Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO: The Basics of (Analog) Photography | Jahan Saber | Skillshare

Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO: The Basics of (Analog) Photography

Jahan Saber

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5 Lessons (37m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:44
    • 2. Aperture and Focal Length

      7:00
    • 3. Shutter Speed

      7:11
    • 4. ISO

      3:30
    • 5. Choosing the correct exposure (Exposure Triangle)

      17:20
17 students are watching this class

About This Class

Hello,

my name is Jahan and i'm the founder of "do you develop" - a label that is focused around analog photography and the thought process that occurs behind it. I've been working as a professional photographer for over 4 years. I've worked in fashion, print and have freelanced in all fields of photography. In addition to my professional work I've had various solo exhibitions in my hometown, Vienna, Austria and am an active member of the AllFormat Collective. Finally throughout my solo career I have produced and self published two books and one zine.

Find out more on my website http://www.doyoudevelop.com or my Instagram: @doyoudevelop

Transcripts

1. Introduction : Hello and welcome. My name is Johann. On the course of the next few episodes, we're going to dive into the topic of photography. This course is intended for anyone, whether you're completing you to the field or you already accustomed to the practice. And you might wanna freshen up your skills. So we're going to cover the fundamentals on the core concepts onto which anyone can then transform their own interpretation of what photography means to them. So it's relevant whether you're shooting digital or you're shooting on a log film, even though I highly recommend that you start with analog film as it might give you a deeper understanding of what photography can mean to you. I've decided Teoh split this course in tow. Four main topics. The first topic is gonna be all about the basics and technical aspect of your cameras. So your eyes so speed your shutter speed or aperture, and how you work without then the second section is gonna be all about the canvas that you're using. So if you're shooting analog film, for example, what kind of film types there are how to develop that film, the darkroom work that you could do with things like that, Then the third section is gonna be philosophy, and that's going to focus mainly on the fault process that happens around photography. So why you take certain pictures and what it means to take photos? Things like that on the final section will combine all these three sections on. I'll do a photo walk, for example. On you'll see how all these my skills and the way I think about photography will flow together. Then I'll have maybe a portrait session. I'll do a street photography kind of thing, so you'll get the rial kind of live view of what that actually means to go out and take photos and work with your camera. So I'm not gonna waste any more time, So let's get straight into it on. Oh, I hope you enjoy this class. 2. Aperture and Focal Length: hello and welcome. Today we're gonna talk about the focal length of lenses and the aperture. The focal length is a simple indicator of how far or wide you're framing can be. Their lenses that have fixed focal ings and zoom lands both have their advantages on disadvantages. For now, all you need to know, though, is that the lower focal lengths so anything from eight millimeters toe 35 millimeter for 35 millimeters are considered wide angle. So this is an example of a wide angle lens Onda we can see right here. It says 15 millimeters on the F 4.5 is the aperture, and we're gonna get into that soon, then with one of these wide angle lenses. Basically, a wide angle lens means that there's gonna be a lot of content in your frame, so the wider the angle, the more content a standard lens is anything between 40 millimeters and 75 millimeters. So this is a 50 millimeter. This is the most iconic on most standardized focal length that you'll find out there, and it's probably the best one toe work with, especially if you're a beginner and you want to get into photography, I highly recommend that everyone should own a good 50 millimeter lens. It's the most versatile Linse that you can have. Telephoto lens is anything from 19 millimeters upwards on. They go upto 600 millimeters on big modern camera systems. But unfortunately, I don't have one of those to show you. Right now, Andre will enable you to capture objects that are reasonable distance away from you. So things like sports photography, wildlife and even impressed They come in very handy. So this is the focal length. Now the aperture is essentially nothing other than the whole inside the lens that allows light to pass through it on. It consists of a series of blades that move in uniform to create a very large or very small opening. So I'll take one of these lenders right here, and I'll show you. So if I opened back right here. If you see this as I move around here, you