Animation Principles for Motion Designers | Ozgur Gorgun | Skillshare

Animation Principles for Motion Designers

Ozgur Gorgun, Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Animation Principles for Motion Designers

Ozgur Gorgun, Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
27 Lessons (3h 53m)
    • 1. Welcome to Principles of Animation for Motion Designers

      2:37
    • 2. Introduction to Timing

      1:33
    • 3. Timing

      10:14
    • 4. Introduction to Slow In and Out

      3:33
    • 5. Slow In and Out

      10:23
    • 6. Bounce

      9:37
    • 7. Creating Decay

      11:17
    • 8. Introduction to Squash and Stretch

      1:12
    • 9. Squash Stretch

      19:26
    • 10. Introduction to Anticipation

      1:30
    • 11. Anticipation

      15:22
    • 12. Introduction to Follow Through and Overlap

      1:31
    • 13. Follow Through and Overlap

      10:39
    • 14. Introduction to Exaggeration

      1:04
    • 15. Exaggeration

      7:32
    • 16. Introduction to Arcs

      0:56
    • 17. Arcs

      18:37
    • 18. Introduction to Secondary Action

      1:57
    • 19. Secondary Action

      11:41
    • 20. Staging, Appeal and The Final Project

      0:59
    • 21. Final Animation - What you will be creating

      0:12
    • 22. Final Project - Anticipation

      25:31
    • 23. Final Project - Squash and Stretch

      13:33
    • 24. Final Project - Transitions

      20:09
    • 25. Final Project - Camera Animation

      8:15
    • 26. Final Project - Appeal

      22:56
    • 27. Conclusion & Further Study

      0:44
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

54

Students

--

Projects

About This Class

Ever wondered how to create those professional looking motion graphics animations where things seem to move so smoothly? The key is to master the Principles of Animation, which have been used by Disney animators for nearly a century. This course is a fresh new take on these principles as they have been adopted and repurposed specifically for motion graphics designers. So instead of characters, we will be looking at how to animate 3D objects, lines and text.

You will learn everything you need to start creating complex and believable motions. Some of the key subjects covered in this course are:

  • Timing & Spacing

  • Slow In & Out

  • Bounces & Decay

  • Squash & Stretch

  • Anticipation

  • Follow Through & Overlapping Action

  • Exaggeration

  • Arcs

  • Secondary Animation

  • Staging

  • Appeal

This course is for anyone who is interested in creating impactful and meaningful animations. You could be a complete beginner or a pro animator - you will still learn a great deal of industry standard techniques, tips and tricks when it comes to creating pro level motion graphics.

The course was created with Cinema 4D, but you could be using any animation software (or even draw each frame by hand!) to follow along, since these principles remain the same.

Together with the training, you also get all of the project and reference files used on the course, so you can follow along as you watch the lessons. At the end of the training, you will be asked to create an animation with all of the skills you've learned.

So put your animation hats on and let's master the Principles of Animation together!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Ozgur Gorgun

Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Teacher

Hello, I'm Ozgur. I'm an award winning filmmaker, photographer and motion designer. I've been been working in the film and TV industry both in the UK and abroad for over a decade. 

I'm an Adobe Certified Expert, Video Specialist and Instructor. I'm also one of the very few Maxon Certified Cinema 4D Trainers in the world.

I've taught and worked with some of the biggest names in the industry such as SKY, BBC, Sony Pictures, ITV, Google, Microsoft, to name a few.

See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
    0%
  • Yes
    0%
  • Somewhat
    0%
  • Not really
    0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

