene because it is partly a coincidence of the water simulation. If your own water simulation is different, maybe the problem is not as bad in your scene or it could be worse. It's just going to be different each time. But the method we're about to go over should be useful in all those types of situations. Let's get rid of this doodle. We have clean interface. Once again, go to frame 0 and let's just quickly make a note of a couple of numbers. I'm looking for the shoulders here and here they are. On the left shoulder to begin with, it's set to 99 degrees. Try and remember that. Maybe put this in the name. We want this as a reminder of what the original value was, so on their right shoulder, it's 94. This may be a bit relevant later. Anyway, let's start with the left shoulder on frame 0, we're just going to move this down. The idea is to not go too far because that's going to distort the geometry too much and it's going to look very strange. Do this sparingly, only going as far as is needed to solve this issue. The right arm needs to travel further here but once I get to a certain point, I can Control click to save that new position and let's do the same. On the other side, I had clicked away before saving this, which is why it's yellow. Let's just make sure it's a key framed. Then let's go to the end of the whole animation and save that same key frame again. Because, the first and last, key frame or the first and last frame need to be the same for the looping to work. Then let's go to eight seconds and fix this position. On their left shoulder doesn't need to move as much, maybe about 120. Then on the right, we're just going to try and balance this out, about 101. The next position I want to key in is at four seconds, which is in the middle of the first two key frames. After this, we're going to go to 12. It keeps subdividing our timeline that way. This time the left shoulder doesn't need to move too much. Even if that's the case, I think it's a good idea to still put a key frame there because it helps the other guides around it. It also just keeps things moving the whole time. We're not left with in the same position for too long. Let's now go to 12 seconds and fix that frame. We see here this is basically fine but I am still going to just make a couple of small changes. That we have some guide key frames put down and then do the same on the other side. That's the four second intervals. That could be enough to solve the problem across the whole animation. But I am going to subdivide this even further into the two second gaps. If I started two, this is one of the frames where the arms a bit closer together. This problem tended to be worse when the arms are spread out like this. On this frame, I think we could get away with readjusting to the original numbers. That's why I said try and remember that 99 and key that. On the other side it's going to be in 94 or as close to that as we can get. This means that this frame was never really broken to begin with, but because we've fixed a couple of positions either side of that point, it moved this frame. That's why we just had to go and readjusted again. What you change on certain keys is going to have an effect on others. I will skip ahead this next few frames because we're just repeating the same process. I have actually finished most of the intermediate key frames I wanted to adjust. I stuck to two second intervals. I think that's enough to control this problem across the whole animation. I know though that at the very beginning, there is a lot of movement and I might just need an extra adjustment between those first two. Just depending on what's in your own scene, you may subdivide these guides even further. I'm going to save this position and do a quick scrub through the timeline. It seems that everything is under control now. But it's worth also running a test render to confirm that and making further adjustments if they are needed. This is my test render playing in real time. When it's like this, the problem doesn't seem as bad as when we're dissecting it frame by frame in cinema 4D. That's why I think it's worth to just output a test render to check before moving on, but I would be happy to continue the rest of the project with this version. Now it's much better than it was before. 14. Creaking More Ocean Layers: So far we have just one of the ocean simulation layers, but the scene is made up of several layers for the overall effect as we saw earlier. Let's go ahead and set those up too. For the various layers, it's all going to be the same simulation just on different pieces of geometry. So far we just have the Glow layer. That's the very top layer in this scene. Below that, we want to have the refractive water layer. This was just a copy of the first one, but let's call it Water. In the layers manager, make a new layer, just double-click. Let's put the Glow layer into this one and another layer. That color is too similar to the first one. Let's drop this in here anyway. Maybe make it darker. To see this we need to go to Options and to Layer Color. It's the same thing. We need to change that. On the Water layer it's going to be an outer radius of 500. It's going to be larger. Then go to the Y position and move this to negative 5 so that it just sits below that other layer. This is what I meant about the fact that the simulation stays the same regardless of the geometry. If I go to the first one and to expand its radius, you see the shape changes but the simulation does not move. This is what we want to continue doing. Let's get a plane. This is going to be the large layer in the scene, the one that goes furthest out toward the horizon. On this, the size is going to be 4,000 centimeters by 4,000 centimeters. We're going to have 500 and 500 segments. Just to see that in the lines mode, we can see these segments are much larger than the first two surfaces. That's okay because the detail is not as important for this layer since it will be further away from the camera. Let's go back to this shading. Copy the simulation from one of these, onto the plane. Now it should line up, but remember at some point I took the whole seam on the original display and spun it around 180 degrees. I need to do the same on the plane. When I do that, now it lines up. But we also need to move it underneath everything. So negative 10 for the position, so this can be in a layer as well. Double click. I don't like that color, so let's try another one. Or we could actually just go in here and change it to something else. This one is going to be the large layer, and then the final two layers are going to be these other two glowing textures. There's one on the left and one on the right. In the original scene that looked like this. I'm just above everything here. That's one side and that's the other one. At this point, I couldn't just take let's say one of the disks and I move it to that point. Because that was moving the simulation. I needed the simulation to be in the same place but only apply to these two patches. So what I did in the end was made a copy of the large layer. Then I just cut some circular shapes out of that and it ended up having some odd-looking edges. But by the time we apply the materials and do the lighting, none of that will be visible. It's not a very elegant solution, but it's one of those cases where it looked okay in the camera in the end. So you know, if it works, then it's not really a problem. Let's see how that was done. Just as a quick reference, the size of these two patches is roughly the same as the water layer, which we know is about a 1,000 centimeters across. Keep that number in mind. Let's go back to this scene. Make a copy of the large layer. Let's call these ones the patches. In terms of detail, we have obviously got these two very detailed shapes in the center. This is a less detailed, but the patches need to be more detailed than the original one. Let's go to Attributes and increase the segments to a 1,000. Let's hide this version, the large original. Let's also hide the glow layer. We're just left with our water layer. This mesh we're going to use to cut out the patches. So in order to cut those out, we need to make this into an editable object. Hit C for that, which means if I now go to polygon mode, I can make a selection and cut some shapes out. We're going to do this in the top view. For now I'm going to disable the simulation on the water layer. We're just keeping this here as a reference for the size. Let's go back to the patch geometry. In the normal live selection, I'm going to use the right square bracket to expand the size of this selection. Using this as a guide over here. That's what it's going to be like. If you zoom in or out, that's going to change the scale. So pick a zoom level and stick to it. This seems pretty close. I think we could go just a bit larger with that. Then, this first selection needs to be somewhere just behind the character over there. Imagine you're making a silhouette of Mickey Mouse. I think that's actually a helpful guide. This would be the left ear and the other side is the right ear. Somewhere about there could work. When I make that selection, I can see the size of this. It's just above a 1,000. That's okay. Also take note of this average position of everything that is currently selected. Let's just try and push this a bit closer maybe, then maybe just down a touch. I think about here is fine. I'm remembering this number 478 and negative 448. Let's right-click and split this selection away. It creates a new object based on just that selection. Let's go back to the first one and then select the same thing, but just on the other side. About here, that's too far to the right because this value doesn't match to the first one. It should be 470 something. About there seems correct. Anyway, I'm going to right-click this and split again. Now we have patch number 1 and patch number 2, and the original they were both cut from. Let's go back to our main view. In the regular model mode and live selection, I'm going to lower the radius back down to the default 10, just so we're not navigating with a huge brush. Let's delete this patch geometry that we cut from, so we're left with these two cutouts. We can make some layers for them too. This can be patch number 1 and patch number 2. Let's keep them in that order as well. Then if we re-enable the main piece of geometry, the large one and the top layer as well, and everything else. We need to move these patches to be above the water layer because they have a glowing material. The glowing materials go above everything else. If I go to their Y position, I'm going to set this to negative 2.5, which is going to be just above the water layer, but below the main glow layer. Then this means I can take the large layer and move it further up. So let's go to negative 7.5 perhaps. That's what we want to try and do to keep all of these layers as close to each other as possible whilst not letting them intersect, because that could cause some shading problems later on. But something like this should be just fine. That's it. That's how all of the layers in geometry in the scene were laid out. In the end when we apply the various textures and materials to them, that's how we end up with something like this. [MUSIC] 15. Redshift - Basic Nebula Material: [MUSIC] We are now going to jump into Redshift for the first time during this class. In this first section, we're going to start setting up the main Nebula or Glowing Material. Throughout their Redshift lessons which begin with this lesson, we are going to be covering these three main topics. We've got materials, lighting, and render settings. Now I will try and treat this as if it were a normal project and show you what a realistic workflow in Redshift looks like. A lot of the stuff up until now in the class, I've been able to segment very clearly into distinct lessons. But with Redshift, it's