can see that the aperture gets bigger and smaller. The aperture is measured in F stop batteries, so when you grab most lenses, you can see that it has different values indicated on it. When looking at the lens you usually always see the largest aperture indicated on the front . Um, like, right here. So it says to which is the largest aperture F two. And the 50 next to it will be the focal length, which is 50 millimeters now. Entry level lenses will usually have the largest aperture around 3.5 toe, 5.6. So f 3.5 toe, 5.6 on higher end lenses usually range anywhere between 2.8 to 1.4. So this one is a two on. Then show you this one right here. This is a 1.4 you'll see right there as well. This is a 35 millimeter lens. Andi. Yeah, The smallest aperture is usually something like F 16 in modern lenses. More commonly F 22 some even have f 32. So this lens right here it goes down all the way to 22. And this usually just has to do with the lens construction. So some lens bodies will go all the way toe 16. Some will go 20 to someone go even more really depends what kind of lens you have on these analog cameras. That I'm working with. Usually they always go toe at 16. That's the most common value for for this type of system andan. There are other, like Nick own system. They're famous for going down toe at 32 easily. So that's something we'll get into the till a bit later. So when we're examining the functionality of what the aperture actually controls there two things we need to pay attention to. So first of all, while I'm adjusting the aperture, you can see that the larger aperture. So if I'm gonna open this right now and I'm on the largest aperture, naturally, what this means is that more light comes in larger the hole, the more like will come inside. This is one of the key factors that you will work with next to the shutter speed on the eyes so speed, but more on that later. So it's really important that when you work with lens like this, you keep in mind that the larger the aperture. Now this is confusing. The larger the aperture, the smaller the number. So F two is the maximum aperture right here on. That's the largest aperture, but its smallest number. So you got to keep in mind. This is might be confusing at first, but you're going to get used to it, and you won't even think about it later. Now the second feature that the aperture has is while I'm working with a large aperture, which means a small number so F point F 2.0, for example, like on this one, my depth of field will be very shallow. Now the depth of field determines how much of an area will be in focus on how much will be out of focus. So the best way to describe this is by showing you two images now on this images right here we can see that we have everything in focus and all of the background is out of focus, and it seems kind of blurry. And then there there's a famous Japanese word that describes Since it's called Boca Andi, we're not gonna get into the technicality of all those things. But this would be an image that shot with a very, very shallow depth of field, so this was probably shot at F two F 2.8. Andi. That's a good indicator of what kind of lens you're using. If you if you see an image like that, you can easily tell if there's a wide range of things that's in focus than the aperture was probably smaller. And now this is the the other side. So if we're shooting with the aperture of something like F 16 than a lot of things are gonna be in focus now, The problem is, when we're shooting with a very small aperture, we can see that very little light comes through the whole, because the hole is very small now it's not as wide as with F two, so these are a few things that we're going to keep in mind for now. Just been working with the aperture on the next video. Then you'll see me talking about the shutter speed on and finally the eyes so speed, and then how all these three values work together 3. Shutter Speed: hello and welcome. Today we're gonna be talking about the second key factor and contributing to how we take photographs. And that's the shutter speed. The shutter speed is a time controlled mechanism inside the camera that enables you to control for how long your frame is being exposed for now. Previously we were talking about the aperture on the aperture was controlling. How much light was gonna come onto that frame? Andi, the shutter speed controls the same thing. Just that it has a time element to it. So it controls for how long that frame is gonna be exposed. All camera systems work more less in the same way that they have a plane where traditionally the film is or in modern Kraemer is the sensors. Now, as light shines through the lens, it will hit this area on. The image will be produced now. Obviously, this area isn't constantly exposed to light, so we need something that's gonna block it. So I'll make it simple, and I'll give you a little demonstration of what this would look like. So right here I have my camera on my lens sonnet on. Then my aperture is moving. And now have this set Aperture. Andi, I'd want to take a photo. So what I'll do