phone

Transcripts

1. Welcome to Principles of Animation for Motion Designers: Hi and welcome to this course on animation principles for motion designers. My name is Ozgur. I've been animating for about 20 years. I'm also a certified instructor for After Effects and Cinema 4D. I wanted to put this course together to teach you not necessarily a set of specific tools within a software. Although we'll be doing some of that as well. But to focus more on the principles of animation. What makes a good motion graphics animation work? What makes it believable and relatable? How is it that simple shapes such as squares, rectangles, circles, cubes, or letters can convey such complex emotions. All of this happens at a subconscious level. However, you as an animator, need to be making some conscious animation decisions to achieve these results. And that's exactly what this entire course is about. Although I had been animating for quite some time, it was only when I learned and mastered these skills and principles that my career skyrocketed. All of a sudden, my animations were being appreciated more and I started working for clients such as Google, the BBC, Microsoft, Apple, and many more. The tricks and techniques I'll teach you in this course are what we professional animators use everyday. You'll be talking about timing, easing in and out, squash and stretch. Anticipation. Follow through and overlapping action. Exaggeration. Arcs. Secondary action, staging and appeal. By the end of each lesson, you have learned a new key skill, which you can apply it to your animations right away. And at the end of the course, we'll create an animation together where we'll put all of these skills and principles to use. On this course, I'll be using Cinema 4D to demonstrate these principles. But really the software is irrelevant. You could be using any animation software that you like and still apply these skills to your own work. You could be using After Effects, Maya, 3DS Max, Blender, or even draw each frame by hand. The principles remain the same. So if you're ready to master the principles of animation and take your work to the next level. Let's get started. 2. Introduction to Timing: As you may well be aware, there are 12 principles of animation, which I've actually based my course on. These principles have been laid out by two of the legends of animation, Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston in their book, the illusion of life. By the way, if you ever read this book and recommend that you definitely get a copy of it. It's an amazing piece of work. Now from Thomas and Ollie Johnston worked at Disney. So they knew what they were talking about. They've analyzed all the animations that were created at Disney. They looked at style, techniques, methods, and they summarize them in these 12 principles. Initially, these principles were created for character-based animations like Mickey Mouse, Snow White's Pinocchio. But as the times evolved, they figured that the principles could actually be applied to any kind of animation. And they were right today in motion design, we use the exact same principles. So what I've done was to take these principles and translate them into a more motion designing language. And also to place the elements so that instead of using characters, I started using things like shapes and letters and words so that we could relate more to them as motion designers. The best way to learn from this course is to watch each lesson and take a break. Practice what you've just learned, and then watch an X1. So don't just watch these back-to-back. You need to make sure that you understand how these principles work and you should be able to apply them and put them into practice before you move on to the next lesson. With that in mind, let's start the first lesson on timing. 3. Timing: Timing in animation is everything. And I'm not just saying that for the sake of it, it actually is everything. Unless you get your head around timing, you're not gonna be able to create anything that looks interesting or believable. That's why I wanted to start the entire series on the subject of timing. As an animator, we had to think not just in space, not just an X, Y, and Z, but also in the fourth dimension, the time. So we have to think as if time was part of our canvas. Imagine how an illustrator would draw something on a piece of paper. She would have the x and the y dimensions. So she could draw something horizontally. Vertically. If she was illustrating in 3D, she would then have the Z dimension to join as well. That will be the depth. Well, in our case, we had these three-dimensions, the x, y, and zed. Plus we also have the time, the fourth dimension. That's why the software actually it's called Cinema 4D. It's not cinema 3D, it's Cinema 4D, the fourth dimension being the time. So you have to train your brain to think and your eyes to see in time. Let's take a simple example of a bouncing ball. I'm gonna go and create a sphere to start with. And in fact, I'll just go to the front view like that. And let me zoom out from this a little bit. And what I'll do also is to press n And then a, so I can see the shading. I'll also go and set the frame rate of the scene to be 24. So I'm gonna go press Command D and then come down to us as FPS, and then change it to a 2424 frames. A second kinda became the norm for animations. Or if you're doing any animation work, you tend to start working in 24. Of course, a specific job might require you to work in 25 frames per second or 30 frames a second. But a good starting point is 24. Plus it's easier to go to half seconds if you have 24 frames a second. So every 12 frames would be 2.5th. Whereas if you're working in 25 frames a second, you don't really have the option to go to a 2.5th. You either go to frame 12th, which is slightly less than 2.5th, or you go to frame 13, which is slightly more than 2.5th. So 24 frames a second is a good starting point. Now what I wanna do is to get the ball to drop from a height and then it will hit the ground. And it will bounce up and down and up and down. And now maybe the third time up and down. So let's do that. I'm gonna go to the sphere, go to coordinates, and let's go and increase its y. So I'm gonna go to the Y and maybe pushes up. In fact, I can just click and drag this here and just bring this whole thing that way. Maybe I'll start from here. I'm gonna use round numbers to make it easier. So I'm gonna go and set this to 1000 maybe. And I'll keyframes. That's where it's gonna start from. Let's say it takes a second for the ball to fall from here down to here. So I'm gonna go and set this to 0 by right-click monies arrows. Now Keyframing again. And then I'll go forward by one more second. So a frame 48. And this time I'll lift this up by half the height. Let's say we go to 500. Keyframe it. And one more second. Frame, 72. And then drop down to 0 again. And keyframe, I actually wanted one more balance. So I'm gonna go and extend over all time and see from 72, I want to more seconds. So one more second to go up and one more second to go down. So I can simply go here too, so into two and just type in plus 24, that would be one more second. Plus 24. That's two more seconds. And of course I could type in plus 48. And then press enter. That makes it 120. And then I'll go forward by one more second. So that's gonna be frame 96. And then if this up, I can hold down the Shift key as well to keep this moving in five-year increments. Let's say I go up 259, keyframe, it, then come down and then bring this ball back to 0 and keyframe. Now, I'm just gonna go to the beginning and I'm going to press play to see what we have. You see something isn't quite right about this animation. It feels like the ball is on some sort of a weird spring which goes up and down. Let me pause the animation. And I'm gonna open up the f curve manager. So I'll go to we know at the top and then come down towards his timeline f curve. I'll put the scene towards left so I can see what's happening here. And I'm on my timeline up and make a bit more space here so we can see exactly what's happening. Now just so that we can understand how the timing should work. What we could do is to get rid of all of these in-between frames. So all of these curves, I can get rid off and then just see where the ball is on every second. Easiest way to do that is to highlight all of the key frames. And you can do that by selecting one and then pressing Command a to highlight a lot of keyframes. And then up here you can come up to it says step, this is going to change a keyframes that you've highlighted to what's called the step keyframe. An alternative way of doing this would be a right-click. And then he could choose step here. What this does is that it removes all of the in-betweens, the in-between frames, so that I can concentrate more on men exactly. The ball hits the floor and then goes back up and then the floor again. Not to make life easier, I'm gonna go to the Filter menu at the top and turn everything else off except the geometry. So I can just see the sphere and nothing else. And if I just go and play this now I'm gonna go back to the beginning and hit play. Just check where the ball is and when. Now anyone who's thrown anything on the floor before, you'll feel that something's off about this, they may not be able to tell exactly what's wrong, but you'll note that it doesn't feel natural or believable. I'll play this one more time for you. Let's go back to the beginning. It takes 1 second for the ball to drop from this height down to 0. So from here up to here, the ball does nothing. Then it drops. Which is fine, nothing wrong about that. Then it takes another second to go backup. But this has been the issue comes in. If it takes 1 second for it to go from here to here, surely it takes less to go from here to here. So this distance should be a little less because it's traveling less. So I'm gonna click on this key frame and then drag it towards left. If I hold down the Shift key, that will ensure that I can't go up and down, but I'm only going left and right now. So now it's going to take a little less time to go from the ground backup to this halfway point. Let's go and enable everything again. So we can see this motion path. So for it to go from here to here, it takes, it is less than 1 second. To be precise. It takes from 24 to 42. It takes 18 frames, not 24 frames, but 18 frames. So it's a little quicker. Then it can take another 18 frames for it to fall from here back to the floor. So from 42, we can go 18 more frames to frame 60. And this is where this keyframe should be. Knife. It takes 18 frames for it to go from here to here. How long should it take for it to go from here back to here this time? Well, it's going to take a little less now. So I'm going to click and then drag is towards left holding down the Shift key. No, I don't want to use exact numbers because that's usually not what we do when we animate stuff. We look at things and then play them in time and see if they feel OK. If I tell you if the height of the ball is changing by about a half and you had to then go forward in time by about half the duration, but that'll be limiting you. So instead of focusing on natural times and numbers, I want you to pay more attention to how the animation actually feels. So with that in mind, very, so the ball goes from here, two here. Then a shorter period of time has elapsed and the ball goes up. And then we'll come back down again. So I'm gonna go somewhere here. And then pull this keyframe. Shift key while down, so it remains a straight line. Now if I go back and play this, the timing should feel much better now. Now I know it's not the easiest thing to visualize at first. But like I said at the beginning, you have to think in terms of time. The time shouldn't be so symmetrical or repetitive. As the ball goes down, it's going to be quicker. So instead of the ball hitting the top and then the floor, and then the top and the floor in quite repetitive patterns like bum, bum, bum, bum. If you were to change that pattern. So it starts slow, speeds up like bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum. That already sounds like a balance. It's crazy without actually seeing it. You can hear the bounce. So we'll just close your eyes and imagine a ping-pong ball being dropped. And that's the timing that you are going for. If you can crack this and understand how timing works, you'll be off to a great start. 4. Introduction to Slow In and Out: Now that we know all about the importance of timing in animation, let's have a look at what happens in between those frames. Now if you remember, the previous lesson was all about the rhythm of animation. So isn't on frame ten, the object was gonna be here. Then let say unframed 15. It was gonna be down here on frame 20. It'll move back up and down and so on. So we're going to set the rhythm of animation. Now we'll talk about what happens in between those frames. In particular, we'll talk about a concept or principle called slow in and slow outs. You may have heard of this as ease in and ease out as well. Now this will refer to the speed of the objects that move between the key frames. Let me show you an example. So here I have a prop. You may have seen this before too. So this is the Newton's cradle. Now what I'm gonna do is to pull this ball out. And I'm going to let go here without trying to kind of exert any force on to it. I'm going to let go. And you see as soon as I let go, it's going to start picking speedup. So it's not going to start fast because I'm not pushing dominates. It's gonna start picking speedup. And then gradually it will get to its extreme speed. It will then hit this ball. And then as soon as this contact happens, this other ball is going to start abruptly, come up, and then it will slow down. And it will wait here. So there's the hang time. And then it will start coming down, pick speedup, and then push over this one. And then as a result of course, that this one is not going to start moving abruptly out. Wait here where the peak point is, and then slow down and then slowly peak speed up again and then bounce off this again. Let me show you. So I'm going to start pulling this back. And then as soon as I let go, see what happens. Let me stop this. You see how the speed of this ball changes over time. And then as it hits this one, the speed of this one changes over time. And of course, as a result, the speed of this again changed over time and so on. This is what we mean by easing in and out. And I'll show you one more example using a different method this time. So here I have a ball now on a hard surface, a hard platform. When I let go of this bowl, as long as again, I'm not pushing it down. It's going to kind of hang in mid air for a couple of frames, then it will start falling down. So take a look. You see how when I let go of the small, let me just increase the distance between them a little bit, but I'll take off this bowl. It doesn't kind of fall down right away. It can slowly starts picking speedup. That's what we mean by slowing out or easing out. Now once you learn how to control the speed of the objects in between keyframes, you can create all sorts of different animations. On these lessons will actually create a bouncing ball. So we'll have a look at something like this. Or can I drop this ball from a height to this platform and you see how it doesn't just stop. It bounces a couple of times than it slows down and stops. This is the kind of animation will create later on. So here we go. Now that will bounce differently depending on the actual shape of the object and the weights. For example, if I take this golf ball instead, let me move this out the way. If I take this golf ball and try and bounce this, it doesn't bounce. So let me try that again. It's maybe almost a half a bounce and that sits as opposed to a soft object like this, which bounces more. So in this chapter, we will talk about how to slow down emissions down and speed them up in between keyframes so it can create bounces. And the case. 5. Slow In and Out: Now that we know about the importance of timing, let's have a look at what happens in between keyframes. Let's call keyframe interpolation. To show you this, I'm going to create an animation of a coin flipping. So I'll just start with a cylinder or squash it down. Make it a little wider maybe. And I'll add a couple of more segments here so it looks a little nicer. So I'm gonna go to object and add more segments to the rotation may be like that. And what I want to do now is to animate the y position, so it goes up and down. And also the flipping, which is going to be the rotation around the x-axis. That's the pitch. So I'll go to coordinates at the beginning, our keyframe that position. Then go forward by second to frame 24. Increase this. And say we round this off to 300. And then keyframe are then go forward by one more second to frame 48. And then 0 this out by right-clicking on these arrows. And then Keyframing this again. So right now it's just going to go up and down. As this happens, I also wants to rotate. So I'm gonna go back to the beginning keyframe, the pitch, and then go to two seconds cause it will constantly rotate. And I want this to rotate away from us. So I'm gonna go to the pitch, lower this down. Let's say minus 180. And keyframe is again. If I go back and play, this is what we have now. It looks somewhat boring. So let's pause the animation and we'll open up the function curve. So I'm gonna go to the Window menu at the top and then come down to timeline. F curve are Moody's to the side so I can see what's happening. And I'll lift this up as well so you can see what's happening. To start with, let's go and have a look at the position. So I'm gonna go into the cylinder here. And here we had animation for rotation. And the position, I can temporarily switch off the rotation animation by clicking on this filmstrip icon. So it's no longer going to rotate. So if I just play at UCI, just gonna move like that. But I did this on a frame when the rotation was already off. So I'm going to undo this pseudo notation, comes back and then go back to the beginning. So that object isn't rotated anymore. I'll then go back and turn this off. So it stays like that. If I now play, you see it just goes up and down with no rotation. If you remember in the timing lesson, what we did before we did anything else was to highlight all of these key frames and then turn them into step keyframes. So we just blocked animation. So it started at the bottom, then it went up, then went back to the bottom. Now in this case, because we don't want anything to bounce or do anything else, the timing is fine. It takes a second for it to go up and another second for it to come down. That feels fine if I go back and play it in real time. So this is when the coin is flipped, goes up and down. That's fine. But of course, we need to have some frames in between these key frames. These frames in traditional animation are actually called in-betweens. So what I'm going to do is to go and select all of these again. And then I can turn them into linear keyframes. And now you see the value increases. And as it does, the coin of course, goes up. And as it decreases, the coin goes down. So if I go back and play. This is what we have done. This though feels a little awkward for a coin flip. It feels like the coin is on some sort of an elevator being pulled up and then push down. That's why with any animation software, you get the option to convert these into what are called splines. Splines will then give you control over the handles of those curves. So here's what I mean. I'm going to make sure that the keyframes are still highlighted. And I'll go and click on the spline. This is the default behavior of Cinema 4D. So the splines will not create these curves on these lines. And these curves are what you'll be using to make the animation feel a little more believable. If I go back to the beginning and play. This already feels a little better now. So I'm gonna hit play. Now it's not perfect, but it's getting there. The reason why it's not perfect is because I mentioned at the beginning that this was gonna be a coin. And I would put my money into guessing that you're thinking that the coin should go up much faster. Because that's what usually what we think of. When I mentioned a flipping coin, you just have an image in your head of a coin being flipped up. So it starts quite abruptly. Not the reason why it doesn't is because of the curve, you're going the wrong way. So this is how the object starts moving up gradually. This is called ease out or slow outs. It's a principle of animation. You sometimes get objects to ease out. So they start slowly. And then they is in, is in the case here. Or they slow in so that it doesn't just stop. In many cases, this is a desirable thing. If you imagine a car driving off, it would start slowly, pick up speed, and then slow down again. So it slows and slows in. That's not true. In the case of a flipping coin. The coin should start abruptly, so there should be no easing out or slowing outs. So for that, I'm going to make sure on this keyframe is highlighted. I'll then click on the handle and then push this up. So it starts abruptly. So if I go back to the beginning and then play, it starts more abruptly. Now. Now I can exaggerate this. I can click and purchase further up. And now it's even more abrupt. Two, it takes less time for it to go from 0 to, let's say, a 120 or so. If I go back and play is gonna be quite fast at the beginning, you see, I can now go and make this even more gradual by taking this keyframe and extending the handles here left and right. And as I do this, you see I can go up and down or left and right. But if I hold down the command key, that will lock this. So even if I try and go up and down, it doesn't let me. So I'm just gonna hold down command and then just keep dragging is towards left. So it's even more gradual here. And then the hang time here is going to be even longer. So if I go back and play again, that feels more like it. If I go back, play first part feels more natural now, this part also needs fixing. A falling object wouldn't slow down before it hits the ground. If anything, it would pick more speedup. Right? As something keeps falling down for longer, it keeps gaining more and more momentum. So assimilate that by clicking on this and then pushing this up. So the curve is also going upwards that way. So if I now go back and play, it's going to be flipped up fast. Then it slows down as it reaches this apex here. And then gradually it starts falling down, and then it keeps picking speedup. Then it hits the floor again. So if I play, this is what we get. Now position wise, that's working great. Let's go and turn on the rotation animation as well. If I go back and play. Now that animation doesn't quite line up with the position keyframes. Let me select rotation keyframes here. And then press H to center this. You shouldn't rotation starts quite slowly and then picks up speed. And then it slows down again. Well, let's go and exaggerate this. Now right in the middle of these two keyframes will unframed 24. The rotation should be a little more exaggerated. So I'm gonna go and push this towards right, because both of these are highlighted. Now, if I push one to one direction, the other one, this one will be pushed in opposite direction. So if I click and drag is handled towards right, you see the bottom on goes towards left. And if I hold down command, so I can hold this. And if I hold down command that to keep this on a straight line, I can keep doing this. And now when it starts, it won't rotate as much. And then run a bar here, it starts rotating faster, and then it slows down again. As far as rotation is concerned. If I go back and play. Now see how the cylinder doesn't rotate until about here. And then it starts rotating. And most of the rotation animation is actually visible roundabout here. So if I go and play this, you see the cylinder rotates. Then once the rotation is almost finished, it then falls down. Now that's going to be a creative decision. Do and object of flip up and then start rotating. Or do you want to start rotating it as soon as it goes up? Well, if that's the case, I can take this keyframe and push this down. So as soon as the animation starts, the rotation starts. So if I do this, you see the rotation will start changing as soon as we start animation. If I go back and play, starts rotating, the maybe it can be at its slowest here. So the rate of change is the slowest here. And then it just gradually comes down again. If I play this in real time. So you can see, now as you can see, there is a much rotation happening on the way down. So watch again carefully. So most of the rotation happens on the way up. Now can tweet that if I select this, push this up. So there's some more rotation at the bottom as well. If I go back and play again. And if I select this key frame, and then maybe make it go a little more abrupt this way. So it's more like a bell curve here. If I go back and play again, you see the rotation changes as the object goes up. And the rate of change slows down as the object comes down. In the next lesson, we'll have a look at how to apply this skill to create a bouncing ball. 6. Bounce: Now let's have a look at how to combine timing and slowing in and out to create a bouncing ball. So for that, I'm gonna go and start with a sphere. And I'll add a couple more segments to it, so it looks nicer. So I'll go to objects at more segments. And I'll actually do this from the front view like that. And instead of seeing the wireframe, I'm gonna go and press N a to see the actual shading. I'll first go and do some tidying up. What I mean by that is this. When I set the spheres y-coordinate to 0, I want the sphere to touch the ground plane here, the ground plane being this line here. So I'm gonna go to coordinates. And you see as I lift this up, 200, the sphere is just touching the floor because the radius of the sphere is a 100. So if I lifted up by a 100, it just touches the floor. But I want this to be 0 for the sphere. So for that, we can go and freeze the transformations. So I'm gonna go here. If I'd freeze all, it's going to take this 100 and it will send it down here like that. And now as far as the sphere is concerned, 0 means this state, which is going to make things easier when it comes down to making the sphere. The next thing I want to do is to have this y-value visible on the screen. So I'm gonna go and click on this Y and then drag it here. And as long as I had this fear selected, the y-value is going to show up here. Now, if I deselect the sphere, you see that this appears as well. Mike, I don't want that value to disappear. You can select the sphere again. And then right-click on this. And then we'll just show always. Which means now even if I deselected, the value remains visible, which is quite helpful when it comes to automating things. And you can actually use this to increase or decrease the number. So if I click and drag this UC goes up or down, or go and set this back to 0. And I'll just kind of push this down so I can see what's happening. By the way, once you place it here, if you want to update its position, you hold down the command key and then drug. So I can push it here. And I'll zoom out. It is more like that. Here's what I wanna do. I want the sphere to start high up somewhere here. So I'm gonna click and drag this value towards right. That's again, run the software at say 750. And then I'm gonna keyframe it. And it will come down and then I'll keyframe again, it will go up and down, up and down. So at 750, at the beginning, I'm going to keyframe and then go forward, let's say true 2.5th. So 12 frames, set this back to 0. Keyframe again. Go to 1 second 24 frames, instead of going all the way up. Now let say I want it to go maybe this far. And then keyframe again. And then go forward again to frame 36. And then 0. And keyframe it. And let me go to frame 48. Lifted up again. Let's say maybe this far, this time. Keyframe it. And then frame 600 and keyframe. Now to see these key frames, of course I have to have the sphere selected. And you can see, of course they're evenly timed. If I go back and play, this will feel a little awkward. So if it's taking 2.5th for it to go from here to here. It should take a little less for to go from here to here. So I'm gonna go to this keyframe, push this in a little like that. Now keep doing the same for the other key frames