quite difficult to only talk about one of these things and not mention the other. It's all linked and we are going to be jumping around quite a lot between these sections. However, I will still try my best to structure this in a way that's nice and easy to follow. In our scene here we want to begin with what I consider the main material in the final example. This Glowing Nebula Effect, this was image-based, and here is that image. Now before bringing this into Redshift, I had to do a couple of things to it. One is make it into a square ratio because this is going to be applied to a disk. Or I guess it doesn't help to describe it as a square ratio. Let's say 1-1 ratio. Otherwise, if this was a normal widescreen image, it would be stretched as soon as I applied it to the disk surface. In a separate bonus lesson, I'm going to show you what I did to prepare this image for this effect. Anyway, the main thing to look out for here is with just need a nice-looking Nebula Image that's in the center. That when we place it in the scene, it goes around our character like this. Because in addition to just looking pretty cool, it's actually also illuminating the character. It needs to be around him. Let's begin the process for this. I'm going to create Redshi Materials and Material. It's going to create a new Redshift Shader for us. Let's double-click to open this. This is what a Redshift Shader looks like. By default, we have the RS Material Node, which contains a lot of the settings. But we also have several nodes over here that we can bring into the Shader Graph to build out the texture or the material. The first of those nodes we're going to pick up is the texture node. This allows us to load up image maps. If I click it and then go to the general tab under path, this is where we're going to load up our image. Here is that image in my browser. I'm going to click "Open" and just click "No" for this always. This needs to go to RS Material. If we get this out vector, I can't quite remember what these things are called. I'll just refer this as the out or something. Let's place it over the blue section of this node, which opens up all the different things we can connect this two. It's going to go to the overall section. It's going to be the emission color. We're trying to make an emissive material. That's the setup for that. Let's then click on the "RS Material Node", which I'm just going to refer to as the main node from now on. In the overall tab, we want to go to the emission weight and set this to something like two. As soon as I do that, we can now see the texture lights up based on our image. It's working. Let's go to the main node, and in base properties, we are going to change the diffuse color to black. The default is gray or an all new materials. We want it to be black so that we just see the emissive material. Believe it or not, that's the very basic setup for a material that lights up in Redshift. Now if I just apply this to the glow layer, we're still in this layer color mode. Let's go to options and tick that, except if I do that, now the preview is even worse. We should probably stay in that mode for now. Instead, let's look at the actual Redshift Render View. That's found under Redshift and Render View. We can then start this render to see what our scene looks like in Redshift. This is what we get by default. Nothing overly exciting just yet. It's just a simple scene with a single emissive texture on one of the pieces of geometry. [MUSIC] 16. Redshift - Basic Render Settings: Before we continue any further with Redshift, we want to quickly jump into our render settings and just have a look at a few things there. This is because the default settings are too general to be really useful for any project. We want to go in there and just change a few things to suit our current project better. Let's look at our render settings then if I go to that, I am still in this test render that we set up earlier for the viewport renderer. Let's switch back to the main one. We can even get rid of this now if we don't plan on using it again. Then in the renderer, this should be set to Redshift, and in newer versions of Redshift, they've simplified the initial settings, we have to click on Advanced in order to see everything. Let's start with the sampling section. Here we are looking at the interruptive rendering. That's what we're doing in this Redshift render view. There are two modes for this, progressive which is the default. This means that when we move around, the whole frame is rendered at once and then slowly gets more refined over time. That depends on the number of progressive passes we're looking at. If you want to limit the extent of this, you lower this number. If I lowered it to something really extreme like 10 and then move around, this progressive render would stop quite quickly, and the image produced is still very noisy, so maybe 256 would take a bit longer to reach that cut off point and show me a cleaner preview. Generally people don't tend to change this setting all that much just because the final render itself is going to be different anyway. For the final render, people tend to use this bucket style random method and you can use this in the interactive render too. If we switch to that, the bucket render style is the more traditional. It starts in the center and then just produces the image in a circle. What's good about this mode is that, it's a good preview of what the actual final render is going to look like. Anyway, you can pick between either of these two in the render view. For the final render, I always recommend the bucket style render instead. Let's switch to the bucket render for now, and under Unified Sampling, this is another section which has been simplified. We have this automatic sampling switch and a threshold control. As long as this is turned on, the only way to change the quality of the render is using the threshold. The default is 0.01, which is very small and is going to produce a very fine looking frame. If I make this a lot larger, say one, the preview is going to be a lot faster, but also noisier. We're going to adjust this later towards the end. But generally, whilst you're working on the project, you can work with a larger number for preview purposes and then come back and lower it for the final render. Also, if you don't want to use automatic sampling, you can turn this off, and then the level of quality is then controlled by the samples minimum and max. The thresholds do counts here too. I'm going to lower it down to 0.01. But I would then increase the number of samples here if I want to clean up the noise and produce a cleaner image. Generally I like to have as much control as possible, but this automatic sampling switch is quite useful and is especially good for beginners if you don't know how to tinker with all of these various settings. Just go here and then use the threshold to control the general level of quality. Next, let's look at the Globals section. In here I'm going to turn off the default light. There is a lot of illumination right now. We have some illumination from the emissive texture. We can see it, bouncing of the astronaut, but also this default light is very bright and we can see a lot more from that. You see when I turned this on and off, it's not actually updating properly. What I would do here is go back to the scene and let's get a Redshift light and get the dome light. I'm going to use this to force Redshift to reset. In the dome light settings, set this tint to black. This is like just turning off all the lights in the scene, and now we see more influence from the emissive material. This is what it should look like with no lights in the scene and the default light turned off in the render settings. I think that's a glitch there, but it's one we can work around quite easily anyway. Let's continue to the color management. The default here is this ACEScg. This is a relatively new change. I have not yet explored ACEScg, so I'm going to change this to Rec 709 sRGB. It's what I'm more used to. My display is sRGB and the view, let's change this to un-tone mapped. We just see our render as is. Feel free to choose whichever color space you want. Just keep in mind it's going to make a big difference to what the image looks like. Let's go to global illumination next, and it's on by default. If I turn it off, we're going to see the illumination just disappear off the astronaut. We do want to keep this on. It's a big part of the final look. Maybe we don't need so many bounces so we could lower this to maybe even one, that would still be better than turned off. Right now with no materials on the astronaut, the difference between one and two bounces, for example, is very noticeable. But later when we add the reflective materials and everything else, I think we'll be able to get away with just one bounce. But if we are using more than one bounce anyway, I would want that secondary abounds, which is this secondary engine, to be also brute force. This is the only method I use when I'm using global illumination. Anyway, let's switch to one. Then later if the GI is too noisy, we have to go and increase the number of rays. We are still just working at preview quality, so let's leave it at that for now. The only other section to look at is under optimizations. Let's go to ray tracing acceleration and this fast pre-processing should be set to all. It's one of those settings which doesn't make any visual difference. But I think it's generally a good idea to have this turned on because it speeds up some of the processing, when we are working with Redshift. Here is a quick tip for the render view. I am zoomed into 150 percent and it's set to original size. The original size here is 1280 by 720. But I thought that was too small to preview. I had two options, I could leave this on 100 percent, and the preview is too small now and instead I could change the width and height to 1920 by 1080 to get a larger preview. Except this is natively a higher resolution, so my preview will be a bit slower because of that. The alternative is to go back down to a lower res [MUSIC] and then just zoom this a bit in the render view. 17. Redshift - Main Nebula Material Continued: With our Render Settings now set up for the project, we can carry on. We're going to continue with the main Nebula material. Let's finish our Nebula material. We needed to be see-through so that later when we have the water layer, we can see through that also. Right now it's just perfectly solid. In the material, we're going to use the opacity channel to get the transparency effect. We're going to do this through the same texture itself, but we need to run it through a Color Correct Node. If I search for a Color, is the color correct? Let's put our texture through that. That's going to go to Input. The Out Color is going to go to overall and Opacity Color. It's not quite working yet. We need to go to the saturation of this Color Correct node and lower this to zero. Otherwise, this opacity setup is artificially making our whole thing here more saturated than it should be. We're just trying to get this to be a bit transparent. I think it's working, but we don't have any lights in the scene to eliminate the suit under the surface. I didn't think that had worked, but it's because we still have these other layers with no textures in the scene. Let's go to all of them and turn off their visibility switches. So the top one is for in the view-port. The bottom one is for the actual final Render. We can select both at the same time using the old key and then just make them red, like that. Now we can see our astronaut below the water surface. Just to see a bit better here, I am going to get in infinite light. Now we have a much clearer view. That is working. Another adjustment we need to make to this is if I just look from above and then just look at the way the stars cut