is I'll just open the lens and I'll take that away for demonstration purposes and then you'll see through. So if my lens was too on here than you'd see this and this is the shutter curtain on the shutter curtain right now is engaged. So the film isn't actually being exposed. Now, if I opened the back of the camera, you'll see right through on this is usually where the camera would be. Now, just take my lower right here, and I'll put it above here on. If I select a specific shutter speed on, I take a photo, you'll see the shutter curtain move real fast. Now, if I select a really slow speed, you'll see this even better. So I'll just do this and then you'll see the shutter move on the shutter curtain will open now. Shutter speeds go from the bulb setting, which is the be right here. Usually all cameras have this all the way to 1/1000 of a second. Now, the bulb setting is really simple that if you take a photo as long as you keep the shutter depressed, the frame will be exposed. Now this is something you're going to use if you do things like landscape photography, and you really want to take really long exposures or things like that. It's nothing you can really do, uh, holding it in your hands so you definitely need a tripod for that, then the fastest shutter speed, thousands of a second on analog cameras. It usually goes no faster than the thousands of a second. Sometimes it's even slower. It only goes to 500 of a second on digital cameras, whereas it could go a lot faster, something like 1/1000 of a second. Now, um, the reason the shutter speed is important. Um, you want to be able to control for how long light passes onto your frame now without going into too much detail. If you just think about it, a darker environment will require a slower shutter speed, as there is a lot less light. Available on a bright, sunny day would require a fast shutter speed. Otherwise you'll have an over exposed image. Now, the downside of slower shutter speeds is that the images being exposed for a longer period of time, so you're more likely tohave visible movements or smudges in your frame. And to produce a sharp image of lower speeds, you're gonna have to place your camera on a tripod or something really started that will stop your camera from shaking. If you have very still in controlled hands, you can shoot up to around 30th of a second, Um, maybe even the 15th of a second. But that really depends on how started you can hold your camera in your hands. I would go ideally if you want to make sharp images. Never go below 125th of a second, maybe even 60 of the second if you're really good now, on the other hand, faster speeds are necessary when there is plenty of available light, as you don't want the frame to be overexposed light. You only want, like to pass on to the Fillmore sensor for a very short time, and in addition of fast shutter speed, has the advantage that it will really freeze motion. And this means that images will automatically look sharper as their only extracts of a very , very small fraction of time. Obviously, the faster the shutter speed the more you'll freeze this motion. And I think the best thing is that I'm gonna show you some examples of what shutter speeds look like an action. So start off with this. This is taken out of the car on This is a very relatively slow shutter Speed on. As you can see, the street signs of completely smudged, you can't see anything. The lights on the highway at the backer smudged. The the markings on the highway aren't really straight. I mean, obviously, it's a bend, but there's still completely smudged and very fast. Shutter speed, on the other hand, would be something like this image right here. So we have this gentleman walking down the stairs on There's a bird flying right on the left, Up here in the frame on you can see the bird is actually perfectly still, Andi. It's really frozen in motion, and there is no real movement visible. There's no smudges or anything. That means that must have been a very fast shutter speed. And here's another example of that. We have the horse race or the rider, and the horse is clearly running, but the legs are completely sharp. They're not smudged they're not moving in anyway, even though the horse was galloping quite quickly. And then another final thing that you can do if you're experimenting with shutter speeds is you can try to freeze motion in a way like this. So this motor driver right here, he was going at a reasonable speed. Andi, if you match the shutter speed of your camera to his motion, what you achieve is that he is actually property sharp. And he is captured correctly, whereas obviously the background, which is stationary, like the buildings and the street, would be smudged. Now, this is maybe something you want to try an experiment on. I think the best thing that you can do anyways with photography is learning. By doing so, I definitely recommend that you maybe go out on bond. When you have your camera, you maybe stand somewhere close to a road. Just, you know, be Stefano all on. Maybe try to take a picture of a car driving by. It's