as well. So if it's taking only eight frames for it to go from here to here, it can then take eight frames to fall down. So that would be here. But then it should take less for it to go up about half the height. So for it to go up about here, it shouldn't take 20 frames as it does now. So I'm gonna go somewhere here may be and push this one closer to here. And then this of course comes closer to here as well. So for now play this. This feels a little better. But I think overall, it's a little too quick. So I can highlight all of these keyframes by selecting them like this. And I can extend them towards right. So that the whole thing slows down a little. If I go back and play again, is what we should have. Now as a starting point, this is good. I now need to go and open up the f curve manager to tweak the actual bounces. So I'm gonna go to window and open up the f curve manager. As long as the sphere recited, I'll be seeing the values here. Now I want the sphere to start falling down slowly as it does now. So that's good. But as it reaches the floor here, it shouldn't lose speed, right? So shouldn't just come down and slow down before it hits the floor. It should keep gaining more and more momentum. So for that, I'm going to deselect everything. Select only this keyframe to break the handles apart. I'll hold down shift and then push this up. Now, as the sphere falls down, it keeps gaining momentum. Then when it hits the floor, it shouldn't slowly jump up again. It should abruptly changed the direction. So I'm gonna click and drag this one up here as well. If I now go and play this, you should see as soon as we get to this keyframe, you should just hit him bounce up. That feels better. Now if I want this to be a little slower at the beginning. So if I go back, let's say it's just being dropped rather than being pushed down is just being dropped. It can be quite saw at the beginning. So I can highlight this keyframe pushes towards right, holding down the command key so it remains on a straight line. So it's gonna be a little slower at the beginning than it gains momentum and it falls down. So if I play again, and that feels more believable now. And after the first keyframe when it goes backup, we need a bit more hang time here. So this apex would need to be little longer. So if I highlight this, click and drag this one towards left, holding down the command key to keep it straight. I'm now extending the hang time. So it's actually going to look like it's stalls in midair. Then it starts falling down again. So here we go again. I'll play this. And of course the same would need to happen here as well. So if I select this shift so I can break the handles apart, connect this up, sweat gains momentum. And then just drag this up as well. And then increase the hang time here with the command click and drag. And then again, it shouldn't slow down as it reaches this last keyframe. So I'm just going to lift this up as well. If I go back and play. Now that's looking much better. Now, the only thing I think is that this section here is a little too abrupt. So it looks like it's really slamming down. So if I played a section here, you see this part is really fast. You can see no in-betweens from here to here. So it just jumps from here to here. I think it will look nicer if I take this keyframe and their short-term This hang time a little bit. So I give it a little more time to go from here to here so I can see those in-between frames as well. I can take this keyframe and now shift and maybe push this one towards left a little bit. I think that makes it more believable. Now this will be the essence of everything you'll be doing when it comes to creating believable animations. Don't just settle for an okay look. Try and make it look perfect. And that tiny change makes a big difference. So if I was to go and expand this again, this, and this will look very different. Let me exaggerate it so we can see what I'm talking about. So we're gonna go that far and then play this and check the second mouse and how unnatural that fields. It just feels a little strange. It doesn't feel like it actually obeys the rules of physics. I mean, why would it speed up that fast? What happened to all of those in-between frames? Whereas the ball here. So if I go and go back and forth, you see there's no in-betweens there. Similarly, you can have hangs for too long. Well then there are no in-betweens between this and this. I mean, look at the distance it jumps from here to here. So it almost falls down 400 centimeters in one frame. It just doesn't feel right. Whereas if I push us back in to make it a little more gradual, I'll give it more time. So it now jumps from 0 to almost 200, so that's half the distance. I'll play this one last time for you. Now the other thing that doesn't quite work is how the object stops. It feels like the ball needs to keep bouncing a couple more times before it comes to a complete stop. And that's what we'll talk about in the next lesson. 7. Creating Decay: Now that we have our ball bouncing, let's look at how we can create a decay. So it bounces More and more before it comes to a complete stop. Let me move this up. And then I'll just make a little more space here and zoom in. And what I'll do now is to go and get rid of everything except the geometry. So I go to Filter and choose geometry only. So that's all I'm seeing now. I'll put this closer here so I can make a bit more space. Now as you can see, there's a sort of a pattern here. So it kind of starts with a curve, comes down and then a curve again and comes down and then one more curve. And the closer you can follow the pattern, the more believable this will be. Now I can see this middle one. It's almost like a mini version of this first one. Of course, the first one doesn't have the left side because that's where it started from. But if you imagine the right side of this middle one, this curve that resembles this curve here. But this one here is a little wider than the rest. Casey, if also take this in a box and then move it here, that would just not line up. So your aim when it comes to creating decay is to make these curves are similar to each other as possible. As the overall shape gets smaller and smaller. Here's what I mean. You see how this curve is little pointy and this one is a little more flat. I'd make this one also little pointy. So I'm gonna hold down command and then pushes one that way a little bit. So this now resembles more of this shape. And I wanna create smaller versions of this on the right-hand side. Let's say maybe three more bounces. So I could of course go forward at more key frames and then forward again and more key frames. Or I could actually copy and paste these keyframes towards the right-hand side. So first of all, what I want to do is to take this keyframe and then have a copy of that somewhere on the right. But lower it down. Remember the ball is going to lose energy as it keeps bouncing. So I'm gonna hold down command and just drag this keyframe to create a copy of that. As soon as I got past that last keyframe, you see that will create a new curve here. I'll load this down. Maybe there. This will mess up this part of the keyframe, but that's fine. We know how to fix this already. If I leave this as it is, it's actually going to dip down below the floor, which I don't want to go and play this. You see, instead of stopping at this point, it actually goes down, then comes up. So I'm going to select that. And then shift. And the Moody SAP. I want, of course another key frame here. You don't want it to stay there. So I'll hold on command and then drag this. So a critic copy of that. I'll also hold down shift to our Congo up-and-down. So that ensures that the keyframe remains at the zero-point. And I let go. And then I can go and tweak these handles and a keyframes. Remember our aim is to make this curve as similar to this curve as possible. So I'm gonna move this keyframe here. And then maybe make this a little shorter. Select the handle here, make this a little shorter that way maybe. And I can see that this keyframe doesn't look like it's actually in the middle. So I can put this left by one. And then if this one goes left by one, and that feels more like it. If I go and play this, let's see what that looks like. That last part is a little too fast. So I can either slow the whole thing down or can tell it to jump less. I can push this down so it doesn't jump as high. Which means it won't go as fast. I can now of course, select these and then tweak these handles as well. And this one. And then that goes down. Let's play again. That feels fine. I'm going to need to create this a couple more times now. Now of course my time minus 172 frames long. So let me just go and increase this to, let's say a 120. And then I'll just push this suicide. I'll take the last two key frames and then command drag them towards right, holding down the Shift key now as well. So it doesn't move up and down. And I'll push this keyframe here down so it doesn't jump as high. Now I'll tweak the handles as well. So we don't have any overshoots like that. And this one will go down. I can zoom into this by holding onto and then just dragging towards right or up, or grow and shrink this a little more. And then this one can go up a little. And this can also go up that way. Remember, I'm trying to get this curve to look as similar to the previous one as possible. So I'm gonna squash the overall timing here. Ok, that may be and that looks a little better. Let's see what that looks and feels like. So if I go back and play it kinda getting there. And you want to be a bit more precise with how high these ball should go, you can actually make use of a simple trick. Let me show you. I'm going to press hate to see everything. To make this decay work a little better. You can create a fake reference graph, which you can then delete. But you can use that graph to align your keyframes to. Here's what I'm talking about. I'm going to select the sphere and then go to one of the other properties. Let's say the exposition here, keyframe that I'll then go forward to, let's say here. And I want the x to be reduced. So I'm gonna go and drag this down. And then Aki famous. Now the whole purpose of me doing that, let me just now go and select sphere and then press H. The whole purpose of doing that is to create this graph. I can now take this graph and then just put this two here. I'm going to line this up with the beginning here, there. And then take the second on the graph and then drag this down to here. Of course, you can see the x of the object keeps updating and it keeps getting messed up. But I'm really not interested in the X. In fact, I can just go here and then turn off the X animation. But the graph will remain. What I want to do is to create a nice decay here by using the handlers or this graph. So I can select this and then drag this down. So this arrow here that I'm holding needs to be below the graph. And then this one also needs to be below. Now, you don't have to be a 100% precise with this. But if I go and then pushes further down, that's going to be a smoother decay. And decay like this will favor more of the last part of the animation. And you can play around with these. But the purpose here is this. Let me just make this a little smoother. And if I now select both, so I can see the y keyframes as well. I can now try and line up the why keyframes. With this line here. It looks like the last few keyframes are closer than these. So in this case, I wouldn't make the sphere jump as high as it did now. So what I could do is to click on this and then drag it down. So it doesn't jump as high. And this feels more natural of course, cause right now, the starting point is about 750. And after the first bounce, if you want the ball to go half the height, that will be about 375. That ship this, and this is much closer to 375. Of course, I wasn't paying attention to the actual curve. So if I go to this position x, highlight the keyframe. I could lift the satellites with maybe a knife. I go to position y and highlight them both. I can now select this and push it further up. Like I said, it doesn't have to be a 100% precise, but you use this to keep you on track. So there's going to be around here. And this one is going to be on the line here as well. That's fine. And then this one should be on that line. And this one should be on that line as well. I can now create a couple more keyframes. So I can take this command, the drug here, and the nozzle command drag this one here and hold down shift so it remains on the same line. It looks like I may have made a mistake because this one doesn't say 0 anymore. It's just double-check. Let me zoom in. This one is not 0 and this one is not non-zero either. This one is, this one is. So I must let go of the shift key before I let go of the mouse. So that's an easy fix. I can double-click here and just type in 0 and do the same here. Double click and type in 0. And of course 0 this one out as well. Now let's go and fix the handles. So I'll select this, pushes down, select this one, push it down. And then maybe I can get this a little more time. And then this one goes here. And now if I press H, So I can see the entire graph. You see the height keyframes, the y keyframes line up almost perfectly with this decaying graph. Let me go back and play this. I can see that the last part is a little too slow. If I play this again, just check the last balance. That feels a little like it's floating. So that's probably because the distance between these two is a bit greater than the distance between these two. And that's an easy fix. I can just click and drag this towards left, holding down the Shift key this time. And of course this one is double lift as well. And let me zoom in. If I press S, that's going to send to what I've selected. So let me just select all three here and then press S. And now I'm going to click here and then fix this handle. So it's more like a curve rather than a bell. I'm gonna push this up and the same here. So this one goes out. And let me zoom out a little bit. And this one goes up a little. And this one goes left by maybe one more frame and it goes up again. Press H. Let's try this now. Now that feels much better than what we had before. Interestingly enough, if I go and enable the exposition animation. And then we'll decide the way. Go back to the beginning and then zoom out. And if I play this, you see that the ball is going to go from right to left. Let me actually go here a little bit. So as it falls down, it's actually going to go from right to left. Replay. That motion of an arc is something we'll talk more about later on. So for now, autocrine, delete the position x. Let me bring this up here. Select position x and press delete. So I only had the keyframes on position y by selected. Go back and play again. This is what we have. By doing this, you're giving your objects a bit more life and character. So they don't feel as stiff anymore. 8. Introduction to Squash and Stretch: Now that we know all about slowing in and outs, let's talk about the next concept or principle called squash and stretch. Now I will explain this in a lot more detail in the next lesson. But I wanted to keep one thing in mind while you watch. Listen. That is, the name of this principle is squash and stretch. It's not squash or stretch. It squash and stretch. Here's what I mean. So I had the same rule again here. Now when I apply some force on tweets from above and underneath it willing just squash down that way. It will also stretch out sideways. Otherwise, it wouldn't look like it obeys the laws of physics. So if I just go and push this down, you see as it squashes from the top and the bottom, it stretches from the left and the rights. Or if I squash it sideways like this, it stretches up and down as well-known. Otherwise, if you imagine this, say, holding some water or some other liquid, when I press this down, if it doesn't stretch out, letters that excess water go. Or let's say this is a balloon, so it's got some errands and I press dominant, it has to stretch out that way so that air has some space to expand them. Now keep that in mind as you watch next lessons on squash and stretch. 9. Squash Stretch: Now that I will get out against squash and stretch objects. So I'm going to start with a cube. And I'll do the same thing again. Are lifted cube up by a 100 units. So it sits on the floor. And then go to coordinates and then freeze them so that the y reads 0. And now I'll go and create a simple animation. I'll go to the beginning. I'll go and keyframe the Y. Go forward by about a second and then lift us up. And let me run this off to, let's say 700 maybe. And then keyframe again. And then I'll go forward by one more second. And then set this back to 0. And keyframe will now go back and play it. This is what I have. Let's first go into the F curves and then tweak the settings here. An alternative way to get to the F curves is by right-clicking on the value that you want to see in the f curve. And then you go to animation and she'll show f curve. And now what I wanna do, Let me first pushed us to decide. What I wanted to know is to increase the height of this. So it looks like it actually gets kicked up rather than kind of slowly moving up. It'll be quite abrupt. Like that's I'll give it a little more hang time here. So I'm gonna go and expand this with the command key held down so it remains on a straight line. And then it will just slam down so it doesn't slow down as it comes to a stop. You just slums down like that. Let me play this again. This is what it's going to look like now. Now let me make this into more abrupt at the beginning. So I'm gonna go to the first keyframe, pushes even higher and left like that. And I'll try and mimic that on the right-hand side as well. Select that and then lift us up and towards right. So it's going to be a little quicker as it goes up and then slows down. And then there's a bit more of a hang time here, and then it comes back down quite abruptly. So if I go back and play, this is what we have. Now to make this object look a little more believable and add some character and life to it. You're going to start squashing, they're stretching it. Let's see how I'm going to first go and close this. And there's a squash and stretch deform or here. I'll go and add this inside the cube. And then I'll go to object. And then I'll fit it to the parents by clicking this button so that the squash and stretch will go exactly where the cube is. Another thing that we'll be updating here is going to be the factor. If I push this up, it stretches, push it down, it squashes. Well, you see it actually looks like it's being elongated or compressed down. So we don't really have any nice curves going on. That's because the cube doesn't know enough segments. So I'm gonna go to the cube first. And of the segments, let's say to 25 by 25 by 25. And in fact, I'm gonna go ahead and turn on the fillets as well for the edges. Let's go and increase this to, let's say eight. And now if I go to squash and stretch, and as I played with the factor, you see stretches that way and squashes that way. And that looks much nicer. But the other problem is that it squashes and stretches from the center outwards. Now I want this to happen from the bottom of the cube, not the center. So let me first go to the front view so I can see this a little better. And let me zoom out. You see when I squash and stretch both the top and the bottom more art and in, at the same time. So let me first go and set this back to a 100% And I want to get rid of this arrow here. And the shortcut for that is the we want the squash and stretch to start from here. That will be minus 100, right? If the tube is 200 and discussion stretch start in the center. And if you push it down by 100, so that's minus 100, that's going to be at the base. So let me draw the coordinates of the squash and stretch. Come down to y and Lord is down to minus 100. So this is now a discussion straight starts from. The next step is to make sure that the bottom, this one is actually in line with the base here. So I'm gonna go to the object realtor bottom and set this to 0. And then the top, which is this one, needs to go all the way to the top. So I'm gonna go to the top and set that to 200. So if I now go to factor and increases squash or stretch, this is what I am getting now. So the cube always remains grounded. I'll set this back to a 100%. And let's see how we can animate the squash and stretch. Now, I'll go back to the perspective view. And I'll center this by pressing on the keyboard. Let me zoom out a little. Now, as the cube goes up, I wanted to start stretching and then it hits the floor again, it will be squashed. So let me go to the beginning. At the beginning for squash and stretch, I'm going to add a keyframe to the factor. I'll go forward. Now when it reaches the highest point here, the peak point or the apex. Let's go into new territory, original shape. So the cube will start stretching from the beginning up to this highest point. But as soon as it gets to the highest point, it's going to need to have its original form. So let's go and find that point that was unframed 24. And here I want to add one more key frame to the factor at 100%. So it can lock this in place. And now I can go back a little bit. Let's say to about here, frame 16 or so. And then I can increase the factor, so it starts stretching. Now the amount of stretch you have is quite subjective. So just for the sake of argument, let's say we start with a 145%. We can always come back and tweak these later on. I'm going to keyframe this an IOC from frame 0 to frame 16, it will stretch. But when it slows down as it reaches the banks, it goes back to its original form. And at that point it's at a 100%. And then when it comes back down to the floor again, it's going to stretch. And then when it hits the floor, it will squash. So this is when hits the floor on frame 48, It's going to squash it. Let's say we go to say 75%. And our keyframe this. But of course it means a stretch before it squashes. So I'll go back a little maybe around about here. And then I'll just go and increase the stretch again. I'll keyframe this. And now what we have is the normal state, stretched states. The normal state again. And it starts stretching again as it falls down. And from here until frame 48, it starts caution. And then when it hits the floor, it will be squashed. And let's say at this stage I want the cube to jump back again. So this time I'm going to go to, let's say frame 64 or so. Select the cube and then lift it up. And then keyframe, it's y, then just round this number as well to let's say 350. Keyframe. The Y. Go forward again to let say frame, say 76, 0, the salts keyframe again. And then go forward again. And then more this up keyframe it. And then forward again. And then 0 this out and keyframe one's more. Of course, we now also need to go to the f curve manager to update these balances. So if I play this now without anything, this is what it's going to look like. Just feels like a yo-yo. So I'll go to the f curve manager. I'll turn off the squash and stretch for now. In fact, I'll do this when it's not squashed. So let me undo this, go back to the beginning, then turn it off. And then if I pushed us to decide again and then bring my timeline here, and then press, Hey cheers, I can see everything. I can go and update the values now. So I can select this keyframe shift and then will this up. So there's a bounce. And then do the same here, shift up, shift and move it up. And then this one goes up as well. I can increase the hang time as well a little bit that way, so it's a little more symmetrical. And then hire hang time here as well. So this is what we have now if I play that last miles, takes it a little too long. So I'm gonna click and drag this towards left with the Shift key held down. And then this one goes left as well. And a knife I play. Let's see what we have. Okay, so that looks nicer. Now let's see how we can add the squash and stretch to this. Let me enable the squash and stretch. Go back. And I'm gonna open bottle this up. So I'm gonna select the squash and stretch and the cube. So you can see all of their key frames. You can see when the cube reaches the peak point, the squash state is set to a 100%. And that's going to need to be the same for these keyframes as well. So every time the cube is at this point, or this point, the value is going to be a 100%. So let's fix those first. And I'll take this one command and shift and drag it towards right. And a line is up here like that. And then once more, command and drug. But now I had this one selected as well. So let me first Undo, select only this one command and drag and hold down shift as well. So it lines up with this. I also want it to be squashed when it hits the floor. So right now, let me just zoom into this one. Right now you can see this is set to 75%. So that's the scorched state. As I go up. It's going to go back to its original form. But we're missing the stretch where, if you remember, let me zoom out. You're going from a 100% to a stretched value of a 145. So the Cuba stretching out. Then it was coming back to a 100% than stretching out again. And now going from this value, this value, we need to have another stretch state. So if I go forward somewhere around here, The Cube needs to be stretched again. Are stretched. Well, I don't know, we'll see. So let's just go and take this from here with the command key towards right. And let me zoom in. I'm going to increase this a little bit to go higher than a 100%. So it's stretched. Again. This one keeps getting affected because it's selected. So I'm going to Undo, select this one only and then lift it up. Now I don't want this to be stretched as the previous one here. So the previous one was set to 145. This can be a little less than that. Let's say maybe right about here, one-to-two. If I play. You see it goes from the original shape at the top. Two stretched. And it starts crashing down. And it's squashed. And then start stretching again. And then starts going down to on the person. And then from here it needs to start stretching again. So I can take this keyframe is stretched version. Drag this towards right with the Shift key so it remains on the same line. And if I play you see it start stretching again. And then at this point, it needs to be squashed. Squashed. I don't know, we'll see. So we probably don't want this to be that squashed. So this is 75. So on this squash here to be a little less than that. So I can select this one command and drag it here with the Shift key, so remains on the same line. So that's 25%. And then the selected, so I can select on this one. I can lift this up a little bit so it's not as squashed. So in effect, we are creating a decay here as well, this time for the squash and stretch effect. So if I go back, his stretches squashes again, then start stretching again. From here, it starts squashing down. It doesn't of course, quite as much dark because it's not falling from as high. And then it will go to its normal state again. And then maybe from here, I can get this to stretch a little bit. So I can select this one command and drag it towards right, maybe up a little bit. So it stretches it little bit. But then when it reaches the last key frame, here, I can get that to be a 100%, so it no longer squashes or stretches. So can command, drag this one once more to line up here, and then double-click and type in a 100%. So when I press H, this is what the graph looks like. So if I go back and play it once so you can see what it looks like. And that in essence is what squash and stretch is about. We can of course make some more adjustments to the graph of the squash and stretch. Maori not the values, and they're in the right places. I can change what happens in between those values or keyframes. So let's see how. Let me first select this keyframe here. So I can see it's handles. Now what I wanna do is as the cube starts going up, I want this to start stretching quicker because the cube jumps up quite quickly, right? So it doesn't slowly leave the keyframe. It jumps up quite abruptly. So on the stretching to happen quite abruptly as well. So let me select justice, squash and stretch, and then press H So I can see the keyframes here. I can select the first keyframe. I can get this to start a little more abruptly like that. If I go back and play, you see as soon as it goes up, it starts stretching up. Let me undo this by pressing