off suddenly in their actual final piece, that transition was more gradual. We want to do the same. Let's go back into the material, and let's get a gradient ramp. If I just search for ramp, there it is. Set the mapping from vertical to circular. Let me just begin by plugging this straight into the Opacity Color to see what it's doing. It's dark and the whole thing, but particularly the center of the image. Let's go to the ramp, right-click and invert the gradient. Right now this black handle is in the center, it should be on the outside. Let's invert. The center will be brighter again. But now we can also control the fade at the edges. That's using the black handle over here and it's mapped in a circle. That's why we changed it to circular. We don't want to dock in the center too much. Let's bring in the white handle, and then just continue to manage that transition from a fully opaque somewhere closer to the center and then the fade into the darker parts. We can even get this knot and just move that slightly for finer adjustments. But I think that works. However, now we have also lost the transparency because we're just using the gradient on its own. We need to combine the gradient and the image. We're going to do this using the composite node. If I just search for composite. This here, it's called the Color Composite node. The Base Color is going to be our image. Let's put that into Base Color. The Blend Color is going to be that ramp we have just set up. Then we take the Out Color from the composite node and use that in the Opacity Color. Now, this has just reverted back to what it looked like with just the image. Because in the Color Composite node, it's still only using the Base Color. Let's change that from base to multiply. That's going to combine those two nodes together. We still have the transparency and now we also have the soft fall off to the edges. That would be it for our Nebula material. We might make some small tweaks to it later, but this is the main setup. I'm just making this window larger so I can arrange this in a way that makes a bit more sense. I am used to working on two screens, so only having this occupy half my screen is a bit unusual. But anyway, that's the Shader for the Nebula [MUSIC]. 18. Redshift - Astonaut Image Textures: [MUSIC] To continue with the topic of materials, we're now going to look at the materials on the astronaut and these image-based. We've already seen the texture node, which you load up the images into that. But in this lesson, we're also going to see other types of nodes and how they're all linked together in Redshift. The final version of the suit is made up of various textures that came with the model. After I configure them all in Redshift, this is what it looked like. I have picked the toss or material to use as an example of how to build these materials. Then that process we would just be repeated for the others. There's no need to go over it, five or six times. We're just looking at this one example. I also chose this one because it's above the water and we can actually see it when applying the different textures. Let's look at those, these came with the model. They're organized into these nice neat folders. For the body, or for the toss or rather, that is in the body folder. We have things like the base color layer. That's just the normal color of the material. We are not going to use all of these maps, but we are going to use the base color, the metallic, which controls how reflective the material is. If it's white, that's fully reflective. Then if it's gray or black, that's going to be less reflective. We're also going to use the normal map. Although there's quite a bit to discuss here, so this will be a separate lesson. But the normal map is going to give us the surface bump detail. Then finally, we're also going to use the roughness map, which controls how smooth or rough the reflections are on the suit. Let's close this down and we have some blank materials right now. They are also a standard Cinema 4D materials. The first step is to convert them to Redshift that's found under tools, or rather Redshift materials tools and then convert and replace all of the materials. The previews are not going to generate until we actually click on these. It's just another weird glitch in Redshift, but here we are. In this toss or material, let's get the texture node. We've already seen this one before. In the general tab, this is where we're going to load up the image. This will be under path. I've done this before, so it should have taken me to the right location, but I just need to find it again. In this body folder, let's start with the base color image. I'm going to click No for that. This is going to be plugged into the RS material and it's going to be in the diffuse and diffuse color. Now, this should have updated in the viewport. But I think this is another bug. What I'm going to do is, I will save the project. Let's close down everything and then simply reopen it again. I'm not sure whether this is happening to just my install of Redshift or whether you guys will experience the same thing. But this time round I can see the texture has loaded just fine. I am in progressive mode, which I tend not to use all that much, so let me switch to bucket style. I just prefer seeing a better preview quality. Let's jump back into the material. I'm going to copy that texture node. Hold control, click and drag to copy that. In the second one, we are going to load up the metallic layer. That's that black and white map. We want to use that in the reflection channel, but the suit is not very reflective right now, so let's go ahead to the main node. Under reflection, the weight should be set to one. This is the overall strength of the reflection. For some reason when I converted that from a standard material, it came in at 0.7. It should be one. Then to make it even more reflective, I'm going to go to the IOR and change this to 20. IOR stands for index of refraction. The higher the number, the more reflective the material is going to be. Now we have this very glossy suit. If we want to reduce the glossiness, we go to roughness. I could type out 0.4, for example. That's going to diffuse that glossy reflection. Right now the whole thing is fully reflective. We want to use our map to control which parts of the suit are going to be that reflective. Take this into the base properties reflection and it's going to be reflection color. When it re-renders, we now see that only certain parts are reflective. We've got things like the NASA logo, which is now visible, even though the area around it is fully reflective. The arms and certain parts of these strips, they are not as reflective anymore and that's down to this map controlling that. Let's make another copy. This time we're going to get the roughness map. It's going to go into base properties, reflection roughness. Now instead of controlling that value from the main node, it's being controlled entirely by the texture. That's what we see in the base properties of the main node. Anything we have plugged a texture into can no longer be controlled at this level so the reflection color and roughness are the three examples so far. If I disconnect the color, immediately I can now change this to anything I want. This could be like red, just as an example. But of course we just want our texture to be in that, so let's reconnect it. Over here, this will be in the order you set it up, but you can always rearrange it afterward. Very quickly then we have plugged in a few textures into this material. [MUSIC] The one thing that's missing now is the normal map, but there's a bit more to talk about that. Let's make that a separate lesson. 19. Redshift - Normal & Bump Maps: For the normal map, we're going to start by making a copy of the texture node. Once again, let's load up the normal. For this to work, we have to put this through a Bump map node. Over here, if I search for Bump, it's the bump map. Let's put in the out color of the texture into texture and input. Then this is what's going to go into our material. Over here, it's going to go into Overall and Bump input. Now it's not correctly set up yet. We need to make a few more changes. It is generating the bumps surface detail, but this doesn't look right. Firstly, we need to go to the bump map node and change the input type from the height field. You would use height field if you were using a more traditional bump map, which is black and white, but we've got one of these normal maps. We need to change this from height to tangent space normal. When I do this, it's going to change. It's still not quite right. I'm going to show you what the difference is. Let's take a snapshot of this with this button right there. I can see some weird artifacts on top of this texture, almost like these triangles appearing over the whole material. That's because in the texture node, the color space is wrong. Automatic is the default, but it clearly hasn't worked out so well. I should change this to Raw. It should render as we would expect normally and now we can see the detail that's coming from that normal map so this stitching and fabric texture we see on certain parts and the wrinkles on the surface and so on. This is still not fully correct though. Let's take another screenshot. In the Bump Map node, I'm going to flip the y position. I'm looking at the stitches close to the arm over here. This looks more correct now than before. If I show a quick comparison, we can see the way the suit is reacting to the lights in the scene is a bit different. This is more correct. The reason I've flipped the Y position is because there are two types of normal maps you can bring into most 3D softwares. You've got a Direct X type and then another one called OpenGL. Now Cinema 4D uses OpenGL normal maps by default. If you bring in a Direct X normal map, you will have to flip the y position for it to be interpreted correctly. This will be the same in the 3D applications. If they use Direct X and you bring in an open Geo Map, there will be a similar control to flip the y-direction of that normal map. It's a subtle difference but one to watch out for. If you find your normals look a bit strange, that could be the reason why. Also if we look at what we had earlier, if the whole thing just doesn't look right at all, it could be because of the color space setting. Raw seems to work all of the time, so I would recommend you use that as well. Besides that, we have things like the height scale, which controls how strong the overall effect is, and here is something else I do by accident sometimes. If I'm trying to move around in the viewport, I will press 1 to pan around, and a 2 zoom in and out, and so on, but sometimes if I press 1 and 2, it switches to the corresponding snapshot, and then the preview stops working. Always make sure that you clip away fully from this before trying to continue otherwise your preview will just not work at all. Anyway. That's it for the normals. 