usually easier the further away the subject is. So if you're standing right next to the street, maybe you'll have a bit more difficulty. Andi, you can try also with cyclists on things like that. So just make sure that you don't offend anyone or you get up into anyone's face is something like that. But this is something great that you can you can try at home. So right now we covered the 1st 2 basics. Andi, that's the aperture and the shutter Speed on. In the next episode, we're gonna be talking about the I S O Speed. And then how all these three factors come together on how you can take pictures without 4. ISO: Hello and welcome. In today's video, we're going to discuss the third and final contributing factor to how we take photos. And that's the ISO speed, or formerly known as the A speed. Now straight from the start. I just want to say that the is so speed is much easier to work with in a digital camera, because you can constantly change it on a film camera. It's a bit more complicated because you have to stick with one speed throughout the roll of film that you're shooting with. But don't be intimidated by that. So the isso speed determines how sensitive towards lights your film or your camera sensor is. If you're working with the digital camera now, the lower the Iast so number, the more light is required for a usable, properly exposed photo. So if I'm shooting with eso 102 100 then I'm gonna need a lot of light. So something like a bright, sunny day on, On the other hand, if there is very little available light, if I'm shooting in the dark bar or the might sky in the streets and in the evening something like that, I'm gonna need a lot higher I s O to get usable correctly, exposed photos. So this is the main concept of bias. So now there is a little drawback, or for some people, it's not a drawback. In fact, for me personally, I really enjoy this. It's the concept of grain now. The low speed films, the lower iess so numbers they have very little grain, the higher speeds. I'll have a lot of grain. Andi. Obviously, there's films analog films that have different types of grain on digital cameras that are extremely well in reducing grain, so you'll have very competent models that can go upto. I also 6400 and there won't be any visible grain. It all Andi So it's really just comes down to preference. But it's something that you're gonna have to keep in mind. Andi, if I'll show you this first picture right here, we can see this was taken in a pretty bright day on. There's hardly an invisible grain on. There's a lot of sharpness, and that's also something that you have as a little additional key factor. The lower the iess. So usually the higher the sharpness of the film or the sensor will be the the sharper your photos were gonna be Because there's less grain, there's less. Suppose now, on the other hand, we have this photo right here on this was taken of the night sky on. It was extremely dark on. Obviously I was lucky to capture the lightning as well. But with eso 100 film, I would have barely seen the lightning. I would have might have seen one or two small lines, but the clouds that are visible here would have been completely black because the film would have not been sensitive enough and would have it would have required too much lights to get any usable detail. Now, this is something that we're gonna have to always keep in mind. The ISO speed is important in determining what kind of aperture on what kind of shutter speed were using on before I continue, I'm gonna stop right here, and I'm going to combine all these three factors in the next video where I'm going to talk about how the isso speed, the shutter speed and the aperture all work together. 5. Choosing the correct exposure (Exposure Triangle): Hello and welcome. In today's video, we're finally going to combine the three things that we learned about in the last previous videos. Andi, that's the aperture, the shutter speed on the I s O speed. So if you're outdoors on your shooting or you're indoors there, three factors that you're always gonna have to consider Andi. That's how your shutter speed will work your aperture on your eyes. So now every environment has a different sort of lighting situation. So if you're in a sunny day, it's gonna be very bright. If you're working indoors, maybe in a room with not so many windows, it's gonna be a lot darker, so you're always gonna have to adjust your values. Now, if you're walking through a street and I don't know in the middle of the town on your encountering a normal sunny day and then maybe the weather changes, you're gonna have a completely different lighting situation or if you're walking in the streets and then maybe you walk under scaffolding or something, and then all of a sudden it gets a bit darker because the sun can really pass through. You always gonna have to adjust your values now, the best way to learn this is always working in manual mode. And as I'm working in Manny mold, if you're shooting with an analog camera, you're most probably gonna be in manual mode. Anyways, you're was gonna have to consider