command said this before, and I'll redo by pressing command y, this is after. And then here, there could be some hang time here as well. So if I select this command and drag this towards right, so it takes a little longer for it to take its original shape back like that. And at this stage, it started stretching again. And I think that happens a little too quickly now, you see it starts stretching before it actually starts falling down. So I can select this keyframe. I can slow down that stretching by dragging this towards right with the Shift key so it doesn't affect the one on the left. I'll also hold down command so it doesn't move up and down like this. So now it's taking a little longer for to start stretching. If I go back, squashes. And now it starts stretching around about here. And then it reaches it's highest stretched point here. I can get this a bit more time here as well. Now if I play, this is what we are going to get. And I'll do the same here as well. So I'll go here. It starts squashing and little too early I think here. So I can actually select this. Let me zoom in. And then I'll hold down shift and just drag this towards right and the command key. So it doesn't squashes quickly. So it starts squashing a little more gently now. Then it squashes, then goes back up. I'm gonna give this a bit more hang time here as well. And now here, before it starts falling down properly again, it starts stretching Lucy. So I'm going to get this to be a little longer as well like that. And this stretch here is that if a too early, I think, so it can actually pushes towards right with the Shift key, so it remains on the same line. That's looking better now. But it's still, I think, stretches a bit too quickly. So I'm gonna push this a little more towards right. And then maybe expand this a little more. And then here start stretching. And then it starts question. And then the final ones here will be a 100%, slightly more stretched and back to a 100%. And I'll press hate to see the graph. And then go back to the beginning and play it and see what this looks like. But before I play, I'm actually gonna go and turn everything else off. So let's go to Filter geometry only. So we can concentrate just on the geometry here. So here we go. The only thing I don't quite like about this is the fact that it looks like it actually stops and waits for it to be stretched around the bar here. So it goes back quite quickly to its original form. And then after a couple of frames it starts stretching again. Now if you watch that section carefully, you'll see what I'm talking about. Just keep an eye on this section here. So there's a bit of a kind of repeat action here. So it kind of goes back to its original shape and then stretches again. Not to avoid this, I can smooth out these curves a little more. So I select this and then pushes towards left with the command key. And then this one goes left as well as a bit with the command key. And then this can be extended that way with shifting commands to I'm only affecting the left-hand side and keeping this on the same line. So there's less of an abrupt change here. So let's see. If I go back and play. Now that feels much better. Now, it doesn't feel as abrupt because I actually increased the hang time down here. Let's try that again. I think that feels much better now. 10. Introduction to Anticipation: Now that we know about Squash and Stretch, let's talk about the next important principle than animation called anticipation. Now use anticipation to prepare the viewer to what's coming next. So there's less of a surprise or shock elements and more of an expectation or anticipation. Think of, let's say throwing something. You can just throw it. It first, pull your hand and your arm back, then throw it. So that pulling back part is the anticipation. Here I have a drawing actually from this needs, so this is an original Disney drawing. And you can actually see this anticipation even in drawings. If you look at Donald here, you can see it's actually hammering something in, but you can see the backwards motion so that the hammering is expected. For example, let's say if I take this hammer here, so I have my own hammer here as well. If also hammer something in, I wouldn't just start like this and then just go down. I'll first go up, then go down. So it is going up. Action is the anticipation. Then suspicion is usually an opposite action to what you'd be creating next. So if you're going to run towards left, it first gonna move yourself towards rights, then run lifts. If you're going to jump up, it first go down almost like a coil, kind of collecting power or energy, then you'd shoot up. If you're going to throw something, you'd go back first, then throw it. Or if you're gonna hammer something, it pulled the hammer up than Islamic bone. And that's the concept we'll be talking about in the next lesson. 11. Anticipation: When you create an animation, at some point, you'll be required to make a decision between shock and anticipation. Shock with an effect of an abrupt change and it would catch the viewer of God. There is anticipation that prepared viewer for what's coming next. Even if this is done on a subconscious level, the viewer will expect something to happen after the initial animation. Let me show you what I'm talking about. I'm gonna go and create a cube again. And just like before, I'll set the why of this to a 100 and then freeze the transformations. And I'll animate the cube just like we did before to jump up. Let me go and keyframe easier. And I'll go to, let's say 2.5th. And then mod q up, let's say, to 400. And then keyframe again. And then go forward by 12 more frames and then put this back down to 0. And keyframe again. I'll open up the f curve manager by right-clicking and then bringing this up. Let me push this to one side. The property here doesn't show up. If this ever happens, just make sure that you go to View and then come down to automatic mode so that things that are keyframe that will be visible in this view. Otherwise you'll have to manually drag the values in here. I'm gonna press H, and I'll do the same again, our first, select the keyframe and give it an abrupt jump like that. I'll increase the hang time, holding down the command key. And I'll make it fall quite abruptly as well. Like that's if I play this animation we have now. Now this happens a little too quickly. Let me actually increase the height of this soil. Let me zoom out from this. And I'll get the cube to bounce up more. So I'm gonna click and drag this up, holding down the Shift key. So it remains on the same line here. Let's say it goes to about 800 and come down here. And if I now play it is what I have. I'm going to increase the hang time a little more by clicking and dragging this out with the command key. And then I'll make these slightly higher up. So the start and end are both a little more abrupt. Like that's and I'll put this again for, you know, what I mean by shock factor is that it just starts abruptly. Let me pre-stage to center this again. You see at the beginning it's set to 0, so nothing happens and right away it just jumps up. But if you want the viewer to have some clue to what's going to happen next. You normally create an opposite action before the first one starts. In this case, and opposite action might mean that the cube goes down first before it jumps up. This can be done in a couple of different ways. For example, if I select the first keyframe, I can actually dip this down like that. So before the cube goes up, it actually dips down first for a few frames. So here's what that's going to look like. Now, that's a little too quick, so it's hard to see. So let me slow this down by clicking and dragging is towards right. So I'm giving this more time to go down than up. Here we go. It's still a little too abrupt. So let me slow down the entire animation. So I'm gonna zoom out from this. And one quick way of changing the speed of an animation if it has more than two key frames is by using the region tool. This tool can be found on the edits region tool, or R is the shortcuts. I can now highlight a region or a range like that. And then it will give me a bounding box like it does in a program like Photoshop. I can now click an extended sideways like this. And that keeps the relative distance between the key frames is same, but it extends or slows down the animation. I'll press R to come out of this, and I'll play this again. You see how the cube dips down first before it jumps up. That's what we mean by anticipation. Now, anticipation can be created in many different ways. You can get the object to go in the opposite direction, like we just did here. Or if you want, in this case, you could actually squash the object as well. So let's say for example, there was a floor there and it couldn't go below the floor. Well, in that case, you can just squash the object, then it shoots up. So let's look at how that's done. Let me first go and get rid of this curve here. So I'm gonna click and drag is backup. So there is no anticipation or undershoots. I'm gonna come down here and play again just to confirm that. So yes, it starts quite abruptly. What I'm gonna do is to silicon all these keyframes, push them towards right with the Shift key held down, so it remains on the same line. My, let's say maybe six frames or so. So that gives me enough time to create anticipation. So I'm gonna go to the beginning. I'll get the cubed to squash now. So for now, I'll just go and close this. Get my squash and stretch. At the studio cube. Go to object, fit to parents. And just like before, I'll set the top 200. That's the height of the cube. Bottom to 0. And I'll actually move the squash and stretch down with the Shift key held down so it moves down by 100 exactly. So that when I increase or decrease the factor you see, you just happens from the base. I'll undo that. I'll add more segments to the cube and select the Cube. Go to segments. Let's say we go to five by 25-25 and maybe turn to fill it on as well. So the edges are nicer. And then increase this to, let's say five. What I have now is six frames for us to create anticipation. So I'll go to squash and stretch. I'm going to start at 0. At the beginning. I don't want any squashing or stretching to happen. So I'll just go and keyframe the factor and then go forward to, let's say frame for others questions a little bit. I'll keyframe it. Then I'll go to frame six. This is when the cube starts jumping. And then set this back to a 100%. If I plate now, this anticipation, now, of course we can open up the graph editor for this as well. So if I go and right-click animation F curve. And now we can tweak the function as well. So how does it squash? So we can see here, it starts crashing like that. And then as you can see with this graph, it slows down before it reaches this last keyframe. Now I don't want it to keep slowing down. If it does, it will then look as if it's just going to stop. Now, I want that to continue. So I'm going to click and then drag this down. So it's a bit more of an abrupt shift into that key frame. So it doesn't ease in or slow into their keyframe anymore. So if I go back and play again, that gives it more energy, that gives it more character. And this prepares the viewer to what's going to happen next. Let me stop this. If I want this to squash more, I can go here. And then there's simply Lord is keyframe down, click and drag it down. And you see the lower discourse, the more squashed this will be. But apart from that, the rest of the animation will be the same. If I go back and play again, this is what we have. Now this particular animation feels like it needs more squash and stretch, especially when the QC jumps up. So we'd like to see that stretching. And then when it comes down again, it should squash again, just like we did in the squash and stretch lesson. And I'll leave that for you to create. And it's important to remember that it's not just a question stretch that you use to create anticipation. You could use any opposite action to create anticipation. Let me show you one more example. I'll come out of all of this. I'll create a new scene by pressing command and then go and credit cube. I'll go to the front view. I'll lift the cube up. I'll go to coordinates. Looks like I went a bit too far. So I'm gonna go and set this to a 100 freezer transformations. And what I wanna do now is to rotate the cube from this corner. So it will rotate this way. So imagine there's a little pin here and then a cube you rotate from here towards their, well, let's do that. I'm gonna go and create a null. Put them all to one corner like that. I'll go and call this left pivot. And I'll put the cube inside the left pivot. So when I rotate this, I'll get my rotation tool. When I rotate this cube is going to rotate from. And let's say this is the animation I want to create. I want this to go from here, bang here. So how do you create anticipation for this? Well, if you remember what we talked about earlier, you'd rotate this in opposite direction, but it would work now would it, if I click and drag this, this way, might rotate down. Now the opposite rotation action for this would be a rotation from this corner. So for that, we'll create another node. I'll go create one more nl. Put this one to this corner. Although I'm going to rename this to be right pivots. And I'll put this left pivot one inside the right pivot. So if I now go to left pivot and rotate this, that's what I'm getting. And if I rotate the right pivot, this is what I am getting. So let's now go and animate this. First, I'm going to set my frame rate to be 24 by pressing command that D. And then here FPS goes to 24. Let me also press N and a so I can see the actual shading. And eventually the animation I'm gonna create is this going from here to here. So the anticipation would be to first located in opposite direction. So I'll go to the right pivot at the beginning of the timeline are keyframe, the banking, this is animation I want to create. This is the banking that I'm going to animate. So I'm gonna go and keyframe this at the beginning. And then go forward, let's say by eight frames. I'll rotate this that way. Let's say by maybe 25 degrees. And then keyframe again. And then go forward by eight more frames. And then set this back to 0 and keyframe it. So that this is animation we have now. So it goes from 0 to 25 degrees and then back to 0 again. And then at this point, I can get the left pivot to start rotating. So I'm gonna go to the left pivot. I'm on the 16th frame, which is the time and the last key frame of the right pivot was created. So I'll go back to the left pivot, keyframe, the banking, and then go forward to that, say frame 32. And then I'll just click and then drag this down. So it goes minus 90. And I'll keyframe again. So far, this is the animation we created. And although it doesn't look perfect, it's getting there. I'm going to need to go and open up the f curve manager now. So I'll just go to Window F curve. Let's first start with the right pivots. If I select the right pivot, press H So I can see everything initially. Let me first again put this towards left. Initially, what I want to do is throw to take some time to go from here and rotate backwards. So I'm going to slow this down like that. If I play, you see that's going to be a little slower now. It's almost like it's breathing, it goes, then it starts rotating. So I'm gonna select this and give it a bit more hang time. So let's see what that looks like now. Of course, when I do this, I want this to be a bit more for Islam. So right now it slows down as it reaches this keyframe here. So we can see the cucumber slows down as it reaches this one. I don't actually want that. I want the cubed again, more momentum. That's the whole purpose of creating this anticipation so that the cube can go back and I should forwards. So this keyframe here actually represents true keyframes. If I said it left pivot, that's the first key frame of rotation B of the left pivots. And it's also the last key frame of rotation B of the right pivot. Where if I have them both selected like that. I can now click and drag this up. And you see the other side gets affected as well, so that action feels a bit more continuous. So I'll get this one to be little more abrupt here. So it doesn't kinda slow in, but it's slums down. So if I now go back and play and see what this looks like. Now I think that this could be a little quicker. So I'm gonna hold down shift to break these two apart. We can just expand this. So this section starts a little more abruptly. Let's see. And I can still see that there's a bit of a pause here. So between this and this is a bit of a pause. I actually went the wrong way. And he this to come down this way so that this line kind of continuous smoothly. So if I go back and play, now that feels a lot more natural and seamless. So the transition going from this rotation to rotation is a lot more seamless now, because this line here continuous seamlessly. So if I go back and play this one more time. But the other problem here is that it's going to slowing down a lot. So I'm gonna take this last keyframe, squashes in with the Shift key held down so it remains on the same line. And then I'll just go and push this up as well as a bit. Let's see what this looks like. So it's more of a slum at the end. So I'll play that again from the beginning. So it's as if it's got some weight attached to it. Let me now come out of all of this. Go to the perspective view and then play this from here. Now, I'm gonna go to the beginning. So although we didn't use squash and stretch for this, we still managed to create anticipation. As you can see, there are tens or different ways of creating anticipation. You will all depend on what you're animating and how 12. Introduction to Follow Through and Overlap: Now we'll talk about a concept and principle called follow-through and overlapping action. The idea is this. Imagine a character running around. And as soon as the character stops, not all parts of the body stop at the same time. Say for example, the feet would be stuck on the floor, but then the upper body would continue to swing forward and then come back. This going forward motion is called follow-through. So the motion actually follows what the feet did a couple of seconds ago. The overlapping action is when multiple parts of the body animated at the same time in different ways. Let's say for example, as the body moves forward, if the head is turning that way a little bit, those two actions would overlap. And that's what we mean by overlapping action. Now when we apply these two motion design, it will be something like this. So I take this ruler and I want to swing it up and down. And at some point I want to stop this swing at this level. So I'm gonna go down and I'm going to try and stop it here. Now, as soon as I try and do that, you'll actually have to go past this point that way. So there's a follow-through and then we'll come back up. So here's what it will look like. Now this is not so much of an elastic rulers. Thats why it doesn't follow through as much. But you can still see that there's some kind of going down and up motion here. So I'll do this again for you. So what's happening is that it's going down, up, down, up, and then eventually it stops. So there's some decay as well. That's what we'll be talking about in the next lesson. 13. Follow Through and Overlap: And now we'll talk about another really important concept in animation. Follow through an overlap. The best way to visualize this is to think of a balloon attached to a piece of string. When you pull the string to one side, the balloon doesn't just tag along. It takes a little while for the balloon to catch up. That particular effect is called follow-through. You can think of it almost like a drug. So it can kind of push the string to one side. Wait a second, Warsaw, and the balloon follows it. And when you stop moving the string, the balloon keeps on traveling and it goes past the strings and point, and then comes back again. And then perhaps goes back and forth, back and forth. And that would be overlapping action. Let's see how that would work in practice. So I'm going to start with a cube again. This time I'll make the cool little taller. So to scale the whole thing down and then maybe make the cumulative taller that way. Let me zoom out. Make even taller maybe like that. And I'll go to the cube and I'll use round numbers again. So the size I'm gonna set this to, let's say that one's going to be 110. This is 800. That's 110 again. Again, just because I like the look of it on the Grand Tour and affiliate on. And then add more filler here, let say three units. Now I want this elongated cube to be above the ground level. So I'm gonna go to the position here and then set the y to 400 because the height was 800 and I set that to 400. That sits exactly on the floor here. Next, I want to animate its exposition. So I'm gonna go and get it to start from here. Let's say maybe 1150. And I can keyframe decks and then go forward to, let's say frame 16. And then pushes towards right. Let's say maybe 1750. And then keyframe again. So if I go back and play, this is what we have now. I'll open up the f curve manager by right-clicking and then go into animation. And there show f curve. And I want the easiest here to be a little more gradual. So I'm gonna go and select both of the keyframes. And I'll extend these inwards by holding down the command key. So I come up and down like this, like that. If I go back and play, this is what I have now. Right? So this is a simple animation where we just adjusted the ease in and ease out. And what I wanna do now is to add some follow-through and overlapping action. So I'll close this. The whole purpose of follow-through is to give the illusion that not all parts of the object move and stop at the same time. So let's see how we can simulate that. I'm gonna go and add the band, the former here. So I'll select the Cube hold down shift so I can create this. And as soon as I created the Shift key held down, that's going to make this a child of the cube like that. And I'll select the band and then go to object. And I'll fit to parents here. So if I just go make a bit more space here, is fit to parents, I'm going to click. So the band is the same size as the cube. So when I go and adjust the strength, you see the cube will start bending. It doesn't quite band of course, because it doesn't have enough segments. So I'm gonna go to the cube again and add more segments to the y like that. Now if I go to bend and if I play around with the strength, I can bend it that way or that way. So I start at the beginning at 0. So I'll push the play head back and bring this towards the center here. I'm gonna keyframe is at the beginning at 0. And then go forward to, let's say maybe here. And I'll decrease the strength. So it bends towards left. By how much? Well, I don't know. It depends on how elastic you want this to look. So I'm going to maybe go for something like minus 50 that are Keyframing again. I'll then go forward and find when this actually stops. It stops here. And I'm just double-check if I go to the Cube that was on the 16th frame, right? So I'm gonna go back to the band. And the mood is in opposite direction, like that to plus 50. And we'll keyframe is as well. If I now go back and play is what we have now. Now it's a good start, but we're not done yet. I want this to wobble a little bit. So you've created the follow-through now. So if I go back and play, you see it starts moving, but the top part starts catching up a little later. And then when it stops moving and top part keeps on going so overlaps. But I want to create a decay effect. So it keeps going back and forth, back and forth until it settles. So I'll go forward a little more. And then the first one went by minus 50. So the next one should be little less than that. Let's say maybe minus 38 or so, or keyframe is as well. And then I'll go forward again. And then this one will go a little less than 38 now in opposite direction. So maybe plus 25 foresaw. And keyframe again, and then go forward again. And this one will be little less than 25 this time in the negative direction. So maybe minus 15 or so keyframe that then go forward again. This was minus 17. So I'm going to push this towards right, making sure that it's less than 17, let's say maybe nine, keyframe, maybe two more. So I'll go here. So let's say maybe minus four keyframe, then forward again, and then 0's out. And then keyframe. If I now play this, this is what we have. And this is what we mean by follow-through and overlap. It feels like not all parts of the object moves at the same time. And that's what we want to achieve. So I'm gonna stop this playback and go back. And I'll open up the f curve for the strength or right-click and bring them up. Now you can see as soon as I play this, the cube starts bending. Let's delay that by a couple of frames. I'm going to click and then drag is towards right, and then hold down the Shift key so it remains on the same line. Maybe I'll drag this by two frames. So it starts bending towards left after the second frame. So it has some time to catch up. Then it starts bending. I'm gonna move this out the way first and then lift it up. And what I wanna do now is to increase the hang time series as well. Just like we normally do for bounces or other sorts of animation, I'm going to increase the hang time year as well. So it's not as abrupt. You can see the band starts going in opposite direction at this point in time. So it's almost as if the top part of the object prepares itself to stop. But it shouldn't really know that it's going to stop until it does stop. So I'm gonna slow that down by increasing the hang time here, by dragging is towards right and holding down the command key like that. So it doesn't bend backwards as much until it gets to about here. So if I now go back and play, it still kind of bends towards left. Then it starts bending towards right. And then after a few frames, it actually stops, and then it starts bending in opposite direction. I'll do the same here as well. I'll increase this hang time like that. Let me bring this back down. And then in fact, I'll do it for these as well. So I'm kind of softening the back-and-forth bounce like that. So if I now go back and play, let me zoom back out from it so we can see what's happening. Let me stop the playback. And final touch we can add to this would be to get the actual object to wobble left and right as it stops. So as you get the top part of the object to bend with these keyframes. Like that, we can actually get the bottom to going to tilt left and right as well as if it's going to tip over. So that can be done in quite a few different ways. You could, of course, go and animate the rotation. There's a quicker way if I select the band objects and if I bring it down a little bit like that, so it starts bending object from here. And the result is going to be this. Now, you see the bottom starts trembling a little bit as well. Or if I do this by pressing command said, I can get rid of this. I came not to bend and increase its wine size. So it extends up and down at the same time. So both options would be fine. And if I now play, you see it's going to start affecting the bottom as well. So it's not so stable at the bottom anymore. So if I zoom in, you see when it rocks back and forth, the base isn't a stable anymore. If you were to exaggerate this, for example, if I go here and then push this further, you see the bottom starts tilting even more. I'm going to undo that. And I'll zoom out. And in fact, what I think would be better is if I select the band and then push this further down. So it rocks back and forth from the base alittle more. So if I go back one last time and then reframe and play, this is what we should have. The whole animation is a little too quick, I think. So I'm gonna open up my f curve manager again. I'll select everything and then press H So I can see all the keyframes of Empress are, and then draw a region like that. So it horizontal key frames. And then I can simply extend these to slow down the whole animation. Let's see what that looks like. I think that's looking better. And I'm just going to turn everything off except the geometry. And this is what the final animation looks like. Remember to use follow-through and overlap when your objects have appendages. This could be ears of a dog, arms of a person, or maybe some abstract elements that follow your shapes. Moving appendages that belong to one object at a slightly different time than the object itself will create a more visual interest. 