20. Redshift - Copying Materials: We need to copy that material across to the rest of the suit. We have only configured one of these, which is the torso. A quick way to do this is to simply make a copy of the material. Then we can open this and replace the textures in here with the others for those different body parts. Let's choose the helmet as an example. If I find the folder for that, we're going to start with the base color. Then to replace the blank material. I'm just going to go and hold the old key key that new copy and drag it over the old material. That's going to switch it on our model. Over here, this was just one of these white materials. But now it's changed over. This is still code torso 1, but it should be the helmet. If I click on this, go to the attributes and under the basic tab, the name should be helmet. Anyway, this process would just be repeated for these other materials. We start by making a copy of a finished material, change the textures, and then replace the old one. That's it. 21. Redshift - Visor Material: [MUSIC] The Visor material is very simple. It's just very reflective, and then it has this glowing blue edge effect. I'm going to zoom in here so we can take a closer look. In the Visor material, let's go to the main node and set the diffuse color to black. Then in the IOR and the reflection, this should be set to something much higher like 20 again, then for the glowing edge, we are going to get the fresnel node. Search for fresnel, bring that in. This is going to be plugged into the main node, overall, and into the emission color. Now we need to go to the overall tab and then change the emission weight to something like 20 again. Let's go back to the fresnel node. The perpendicular color should be this blue maybe. I want this effect to be more narrow. I'm going to go to the index of refraction and change that to 1.05. It's going to make it much smaller. But then I have to go to the emission weight and put this to 100 to just kind of bring it back a bit. Now it's [MUSIC] really bright at the very edges and then fades off into the center. 22. Redshift - Water Material: [MUSIC] With our astronaut's materials finished, we now want to move to the rest of the other materials. We have a refractive water material underneath the nebula material that gives us this really cool highlights and a distorted ripples and we can still see the astronaut below all of this, and it's just a really cool effect. Right now however, we can see straight through, there is no distortion, there's no highlights and that's because we need a material for the water layer. Let's do just that. I'm going to insert a camera, or let's look through our main camera at the very beginning. We can make some comparisons. I've rendered this and it seems too close to the guy, I think I've been moving around in this camera by accident. This Z position should be set to negative 235. Then just to be safe, I'm going to keyframe this so that if I do move around by accident, it's always going to snap back to that same position. Anyway, let's take a snapshot of this. I'm going to pause it for now, we can come back later. Let's look out off this camera and the material is very simple, let's just get a new Redshift material and it's actually a preset. If we jump in here, go to the main node and then base properties and the preset, choose the water preset. My preview has gone bright red for some reason, but I think it's going to work anyway. Let's apply this to the water layer, and in fact we should be seeing this live. Let's start up the IPL and if I look through the camera, we are going to have to re-enable this layer so we can see how that looks. Here we go, so we can see the ripples working. Parts of the astronauts are clearly visible through the water, however it doesn't look quite right. It's to do with the fact that if you are using a refractive material in Redshift, the geometry it's applied onto has to have two sides in order for it to work correctly. So far our water layer is just a single flat plane, it's only one sided. Let's go ahead and fix that. If I take a screenshot, first of all, so we can compare later. Let's jump out of the camera and go to the edge of this geometry. We can see that it's just a single thin layer. Let's go to display Gouraud shading with lines and to add some thickness to this, we're going to use the cloth surface. That's found under the nabs icon or the sub-divide icon, get that and put the water layer underneath as a child. Now, the first thing the cloth is going to do is to subdivide and smoothed out the surface, so this is after. If I go into the cloth surface and lower this subdivision to zero, it just lowers the smoothness. You could keep this tend on but keep in mind that's increasing the number of polygons we have in the scene and that's going to take longer to process. What we want to do instead is to just add some thickness to the geometry. Let's bring back the shading with lines again, and it's this thickness control. I'm going to set this to 0.8 and when I do that, we see that we create an extra side to this flat geometry. If I increase this even more, you see how all of this works. Now, that's weigh too much, we just want 0.8. We can see it has lost its layer color so we would have to go back to layers and put the cloth surface into that same layer and it should come back. Now, let's look through our camera and we're also going to move that material to this level so that the materials are always at the very top. Let's bring this back into the hierarchy with the rest and rename it to water. If I get the IPL once more and still rendering the same frame, we should see a difference in how the refraction works now and does it renders again for a second time. Now because of this being a two-sided layer, the refraction works more accurately and we get this. This is before and this is after. It has a lot more structure to it and we start to see these highlights as well. Closer to what we have here but this is a lot cleaner with the final render settings, whereas here we're still previewing what some pretty pedestrian settings. Anyway, we will look at all of that later when we get to that stage. But, perhaps it's worth just go into Redshift. Let's put the width and height to 1920 and 1080. Then in Redshift itself, I'm going to go to the Threshold and put this 0.1, then I'm going to stop zooming in by 50 percent. Let's go back to just a regular frame size. It's taking much longer to process the render now because of that increased resolution and lower Threshold. If I compare, it's a lot noisier before and a lot cleaner now. I am also going to turn off this infinite light, just so we have the illumination from the ocean itself. Now we'll see how this starts to resemble what we have going on in the final piece. [MUSIC] There are a few more steps to go still, but it's clearly starting to take shape a lot more now. 23. Redshift - Large Water Layer: The next material we are going to set up is this large layer which extends out to the horizon. This was a pretty simple material. Let's have a look. We will go to Create, Redshift, Materials, and Material. Let's apply this to that large layer. Now it's hidden, so let's unhide it. The first thing this is going to do is just block this whole transparent setup we did earlier. We will need to fix that at some point. But let's continue. This should be a black material. In the diffuse color, just set this to completely black. Now when I do that, it's going to disappear completely. That's because this material is a little coarse based on the fact that it's reflecting the sky. Now, I brought in a dome light earlier. Let's get rid of that and get another one just so we can start again and see the full process. In the General tab and under path, we want to load in a dome map. This is going to be the sky image. This is the one I used. It's a nebulous space background. Let's open that. There it is. We can now see that material because it's reflecting the sky. I will go to the exposure and just bump it up to one, make it a bit brighter. In the coordinates, I want to spin this around to see a different part of the sky. When I did this before, around 2-8 degrees, put these clouds just behind the astronaut and that's what I had going on here. Let's also go to the ray section. I want to exclude this from being calculated in the global illumination. It doesn't affect the look all that much. We may as well exclude it so that it doesn't take any more extra time than is needed. The effect of the sky is more from its reflection. We see in the visor, for example, before there was just nothing being reflected there, and it looked very empty. But with the dome layer, we get that nice reflection. The next thing we need to fix then is the fact that we can no longer see through our two layers at the front. Let's go into this material and get a ramp. Change this to circular. This is in the mapping. We are going to put this into the main node overall and opacity color. What's happening here is that now we can see through this. The gradient on the left side is black and that's in the center of the shape. We can see through that part. Then in the distance, I think it's gone a bit too far. We would have to also get this wide handle to bring it in so we can close up these parts further away. But it's still going to be transparent, closer to the center. Just to make sure we're not blocking anything upfront, I'm going to make a copy of this first node, and just move it slightly this way. I'm holding control to make that copy. Then when I let go, it's going to make sure that there's an area at the front which is not obstructed by this large material or this larger ocean sim. Once again we can just fine-tune the other side. Bring this in a bit to make sure that all of this is closed up further behind. A quick snapshot for comparison. This is before when it was just blocking everything and then we have just made some space to see through that. The final effect on this material is a subtle glow on their waves. I did this with a Fresnel effect. The Fresnel node plug that into the overall and emission color and set the strength to two. This is going to be way too strong. Let's go to that. The index of refraction is going to be 1.01. Very small. We also want to change the color to blue. Now the effect is working as I want in the distance. But in the foreground, there are some parts which are now just looking a bit too busy. To correct this, we need to go to the water layer. Go to Redshift tags and Redshift object. In the exclusion tab, we want to override this and go to Mode. Make sure this is set to exclude. We want to exclude all of these other layers from the water layer. Let's take a screenshot before we do this and then drag everything under here. It's all of the other simulation layers, including the ones we haven't set up yet. They should be excluded from this water layer. This has the effect of just limiting how much this water layer refracts and reflects. Because too much can end up making the whole thing look too messy. If I take another snapshot, this is before, and this is after. It just helps to clean up the render a bit. We'll continue with this idea later. But this is what we have for now. If I turn off this infinite light, we will get something a bit closer to the actual final look. We still need to introduce some other lights later, but it's really shaping up quite well. 24. Redshift - Cleaning Up The Render: Here is a quick tip before we move on to the final two set of materials. They are these two behind here. These glowing sections. The tip is to do with just further cleaning up the image. Right now we're seeing the reflection of the stars on this ocean's surface and that's okay. But we can also see them from underneath. Because remember, this is see-through and we even opened up a section in the middle on this large layer. We don't want to be seeing the stars from underneath the surface too, so what I did was I just took a giant sphere, cut it in half, and placed it under the ocean floor. Let's do just that. If I get a sphere, make it a lot larger, but only as large as say the largest, the widest part of the ocean. Two thousand centimeters. Then change the type to Hemisphere. Press R for rotation, and we want to spin the whole thing upside down. For some reason I was on this texture thing over here. I need to be on the regular modeling mode before spinning this around. Hold shift to lock it to five degree increments and stop at 180. Then let's just move it down, so it's not cutting into the ocean. About negative 50 should do the job, maybe negative 55, just to be sure. If we look through the camera, we should do a test before and after. Let's shut that off. We can already see a subtle difference. Let's do a bucket style