what kind of shutters feed your shooting with and what kind of aperture there a few few ways how you can kind of make this a lot easier for you. You could, for example, always work with the same shutter speed and the same I s o speed. And then Onley adjust the aperture according to your preference. You could also always worked with the same aperture on the same eyes. So speed and then just, um, change your shutter speed according to whatever your preferences. So they're a few ways you can play with us now. All of these things can have positive and negative side effects on what your image quality is going to look like. So in photography, I don't really like to say that there are strict rules, because there let's say there's certain rules if you're working and I don't know, in a professional environment where you're gonna take event photos, it's gonna be difficult to explain to someone that you're blurry. Smudged pictures are your artistic interpretation of what you think is the right way to shoot events. So that's gonna be difficult. Or probably a wedding would be even worse. You know, if you have the bride and groom completely smudged and then you can even identify their faces, that wouldn't be so great. So there are a few rules that you'd have to stick to. You know, you'd have to really get sharp pictures you're gonna have toe make sure that the subjects are visible and what nots, so that's one way of seeing it then, on the other hand, if you're working in artistic field, I mean, everything is really comes down to what your interpretation is. If you don't have a superior or a boss that you have to talk to and kind of make them happy , you could do whatever you want with your photos. So I mean, do whatever you want without hurting anybody. Let's let's put it that way So you can really just play around with this in the way that you want to. But if you wanna make sure that you get sharp images and you want to get, let's say, correct exposures, which is probably the most important thing. Then you're gonna have to stick to a few rules. So what I did is this is a very common diagram and it's all around the Internet. I made it myself. I just did it just slightly to my own preference. Andi, we're gonna dive into that. And then I'm going to continue explaining to you how these values the aperture of the shutter speed and the eyes So speed all work together. OK, so this is the diagram that I was talking about, and it's called an exposure triangle. So let's start off with describing the key factors. We have the aperture, the ice, so speed and the shutter speed. And we've talked about all of these three factors in the previous videos and what they're responsible for. Now, what this diagram really shows you is the kind of compromises that you're gonna have to make when you're out shooting. Now, maybe compromise is very strict word For some people, it might not be a compromise. Some people might not like certain effects. It all really comes down to personal preference or In some cases, it's not a personal preference, but you're kind of forced to do it. So if you're shooting professionally in a certain manner, like if you're shooting in a concert or so, then you're gonna have toe shoot This way. Now let's start off with the aperture. So the aperture, the values that I have selected aren't the minimum and maximum that are possible. So I just bear with me on that. I went for F 1.4 on and F 22. Now F 1.4 is going to give me a lot of light. And that's the sun symbol on the left or below. Now, if I should with F 22 I'm going to get a very dark image. Um, this is just considering my my aperture. I'm not considering all the other values right now because with a larger aperture, So F 1.4 my aperture blades were much wider and a lot more like compassion through the lens . Now the compromise that we have with this is that the depth of field changes. So as we go down, we have a shallow depth of field with a wider aperture. So there's gonna be a very small focus plane that's gonna be in focus, whereas on top we have the deep depth of field that's going to mean that we have a very large focus pain. So a lot of things we're gonna be in focus now with the shutter speed. Um, our compromise is gonna be the motion on. And if we look at the times right here, if I have an exposure at one second, I'm going to be able to grab a lot of light because this could be a longer time that the shutter is open for on. If I have a very fast exposure 1 1/1000 of a second that I'm gonna get a darker image because the shutter is gonna be open for very short moment of time on the compromise here is clearly that the longer the shutter is open, I'm going to get a motion blur. So unless I'm taking a picture of a building on, I'm using a tripod, I'm not gonna get a sharp image. So I'm gonna get a blur then, on the other hand, if I'm taking a picture at a very fast shutter speed, I'm gonna be able to capture that and freeze the moment property. And finally, the I s So speak so the eyes. So speed, I selected the value. I so 100 as the lowest and I saw 6400. And like I've said, these air my values. You can go much lower, you can go down toe I s 05 or things like that and I sew up to 206. 