14. Introduction to Exaggeration: The next principle we'll talk about is exaggeration. Now exaggeration is something that we use to amplify or 45 to action. We've already animated. It's not something that we use a lot in real life, although you may be exaggerating things a lot as well in real life, so keep it aside. But in animation, it's quite an important subjects. You exaggerate actions and overdo them a little bit to make them more impactful and obvious. Let's say for example, you're going to throw something. Now instead of going to pulling your hand back and then throwing it, which is fine. So this is anticipation and then this is the action. If you exaggerate and pull your hand and your arm all the way back, then throw. So you exaggerated, it's going to have a lot more impacts. Or let's say you're going to hammer something down. So if you have a hammer, you can anticipate the action than slam dammar down. Or you can exaggerate the anticipation by going all the way back, that slamming it down faster. So you exaggerated action. And that's going to have a lot more of an impact. And that's what we'll talk about in the next lesson. 15. Exaggeration: Sometimes we need to exaggerate things in animation. Not to make them look more realistic, but to make them look more believable. And that's usually the key. You're usually not trying to make things look realistic. Your goal is to make the animation as believable as possible. There's a fine difference between making it look realistic and believable. And by making it look believable, you'll be able to convey your message much more easily. That way, the viewer will be able to relate more to the animation. An exaggeration helps a lot. Let's see how in some cases, like in this case with the squash and stretch example we looked at earlier than SQL and plate is to remind you what this was like. This is what we created earlier. In some cases like this, you need to go and tweak the keyframes one-by-one. Then just going up and up the squash and stretch factor in f curve manager. And I'm just put this to one side. Now, first of all, what I want to do is to make the whole thing move a little faster. So I'm gonna go and select everything. So actually want the cube to be visible here as well. So I'll go to View and choose automatic mode so I can see everything that's been key framed. I'll then press H to center everything. And then put this here, press R to get my regions rule. And I'll create a region of selection like this. So it can squash the whole thing towards left. So the entire animation is much faster now. So if I play, this is what we have. Are stop this and press R again to come out of the region tool. And now what I wanna do is to select these keyframes where the squash and stretch happen. So for example, here. And I want to exaggerate this. I'm gonna click and drag this up. You see it stretches more. And then when it comes down. And so be quick now on that go in. And then maybe lower this down a little bit like that. So it's a bit more subtle. And then when it stretches again, I wanted to stretch more. So I'm gonna click and drag this up as well. And maybe I can push this keyframe towards left a little bit. So this step isn't as extreme. So I'm gonna click and drag this left with the Shift key held down like that. If I play this, you see we're stretching that much more now. And this happens electrode two quick as well. So let me just slow this down by clicking here and then giving us a little less of a hang time like this with the command key held down so it's in a straight line. So let's see that again. Squash might be exaggerated as well. So if I select the squash keyframe, push this down, you can see I'm squishing it more here. And then it will stretch again higher by clicking and dragging this up. For a play. That's what we have now. Now this is one example of exaggerating. Let's have a look at the animation we created for follow-through and overlap. So I'll press V to bring up my heads-up display, come onto projects and go to my follow-through and overlap animation. In this one, we have the strength of the band that's been animated. And if I go and play this, just to remind you, then just Mozart, the way this is what we had before. Now relatively speaking, this is a much easier animation to create because it's got fewer keyframes to start with. Competitive previous example, here, we have a ton of different key frames that we need to tweak. This is when you do it manually. Whereas if you go back to this animation where you have just a few key frames like this, we can actually use the region tool to your advantage. Because really all we want to do is to increase the high ones even higher and decrease the low ones even lower. So if I go back, I, but now what I'm gonna do is to zoom out a little bit and then create a region around all of these keyframes. By pressing R again, instead of selecting the keyframes one-by-one, of course, and then moving them up manually. I'm going to draw a region like this. And I'll move this one up so that the higher ones go even higher. And then I'll move this one down. Let me make it a bit more space here. And I'm on the stone. And when I'm also checking is that these remain at 0. So there's no band at the beginning or the end. Now if there is, that's easy enough to fix. But now that I've exaggerated this, let's see what this looks like. Let me zoom out and play. Let me do this even more. So I'm gonna push this even higher than just go to one of these frames. I can see the band alot more than push us up. And now one of these frames, when it's bending backwards, I'll push this down. So here it's banding really far and then bans in opposite direction, redefine as well. So let's play that again. Let's take this up by one more step. So I'm gonna zoom out a little more here. And I'll go to one of these frames. I'll push this further up. It's almost touching the floor here. There, but not quite. And then on the previous band in backwards, I'm gonna get this to bend even further towards left, like this as well. So it's really exaggerated. If I go back and play is what we have now. And now it might make sense to slow down the entire animation, because the whole thing is happening a bit too fast now. So I'm gonna go to cube here. And since it doesn't show up here, I can go to View and choose automatic mode. So I can see the key frames of the cube as well. And I'll make a bit more space for this and then press H So I can see all the key frames. And then I'll draw a new region by doing this. And I'll zoom out a little more. And I'll push this toward right. If I now go back and play this animation we have now. Now the only problem I think is that it's taking a little while for it to start bending. So if I now go back to the beginning, you see for the first five frames or so, not much is happening in terms of bending. That's because we've kind of stretched all of these out this way. Now that's an easy fix. I press R to come out of this region tool. I select the first keyframe here where the band starts and then drag this towards left with the Shift key held down so it remains in place. So it may be start on the first frame rather than frame 0. And of course, if you remember this and the last one will need to be set to 0. So I can double-click here, type in 0, and then double-click here and set this to 0 as well. So there's no bend at the beginning or no band at the end. So if I go back and play now, this is what we have. Let me now go and turn everything off except the geometry. And watch this once more. So we stay true to laws of physics, but we present them in a more exaggerated way for better visual appeal. 16. Introduction to Arcs: Let's now talk about arcs. Now in real life, almost everything with a few exceptions, of course, moving arks rather than straight lines. So unless the objects or mechanical, like a robot or a machine, their motions are going to be arc like emotions. So when I'm moving my hand around like this, you see all the motions are following an arc. And we actually adopted this in animation as well. Say for example, you're going to animate a bowl that jumps from here to here. You see how my fingers were actually following an arc as well. So I didn't go from here to here. And then I actually went from here to here. And that's what we'll be creating as well. So instead of following a straight line going from here to here. And then two here will be quizzing an arc motion to go from here all the way down to here. That's what the next lesson is going to be about. 17. Arcs: Almost everything in real life moves in arcs or circular parts. They don't move in straight, linear lines, like machines or robots do. So in order to create some realism or believability and integrate arcs in our emotions as well. Let's see how we can do it. So I'm gonna start with a simple cube again. And I'll also create a couple of platforms for descriptive sit on. So I'm gonna go and create a cylinder. Maybe make this a little wider and shorter. And I'll add more segments to the cylinder. So it looks nicer. And I'll select the cube and then lifts up above the cylinder. Now to work out, let me undo this first to work out how high this should go. I can select the cylinder, take the heights, and divide this by true. Well, let me just simplify this now. So I'm gonna go and set it to 20. So if I go to the cube and lifted up by ten plus the half of the height of the cube, which is a 100. So if I now go to coordinates, increases to a 110, they should do the trick. So if I click and drag this up, hold down the Shift key until it reads 1-10. That's now sitting exactly on that platform. And on this 110 to be the new 0 for the cube. So I'll go and freezer transformations and then select the cylinder and create a copy of this on the site by command, dragging it towards rights. Let's say there. And I'll bring it down as well a little bit. Let's say that far. And our task now is to get the cubed to jump from here to here. So I'm gonna do that by going to the cube first and then creating a keyframe, let's say on frame 12. So I don't want anything to happen to the tube until frame 12th because maybe later on we could use this first section, the first half a second as the anticipation area. So I'm going to start animation from frame 12th and then go and keyframe the x and the y of the cube. And then go forward to frame 24. So a 2.5th. And then push this right, let's say by about 525 foresaw. And then lifted up. So it's jumping, let's say by maybe about 350. And then keyframe these again. And then go forward by 12 more frames to frame 36. And then pushed us further towards rights. And down there. And I'll keyframe is again, if I just go and play this, this is what we have now. As you can see, it doesn't look very interesting. And there are two main reasons for that. First, the splines on the graph or the f curve. The second reason is that this path, the motion path here, doesn't look like an actual arc. It looks more like a linear shape here. So let's see if we can fix this. So I'm gonna go to the y, right-click than Animation. And I'll show the f curve. And the first thing I want to do is to increase the hang time a little bit. And by doing that, I'm going to be able to increase the curvature of this. So if I select this keyframe here, and as I expand this sideways by holding down the command key so it remains on the same line. You can see how I'm turning this more into an arc. So this is before. So it's sharper. And now it's after. It's smoother. Another thing we can do is to go as smooth this out as well. So this looks more like a linear line again. So I can select the first keyframe and then click and drag this up so I can curve that'll tomorrow as well as you can see. And last keyframe as well. If I select this, if on distributor smoother as well, I can push this one up like that. So now as far as the y section is concerned, this is working fine. So this looks more like an art than it did before. So if I go back and play, so that's more like an OK. Now, however, you may have noticed that the first section here happens a little quicker than the second section. That's because it's traveling a greater distance between this keyframe and that keyframe, then it does between that and that keyframe. So the cube cause a shorter distance between the second and the third keyframes. That's why it's moving slower. So let me play it again so we can see. It's almost like it's kind of slowing down here. Well, if I take the cube so I can see both of the keyframes. And if I press H, there'll be visible again. I can take these keyframes and asked to keyframes here, and then push them nifty little bits. So I am giving it less time to complete the last part of the animation. If I now go back and play, let's see what this looks like. So that feels more like it. Now, let me press H again to center this. And I'm going to need to go and update the y as well again, because I moved it to the side, the easing here has been updated as well. So I'm gonna select position y. You can see now this handle actually went inside. So I'm gonna click and drag this out so there's no easy. And now go to position x. And I can do some adjustments here as well. Let me select the first keyframe. And if I don't want this to be so square, so you can see right now it goes up then, right? So it's more like a square shape. If I don't want that squareness as much, I can take this first keyframe, lift its handle up, and look what happens as I do this to the motion path here. So if I select the handle, mode is up and down. You see all that motion part is updating. Remember my task is to get this to look more like an arc, less like a square. So that's the first one. So this looks smoother. Now, this was before. This is after all, not take this middle keyframe and trying to flatten us as well, it's a bit like that. And this is a subtle change here you can see it's almost like expanding these points here. Look, if I go push this down, they will exaggerate and it will pinch them towards the center. So there's going to be a bit of a pause there. With our push this up. This is more evenly distributed now. And then I'll take this last key frame and then maybe pushes towards writing little bits. So this is almost a linear line. Then just click on position y to double-check everything's working fine. I'm gonna press H. I'll select this. And what I wanna do is to make this a little smoother as well now, so I'm gonna go and push this slightly higher up like that. And then maybe this one slightly lower down. And then maybe this one slightly shorter. So what I'm trying to do is to get this to look as arc like as possible. So if I now go back and play this animation we have, of course you can get this to jump higher. So if I go press hedge again, if I lift this one up, that's going to change the overall height. And if I now go back and play and see what we have now. Now, but it does feel a little better. But I think the problem is that the x doesn't move as much. So the distance between this and this on the x is greater than the distance between this and this. So what I'll do now is to go to that last keyframe, then just go procedure again. Last keyframe was here. And go to position x plus h again here. Now on this keyframe, to be higher, let's say. Here. You see now how I am making this look more like an arc. So this was before, less of an arc. This is after. Of course, I need to go and update this platform as well now, so I'm gonna select this, pushes towards right a little. And now I want this to be a little more linear as well. So I'll select this. In fact, let me select the cube so I can see the motion path. I'll take this one and then push this down a little. And now just by looking at this, I can see that the first party are coming into this keyframe is going to be slower. You can see these dots are packed closer to each other and then go faster and faster over time. So let's see. So yes, I can see now the second part is a little too quick. So the distribution of these dots, the gap between them, is greater than the gap between these. So let me just go and press hedge again. I'll take last key frames here, the y and x. And I'll push them towards right again. I'm gonna hold our shifts or they remain on the same line and then go towards writes like that. And then I'll take this y keyframe here. Lift this up. So again, it looks more like an OK. Now if I press which I can see the entire graph. Well back to the beginning and plate. That feels a lot more like it now. Now that we've completed the arc, let's see if we can add some anticipation, follow through and overlap, and some squash and stretch. So let's see. I'm gonna close this first. And I'll bring this to the center. And I'll go and start with squash and stretch. So I'm gonna go and create the squash and stretch inside the cube multiple objects. And then I'll click on fit to parents. So it's in the same place as the cube. In fact, let me just put this back to the beginning. And what I wanna do now is to go and set the object, the squash and stretch objects to start at the base of the cube by clicking and dragging this down by exactly 100. Let me double-check this from the front. So let me select the Cube. If this group is 200, the squash and stretch will need to be down by 100, not one or five there. And then the top of this. We need to be 200, so it reaches here. And the bottom, we need to be 0. So it lines up with the base of the cube. And of course we need to add more segments to the cube. So I'm gonna select it and add more sediments to X, Y, and Z that say we go to a 25 by 25 by 25. So if I go here or full-screen, if I now go to squash and stretch, and if I animate the factor, this is what I'm going to get now. Let me make the cube a little smoother by adding some fill it around the edges. So you go and increase this to say ten. And at the beginning now I want the squash and stretch value to be a 100%. Now a keyframe is at the beginning. That's one frame 0. Remember the jump started at frame 12. So I'll go to frame 12th. And I'll set this down to something to be lower. Let's say maybe, let's say maybe about 70%. And I'll keyframe. It's so from frame 0 to 12, it squashes in. Now from here, it will just jump up. And around the bar here, I think was framed 24 or let me just double-check. Yes, on frame 24, it lines up. Let me just go back to this question. Stretch. It lines up again and catches up with itself. So I'm going to set the factor back to a 100% or keyframe it. And then when it comes down and hits the floor again, so that's here. Frame 38. That's just double-check. Yes, frame 38, that's going to be squashed against toggle to factor set is to let say 70 again. And keyframe. Of course we've done the squashes now here, what we need to create the stretch states as well. So before it reaches the apex here, maybe around about here, I can go and add more stretch. So if I go and push us towards right, let's say maybe a 140 or so keyframe that so it goes from this state to stretch and from stretched to its original shape. And then as it comes down insulin just squashing, it's going to stretch again. Let's say maybe around about here before we get to this last keyframe, Australia, this again. And keyframe it. And then it squashes down. Let's see what that looks like in real-time. That looks nice. And of course I wanted to have the follow through an overlap. So I'm gonna go and add a couple of more key frames. So from frame 38, I'll go for, let's say by five frames to 43. I'll increase the factor to, let's say a 130 keyframe it. And then go five more frames to frame 48. And I'll now created the k. So the previous one was 70, and this is a 130. So the next one will be higher than 70. So I'm gonna go here, let's say maybe 80 keyframe again, five more frames. And then I'll go up again, let's say this time 215% and keyframe. Now five more frames and all that down to, let's say 90. And keyframe. Go forward again. Increased beta-lactamase, one or five. Keyframe. One more time, let's say 98 key frame. And then I'll go forward again and then set this to a 100% and keyframe. So if I go back and play, this is what we have now. And let's now add one more layer of anticipation to it. So I'm going to pause it, go back to the beginning, and I'll add a band, the former as well. So I'm gonna create this, put the banned under the squash and stretch. And I'll go and fit to parents. So I'm going to move this out the way fit to parents. So I can just go and do this. So I'm gonna start again at 0%, at the beginning of keyframe. It then just find out when the keyframes are four, squash and stretch. So this is on frame 12 now. So I'm gonna go to bend. And now Moody's towards left to it bands that way. You will get some more and keyframe it and then go forward. And at this point on frame 24, it catches up with itself. And we will set this to 0 and keyframe. And then I'll go forward. When it hits the floor again, say here, you will need to be bent the other way, say here and keyframe. And now if I go back and play is what we have. Now of course, we need to create the decay and overlap and follow through on the band as well. So I'll pose it finds well next keyframe would be. So if I select the squash and stretch, this is where the next keyframe is gonna be. So I'm going to bend it the other way. So if I go to bend, push it the other way. Keyframe it selects question stretch. This is where the next keyframe is. Out-of-band. Push it towards right. Go forward by five more frames to frame 53. Go left a little bit. Keyframe 500 frames, frame 58. And maybe let's say seven degrees. And five more frames, 63. And then maybe minus three or so. And then five more frames. And set that to 09. If you play, this is what we have. Now I think that the band is making it look a little crazy at the very end. So I think the band is a bit too much. So let me open up the graph for the band, my right-clicking on the strength and then animation and the f curve. Now here I think the band is a bit too high. So I'm going to select this area using the region tool by pressing are what's going to bring up the region tool like this. And if I move this out the way, you can see here, the band is going a little too crazy. Regions rule. I'll just push this down and then this one up. So it doesn't bend as much. Let's see what that looks like. So I'm gonna go back, close this and let's see what this looks like when we play. Now. I think that looks much better. Now this will of course depend on what you like to see. So if you want this to be a little less bandy, but it can go back to your graph again. My bat, and hit our ring up the region tool like that and then make it less bandy going that way. And that way. The only other thing that you need to keep an eye on is that this last one needs to be set to 0. So if I go commodities by pressing R, This needs to be down to 0. And if that's down to 0, of course, this needs to be a negative value. Otherwise, this just comes down like this. So this needs to go down as well. So we have this decay effect. And now if I go back and play and see what we have, just to make life easier, I'll go and turn everything else off except the geometry. And this is what we have now. Let me change the angle as well. And that's how we combine arcs with other principles we learned in the previous lessons. 18. Introduction to Secondary Action: Let's now talk about secondary action, or also known as secondary animation. Secondary action is used to support the primary, the main action of the scene. Let's say for example, I have this ball again in my hand and I'm gonna throw it in there. So just go like this. Now this is the primary action. I keep throwing this in there and I keep catching it. Now if I want to supplement this action, let's say with my eyes following the ball, that would be a secondary action. So watch the same scene again. Now. You see on my eyes are supporting and they're kinda telling you to look at the bowl rather than my eyes. Because if I keep looking at you, well, then you keep looking at me. But if I keep looking at the Bowl than I am telling you subconsciously to keep looking at the ball as well. Now, it's important that the second reaction doesn't take over the primary reaction. What that means is that it doesn't call too much attention to itself. So it kind of happens at a subconscious level. If I keep doing some crazy stuff, my eyes as the ball goes up and down. So my eyes actually draw your attention more than the ball does. Now that defeats the entire purpose of using the secondary action. Let's say as I throw the ball in the air, if I keep winking. So if I go, you go. Why suing him or if I keep blinking like crazy, if I just go like that. Now this kind of seizes to be the second reaction now because it costs too much attention to itself and it defeats the entire purpose in motion design. Second reaction usually takes the form of accidents. For example, if I dropped the same bull again here, when the impact takes place, maybe I could have some lines or maybe some debris coming out of this. Well, that'll be a nice second reaction. Or maybe the camera shakes a little bit. So as soon as the Impact takes place, the camera shakes a little. That would also be classified as second reaction. That's what we'll be looking at in the next lesson. 