render for this. Let's take a snapshot, and then bring back the sphere. We see that it's going to close up where we will seeing through the ocean floor to the background image behind all of that. This is just better now. This is before and this is after. Let's also just make sure that this has a completely black material applied onto it. If I go to redshift, and make a new material, apply this to the half sphere. In this, we're going to put the diffuse color to black. In the reflection set the weight down to 0, so it's not reflective. It has no color. It's just a straight up black material. It shouldn't make a big difference, but it's good just to be sure that's the actual setup. We can see just a weird reflection up here. Now that's gone. 25. Redshift - Other Glowing Nebulas: Using some of the techniques we have already looked at so far, we are going to create the two glowing sections behind the astronaut. Next, we have these two sections; the other two glowing areas in the ocean. Here, they are in our project. I've already set them up, but I'm going to go back a few steps. Let's remove those two materials. What we are going to do is, first of all, and this is very important. I missed this in my original project, but you want to make sure that these two sections are not sitting on the same layer position. Otherwise, it's going to cause some flickering and you can see that here as I move the camera. That's because the geometry is intersecting right there. Let's go to the second patch and its position I am just going to offset slightly. Instead of being negative 2.5, I will set it to negative 2. It's a very small movement, but it means that the geometry will no longer intersect and will not cause any flickering. I realized this after I did my final render, so I wasted some time in between. Anyway, let's look at this from the top. We want to start with the left section. I'm going to delete these other two materials and show you how I made those. I started with a copy of the original nebula. Then, in this, we just switch out the image. Go to the general tab and load up one of the other images. This is the first one similar image. It's a galaxy that's glowing in the center and then it gets darker around the edges. Let's open that and apply it to this first patch. If we get the render view, what I am going to do is to solo that patch by itself and then start the preview. This is all we have. We want to move that core to be in the center of this shape. We go to the material tag and we want to use the offset controls, so Offset U and Offset V. Let's just try 10 to start with. That moves it to the left, so that's correct. Let's now move it up. I'm increasing the offset here. How much you move this would depend on a few factors, but just try and center the brightest part of the image in the middle of the shape. This image is too large though. Let's go to the Length U and Length V and reduce that to half. It's going to be 50 and 50. That's going to throw off the offset we set up before. That's one of the things this offset depends on. If the length and height are different, we have to readjust this also. Let's just try 50 and 50 and see if that brings it back. We can see one end of it over here. Let's try a 25 and 25. Now we see the other side, but it's a bit more of the image, so maybe somewhere in between, 35 and 35. That seems to work. Now, this may not work out so neatly for you, but you can always just go in here and make the adjustment that way until it's as close to the center as possible. We could also make the adjustment inside of the Shader Graph. On this ramp, which is controlling the fade on the edges, we could bring this in a bit further. I think it's quite a distance before we start to see the effects of that. But you see how that works. I think the default was okay though. I won't change it too much. This should work fine. The transition is not as clean, but it's going to be in the background and should be fine either way. That's the first patch. We need to repeat this process for the other one. Once again, looking from above, let's get the Render View, make a copy of that same material, and apply it to the second patch. Let's solo this and start this up. The offset we set for this is completely different, but also, let's just make it more central. We do need to change the image. In here, let's go for the other one. This image is a bit different because it's not as dark around the edges, but it should work still. We need to make the same changes in here. If I start with 50 and 50 for the size, that disappears completely. Let's do 50 and 50 for the offset, and it's still nowhere to be seen. How about 20 and 20? Now we have something to work with. From here I would make the smaller adjustments until that core is in the center. This is a bit tedious, but it's the only way I could get this to work. For the more advanced users, we could have used a different projection. If you're familiar with camera mapping, that was also considered but the texture did not stick to the shape the same way. In the end, I used this manual method of just moving it around until it worked. This is still too large. Let's go for 25 percent. We still have to move it around again. I think around 25 percent for the Offset U, and for the Offset V, that's going to be closer to 50. Maybe it's a bit too far up. Let's bring it closer to the center. Anyway, that's that. We can bring back everything else. Let's look through that camera. After these renders, we can now see those glowing sections behind here, and it's working exactly as I expected. We can make some minor adjustments in this view. After all, this is our main camera angle. Let's go to the left side. We could push this further in or backwards. If I go to the Offset, let's try 25 and see what that does. It pushes it more toward the center of the frame. Then if we change the Offset V, it's going to be pushed back further into the scene. I think about 50 works fine. Maybe even 51 or 52. I think 52 should be pretty cool. That's it. But these minor adjustments at this point, the main effect is finished. 26. Redshift - Lighting: We're now going to do the lighting in the scene and I guess in a way we've been doing a bit of lighting already. But in this section we're going to throw in some additional lights into the scene to help the astronauts stand out a bit more. This is the point in the class where I switched to the new version of Redshift waitlist for this lighting section. This is sections are not always recorded in order. Things may shift around a bit, but it's largely the same really, the render view is basically the same as before. The main difference is in the light settings. Before we had a lot more tabs here. Now we have primarily the Object tab where we control things like the intensity and color, or if we are using textures, all that stuff is going to be in here. Then the Details tab where we control the light's influence in the various channels of our frame. In particular, the volume contribution, it doesn't apply to the dome light, but let's say we had an infinite light, the volume contribution is set to one by default now, which means that if we also had an environment, our light would be visible. That's the volume contribution. I don't know why this is now a default, but really this should be set to zero unless we actually want the light rays to be visible. A weird change there by Redshift. But anyway, hopefully it should be easy to follow along. There really isn't that much of a difference in the settings. It's just where they are located. Let's continue with the project. We actually already have some lighting in the scene in the form of the dome light that we set up earlier. This is contributing a general level of ambient lighting. If I go to this and lower the intensity to zero, you see that a lot of that lighting disappears, and of course the reflections disappear with that. But also the lighting. Let's re-enable that. In addition, we have some illumination coming from the materials because we are using emissive materials with global illumination. If I were to turn that off also, now we maintain the reflections from the dome light. But we just saw that on some parts, the suit is not as lit up as it was before and that's because the emissive material is no longer contributing to their lighting. It's just reflection. A quick comparison. This is with GI turned off. Then if I re-enable it we see a small difference. It's actually not a massive difference, and that just shows how much of this loop depends on the reflections and just the general materials setup. But I think you would agree the best version is with the illumination and global illumination also switched on. But it is something to think about if your character doesn't really benefit too much from global illumination being turned on, then of course, you would want to keep that off and save yourself some extra rendering time. Anyway, in addition to the lighting from the dome light and the emissive materials, I also had some extra lights. It's a basic three-point light setup. We started off with this. This is the first light providing some illumination from the left side of the frame. Then I balanced it out with a red light on the other side, which gave us this highlight on these edges over here, and finally I added a backlight, which once again just emphasized these edges and this light is stronger than the other two. Let's go ahead and recreate that same setup. I'm going to disable the snapshots for this. We want to see these changes live. In the sampling, we're already in progressive. That's what I want to use for this part. Let's go to Redshift lights and Infinite Light, which is just going to be direct from the front by default, whichever way the z direction is pointing on this light, that's where the elimination is going to come from. The actual position of the light has no effect at all. It's all to do with the angle. Let's go to the coordinates of this. The angles I used were negative 60 on the heading, and then negative 5 on the pitch. It's from the left side. Look at this blue arrow here, and it's just slightly angled down. If we look through our camera, we can just see the direction of that a bit better. Let's go into this and the color which you will realize now is in a different place to the old General tab. I think this was further up before. The hue is going to be 225 with a saturation of 35. It's the same kind of blue which is present in the rest of all other materials and the sky background. Our choice of color for the lights will be partly based on the rest of the scene. You want to choose something which matches what else we have in the scene otherwise, it could look out of place. This light is too strong. However, let's go to the intensity and lower this to 0.25. It's a very subtle difference, but it is noticeable. If I take a snapshot and then turn off the first light we inserted. Now we'll see we're back to just the GI version. That is the difference there. It just helps to show more of the details on the suit. I need to click away from these snapshots Window. Let's just jump out of that. Re-enable this first light, and here is a quick tip which I should have been using much sooner throughout the class. But it's one of those things where I just realized just now, we can use a render region to only process part of the image and since we are just interested in the illumination on the astronaut, it's going to save us rendering the whole frame all of the time. Let's copy the first light. I'm going to change the color to the following. The hue was 350, so very red saturation, about 50. Click "Okay", for that. I want to put this on the other side. I believe my heading was 135, which is going to make this point from somewhere behind the astronaut. If it helps to get a visualization of the positioning, you can move that across, but only the angle