56,800 Something like that. You could go up really high as well. It depends on your camera. It depends on what film you're using. It depends on your digital center and things like that. I'm not gonna get into the right now, So if I'm using a very low I e isso speed like I saw 100 my image is gonna be very dark on if I have a very high I s so, like 6400 I'm going to be able to capture a lot of lights in my image is gonna be a lot lighter on the compromises, the grain. So if I have an image with I saw 100 like the picture of the car that I showed you in the eso video? Um, that was I. So 125 and there was hardly any visible grain. It was very sharp on. And then, on the other hand, if I have a photo with isso 64 hundreds, there's gonna be a lot of visible grain in it. Andi, that might not be something that a lot of people like some people enjoy grain, like I said before. So that's the main thing. And now what we want to do is we're gonna have to learn to work together with all these three values thes three factors and how they contribute in tow, taking a proper exposure. Because ideally, what we want is we want to correctly exposed image. We don't want it to be too dark. You we don't want it to be too light. Andi again, this is something that comes down to personal preference or something that you're gonna have to do. So you know, sometimes there pictures that are just genuinely dark and there's one light object, and it might not be exposed correctly, but maybe that's exactly what you wanted to achieve. So I'm not going to get into talking about that right now. So I made this little table right here on with a few examples of certain scenes that you could be taking pictures off now to start off with the 1st 1 So the 1st 1 is a bright, sunny day, and the aperture that I have selected is F 16. The shutter speed is 1 1/1000 of a second, and the isso speed is 100. Now, the values and red are the values that are wrong. So if I am taking a picture in the bright, sunny day with F 16 I'm gonna have a very small aperture if I'm using I So 100 I'm gonna need a lot of light to get in. So the I in so speed and the aperture is what's probably correct right now. And the shutter speed is just too fast. So what's the compromise? The compromise is that I'm gonna have to slow down the shutter speed. So ideally, I would select the shutter speed off one over 100. So 125th of a second on this these exact values F 16 I s 0 101 125th of a second is also known as the Sunny 16 rules, So I'll talk about that later in more detail. Now the second scenario is a concert on, and I'm using the aperture 2.8. And that's what I want to work with because I really want to get the band members in focus . I don't want to get too much of the background. I'm really trying to, you know, make a cool portrait of the lead singer or the guitarist or whatever. Andi, the shutter speed that I'm using is 1 5/100 of a second. Andi, the important thing is right now, as I don't know, maybe this is a rock band and they're jumping up and down and they're moving around. I don't want toe have any sort of blur. I want to freeze. I want to capture them. I don't want you know if maybe if someone's playing guitar, I don't I don't want their hands to be completely blurred media when it really capture what the fingers look like on the guitar and things like that. So I'm gonna have to use a faster shutter speed. Now I s 0 400 in concert might be way too dark, so I might have to bump up my eyes so to something like 3200 or 1600 something like that. Um, so this is the concert situation. And as you can see, usually what you want to do is you always want to have a nonviolent where you're really aware of what kind of situation you're in value is important to you. So, like I said in the concert, what's really important to me is that I'm shooting at F 2.8. I don't want to change that. I don't want toe. I don't want to shoot at anything deeper than that, because I really wanna make sure to grab about one singer or guitarist or bass player or whatever. Andi. Now, finally, the third scene. I'm shooting F 11. Andi, the shutter speed is 200 50th of a second. On the eso is 400 on this specific scene is this photo that I'm gonna talk about in a second on. You can see that there is. This is something that I did where I wanted. I purposely wanted a slight motion blur. I didn't want toe capture the cyclist in a perfect still shape. I wanted to add that kind of motion blur that was important for me for creating that kind of scene. So if I took this photo at F 11 and I s 0 400 the shutter speed definitely wasn't 250 of a second unless that cyclist was going incredibly fast. So to make that photo of the way it was, if you wanted to recreate it, you're gonna have toe slow down the shutter speed. Also in keeping in mind that the aperture is quite low and the apertures F 11. And as you can see, there is still sharpness in the background. We're not We're not creating an image where we're