19. Secondary Action: Secondary action or secondary animation is there to support what happens in this scene as the primary action. And that's the key to remember. Secondary action should never take over the primary or the main action in the scene. So in this case, the primary reaction is this Cuba bouncing them, just go and play this one so you can see what's happening. This is the scene from the previous lesson where we did the arcs. And I'm just going to turn the geometry on the option on the top you are seeing. And I'll just go and hit play so we can see what this looks like. So as you can see, the primary action is the cube jumping. Now to support this or supplement this, what we can do is to add some accents to this. Now, second reaction can be in the form of pretty much anything you can think of. Let say, for example, some smoke coming out of this, or maybe something that trails this, or maybe some impact lines here. Let's maybe go for impact lines. So let's say we want to emphasize the point when the cube heats the second platform. So for that, maybe you can add some lines that come out of this. So let's go and do that. I'm first going to need to go and find the first impact point. So let me just go and play again. It's here. So that was frame 38. So this is the impact point here. And I want some lines to come out of this on frame 38. Again, there are tons of different ways we can achieve this, but I'm gonna try and keep it simple by using some particles. So I'll just gonna add a particle emitter here to start with. And I'm gonna make sure that I can see everything. So I'm gonna go to Filter, turn off geometry only. So I can see the particle emitter here. And on the particle emitter to be read impacts pointers. So I'm gonna go and push this year and down. And if I zoom in, I can actually see there's a bit of a mismatch there between this and the platforms. Or maybe I moved up by mistake earlier. So I'm gonna click and drag this up until it kinda lines up here, there. And then I'll go back to my emitter. And I'll have to rotate them into first to face outwards that way by 90 degrees. So when I play, you see the emitter will start shooting these particles out this way. And I want this emitter to be a little wider. So I'm just gonna go select the emitter again, come down to emitter and then changes excise here. And then a bit shorter, maybe the y size goes down. And I'll put this slightly backwards that way. And then bring it down. And maybe I'll rotate this appellate of it so that the particles go up rather than straight to the right. Rotate this up a little. Now let's go and tweak these particles a little bit. So I'm gonna go back. And as it plays, you'll see the particle would just keep going in that direction. Now I don't update this. First of all, I want the particles to be a little more random. So right now you can see they're all going in that direction, equally or uniformly, I should say, you see, you just keep going in that direction all the time. What I could do is to go and add some randomness to it by changing inside the emitter and the emitter tab, the horizontal angle here. This will start shooting the particles left and right as well a little bit. So I'm gonna go and increase this. Or now play. You'll see the particles will be emitted slightly more randomly like that. And I actually want more particles as well. So I'll go to particle. Now increased the birth rate from ten to, let's say 75 on both the renderer and editor. So if I play, this is what I am going to get now. What I want the particles only to be created when the impact happens. So that was framed 38. So I'm gonna come down here where it says start emission. Set that to 38. And then the stop emission, lets say we want this to go on for say, two frames. Frame 40. If I now play it, you see these particles will only be emitted when the impact takes place. There. Let me go to a different angle. You see the particles only get created at that point. Now I can get the particles to go a little faster. So I can go to the speed, increased this from 150 to, let's say 550. And I can add some variation to it so they don't all do the same thing at the same time. And let's say I want these particles to be visible for, let's say five frames. So I'm gonna go to lifetime and set that to five. And I'll increase the variation on that as well. So some of the particles can stay on for little longer, some will die a little earlier. On. Now go back and say if you play this again, maybe a little too quick actually. So I'm gonna go and add more life to this. I'm gonna go to lifetime, maybe changed it to eight, and then maybe lower the speed down from 552, let say 250. I think that looks fine for now. And what I also want to do is to add some gravity to the scene and then reverse it. So rather than the particles going upper-right diagonally, I want them to go up and then bend this way. So the particles can also have the arc motion, like we talked about in the previous lessons. So for that, I'm going to go to simulate again, come down to forces and add gravity. This will affect the entire scene, so I don't have to assign this to the emitter. I'm gonna go and change the acceleration from 252, let's say minus 250. And just so I can show you what's happening, I'm gonna go to the emitter and increase the lifetime first. So you see the particles would just go in one direction that actually go up as well. You see, the gravity actually pushes them up this time. Now I don't want them to stay on screen for that long. So I'm gonna go and lower this down to, let's say maybe 101 problem with these particles, of course, is that they will not render. So if I'm going to stop this, try and render it. You see the particles don't actually render. So in order to render the particles as lines or a set of polygons, I should say, we need to make use of an object called a tracer. The tracer object can be found here under the More graph menu. It's either here, tracer or you've got a Moore graph, and then you can find the tracer here as well. And because I had the emitter selected first, the tracer is now linked to the emitter, which means all of these particles that are being created would be traced. And those traces will then turn into splines, which I can then turn into a set of polygons. Myfile gaba complete this. You only difference we'll see will be the path is not going to be visible. So the path that the particles follow is now visible as a spline. So these yellow lines are splines. Let's just go and tweak this a little bit. I'll pose this to limit along those lines would be we go to the tracer, come down to where it says limits and change it from none to front end. So we want the end of those traces to be a little shorter than this amount here is how many frames there'll be visible for. So if I set that to one, can just zoom in a little bit here. If I play, those lines will only be visible for one frame now. So that's a bit too short and too quick. As I increase this from one to let say ten, I'll see those lines for timeframes and alloc. And then after timeframes, they start catching up to the tails of these lines, start catching up with the heads. I'm not going to go and add more speed to this. I'll go to the emitter. Go to speed increases to, let's say 450. Now if I select the tracer, you see the lines will be longer. Now. I don't think I want that many lines actually. So I'll go to the emitter again, come down to particle and load is down to, let's say 40 by 40. We're not playing. Let's see. And if I select the tracer, I think that's looking better now. I can of course reposition this. If I select the emitter, push this back a little bit. And then if I play, that's what that looks like now. Now the last thing I need to do, of course, turn these lines intellectual polygons is to use a sweep object. So I'm gonna go and add a sweep. And then at the circle as well. And I'll need to take the circle and make it smaller relative it. That's gonna be the thickness of the lines. And then I'll put the circle inside the sweep and then the tracer on the circle. So that instead of seeing those lines, sweep object will now turn those lines, the tracer lines into a set of polygons by using this profile here, the circle profile. If I go back and play a nugget these lines here. Of course this is a little too thick now. So I'll go to the circle. Object, load on the radius. Let's say maybe there. And I don't actually want this to be that long. So I'll go to the emitter, come down to lifetime and Lord is down to, let's say maybe six. So the particles that are being created will only be visible for six frames. Some of them will be a little longer because of the variation and some will be little shorter. So if I go back, play once more, That's what that looks like now. I can now maybe increase the speed a little bit and see if I were to set this to 600. And then in fact, I'll just push this out a little bit. So let me see whether Q blends here. I'll push this out a little bit, so it's not so far in. And then I'll play this one more shot. Let me zoom out and see what that looks like. Let me now go to the filter. Turn on geometry on the, So that's all you're seeing that. Now that this is done, I can easily exaggerate this. So let me stop this. Go back to my emitter, turn off geometry on me so I can see the emitter. And then maybe I can Command and drag this, this way. And that way. And maybe I can rotate it. If I just go like that by 90 degrees. And pushes back on law, has N particles coming out this side as well. So if I now play this, let me just go back to geometry only. If I play this. Of course I'm not seeing it yet because I didn't set the tracer to trace this emitter now. So I'm going to select a tracer, drag this emitter in here as well. So it starts tracing that one as well. That if I go back and play, I should have some minds coming out this way as well. Now this is a very simple secondary animation. But like I said, anything that supports the primary or the main animation is considered a secondary animation. And you should be careful that the secondary animation doesn't call too much attention to itself. So its only purpose should be to support 45 and emphasize the primary animation. As soon as the secondary animation starts calling too much attention to itself, and it starts distracting the viewer from the primary animation. That's when you know that you've gone too far. You'll then have two options. You either replace the secondary animation with a different one or find a way of adjusting its subtleness or reducing its exaggeration. 20. Staging, Appeal and The Final Project: There are two more principles that we haven't yet talked about, staging and appeal. Now these are quite subjective, and it will depend on the kind of animation that you are trying to create. But in general, staging has to do a lot with composition. So how do you state your scene? Where do you place your objects? Whereas the camera, what kind of lens or using and everything else that make up a composition. Whereas appeal is the beauty or the attractiveness of the objects or your scenes. Now, because these two principles are quite vast and subjective, I wanted to now put everything that we've learned into practice by creating something from scratch. And along the way, civic and pick up a few tricks that I'll be showing you in terms of staging and appeal. So in the next set of lessons, you'll create an animation from scratch by combining all these principles into one. And along the way, we'll also talk about staging and appeal. So now put your creative hats on and let's get started with creating the final project. 22. Final Project - Anticipation: Right now it's time to put everything you've learned or almost everything you've learned into practice by creating an actual project. For this one, what I want to do is to create a countdown to go from three down to true, then one, and then eventually the one will be replaced by some text. So let's see how I'm going to start simply by creating the first number, number three. So I'll go to my graph and then maybe create some more text. And then type in three here. I'll also change the font. I'll do something quite sick. Let's see what we can use. We could use type of graph pro. Don't quite like the edge. You look off this actually. So I'm gonna go up, maybe impact or something. Let's see what else we can. Actually, we could do something like black here. That should do the trick. I'll also going to align this to the center, like that. And animation I want to create is going to be where number three goes up and then rotates. And as it comes down, it will have transitioned into number two. And then a similar thing will happen. So that number two can transition into number one, and then eventually one will be replaced with some text. So let's see how we can do that. The first thing we need to do, of course, is to set the timing of this. So when does this number three go up and come down? So let's say at the beginning, I'll go to coordinates. And let me see it from the front view. Let me zoom in a little bit. You can see sometimes when you some fonts, some of these actually go underneath the ground plane here. That's because of the actual shape of the fonts. So this little dip here goes below 0. So I can just go and lift this up a little bit like that. And then I can go and freezer transformations here. So that this now reads 0. So as soon as I go and make this 0, that's where it is going to come down to. So let me zoom back out. And I want to go and set the keyframe for the position y at the beginning. And then we'll go forward my, let's say 2.5th. So that's 12 frames. I'll just go and drag this up with the Shift key so I can use run the numbers because I happen to like them. They're 250 and will add a keyframe again. And then I'll go to frame 24, so 2.5th again. And then bring this down to 0. So I'll just go and type in 0 here, or right-click on these arrows. And then keyframe. So this is the initial animation we have. So if I go back and play, this is what we have. Doesn't look that interesting, but we will make this look nicer as it goes up. I actually want this to rotate as well. So let me come out of this view. I can see this from the perspective view now. And what I'll do is now to go and keyframe the pitch of this as well. So if I click on the keyframe, this, that's what I want to animate as well. But you see the rotation actually happens from the base, which is where we set the number 0 to. That might work in some instances. But if you imagine this is the leg of number three, if it jumps up, it should read the rotate from somewhere here. Imagine if this was a guy doing a back flip, he would talk himself in. So that would be near the kinda belly where he talks himself in and that's where he would spin from. So for that, instead of actually Keyframing the text itself, I could maybe make use of a null. So let me just do an undo these keyframes first. So I'm gonna go and right-click on the y position here, and then go to animation. And I'll delete the truck. And then go back to the beginning. And I'll add a null instead. And then make sure that the null is positioned somewhere in the center of this text. So I'm gonna go to the front lifted null here. Maybe this is where it's going to rotate from. Let's say just above the center here maybe. And then put the text inside here. And now if I select the null, I can go and freeze this one now by clicking here. So now as far as the knowledge concerned, when I type in 0, that's exactly where it is going to go to. Let me know when reset the keyframes for the nozzle. So at the beginning, I'll go and keyframe the why of the MLE of dangled reframes wealth lifted up to 250. I think it was 250 before. It was going to run this off for 250. And then keyframe that go forward by 12 more frames. And then 0, this one out. And then keyframe again. So now this is what we have. So it should look exactly the same now. And I'm also gonna add some notation to the pitch of this. So I'm gonna go back. As it comes up, I'm gonna keyframe the pitch. I don't need the middle keyframe here. I'm just gonna go forward by 1 second. And I'll get this to do a back flip. So instead of kind of rotating that way, it will rotate that way by 360 degrees. So I'm gonna go minus 360. And keyframe this again. So this is what we have now. Doesn't look that exciting. So let's go to the f curve and see if we can make some adjustments. So I'm gonna go to Window, bring up the f curve manager. I can now see the graph of the position, that's the green one here. And then the graph of the pitch, which is the red one here. So I'm going to start with position first. I'll expand this. And just for now, I'm gonna turn off the rotation animation by clicking on the film strip next to it. So it doesn't rotate. You can see it's kind of static now. And I'm going to select just position y. So that's all I'm seeing, are then go and press the letter H to put everything in the center. Now what I wanna do now is to get this to jump up abruptly. So right now we can see because of the easier or slowing out, it's going to starting a little slower than it picks up speed and then slows down again. So that's this graph here. Now I don't want that. I'm going to get this to start quite abruptly by clicking here on this key frame and then dragging this up. So the start is quite abrupt. And ending is also gonna be quite abrupt. So it doesn't kind of slow down as it comes back to the bottom like that. And I can get this a bit more of a hang time here. So if I select this hold down command, so it doesn't go up and down like this. If I hold down command and then drag is towards right. So this looks more like an arc. Now, let's see what this looks like. That's looking much better actually. So it kind of jumps up. There's a bit of hang time and then it comes down. I think it's a good starting point. Let me go and enable the rotation now and see how that lines up with the rest of the animation. That's kind of fine. But you can see if I go back and play this kinda start rotating a little too late. You see kind of goes up a little bit by couple of frames. Then around about here. That's when it starts kind of tucking itself in and rotate. So I'm going to go back to the beginning, select the rotation property here, and then press H. And to avoid that Easing or slowing out, I'm gonna go and select justice keyframe and then push this down. So it starts abruptly as well. Just like the position start abruptly so there's no easing out. There shouldn't be an easing out on the rotation either. You see as soon as I play it starts rotating. And at the top there's a bit of a hang time there as well. That's where the curve is the smallest here. And then it comes down and falls back down gracefully. Maybe I can actually expand this towards left a little bit with the command key again, so it remains on the same line. So the last part is a little more gradual. So if I go back and play again and see what this looks like, I think that looks much nicer Actually. Now that the main animation is done, let's see if we can give this some anticipation. So it kinda prepares the viewer to what's going to happen next. I'm going to come out at a timeline here. And we now have to think of what kind of anticipation we want to give this object. In the previous lesson, if you remember, we used squash and stretch as anticipation. Well, we can use that here as well. But maybe we can add a bit more character to the number by giving it a slightly different anticipation animation. So maybe, let's say we want to twist it. Let's say maybe we want this number three to look over its shoulder and then come back to the viewer. And then look over at other shoulder and then come back to the viewer, then jump up. So there'll be like a different type of anticipation. So it's almost like it's checking if anyone's watching it. So let's see how we can do that. So I'm gonna go and add a twist. The former may be like that. And I'll put this inside the more text. And I'll select the object tab and then fit to parents. And now what we can do is to go and animate the angle of this with our go and increase this or decrease it. Maybe you could use this as anticipation. What to make the results a little smoother. What I'll first need to do is to add some more segments to the surface of this text. So I'm going to impress n b so I can see the actual lines. And if I zoom in, first thing you'll notice is that there are no segments on the front side. So the twisting here, it doesn't really work that well. So I'm gonna go back and select the text here. Go down to caps, caps being the front and the back sides. And I'm going to go towards his caps type and change it from n gon, which basically means just a single polygon on the front side and a single polygon on the backside to maybe regular grid. So that's going to add more segments to the front side and backside of course. So that will make the deformation a little nicer. I actually also want to create some bevels or fillets around the edges here. So I'm gonna go to beveled shape here and increase it to see what that looks like. Maybe there may be that looks about right? And if I now change my view again by pressing N a, and I think that looks much nicer now. Right? So let's go and set the anticipation up. So of course we want anticipation to take place before the letter actually jumps up. So I'm going to select them all and then select all these keyframes by dragging a selection like this. Here. I'll just push down to, let's say, maybe frame 20 fourths or 1 second in 1 second here. To set down to spatial up, we can always increase or decrease this later on. But I think 1 second would be a good starting point. So what I wanna do is to select a twist and then set the angle to 0 to start with. And initially I want number three. It's going to twist this way. So it goes that way as if its kinda chicken what's happening behind it. And then it will twist the opposite way like that. Then it jumps. So let's see. Now at the beginning, I want this to be set to 0 and I'll just go and keyframe it. Well then go forward to, let's say, maybe frame 12th and then decrease this. So it kinda twists towards right, say by maybe minus 55 keyframe that again. Then we've got to frame 24. Instead of actually getting missed to twist all the way in opposite direction. What we could do is to set this to 0 and keyframe it. So by doing that, what we can do is to get this to look back that maybe wait there for little bit, and then loop back to the viewer. And then right here, and then turn the other way. So I think that might look a little better actually. I'll go back to the beginning and see what we've got here. So the first keyframe is facing the camera. Imagine the camera is gonna be in front of the text. And it turns that way. I actually wanted to wait there for about timeframes. So I'm gonna go to frame 22 and have this exact key frame or frame 22 as well. So I'm gonna click and drag this keyframe towards right with the command key held down so that will duplicate it. So basically, nothing happens between these two key frames because they're the same. And of course I'll only to push this toward right. Now that I've changed my mind about actual animation, Our first 1 second gap here won't be enough for the anticipation. So let me select the null and Moody's keyframes all the way to the right. Let's say maybe to frame 68. And I can make the entire timeline a little longer than say, maybe set this to 200 to start with. And among these towards rights. So these are the jumping animations have just created. I'll go back to the beginning. And Macondo twist. It goes that way and it waits. And then I'll just push this keyframe out the way a little bit. And then from frame 22 up to, let's say maybe frame 34. So here let me zoom into this part of the timeline first. So it goes back, weights comes forward, and then it will wait here for ten more frames, let's say. So I'll go to frame 44, Moody's keyframe with the command key here. So it's a copy, so nothing happens between them. Then I'll go forward by 12 more frames to frame 56. And then I'll twist it in opposite direction. So I'm gonna select the twist them tick what this number was long ago, back on here, it was minus 55. So on 56, you'll be plus 55 or keyframe that and I'll get to weightier for timber frames. So frame 66, keyframe. And then after that, I'll go forward by 12 more frames. So 78, and I'll set it to 0 and keyframe. So here's what we have now. Three will twist that way and it will then turn back to us and an altruist opposite way. So take a look and then it will jump. But let's go and fix the graph of the twist as well. So I'll go to the angle here. Animation show f curve. Now if I go back, looks like I can't see that. So I'm gonna go and drag this twist from here to here so I can actually see what's happening. And what I'm interested in right now is the angle here. So I'm gonna select angle. And then collapse the whole thing. And now by using this graph, you'll be able to change the speed in between those keyframes. So if I now push this to one side and then bring this up and then press the letter H So I can center the whole thing. Now, I don't want that to start slowly and then twist. I actually want that twists to be able to abrupt as if the number is quite anxious and checking what's happening behind it. So I'm going to take this first keyframe and then let me zoom in actually here we'll submit, not just drag this first handled down. So there's more easing at the beginning here. So it starts turning right away. Like that. I'm going to exaggerate this. I'll click and pushed us further down at the beginning and towards left. So the initial twist is quite fast. So let me go back and play again. So that's what that twist looks like now. So let me just go to this angle. Take a look. Now I think we could do with a bit more Twist actually here. So I can select these keyframes. These were the states of the twisted version. And I can just push these further down with the Shift key held down so we don't change the timing, but just the amount of twist. I'm gonna go ahead and set this to, let's say minus 80. You can see on the left-hand side here, oops, I just went too far. Let me press the letter h again. So what I was saying is that this is a line here on the left will tell you how far you're going. So you don't need to kind of keep an eye on these key frames here. You can actually keep an eye on that little line to get yourself to be aligned with whatever number you want. So I'm going to push this down until I can see minus 80. And I'll click and drag this down, holding down the Shift key until I get to about minus 80 there and oligo. So this will now twist more. So if I go and play this back and see twist more, but I still want this to be a little quicker. So what I'm gonna do is to go and speed this up by pushing these keyframes towards left. So I'm gonna click and then drag left. Now hold the Shift key down, so it's faster. Now go back and play. That's more like it now I think now the speed here represents more of an anxious move. So if I go back and play again, so that feels a little more anxious and unexpected, and then it will wait there for it a bit. So between these two keyframes, nothing will happen. And then at that point, I want this to be an abrupt turn again back towards the viewer. So I'm gonna say justice keyframe. And I want this not to have any 0s going that way. So I'm gonna hold down shift to break the handles apart and then drag this up like that. So the twist going from the backside to the front side will also be the deliberate. So if I go back and play, that's what they will feel like now. And just select this key frame. And then maybe hold down shift and then pushes towards left a little more. And actually, I can make this a little quicker as well. You see from this keyframe to that key frame, it only took eight frames. So here it took eight frames to do this initial twist. And I can get this to twist back in eight frames as well. So from 18 to, let's say 26. And I pushed us toward left with the Shift key. And this looks like it's going to overshoot. So I'm gonna click and drag this right with the shift and the command key so it remains on the same line. And then I just have like Justice handle. And let's see what this looks like. That feels better. Yeah, I think the speed feels better there. And now this will wait for about ten frames. So from frame 26 to frame 36, I'll push this one towards here. And again, eight frames on. So I'll go to frame 44. Push these. In fact, I can take all of them, push these towards here. Again, this term is going to be quite abrupt as well. So I'm going to click and hold down shift and then pushes up. So the twisting to the right will also be able to abrupt Like that and actually want this twist to be more as well. So I'll select these two key frames. And it was minus 80 for these. And I'm going to set these to be plus 80. So I'm gonna increase the height of these keyframes until about here. So I'll click and drag this up at the Shift key. So it goes to about there. Then if I now play it back, let's see what that looks like. And of course I want to coming back part to be a bit more abrupt. So I'm gonna hold our shifted to break these two handles apart and then drag this down. And make sure this happens over eight frames. So from 54 to 62. So I'm gonna click and drag this towards left to line up with frame 62 and see what that looks like. I think that looks good. Now that's an anticipation that we want to use for number three. In this case, we didn't squash or stretch it, we just got to do something. So another viewer is obviously expecting something to happen to this number three, this is what all of anticipation is about. You're getting your objects or your animations a bit more character. So it's number three. All of a sudden feels like an actual character that's actually a bit anxious to see what's happening behind it before it starts flipping. Now if you wanted to, you could treat this anticipation as secondary animation and then give it another anticipation. So it's almost like an anticipation for the anticipation before the actual main jump takes place. But you do want to approach this method L2 carefully. You could do it a bit too much. That might start actually taking over the primary action. And that would defeat the entire purpose of using this. But let me show you what I mean. You see at the beginning. It just starts twisting that way. Well, if you want the viewer to anticipate that twist, what we could do is to first twisted in opposite direction and it's a bit then it twists towards there. Let me show you what I mean. We'll go to frame 0 and then this is set to 0 here as well. That's great. I'll go forward by, let's say maybe two frames or saw. And I'll twisted in opposite direction first. So let me just go to the twist. And then it was 0 at the beginning, like that. So I'm going to twist it that way a little bit. And then keyframe it. And now what we have, if I zoom in here, is the letter twisting from here towards right, then twisting left. Of course now this is happening a little too fast. So let me just go and slow the whole thing down a little bit. So I'm gonna take all of these keyframes, drag down towards right with the Shift key. Can now take this one, drag this towards right as well. And I want this initial twist to start a little abruptly now. So I'm gonna push this up. And now this is what we have. Let me exaggerate this a little more like that. And here's what I have now. I'm just going to increase