is actually affecting the lighting. For the final light, I'm going to just jump out of the camera for a moment. Here we can see the two lights we have so far. One is from this side and one is from behind here. Let's make a copy of the one behind, and it's going to be from the other side. It's going to be about negative 160, but the pitch is going to be negative 20 this time, so it's more angled down. I am clearly still on one of these snapshots. There we go. Let's get back to the live view. It helps to actually go back to our main camera for this part. This light which is pointing from somewhere behind. Let's move it here so we get a better idea of where it is. It's going to be that same blue we used before, which was 255 and 35 for the saturation, the intensity is going to be 0.75, so a lot stronger. If I turn this on and off, watch the highlight on the astronaut's arm and shoulder here. If I turn that off, it disappears, and then we'll bring it back and even the helmet gets some extra illumination up here. Really that's it for the three-point setup. It's very simple, but it's also quite effective. One final thing I would do is to go to the Project tab. This is the same even in the new updated settings of the lights. Let's drag the astronaut helmet into this. Because right now I have this highlight, which I don't really like too much, so I'm going to just drop that into here. In fact, it's the helmet I want to drop in here, not the light itself. When I do that, that's sharp highlights is going to disappear from the helmet. I just thought it was a bit too distracting. All what's happening here is that we have just told this light to ignore this particular piece of geometry by excluding it in this project tab. But that's it. That's how I did the lighting for this scene. It's a combination of the emissive materials, a dome light providing us these reflections and also some lighting, and [MUSIC] then just this basic three-point setup. This is the result. 27. Redshift - Camera Tag: We are getting close to the end here. In this section we want to look at their Redshift camera tag, which is used to fine tune the final look of our render and applying a couple of post effects such as glow and depth of field. Out of a force of habit, at some point, I put this Redshift camera tag onto my camera, but I don't remember if I mentioned it at the time. Anyway, this may have resulted in a slight difference in what my frame looks like compared to yours because I went to the exposure section and enabled this override. Now, it's a subtle difference in the tone mapping of the frame, but it still looks quite similar. But we do want a camera tag enabled. I've removed that one to show you how to get another one. Right-click the camera, Redshift Tags and then Redshift Camera. Let's go to that exposure section again and enable the override and then enable. This is the tone mapping section down here. The first control is called Allowed Overexposure. If this is set to one, the highlights in the frame are going to pop just a bit more, but this value is used to control that. Say we don't want those highlights to blow out that much. If I lower this to 0.1, it preserves the detail in the highlights. This is something that can still boost later in after effects. Don't have this value too low however, because that could end up creating an image that's too flat. Zero is, I think, to flatten this case. Somewhere between 0.1 and 0.2 should work well. We still have a good amount of highlights, but they are not overexposed. Next is the Bloom section. If I override and enable too, it creates this hazy glow. The threshold controls how strong the effect is. If I lower it to eight, it's going to appear in more places and it's going to be more spread out and stronger. If I do one, it's even stronger. Anyway, be careful with this control because too much bloom can destroy the contrast in the frame. Down here we have intensity, which just makes the whole thing even stronger. Let's lower that. In fact, I don't think I used this in the original, so I'm going to turn it off. We also have a Streak section, which is similar to Bloom, but it creates these small highlights. I think I prefer to preview this in the Bucket style render. Let's only render the region in the center, so that's the switch, or press i in this render view. The threshold, again, makes the effect stronger. I think I'll leave it at 20. I will lower the tail size to 0.25 just to make that effect smaller. Once again, intensity can make this a lot larger and you have the number of spikes on the glint or the highlight. But I'm going to stick to the original three and really, I won't change anything else here. I like how this looks up here, but these highlights on the water surface are too strong. I think it's from the visor materials. Let's open that up. Go to the Overall tab. The strength of this effect, this Emission Weight should be lowered. Let's do 35. Close this down. When this re-renders, these highlights should be a lot weaker than before. That's a good example of a change you might just do towards the end of the project. There might be others, just these small adjustments at the very end when we are just fine-tuning the final look. The last section we will look at with the camera is the Bokeh. That's the background and foreground blur. Let's override and enable this. We could derive the settings from the camera, but we want to control everything right here. Change this to none. The focus distance is going to be 235, which if you recall, is the distance our camera is from the astronaut. That's where we want to be focused at. Let's go back to this. The CoC radius controls the strength of the effect, and right now it's too strong. I would lower this to something like 0.4 or 0.5, just so it's not too out of focus. The one downside of using Bokeh is that if you don't have enough samples, then your render is going to be noisy in those blurred out places. We would have to give the render some more samples to clean up that noise, which would result in a longer render time. You could say it's quite an expensive effect to use, but it also looks quite nice. Anyway, you can make that decision for yourself in your own scene. But with that, I would say that we have finished the setup in the project itself. In the next section, we're going to just maybe make a few more tweaks and then produce the final render. 28. Redshift - Final Render Settings: Let's now set up the final render settings of our scene and the goal here is to create a render which looks as good as possible whilst also limiting the render time. I'm going to take a screenshot of this frame. Then in the render settings, in the Sampling tab, we would want to lower this threshold to something a lot less, let's say 0.25. That's a good baseline in a scene like this where there are lots of reflections and refractions, we need a lot of samples to clean it up. But Redshift is quite fast and should do a pretty good job. I'm snapshotting this again, this is at a threshold of one. You see we have a lot of noise down here and in the background and then at points 2, 5, a lot of that gets cleaned up. But the render time is longer before it was just 21 seconds. Now it's 29 seconds now. I have a pretty powerful computer, but I would still want to try and optimize this as much as I can. One of the ways that rendering can be sped up a lot is if we go to the Globals tab with these trace depths, we would want to lower this various trace depth values to as low as we can get away with, without ruining the render. One way to go about this would be to just lower all of them to two, for example, make that the starting point. Now already we can see some problems in the background. Some seams opened up in the ocean surface off of there and I think that's to do with the transparency and refraction. However, that render was a lot faster, so that took five seconds that time. Let's now increase these one by one and see at what point we can stop and still get a good image. The transparency, you should definitely be something like four minimum and we are particularly watching the background. We see that helps to close up some of those open areas. Let's go up even more say six and I would say it's almost there. Let's try six. I can just see it opened up again there so maybe eight. It's a lot of trial and error until we get the correct numbers, but it's definitely worth it in terms of the render time we can save. This is eight and I think that could work for the transparency. I'm just looking at the background only at this section. However, in the foreground, I think we're still just losing out a bit too much detail. The refraction and some of these reflections over here, this is before. There was just a bit more to work with, now there's a lot less but it's actually not terrible. We could get away with this. I think what's missing are the reflections on the suit underwater. That's very noticeable. Let's go to reflection and bump that up to three. A subtle change over here but that's about it. I think it's the refraction that's limited. Let's bump that up to three and still no change. Is it because this combined needs to be the same as these two above and yeah, that is the case. This value will override these two up here. Keep that in mind but at level 3, we do get a good amount of detail back so this is at 2 and 3, it's definitely better. It's still not at the level we started with, but for half the render time, this only took 14 seconds versus nearly 30 seconds initially. You would just have to find a balance which works for your own scene. What you would never do is just render the whole project without at least having a look at these numbers. 29. Redshift Bonus - Denoising: [MUSIC] Just as an extra lesson there is a denoising section in Redshift which can help to clean up the image even further. It does cost a lot in render time and also don't use this optics method. I would try Altus Single, maybe render a few frames and see how that looks. But in my experience, if you can clean up the image with just the normal render settings, that is better. For example, I would sooner double the amount of samples in the scene before enabling denoise because the render time ends up being about the same except the denoising does blare the frame a bit too much if your samples are too low, so it does look smoother but at a cost. It's more useful when render time is not a serious consideration and you are just throwing lots of samples at the frame anyway. Because there are more samples that are the less lifting that denoising has to do. Therefore, it looks better in the end. Anyway, [NOISE] that was with Altus Single. Altus Dual cleans up the noise even better. But again, it takes longer. I thought I would just mention it just because it's worth exploring. Also, untick random noise pattern. When you are denoising with either of these methods, it's better if the noise pattern stays the same on each frame. Otherwise, it could look very jumpy when the denoiser is applied. Of course, this is if it's an animation. If it is still render, I would definitely look at this section. It does result in some very clean images when done right. Anyway, I am going to turn it off for this project and I will re-enable the random noise pattern. A bit of noise isn't always the worst thing in an animation. If it bothers you too much, then you can always just put more samples or lower the threshold and the image is going to be that more cleaned up. 30. Redshift - Final Output From Cinema 4D: [MUSIC] The final step in cinema 4D is the actual output and rendering of these frames. Let's see how that works. My final output from cinema 4D is going to be as follows. Let's go to the Render settings and it's going to be 1920 by 1080. Let's set the FPS to 24 to match the project. Then it's going to be all the frames. Then in the save tab, the format I'm going