really picking something out. Like my focus is not entirely on the cyclist. It's the entire scene that I wanted to have in focus. So I probably took this with maybe 30th of a second, maybe 60 of second. Andi, this is something that you're gonna have to work with now. All the time you're gonna have to think about what kind of scene you're working in. What? What's your priority? Do you wanna work with something like an aperture? priority or a speed priority. So modern digital cameras and some analog cameras have these settings as well that you can select an aperture, for example, F 5.6. And that's what you always want to work with. And then your camera will automatically find the right shutter speed according to that. But if you're working in a full manual mode, then you're gonna have to figure that out yourself. Now. The key factor to this is that some cameras have light meters, and some don't the ones that have, like nature's air, obviously going to make these things a lot easier for you. Andi. I recommend as a beginner to definitely use a camera with a light meter because it's gonna help you in selecting the correct values. Now, if you don't have a light meter, you can still learn these things and you can still practice. And once again, I'm going to emphasize the best thing that you could do is learning. By doing so, let's have a quick look at the pictures that I previously mentioned. So this is a cyclist, that light that I talked about Andi, the effect that I wanted was that he was moving and that we could get that kind of overall vibe that he's not actually frozen in time now. Another example is this one is another great example where I wanted toe add a slight amount of motion. You can see that the scene is relatively dark. This is inside a kind of like a gate monument on. It was pretty dark. It was already the sun was setting. But there is that one person walking there, and I didn't want to freeze him perfectly in motion. I wanted to add a kind of motion blur to add that kind of mystique. So naturally, my shutter speed was a bit slower. Teoh, give it that effect now. This is a great example for on image where I wanted to freeze motion perfectly. So I was using a faster shutter speed. So we have this reflection on the ground on. You can see the these two people that are walking right here on If I would have used the longer shutter speed, I would have had the motion blur on, and it wouldn't have been as pinpointed and sharp as it is in this image. So what was my trade off. My trade off was that I definitely used the high eyes. So here, because you can still see that the focus plane is quite sharp. The shoes in the background are sharp, the shoes in the foreground aren't as sharp and that's because my focus was a bit further back. So my focus was on the man walking in the background. But the lines on the ground in the foreground aren't completely out of focus. So I was using also a relatively smaller aperture. So my eyes so was very high. Andi finally, in this image, what we can see is this is the perfect example of eso not being high enough Now, this was complete darkness on you can see there's only one window that slit. Andi, there's a night sky. Andi, I remember this was something that I was shooting at ISO 100. So I so 100 definitely too low for this kind of environment. So what I did is I shot this at F 1.4 on my handheld this at around 15th of a second, maybe even slower. Now what we can see is that the image is not sharp. Andi, you we can see the chimney is blurry, Andi, the window is blurry and there is just not the correct travelers. And that's because there is some movement in the shot. So this is a way where you can see this is how it could have gone wrong. Now, once again, if it's if it's something artistic that you're doing, if this is your own hobby, the your own interpretation of what you want to do with things and that's fine, that's your idea of what photography can mean to you. But if this was, for example, I don't know, you got a job as a contractor that you want to do architecture shoot. And now you wanna make a proper picture of this photo. This photo would not be usable because you wouldn't be able to identify the building properly. It would be too dark. There wouldn't be any straight lines, things like that. So I'm not going to get into too much detail. But that would be something that would be a point where you have to really think about what kind of i s So you're using. So just to recap all of this, the exposure triangle is really there to help you understand what kind of relationship these values have with one another. So the key is toe. Find one setting that is important to you. 11 of the factors, whether it's the aperture, the I so or the shutter speed and then adjust the other to the other two, values the other two factors accordingly. So I hope this was not too much for the start. The best thing that you can do is like I said, go out and practice and take your camera and just experiment with always keeping one value one of the factors the same, and then experimenting with the other two.