the hang time a little bit. Then maybe make it a little faster. That way. None pushes that way. If I select just the two key frames and press S, I can decentered these in the view. So that's what I'm seeing now. I'll go back and play it. This is what I have. So the initial twist in opposite direction is not anticipation for the main twist, which is going to happen backwards. Let me zoom out from this by pressing h so I can see everything. I think the whole things happening a little too quickly. Just pushes towards right by a couple of more frames maybe. And then let's see what that looks like. My thing that feels much better now. It's almost like it's breathing, so it goes in and out. So it inhales and exhales. I'll make this a little smaller here for the hang time. And now I can try and replicate the same thing for the opposite direction. Let's see if you actually need this when it comes back. So if I turn back, now we don't need an opposite twist for this part. What I mean by that is that I don't want number three to twist even more towards back before twist back towards us. Because it's almost like loaded spring now. Now just going to undo itself to come back like that. But now before it starts twisting this way, I actually want this to twist in the opposite direction. So we made this first part eight frames long. So I'm gonna go four by eight frames here. So from frame 43, don't let say 51. I'll push this out the way first. And at this point, I want the object to start from here. Twist in the negative direction until frame 51. So I'm just gonna go to twist 0 this out first, and then go to a negative direction like let's say minus 25. And keyframe that. So it created this. And then it twists forward. So first of all, I don't want this awkward looking overshoot here, such as zooming. And wants to start abruptly as well. So I'm gonna hold down shift and then push this that way. So you see now if I make a little more space here, you see now it's going to twist in opposite direction. Then snaps back and twists here. Now I want this twist to be little more abrupt as well. So I'm gonna hold down shift and then push this up like that. And so what we have now, it's a bit too much maybe. So I'll just go and push this back a little bit. I also want to make sure that the distance between this keyframe and that keyframe is the same as the distance between that and that. So this was the first undershoot, if you like. So this is own frame eight and this one is on frame 15. So the seven frames between them. So I'll go here to frame 51, followed by seven more frames, 58. And I'll make sure that this is where the rest of the keyframes start like that. And see what that looks like now. Now that looks good, but I think we could do with a bit more anticipation there, so I can take this key frame and then maybe push this down. In fact, let's check how far we went with this. This was about 60. So I'm gonna go with this to minus 60. Let's say maybe about there. If I play this, let's see what that looks like. And I'm just going to smooth this out a little bit and see if I now play this animation we have. So we now create a two-level anticipation here with a twist. But like I said earlier, you should use this carefully. You don't want to overdo this, because if you do, then it will start distracting the viewer from the main action. Now that we have the first part of this animation done in the next lesson, we'll have a look at how to add some squash and stretch to it. 23. Final Project - Squash and Stretch: In this lesson, we'll have a look at how to add squash and stretch to our animation. First, let's see what we've got so far. So I'm gonna play this once. So there's a twisting action with anticipation. And Moses is over. I'm gonna get this guy to come down as if it's going to kind of gather its energy so that it can spring backup. So let's do that and then go to where the twisting ends, say here. And I'll now go and add the squash and stretch deform Richards here, or go and drag this just underneath a twist. And I'll just get rid of the timeline for the time being. And I'm going to set the positioning of the squash and stretch correctly. So let me go to the front view. Now I want the base of the squash To be here, so that's correct. But we also want to squash bottom to be set to 0 as well, so that this bottom here can go up to our bases. And we're going to set this to 0. And I want the top of the squash, which is this line here, or it's this line to touch the top of this number. So I'm gonna go to the top and increase this until about here. And if I now go and stretch and squash this, you see this now happening from the correct place. So I'm going to undo this. And I'll go to the perspective view and maximize this. What I wanna do first is to go and make sure that I'm on the correct frame to start the squashing. So the twisting ends here. That's ONE frame, so into six. Let's just double-check. That's correct. And we've got to squash and stretch. I'll keyframe the factor. I'll go forward, let's say by five frames. And then decrease to factor. So it kind of goes down to gather energy. And then I'll keyframe is again. And now at this point, I want this to start jumping. So I'm gonna go to my timeline again and then zoom out. If you remember from the previous lessons we had our initial keyframes pushed all the way out to the right. So if I select the null and then click on View automatic mode so I can see the keyframes that I've created. These three keyframes here at the end were when they object started jumping up. So let me now go and zoom out from this timeline a little more here. So the active area here gets extended. I could also do it this way. And I want the last three keyframes here. These are the position keyframes. Let's just double-check. They are need the position and rotation keyframes on these keyframes to line up with this squash and stretch keyframe. So I'm gonna click and drag these towards left. So at that point now you see if I go back and play, it will squash down there and then it shoots up. So we can now go back to our squash and stretch. Let me close this again. I'll go to squash and stretch. And at this point you can see this is squashing down. Then it shoots up. And as we get to the apex here, let's say here, let just go and double-check whether apex is or the center point or the mid-point of that hang time. So we'll go to the null. That's one frame 93 actually will go to squash and stretch. And I'll make sure that at this point it's set to a 100%. So there is no squashing or stretching at that point. And I'll keyframe is of course. And then I'll go back a couple of frames. Let's say maybe this far and are stretched this. And then keyframe again. So what we have now is that this is set to a 100%. At this point. It squashes down, jumps up, and it starts stretching. And then it starts going back to a 100% here. And now it's a 100%. And then when it hits the floor there, let's just double check that this is the frame. It actually touches the floor. So I'm gonna go to the null. That is, I'll go to squash and stretch. I'll then go and squash this again, let's say to 80%. And keyframe again. If I now go back and play this animation, we have not. Before, it's squashed down to the bottom here. I actually want this to be stretched again as it falls down. So I'm gonna go back a couple of frames here and then increase this stretch value. Let's say that far. And keyframe again, let me just round this number so it's easier to keep track off. Let's say we go to one N15 and then keyframe. So it goes from 215 and then it squashes down and it hits the floor. So as soon as it hits the floor, I want to create the overlapping action and the follow through animation. I'll go forward, let's say by five frames. And then from 80%, I'll go to, let's say a 110. And I'll keyframe that. I'll go forward again. Why few frames? And then down to 90%. And keyframe, couple more frames forward. And so you go to one or five and keyframe. And then advance. I'd say 95 keyframe again. And then go forward. Why a few more frames? Let's say this time we said that to one or two. And keyframe. Couple more frames, let's say 99. And then a few more frames and set that to a 100% and keyframe. And now we have the follow-through and overlapping animation. So here's what we have now. Let's see what that looks like as a graph. So I'll go to Window F curve, and I'll select the squash and stretch and then press H So I can see their keyframes. Now, this is our decay. And if you remember from one of the previous lessons, we talked about creating a temporary line here, a temporary graph to align all the other keyframes tool. So let's do that. I'm gonna select the null. It doesn't matter what property we animate, because you'll be deleting that later on anyway. So I'll select the null and then maybe go to say if you go to the nulls coordinates, that's I'm going to animate the scale. So I'll keyframes scale x. One of course I need to make sure that the timing is correct. So I'm an undo this first or keyframe, it's here in first create the initial bounce and go to here or keyframe this x. And then go forward to the end. And then just change it to whatever. And then keyframe again. And now if I press H and then select the scale is data machine we have. I'm also going to select the squash and stretch. And I'll just go and drag this up to line up here. And then drag this one. This way. You can see, of course, as I changes, the x scale keeps changing like crazy here. Well, that's fine. We'll delete this later on anyway. On login, press H to center this. And now I can see if I now click and drag this one towards left. And then this one here, I'm just move this up just a tiny bit of skin, drag this one down. The main thing that you're trying to do here is to get the first two points. So this point and that point to line up first, like that. And then the rest of these keyframes should be aligned here on this red line. So this should be going down like that. This should also go down a little. And if I go here, it should go down that way as well. And I can of course do the same in the opposite direction as well. So if I select the keyframe, pushes down, say here. And if I drag this that way, so the first two key frames here, this one and that one, a line I can actually push us towards right and up like that. So if the first two are aligned, then I can just go and push the rest. So here down. And then this one a little further down as well. And then there's going to be on the person. So now we should have a proper decay. Let me of course go and delete the scale x animation. So I'll just select this here and then delete. And if I select the now, make sure that the scale is set to one again. And now if I go back and here's the animation, we have not. Looking at this again, I feel like there's a bit of an awkward moment right at the very end. Let me zoom in. And around about here. It bounds with a little too much, I think. Let's play it again once more. So that feels a little too abrupt, I think. So I'm just gonna go and back that off a little bit. I'll go back to my f curve. Select this question stretch. And here, if I zoom in, I'm gonna push this up a little bit. Let's see what that looks like. Think that's gonna be a little nicer now. So let me zoom out. I'm going to press H to center all of this and I'll try it again. Now that last section still doesn't feel quite right. So what I'm gonna do is to go and scale all of these towards right a little bit so that it slows down just a tiny bit. So for that I'm gonna use the region tool by pressing on the keyboard. Will just draw a selection like this and then extend them towards right. And it's a bit, and I'll play again and see what that looks like. Maybe that was a bit too much. And you see this is the process you have to go through. You'll keep pushing the keyframes back and forth, back and forth, even if it's by one frame at a time until it feels just right. There are no specific numbers I can give you because every animation will be different and it'll depend on how much elasticity you want to get these objects. And you just had to keep playing animations and get in the habit of keeping an eye on what doesn't feel right. If there's anything that feels a little off or a little awkward, you just need to stop there and then maybe played that section slowly to see if you can figure out what doesn't quite work. And that's exactly what I'm trying to do here. Let me now go back and play this again from the beginning. You know what? Now that I'm looking at this, I think it needs just one more bounce at the very end. It feels like it stops a little too abruptly. And just go back here to show you what I'm talking about. I'm going to select these keyframes here and then press S so I can send to them. Now you see if I just play them zoom out a little bit from here. If I just play these, it feels like then it should be one more balance there. So it goes from here, from 98 to 100%. So what I'll do instead is to highlight this and then command drag this towards right. So I create a copy of that. And then this keyframe will actually go above that last one. So it now goes from 98.4, let's say 101 here. And then it goes down to a 100%. Let's see how that feels. I'm gonna zoom out, go back and play. That last part was a little too quick. So I'm just gonna go and separate this keyframe away from the first one. Let me push this here as well. And let's play again. And now I spotted one more thing. And that is that this decay seems like it's off. So here it's about a 102%. And here it's also about a 102%. That shouldn't be the case. This should be lower down. So every time you see it's losing its energy, so it doesn't bounce as much. But for some reason it looks like I left these to be on the same level. So I'm just gonna go and push this one down a little bit. And of course, if this is down there, these will have to be adjusted as well. And this one has to be lower than that one now. So I'm gonna zoom a little more in. And nobody stone, so it's lower than this one, then it goes to a 100%. And let's see if that works now. And I think that feels much better. So by adding a squash and stretch at this point here, you've actually created an anticipation as well. So this was the anticipation for the jump. Then it stretches out. I'm just centered, uh, so it's easier to look at. So first squashes down, stretches as it jumps, as you can see there. Then it goes to a 100%, starts squashing down. And then we have the decay here to create the follow-through and overlapping action. In the next lesson, we'll have a look at how to transition from number three to number two. 24. Final Project - Transitions: Now that we've got animation for this number three, ready, I want to now switch it to number two halfway through the jump. Let's see. Dan mentioned we have first. So I'm gonna play this. So roundabout here. When it kind of flipping up in the air, I want this letter to change from three to two. So as it falls down, it will read two rather than three. So let's see how that's done. First of all, let's go and set a camera. So on the camera to be kind of head on here and create a camera here. And I'll make sure that I'm seeing the scene through the perspective of the camera. And let's go and 0 these numbers out. So 0 on the X, so that's centered. And I'm also going to 0 out the rotations as well. I can maybe pull back a little bit and then maybe bring this down and see what that looks like. That looking good. And I want to go and find the point at which I want to transition to take place. So this is going to be where we're going to start cheating now. So you're not really going to morph anything into anything else by manually key framing things. What will simply go and switch objects? Roundabout here maybe. So I'm going to find the frame where we can't quite see the detail of the object maybe here. And at this point, if I switched the number three to number two, that would be fine. Now I could either go to more text and then go to object and keyframe this. So it just switches. Or if I want to have separate controls for these different objects, number three and number two, I could just use this trick. I'm just going to rename this now to be three. And I'm going to collapse it. And I'll hold down command and then just drag it down with the command key. So I create a copy of that. I'll go and rename this to be true. And open them or text and change that number to two as well. This is the point when I want the switch to take place. So I'll go to number three. I'll go back by one frame. I'll go to Basic. I'll keep him the visibility as default, both for the editor and the renderer. I'll go forward by one frame. This frame is when I want to sort the numbers of angle and set this to be off for both the editor and the renderer and keyframe again. So at that point, number three just turned off. I'll just go and do the exact opposite for number two. So I'll go to here. At this point, I want number two to be visible or default. In this case, they will do the same thing. I'll go back by one frame and I'll set this to be off on the previous frame. Key families as well. So between 9091, the transition will take place. So we will come to here. You'll be seeing two now. And I'll just play this and see what that looks like. Let me just go and get rid of everything except the geometry. And it's play again. So it's exactly the same animation that we have for number two and number three. What we got them to swap around between these two frames. And it looks pretty seamless, unbelievable. And I'll now do a similar thing to swap number two with number one. So let's go and find it when that can happen. So let's see how long it was taking for three to change the tool. So we saw 34 that many frames, or let's take frame 75 until one or five. So that was 30 frames where the text was visible. So I'll go and find the point where n number two stops moving. So here m square and check its squash and stretch. So here. And at this point, I'll create a similar animation for number tool to jump up and then flip and come down again. So I'll select the null, alter the f curve. I'll just collapse these. So I see number two only. In fact, I'm just gonna see the y position and the rotation for now and then press H So I can kind of Saturdays. And I was pushed to one side. Let me zoom out. Now what I wanna do is to make sure that nothing happens to the rotation or the position until this point. So I'm just gonna go and keyframe ease again. So I can just go to the coordinates here and then keyframe the y and also the pitch. Or I could have copied and pasted these as well, that would've worked. And I wanna make sure that this line here is flat as well. So there is no change in position between these two key frames. So I'm gonna select this keyframe, Shift and click and drag the handle. In fact, what I'll do is I'll go and set the angle here to 0. And this kind of changes this jump here a little bit and see if that actually mess things up a little. So let me just go back. Well, it's not too bad. We can see when I 0 this out, this line here got messed up a little. So instead of 0 in this angle, I'll just actually go and expand this a little bit. And I'll remove the overshoot by clicking on this button here. So this will automatically remove the overshooting here going that way. So if I click here, you see only that line where the overshoot took place got flattened. I'll just check that this is not happening here, so I'm gonna select and remove its overshoot as well. That was all fine. And just double-check that these are not overshooting either. That's all. So nothing happens between this and this. So number two will be static as far as rotation and position are concerned. And then I'll go forward. So I'll just figure out the distance between this and this. So this one was going from 81 to one or five. So that's 24 frames. So from a 147 forward by 24 frames, so that would make a 171 if my math serves me correct, so that someone has 71. And now at this point, I want to object number score by cart. On this layer, two have flipped and then come back down. So what we on the same spot again. So I'll select the keyframe here, copy and paste it. Well then of course, I want this key frame here to be replicated. So this was, I think 12 frames in. So this is from 81 to 93 in EDS 12 frames or go forward. So from 47 to 59, that's also 12 frames. I'll just copy and paste this keyframe now. So I'll select that copy and paste. And I'll just go and create a similar 0s here. By the way, if you are using the latest version of Cinema 4D, I'm on A2 and A3 right now, you could copy and paste eases as well, which is great, but I'll just do this manually now. So I'm going to hold down shift and then create. This abrupt jump and do the same here as well. And then maybe decrease this hang time just a tiny bit. And I'll also get this to rotate as well. So now if I go back here, at this point, this is already set to minus 360. So this will need to rotate once again by minus 360. So I'll go forward here. And then I'll select the null and just type in minus 360 and then there, and then keyframe again. And I'll try and get a similar curve here as well. So there's less easing at the beginning, but more at the end. So I'll hold I shift, click and drag this down. And this will extend towards left illiterate. Let's see what we have now. So I'm gonna move this out the way. And I see. So now we can see number two jumps as well. So unless if I can copy and paste keyframes of the squash and stretch. So I don't need to repeat myself. So I'll go to squash and stretch for number two here. And I'll just select all of these keyframes. I'll copy them. This includes the actual scores here. This question was five frames before the actual jump. So if I go here from 76 to a21, and that's when it jumped. So to find the point when it starts jumping again, and then go back by five frames and then paste these keyframes. So I'll go back to the second model, find position y. Let's find that the second jump here. There. I'll go back by five frames. So this is 147. I'll go back to 1.4.2. So I'll just go and paste these keyframes here. You could do what I've done manually as well. Of course, you could just go and recreate the squash and stretch keyframes, but that would just mean that it will take a little longer. And I didn't want to repeat myself. But if you want to practice more, of course, it might be a good idea to try and create them from scratch again. Right now I can see that time isn't quite enough. So I'm just gonna give this a bit more time first and expand this. And then we zoom out. And now that we have number two ready, let's see if we can swap this with number one. So I'm going to close all of this, will just turn off geometry on this so I can see everything. I'll just go and find the point when I can switch this number one. I'm just going to reset my camera actually for just go here, set x to 0 and maybe bring this down a little bit like that. So when it jumps that far, let say may be here. Now in this frame, I want to swap number two with number one. I'm gonna go here and then command drag this down and then rename that to be one, and then change the actual text or the number to one as well. And now at this point, let me just go select number two. At this point on a go to basic keyframe divisibility of this. Go forward by one frame. Turn this off. So number two is no longer visible. Just double-check. So twins visible there, then it's invisible. And of course I need to do the opposite for number one. So I'll go to number one, make this invisible at this point. So I'm gonna go and set this off keyframe. And of course, if I go back by one frame, you can see that this is set to default. This is from the previous key frames. So we might go and tweak this. In fact, the easiest thing would be to go and delete all of these and then recreate them. So if I go to animation, delete the track, same with this as well. Delete the track. So it remains the same. So at this point, on a set that to be off. And since there are no keyframes that can be for this, for these two properties, it remains off. Our keyframe. Them will forward by one frame. Set this to be on. And keyframe again. So now if I go and play this, this is what we have. I'll post this. Now let's just go and concentrate on what's happening here. Just here. Now it was fine between number three and number two. You can see here, you can't really tell when the swap takes place. But between 21, because the shapes are drastically different. So from here to here, there's a big difference. That's kind of an obvious swap. So what we could do to fake it is maybe to scale this. So let's say around the bar here before Number two kind of becomes flat towards us. I can go here to this null, select the coordinates, and I can scale or animate the scale of this x. So maybe here I can keyframe there, x. Go to the point here before the swap takes place. So just here and there, make it a little squashed that way. And keyframe that. And I can do the exact opposite for number one. So I can select number one. And I can expand this. I'm just gonna go forward by one frame to see how far I should go on the keyboard to go back and forth frame-by-frame. You could use F and G, so F to go back due to go forward. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go and expand number one and little bit here and keyframe. And then as it turns round, it will just be set to one again and keyframe. So number two here, let's just double check is a to one on the scale. And then as you go up on about here, it scales down, you see it kind of gets smaller. And number one starts large and then get smaller afterwards. So I'm trying to match the sizes of these two as close to each other as possible. So when the swap, it's less obvious that last step is just an additional step that you don't have to go through. But if you want to make things look a little more believable and seamless, These are the little adjustments that you want to look out for. So let's now go and play this whole thing from the beginning. So I'm gonna go and turn everything off. And here we go. And finally, what I want to do is to get this number one to swap itself with some letters or words. And it's going to type in those words. So on those words I don't actually want to much deformation. So I'll just go and create them from scratch. So maybe I'll take this one more texts for number one command and drag it down. And I'll collapse this. And let's just change this to find the words. And then I'll select and maybe type in Bogata object. Let's go ahead and make this a little smaller. And then may be lifted up a little bit. So I'll select this shall all the controls as well. And then if that up. And what I wanna do now is to get the number one to rotate rather than twisting this time, I'm going to rotate it sideways. And as it does, it will be replaced with the word, Let's go. So on his final words, I don't need these reformers. I can select and delete them. And I'll just go and turn this off for now. I'll select number one. I'll go to coordinates and we first find when they should happen. So I'm gonna play this last section again. So maybe once a kind of settles around about here, maybe here, it starts rotating this time on the heading. So I'm gonna go and keyframe the heading here. So I'll go and keyframe is at 0. Although forward, let's say by five frames, I'm going to rotate it that way. So first I'm going to do an anticipation of this far. So it rotates counterclockwise or keyframe that then I'll go forward, let's say by 15 frames or saw. So that was framed to 30. So I'll go to maybe 245 and then rotate this, let's say by about 90 degrees. That way are key for him that as well. And I'll open this up in the graph by right-clicking here, animation f curve. So now what I have, let me come out of this camera. Now what I have, and let me just make this camera invisible as well actually. Is this animation. So number one just rotates. It doesn't look quite nice. So I'm going to show the geometry omni. So check this. First of all, it's a bit too slow. So it's going to bring this in closer. And then maybe this a couple of frames. And I want this to start not with an ease, but abruptly, with a little more hang time. And again, it doesn't ease into the stop because remember, when it turns around, we'll actually start seeing the final words appearing. So I don't want us to slow down. I want the final words to slow down, but not number one. So I'm going to remove some of this easing in here. So it looks like that and see what that looks like. Still way too slow. So I'm going to push this towards left and see what that looks like. Thing that's looking better. So let's see if we can now solve this. At that point. I'll go and turn on the final words. And on these two start at the same notation as this. So I'll select final words, go to the heading and rotate them that way. And I'm just going to the camera here so we can see what's happening. So go and set this to mighty. And I'll position this as well towards right a little bit, say there. And I'll lift these up. So at that point we can swap them. So this one is started in IT or keyframe it. I'll then use the same number of frames. So this was going from two to nine to 235, so that six frames. So I'll go forward by six more frames to 241. And then I'll take this final words and not take us back to 0. And now here if I say the final words, and if I want to see Here, I Go to View automatic mode. I'll now be able to see it here, final words and press H So I can see the keyframes here. And now in this one, I want to remove this curvature so that it looks like it's actually following the same line or the same action as the previous one as number one. Which can decrease this and see what that looks like. I'm gonna change my camera and will again, I'll go back a little. And I think that might just work. But before we can know for sure, we need to go and turn the visibility of number one off. And then at that point the words will switch on. So let's do that. I'm going to select number one commodities. And then when I want the transitions take place, so just hear a keyframe divisibility of number one. Go forward by one frame, turn it off. Turn it off, and keyframe again. And I'll select the final words. At this point. I want them to be visible on the previous frame of a num to be invisible. And then keyframe ease as well. Let's go back and see what we have. But the only thing I'm not a 100% sure about is the speed of this last animation because it's quite a long text compared to this number one, it feels like it's moving a little too fast. So if I play this again, that doesn't look too bad. So it looks like an impactful animation. But if I wanna slow this down, I can select that. And then maybe just take the rotation keyframes here. These were the rotation key frames are going to separate them. And it's a bit, see what that looks like. I think that fear is a little more natural. So once again, Yeah, I think that looks much better now. And that's how we can seamlessly transition from one element to the next. 25. Final Project - Camera Animation: Now we'll have a look at how to animate the camera. So that scene doesn't look at static, especially during those in-between frames where not much is happening. For example, here, when that number two falls down. And you can see not much is happening between this and this. So if I was to animate the camera, that will give the entire scene a bit more life. So let's do that. So I'm gonna go to the beginning. And first of all, what I wanna do is to find the extremes. What I mean by that is, what's the lowest that the characters go down? And what's the highest they go up to. So the lowest of course, is going to be here on this ground plane. But let's find out the highest as well. So when it gets stretched, jumps up there. So I'll run about there is where the top point is. So as long as I can see the base and the top part of this, you'll be fine. So let just go and move the camera up and maybe zoom in a little bit. I started losing the base here. So I'm going to go down and it'll just go and see what that looks like. It's working fine. And to get this a bit more character, especially near the end, where we get the text here. You can actually use a slightly wider angle lens so that when things kind of get closer to the camera, they get more distorted. So if I go to this camera and then change the focal length from, let's say 36 to say maybe 25 mil. But zooming instead. And then pushes up. Let me exaggerate the Civil War maybe, so maybe change it to 15 mil, so it's super wide. So there's more distortion here, where the text kind of gets closer to the camera here, has more perspective distortion here. So I'm gonna go back a little and then maybe start from here. Now what I also want to do is to go and make sure that on the final frame here, the text or the camera around the text is centered. So for that, I'll go to my cameras coordinates. And I actually want to see my title and action safe areas here. So on the keyboard, I'm going to press V. And I'll go to say frames. I'll click anywhere that's empty here. So I can turn on the say frames. I'll turn on the title, say frame. Also the action, say frame. I can click and drag these in and out. Let's say that's going to be the boundary of my final text is going to be visible. So from here to here, I can of course now select the camera. We set the rotations and then play with the x here until I can kinda center the text and see what that looks like. So here. And at this point I can see there's so much distortion. You actually, I didn't take this into account because it's switching from one which is far away from the camera to this, which is now too close to the camera because of the distortion we created. So I'm gonna change my focal length back, let's say to 25 mil. And then zoom out a little. And I'll try and get this tool looks similar to that number one size-wise. And that's about right now. And let me just go to coordinates again. Let's see what this looks like. So let's go back. And I'm going to turn out to be formers here by going to filter the former. And I'll also turn off this arrow here. So I'll go to Filter and turn off the world axis. And I'll just go and play it again now. So here's what we have. Now that jumped looks like it's getting too close to the top part here. So this section is getting too close to the top parts. So I'm going to go to the Camera, lift this up just a little bit so that the text comes down. So it feels more balanced. Now, let's play that again. And that's looking good. And what I'll do now is to go back to the beginning keyframe is that of the camera. That's this position here. And then I'll go forward until about here where I can see the final text. And I'll pull out a little bit on keyframe it again. So you see that the camera is going to start pulling back slowly. It's going to be very subtle. Let me exaggerate. It's a little bit more. So I'm going to hold our shift so I can jump between these key frames as I drag my play head. I'll pull this further buck keyframe again and it play again. So it's now a little quicker. Now at this stage, what I want to do once we see these words, let's go is to put the camera further back as if it's going to spring back and then shoot off into the scene. So I'm gonna go here after this last keyframe, I'll go forward, let's say by seven or eight frames. And I'll pull this that further back. Keyframe, then go forward and then pushes it further in. So we go past that text as if the text is flying. But really it's the camera that's flying past the text. And I'll keyframe this. Now if I go back and play this section, this is what it will look like. That's too slow for the last part. So I'm gonna take this keyframe, pushes closer and see what that looks like. That's getting better. Let's open up the graph now. I'll take the camera, press H So I can see it's keyframes. You can see until this section the cameras slowly animating. Then the camera flies in. But before it flies in, we have an anticipation here. So let's go to those frames. And I'll select these and press S two. I can zoom into those. And then first I'll go and increase the hang time here with the command key. And see what that feels like. Let me just go back. Let's see now. And I want this part of the animation, this part to be a little quicker. So I'm gonna select this last keyframe and pushed us in. See what that looks like now. I think that's looking much better now. So take a look. The SSID of the camera keeps animating really slowly and gradually until here. Then there is an abrupt change in speed. Then it shoots up in opposite direction. So here's the animation once again. Now I think the only problem is that we don't have enough time to read those words properly. So I'm gonna go back. And then I'll have to move these keyframes, all of these towards right a little bit. So we see the word, let's go. Maybe we want to give this 1 second before the camera shoots off. So I'll select all these keyframes. So if this last key frame is on 2-6 three, if I go forward by 24 more frames, so that would make it to 87. That should give us an extra second there. So let me just go here to seven. I'll just drag this here with the Shift key so it doesn't move up and down. And now if I play, should give us one extra second tree, those words. And this simple camera animation is going to help a lot when it comes to staging and appeal. 26. Final Project - Appeal: Now I will go and add our final touches to the animation, and these will contribute to the overall appeal of animation. Now, appeal is such a vast and subjective topic. So I'll try and keep things simple. And I'll leave most of these to your own creative choices. So first thing I want to do is to get us animation a bit more of an environment. Right now, the whole thing happens in empty space. So if I go and run this, That's what I'm getting. So in order to have some sense of location, it would help to have some environment here, maybe a floor, some background, and so on. So let's start with the floor. So I'm gonna go and create a floor. And because the camera angle is so flat, the floor appears to be black here. So let me just go to the camera and then go to coordinates. And then maybe I can tilt the pitch of the camera down by a couple of degrees, and then maybe move the camera up as well, buy a few units. I'm just double check that everything is still inside the frame. Looks like they are. Now going to the material to these objects, including the floor, the text, and the numbers. So I'll double-click. This will be the floor. And I'll go and add this to the floor. And I'll create one more material. I'll call this, let say elements. And I want to apply this material to all of these texts and number elements. So I'll select all of these, put them in a null, My pressing old NG. I'll call this one elements and then apply this material to Vietnam. I also wanna create a light. So I'm going to start with a simple area lights. I'll come out of this camera for now so I can fly around without affecting our view like that. I'll pull this back up like that. And I'll create a three-point light setup. So there'll be one on one side, let's say here. Then we go to the top view. Maybe. I'll rotate this by about 45 degrees. And then I'll drag this towards left as a copy. And I'll now rotate this the other way by 90 degrees. So it's facing the same scene again, something like that. And I put one more at the back on command, dragging these to create the copies. And I rotate this again this way. And that's gonna rename them. So this is the backlight. This one will be the fill light. And this is the key. Now I want to fill light to be about a third of the intensity of the key. So I'll go to General, come down to intensity and said this lets say 235. I want the backlight to be maybe about half the fill. So I'll maybe say 20%. And I want the key light to create shadows as well. So I'll go to shadow, changing from mum to area. Then go back to my perspective view, go into my camera. And let's see what this looks like when I render. Now a couple of things here. Firstly, I don't quite like our dark this background is. So let's go and fix that first. So I'm gonna go and add a background object. And in fact, I want to create a seamless background so that we have no horizon line. Cause right now if I go render this, that's what I'm gonna get. So this is where the floor finishes and that's red background starts. So in order to create a seamless backdrop, I'm going to need to take this floor and material applied is to the background. So it's applied here. And you see that the projection method here is set to frontal. If I go to the floor material and set its projection method to frontal as well. And then also to the floor. If I go and add a random tag, which is the compositing tag. And if I tell this to be a compositing background, and if I now render, the floor is only going to be visible as what we call a shadow catcher. So the horizon line doesn't exist anymore. So this is the easiest way of creating a seamless backdrop. I don't quite like how bright the backdrop is. So let me just go and open this material up. I'll go to color. First of all, I'll go and turn off the reflectance. And I'll add to the color texture gradients. And I'll set the gradient to be a 2D circular gradients. And maybe I can swap these two around, like that. Knife on a simple white background, I'd recommend you don't keep this last one saw dark like this. So we go and make this a little brighter and maybe like that. So you still get some sort of a gradient, but it's not pure white on the right-hand side. So if I render, that's what we're getting now. But I'm actually going to start using some colors. So I'll go to this white one and maybe make this one say greenish color like that. And then the end, a slightly darker erosion of the green. And let's say there. If I render, That's what I'm getting now. But you see that the center is way too bright, so this is overexposed here. So we can kind of see it here as well. So I'm gonna take this first color stop and then make this a little darker. Press ok. And the kind of eats into this. But right now these are two saturated. So let me just go double-click bring number situations as well. Maybe here. And in fact I can go and change the second color from green to, let's say something like blue maybe. And then make the cell is less saturated. Maybe slightly brighter, something like this. Now, again, I'll leave this to your personal taste. You can use whatever color you like. I'll come out of this. The other issue that I have here is that the shadows are too diffused. So to make the shadow here coming from the key light emit more realistic and less diffused, only to adjust the size of this key light to be smaller. So if I select this, come down to details. And then here we have size x and size-wise, I'm going to load these dance, let say 50 by 50. Then I'll go and render again. Now the shadows are less diffused, but they're too dark now. So I'm, I'll go to shuttle density. And our Lord is down to, let's say 60 and render again. And that's looking nicer. But now the other problem I think is that the shadows are a little too long. So I'm going to select all of these lights and lift them all up. And then if I now render, the shuttles should be shorter and they are. You may have noticed that the quality of the text isn't perfect. That's to do with the segments that we have on the cap or the lack of them, I should say. So if I now select this text, this is three. Let me come out of this camera and I can zoom in to show you what's happening. If on the keyboard, if I press on the keyboard, I press N B. I can see these segments because we don't have enough segments here, then the twist takes place. They're breaking apart. So I can go to the caps here and then change the regular grid size from ten to something smaller so that the size of the grid here is much smaller. So if I now go and set this to, let's say three, now has smaller grids. Let me go press N a. You see they don't break as much. The liquidus is, the more precise it would be. So if I set this to one, you see, I'm getting it off all of these weird issues. If I undo this, you see, if I set this to ten, let me just fly through different angles or we can maybe see this a little better there. Say here. Get these strange lines. And these strange artifacts, especially when I render the strange artifacts here. When I lower this down, let's say Tour soil. And then if I render, you see I'm reducing these. If I go even lower, let's say to one. You see it's getting less and less obvious. If I now press NB, I can of course add more sediments to these areas as well. So if I now go to objects and then reaches intermediate points, I can change it from adaptive to let say, uniform. And then add more segments here as well. And I'll go back out. And of course I can add more segments to these as well. So if I now go to caps, come down to segments for the bevels, increase these as well. Let me increase the size of this a little bit so it doesn't take forever to render it. Say we set that to true. And also to get rid of these triangles, I can come down here and then turn on quote dominance. So that looks cleaner here. And you can now go and play with the size of this grid like that. So we'll try and create as many of these chords as possible. And then say fear, and it is now That's looking much cleaner now. So it does take some playing around with, and depending on the shape that you're using, you might need to tweak these further, but these seem to have cleaned up those weird issues. We'll go back into my camera. And now I'll do the same thing for the rest of these text elements as well. So just so I can use the same numbers, I'll go and lock this panel here, open up a new one. Moves to one side. I'll take the second more text year. Let me unlock this. Click on the second more text. If I got object. You see this is the second one. Now this one I have locked. The third one. So I can now use the same values here. So if I go to object, and if I go to object here as well, are used uniform here. So I'm gonna change this to uniform. It looks like I've used 29 units here. So I'm gonna go and set this to 29. And then I also inside the caps, used 18 segments on the bevels or go and set this to 18. And then the regular grid is turned on. And inside the regular grid, size is 3.82. And the court dominant is turned on. So I'll do the same. But instead of doing this all one by one, what I could do is to highlight all of the text elements here. So select this command, select this, come down command, select this. I can now update all of those at the same time. So now I'll just go to caps again. Set the segments do 18 regular grid to 3.8 to quote dominance alternatives on, on the object. Mary had intermediate points. You set that too uniform with 29 points. Now if I come out and unlock this, now they should all be the same. Let me go and turn off the lines here by pressing n a. And if I now go to a frame where it's a bit distorted, let's say maybe here, and then render. The distortion still looks fine. Let me check this on the final words as well. Here. That's also looking good. But the only problem I can see here is that this is now floating. Elements were on the floor because you updated the position of this text to line up with the number one. It looks like it's now floating in midair, which doesn't look very nice. So let's see if we can fix that. I'll come out of this camera, zoom out. In fact, I'll go to the front view. And you can see that this is floating by this much. So I'm gonna select the final words and then try and put this back down on the floor, like this, of course has to still line up with the number one. So let's see if that's still working. So I'm gonna go to the camera. Here's our number one. And as it turns, now there's a bit of a jump here. Now. Maybe what we could do is to animate the height of this number one. So it transitions a little better into these words. So I'll go to number one, select the text. I can either squashed this or I can just update the excises. Well, let's try squashing it first and see if it works. So I'm gonna select this maybe around the bar here or keyframe, the factor of the squash. And then go forward. And then lower this down to, let's say maybe, I don't know, 93 or so. And keyframe again. And see what that looks like. Let me zoom in to the timeline a little bit. In fact, I'll go and decrease the factor a little more. And keyframe again and see if that's, you know, I think it's helping. Because I squashed this. You see, it kind of gets fat on the sides here as well. I don't want that. If I exaggerate this even more, that's going to look a little awkward. So as well as the squash, I'll just go to the text. And then will the coordinates keyframe BY size. Then go forward by a few more frames? And then lower this down a little bit. Now if I play this getting smaller and now it's looking less obvious that there's a jump between one and the text. So let's see what it looks like in real time. I think we can sell that. And maybe what we could do also is to update the height of this overtime. So if I now go back, maybe I can start with text slightly higher up. So I'm gonna go forward a little more. Keyframe. The final words on the y. Go back a few frames, and then lift this up a little bit. I'm gonna click and drag this up a little bit and keyframe again. So we switch is going to be higher. But then it comes down. Right? I'll go back to the beginning and play the whole thing once again. Now it's a little distracting to see all of these. So I'm gonna go ahead and turn everything off except the geometry. Then I'll go back and play once again. And I think that's looking good. Let's go and tweak the material of these elements. I'm gonna go and open this up. And let's start with the color. So I'm gonna select the color. And first of all, what I wanna do is to press Alt are so I can open up the interactive render region. And I'll come to filter uncheck geometry only so I can see what's happening once it's rendered. Or maybe it's a little smaller here. So it only renders that much of it. And you can change the quality of this year as well with this arrow. So if I pushes up, it's gonna give us better quality, but it'll take longer. If I lower this down, it's going to be worse quality wise, but it'll be quicker. Just move this somewhere in the middle, maybe slightly higher. And what I wanna do now is first to change the model from the motion on the colour two or NIR. So what this does is it makes it a little more diffused. And if you look at the shading here, let me first go and press D to hide those arrows. If you look at the shading Now when I change the store in IR, there will update the diffusion. So it looks smoother and more even. So this is before, and this is after. I'll make this a little brighter as well. So I'll just go to the value here up this lets say to maybe 90. You can of course do this in a Kalhu like I'll leave that to you and can add some diffusion to it. And maybe some noise to the diffusion. And I can select that noise, make it quite small, let's say maybe 10%. And then I can make it quite subtle. So if I go to this first color, make this a lighter gray, and then go back and make the brightness of the noise a little less, let's say maybe 25% or so. And now I want to mix this noise. I'm gonna go to the mixed mode, changes to add. So it will add the most on top of the color that we've already selected. I'm gonna lower this down a little more. This is just adding some imperfection to the text. In fact, I'll just go to the noise again and maybe make this a little lighter gray, let's say here. And I'll change the original color from a reddish tint to maybe something more like a bluish tint, something like that. I'll also go to reflectance and I'll add a Beckman reflection to it. And right now it will start reflecting everything like a mirror. I'm going Lord, it's down, so it's not as reflective. And I'll also add a for an ELL to it so that the reflection will be based on the angle at which the objects it's. So I'm gonna go and change this to, let's say a dielectric. So it's a non-metal reflection. And I'll go to roughness and lower this down so it's not as blurry. The reflection isn't as blurry. And maybe increased a specular strength. I'm going to bring down the Fernel reflection a little bit. So I get some non the Fernel reflection on this. And then increased overall brightness of the reflection as well here. Great on LA, come out of this, turn off my interact around the region, and then do a full render by pressing command R. And this is what we have now. If I go back and see what a text is, let's say at this point, then if I render, this is what I'm getting now. Now I think the whole thing still looks a little too flat. So what we could do perhaps, is to go and turn on the global illumination and then maybe them into occlusion as well. Give us a better sense of space. So let me open up the Render Settings by pressing Command B of angle to effect at the global illumination. I'll also add the ambient occlusion. Not gonna change the default settings. I'll just see what this looks like first. I'm going to render this. And I think this is looking much better already. But what I'm going to do is to go and create a fake light by using a plane. So I'll just go and turn off the shadows coming from his key light. And I'll come out of this camera's view. And I'll just go and create a plane. Are lifted up, bring it this way, extended sideways and there. And I'll use this as a light source where we get the shadows from. I'll put this to one side, similar to the position of this key light. And I'll rotate. It says, well, like that. I'll lifted up a little bit. And I'll just go and create a new material. I'll call this one lights. And applied it to the plain. Open that up, turn everything off, but the luminance. And I can add a gradient to it as well. So if I go to texture gradients, I can add a 2D circular gradient and then swap these two around like we did for the background. I'll make this one and it'll lighter like that. And I can increase the brightness, but you see the brightness doesn't have much of an effect because now the gradient is being used. Well, it can just change the mixed mode from normal to add. So it's now adding this brightness to the gradient so it mixes them. So I can now load this whole thing down or increase it. And you can actually see the effect of this once you render. So I'm going to close this and I'll get that plane to have the same compositing tag so I can tell it not to be seen by the camera. I can also tell it not to cast any shuttles. It won't actually cost initial load because these lights Don had that function turned on it. We'll just go and turn off the cast shadows and receive for those. One last thing to optimize the scene is to open that material up, multi illumination and set this as Polygon lights so that the scene gets optimized and understands that you are using this as an area light. So I'll close that well into the camera. And let's see what that looks like when we render. I think it's looking better now. So the shadows are better positioned. And also these highlights are looking much nicer. Let me now go and add a bit more brightness to this gradients. So I'll open this light up, go to luminance, increase the brightness. And then if I render again and see what that looks like. Thing that's looking much nicer. You only think that I don't quite like about this is how flat the shadows are now. So I'm gonna go back to the plane and then come out of this camera and lower down the plane a little bit. And then maybe make it a little wider that way. And then rotated as well. And go back to the camera and ran there once again. And that's looking much better now. Like I said at the beginning, using different colors, lighting schemes, angles, and so on, is quite a subjective topic. And they all contribute to the appeal of animation. And because this is quite subjective and beyond the scope of this course, I'll leave the rest of this to your imagination. 27. Conclusion & Further Study: And that's it. That's the end of the course. Congratulations on making it this far. I really hope that you found this course helpful and learned a few new tricks. But my course can only take you so far. If you really want to get better at these skills, you've got to keep practicing what you've just learned. So go ahead and apply these skills to your own animations and share them with me here or on social media if you want me to comment on your work. Finally, if you enjoyed the course and found it helpful, please do leave a review as it can really help other students and also helped me create metal contents. Once again, thanks for learning the principles of animation with me, and I hope to see you on the next course.