to use is PNG and 16-bit. This works for 99 percent of my projects. But if I wanted a bit more information, I could choose open EX and 32-bit. Anyway, choose either of those two options. I don't think you can go too wrong with either of them. I'm going to go to the class folder. Let's create a new folder called Render. We can save the main sequence as main. That's it. I would go to Render, add to Render Queue. This isn't the name for the project. I guess it's just one of the class files I opened at some point and then didn't save. But anyway, I would then just start the Render, maybe do this overnight or if I'm stepping away from the computer and see how long it takes. Of course, one thing to check here is that in the sampling, you are using the bucket Render style for the final output. I can see that last frame took 15 seconds. [MUSIC] The preview render was very representative of the actual final render, which is good. 31. Exporting Extra Fog Layer: [MUSIC] This part is optional, but it could help to get closer to the result we see here. It's to do with this blue haze effect that's on the horizon. It's quite subtle, but the difference is very noticeable when it's switched on and off. We'll get to that in After Effects at some point, but there is some setup required for this in Cinema 4D. There was an extra layer I outputted in order to be able to do that. If I go to Redshift and AOV manager. I want to get depth. I'll just drag that from the list over here and then we have the Z depth right there. In my render settings, we have been looking at the beauty pass which is just the main image this whole time. But I can change this from beauty to depth and now I am looking at the depth pass. We need to do a few changes to this before it looks decent right now it's just white. Let's go to the depth mode on this AOV pass change it to z normalized. When I do this now we see what that's going to look like. The front part of the image will be darker and then it gets whiter the further you go back. But this is a layer we can use in After Effects creatively to create a hazy or atmosphere effect just like we see in this example. I will change this multi-pass output from 32 to 16. Then the camera far/near I will override this, let's untick it and use some custom numbers. For the maximum depth I will set this to 7,500 just enough to make the furthest part of the frame not too bright. I don't want to make the range too small to where those details fall away. For example, if I lower this to 2,500 some of those details will start to disappear. Maybe 1,500 you see that last part of the waves is gone now. We just need this to be large enough to contain the entire range of our scene. If it's a bit darker than it needs to be that's okay because we're going to always brighten that up later. Whereas if it's overexposed, you cannot get that detail back. The minimum depth affects the front so we just want this to be darker. We want a nice full range from light to dark. Maybe about 100 at the front. It's a more sensitive value on this end than further back. Maybe 50 would be better or in fact the default zero, anyway that should be fine. To make sure this is outputted correctly first of all it definitely needs to be in the bucket render style. In progressive you are not going to be able to see the effects of this at all. It doesn't work. You need to be in the bucket render style in order to see the depth pass separately like we see here. Let's go back to beauty and then in the save section we have the regular image which is our main render. Then we also have this multi-pass image and that's going to be any AOV passes we set in the AOV manager. We want to make sure this is going to output. Let's go to multi-pass image, it's going to be PNG the same as our main image. I will copy the safe path paste it here, but then amend this file name, main 2_multi. Just to make sure that these two do not override each other and this will denote any multi-pass layers that we have, but we have just one anyway. With that done I would once again just line up my render the same as before except this time we have this extra multi-pass layer. You will see what that looks like when we get into After Effects. 32. After Effects - Import And Color Management : Let's now look at the project in After Effects. The first step here is to just import our frames from Cinema 4D and then checking the color management and making sure that everything looks correct. This is the final section of the project. We're just going to do a few basic post effects and some color adjustments to the render. Let's go ahead and create a new project. In the project tab let's double-click to open the import dialog, and my render went into this folder right here. There are two sequences in here, there is the main image sequence, which if I scroll up, I can select any of these frames and as long as PNG sequence is ticked or whichever format you may be using. Tick the sequence button and then click "Import" and After Effects will automatically detect the frame range. This goes from 0 to 384 which is 16 seconds at 24 FPS. There was another file in the one of the sequence, which was this depth pass from the bonus section previous to this lesson. In here, we could press "Control A" In order to import both sequences at the same time. Just to make sure that multiple sequences is ticked in order to do this. Once again, After Effects will detect these two sequences separately. Before we move on, we must make sure this is 24 FPS. Their default in the After Effects will be 30. Right-click, interpret footage, and main, and then just assume a frame rate of 24. Then you can right-click this and then remember the interpretation. On the other clip, apply the interpretation. If you want to set your default to be something else other than 30, go to edit preferences, and in import, under sequence footage set that to 24. That is my most used FPS. That's why I set it to 30 here. Anyway, next step, we can double-click this here and my refresh is disabled because I have the caps lock keys on, let me press that to turn it off. Then now we can just scrub through this to make sure that all the frames are there. This is the main image. Then this is that depth layer we are going to use later for a Fog or Atmosphere Effect. Let's take our main image sequence and drag it to a new composition button. One final check before we start working on this is to make sure that it's using the correct color management. That's this button here, right now it's using my display's color management. I know that between this in Cinema 4D, this frame is going to look consistent. But I can also untick this. There was no change there because for me, if I go into the project working space, it's also set to sRGB and that's the same profile that my display uses. It's already correct. but if I chose something different, let's say Adobe RGB and click "Okay" that's going to give me an image which looks slightly different. Adobe RGB in particular just looks a bit more washed out than sRGB. I want to make sure this is in sRGB, to make sure that my image stays consistent between the two programs. But you can actually use any profile you want if you prefer those other ones. Another thing to note here is the depth. It should be set to match your image sequence. We rendered out to a 16 bit PNG sequence. This should be set to 16 also, if we had a 32-bit image, then we would switch that to 32. This is all we are extracting all of the information we have available in the frame. But once all of that is checked, now we can begin working on this. 33. After Effects - Post Effects & Color Grading: [MUSIC] Now that we have our frames in After Effects, and we've checked everything, we can do a bit of compositing. I actually didn't do a whole lot of work to this in After Effects. It was really more of a color grade, and then just a subtle diffused glow effect on top of everything. Let's go ahead and do that. If I go to the first frame, which came out wrong, we are going to get rid of this later. Let's press "Page Down" to advance to the first frame which rendered correctly. Let's start here, and I'm going to right-click, go to "Effect", "Color Correction", and "Lumetri Color". This effect is also available in Premiere Pro. You could do this part in Premiere Pro if you prefer to work there. But I like to do all the effects here, and then just use Premiere Pro for smaller adjustments, or adding music to the visual. Anyway, in here, let's go to "Basic Correction". I'm going to start by just warming up the image with temperature. So, 20, if I make this much larger, you see what that's doing. Tint to controls how much green there is in the image if you go to the left, or purple if you go to the right. But let's leave this one at zero. We can push the exposure quite far, because it's a 16 bit image, but once again, I'm just going to make some minor changes here, so 0.25, just to make it slightly brighter, and I can turn this on and off to see the difference. I should do this on the adjustment layer actually. If I right-click "New", "Adjustment Layer", let's control-X to cut that effect from our render, and place this on the adjustment layer so I can turn it on and off here instead to make quick comparisons. Let's also switch to "Full Quality". I was at half quality for an earlier preview I did. We can actually see the full resolution here. Next, we could boost the highlights. This controls the brightest parts of the image. I'm just going to do another small change, just 20 for that. White works in a similar way, but it's a stronger effect. Maybe just 10 will do there. That's all I'm going to do for these basic tone adjustments, just warming up the image slightly, and then making it a bit brighter. Next, I'm going to go to the "Creative" section, and in here, I just want to dial up the vibrance. Let's go for 35. It's just going to make the colors pop a bit more, and we can use saturation to do that even further, so 120 for the saturation. That's going to make those colors really vivid. Turning this section on and off, we see the difference. Next up, I used the curves to just put more tones into the shadows, starting with the green channel that's in this RGB Curves section. Let's get the green channel and then just bring this up to about here, not too far, because it's going to wash it out too much. Only about here or so. We can do the same in the blue channel, but maybe less. I'm going to put a point in the middle, and then get the highlights, and bring those down just to warm these brighter parts of the frame. But don't do this too much, and I've clicked somewhere wrong there. Let's bring it down only to about there, but you can have a lot of fun with this curves to create some really interesting looks. I'm going to scroll down to the hue saturation curves. That's these other graphs we see here, and how this works is each one targets a specific color range, or hue range, and then you can make some adjustments to that. Hue versus hue. This time it's one color, and changes it to another one. If I want to change the blue section, we create a point where we want to make that change, and then two anchor points either side, and then we change that tone. If I push it too far, it definitely doesn't look too great, so let's be very careful with this. We could do the same to the red channel. Make some points either side. We already have one here. Then on red itself, we can push this up to introduce more pinks and purples, or down for more reds and oranges, and you see how that works. But I think I'll keep this one at zero. If I double-click, [MUSIC] it's going to reset the whole thing. Maybe don't do that. Just control-Z until that's gone there. 34. After Effects - Fog From Depth Layer: [MUSIC] For the atmospheric effect, we are going to use our depth pass we rendered alongside our main image. Let's go to the main composition and bring this in under the adjustment layer. Now we need to disable this for now. Also change this blending mode to screen. Let's solo this and go to effect, color correction and levels. This is the solo switch, by the way. Here we just want to darken the foreground. About there and we could brighten the lightest part of the image so that it goes to white. Now we have the full range from black at the front and white all the way back there. If we want to shift how that's distributed across the image, we can change the Gamma, that's the middle handle. This makes everything lighter or darker. The effect of this, if I unsolo this, is that if we make it darker, it's going to isolate the haze to be in their background. That's what we want to do. About 0.7 for the Gamma should work best here. A quick before and after, before it was across the whole image, and I'm just going to forward one frame here. Now it's more isolated to the background. However, it's the wrong color. Let's go to effect, color correction and tint. We are going to map white to blue. Something like this maybe, about 205 for the hue. We also want to isolate the effect closer to the ocean surface. Right now it's covering the whole sky, whereas here it was a much more subtle effect, mostly just over the horizon. To do this, we're going to use a mask. Let's go to the pen tool. Over this first layer or this depth layer, if I zoom out here, I'm going to create a point on the outside. Then just some points like this. Let's draw this up here and then make a full loop. We have done the opposite here. We have isolated only to the sky. Let's press "M", on this layer to bring up the mask and change its blending mode from add to subtract. Now the fog is over the ocean only. We have this very hard edge which we want to get rid of. Press "F", for the feathering and then type out something like 200. If you make that larger, it's going to create more of a diffused effect. I think 200 should be fine though. But our horizon line is going to be moving around from frame to frame, so we need to animate the mask path. If I click on the layer and then open up this mask and set a key-frame for the mask path. What we want to do is click on the layer, again. You can only move these points when there are these circles to begin with. If I click away, you see it's a dot or circle, that means you can move it. It turns to a square though as soon as you start moving. Let's just line this up as best as we can at frame zero. It doesn't have to be so precise since it's software that anyway, but the closer you can get, the better. That's key-framed at frame zero. Let's go to the end and then just set the same key-frame. This button there, because of course the start and end needs to be identical. Let's go to the middle and then just make some adjustments as we need to. Just trying to follow that horizon line. Similar to what we did with the camera animation in Cinema 4D. We start with the extreme ends, and then we adjust the intermediate points or the middle points. That was the last key-frame, at 14 seconds, we can maybe just lower the strength of this whole layer. If I don't want to see this mask over the image, I can press "Shift Control and H", and it's going to make all the UI overlays disappear, and to bring them back, you just do the same. Let's go to the strength of this. Press "T" for the opacity and maybe lower it to about 50. It was a bit too strong before. We can change the blending mode to add, maybe just for a slightly different effect. Let's re-enable our color adjustment layer just to make sure everything still works together. I think it does. This is with the depth layer being used to create this atmospheric effect. This was without, I think it just helped to create a bit more depth and atmosphere to the scene. One final adjustment I will make before we make the final export is a glow effect on top of everything. If I go to Stylize and Glow, it's going to be too strong by default. Let's go to the threshold, bump this all the way up to 100. Then the radius, maybe something a lot higher, about 50. For a more diffused softer look. If I turn this on and off, that's the difference. I think it might be too strong, so let's go to the intensity, lower this to about 0.7. Also we can try seeing how this looks being applied before the color grade. It's going to be slightly different. Overall, I think I do prefer that operation where it's before the color grading. Anyway, that's it. Next up we're going to do the final export. [MUSIC] 35. Final Export From After Effects: [MUSIC] The next three short sections are all about the final export, starting in After Effects. Then I'm going to show you a few workflow tips in Premier Pro and then the final export settings for both YouTube and Instagram. Before we do the final export, we do have this issue of this first frame and just it came out wrong. Let's advance forward one frame using page down and then press B to mark this as the new beginning of this composition. Then right-click on this bar and then trim comp to work area. The reason to wait till the very end to do this as simple, if I brought in another layer after making that cut, the new layer would begin slightly offset like this. It would no longer line up with the layer underneath. Wait till the very end to do this and it's just simpler that way. This could also be cutoff in Premier Pro if you prefer to work there instead. But anyway, let's go to Composition, add to Render Queue and the output module is going to be, the format is going to be set to QuickTime. In format options, I am going to choose the Animation Codec, but feel free to choose any of these other ones if you are more familiar with them. I choose animation because it creates a very large file size, which still contains a lot of color information. If I want to make more adjustments later in Premier Pro, I will still be able to do that with the animation QuickTime file type. Click 'OK' for this and then just determine an output path. I did this before already so I'm just going to click 'Save'. It will say it's going to overwrite this and we can cue this up in Media Encoder, or we can just render it directly from After Effects. Here is a quick tip. If I enable Caps Lock, this is going to stop the preview and this will just output a bit faster. [MUSIC] Anyway, when that's done, we can go to Premier Pro for the final export. 36. Premiere Pro Workflow Tips: In Premiere Pro, we are going to create a new project. It's going to my class folder here and the name, I'm just going to call this final edit or something and click okay. I have already done this before, so let's call it Final Edit 1. In here, it's using this editing layout, that's okay. Let's go down to the bottom left and in the project section, we can double-click to import our render, so it's right here. When I open that up, right-click and then New Sequence From Clip. This is going to make a new sequence with the same settings as our source footage. Now, I can play this back at full speed because if we open this up and view it in Explorer, let's see, Reveal in Explorer. We can right-click and go to the properties and this is two gigabytes for a 16 second file. It's quite large. What you might want to do just to help with playback speed, you could right-click and create a proxy for this. This is going to generate a smaller file size which is substituted for the main one in the playback, but when you do the render, it's going to be the full thing. This will open up Adobe Media Encoder to create the proxy, so just wait a few moments for that. That's it right there. It should be pretty quick. When it's done, in Premiere Pro, you have this button right there called Toggle Proxies. If I just make this area larger, and toggle this. This here is the low quality version. I don't know how well this would translate on Skillshare but if I switch back when it's not toggled, you're seeing the main file and then when it is toggled and blue, this is the lower resolution file. This is a fast way of getting a faster, smoother playback and you can still do your editing much quicker. When you do the final render, you don't need to turn this on or off, it will just render the full quality file automatically. Anyway, in Premiere Pro, this is where I do my final edits to music or sound. I could make a copy of this, line it up next to the first one and you see it just transitions from one to the next seamlessly. This could be as long as I want it to be and I can also do some color adjustments in Premiere. If I go to the Color tab, you will see the Lumetri Color effect over here but if you have multiple clips like this, this is something that you would want to do on an adjustment layer, so it applies to everything underneath, otherwise it would just go to whichever clip is below your play head, i.e, which clip is selected as you move around like this. Let's go to this button here, New Item and Adjustment and just stretch this out to go over all of these layers. Now if we click on this, we can apply any color adjustments we want now and this will be the same as in after effects, it's just laid out different. 37. Best Youtube & Instagram Settings: [MUSIC] I'm just going to go to "File" and "Export Media". This is where I do the exports for YouTube and Instagram. I want to show you those settings. I don't know why it didn't show up, let's try that again. There we go. The format for these final exports is always H.264. This is recommended for both YouTube and Instagram. I actually just used the built-in presets for this. For YouTube, I will always go to the 2160p 4K. Even if I'm working with a 1080p frame, uploading it at 4K generally means it's going to play it back at a higher quality than if you post in native 1080p file. That's the reason I do this. [NOISE] If I choose that, you don't need to change any of these settings. You just change your output path, and that's it. But what I do for Instagram is I will copy this height, [NOISE] go to the width and use the same width there. It's a square frame. But then I will go to source scaling and then scale to fill so that it's a square frame like this. I don't really like uploading landscape videos to Instagram. The frame size ends up being way too small. I'll always just compromise and go with a square and it's something I generally keep in mind when I'm doing the compositions is, is it going to work as a square composition? Although I don't always prioritize that, because this was designed primarily as a widescreen video. Anyway, keep that in mind as you're working on your own projects. It might be more relevant to you. But once again, choose your output path. Then when it's ready, you just hit the "Export" or queue it up in Media Encoder. If you are exporting various ratios all at once or different timelines and all that. Anyway, that's it. [MUSIC] 38. Final Outro: That's it. Quite a long class in the end, but it was necessary because I did not want to skip any of the important details. I think that Cinema 4D and Redshift is one of the strongest pairings of any previous software and render engine. I really hope I was able to show you some of that power and potential. I strongly recommend this combination for anyone who's trying to get into animation and motion graphics, you especially if you're going to be using Cinema 4D. It's just a great setup all around. Anyway, as usual, I'm excited to see what you guys are going to be able to create out of this and feel free to share your creations below the class and I'll be able to check them out or if you post them to something like Instagram or Twitter, you can tag me and I'll see it there too and if you do have any questions about any topic, once again, or any section in the class, you can ask below and I'll be able to get back to you as soon as possible. But that's it. Thank you very much for watching and I'll see you in the next one.