Animation Principles In Motion Design: Secrets of Great Motion Graphics | Hongshu Guo | Skillshare

Animation Principles In Motion Design: Secrets of Great Motion Graphics

Hongshu Guo, Motion Designer

Animation Principles In Motion Design: Secrets of Great Motion Graphics

Hongshu Guo, Motion Designer

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31 Lessons (5h 9m)
    • 1. Introduction

      3:03
    • 2. Timing & Spacing

      15:06
    • 3. Value Graph Explained

      14:42
    • 4. Value Graph Demo 1.1

      13:46
    • 5. Value Graph Demo 1.2

      9:41
    • 6. Value Graph Demo 2

      13:16
    • 7. Assignment: Value Graph

      1:33
    • 8. Speed Graph Explained

      10:56
    • 9. Speed Graph Demo

      16:07
    • 10. Assignment: Speed Graph

      0:46
    • 11. Oscillation

      11:21
    • 12. Anticipation and Overshoot

      9:43
    • 13. Animate with Anticipation

      11:44
    • 14. Logo Reveal Bonus

      4:08
    • 15. Real Project Demo 1.1

      10:05
    • 16. Real Project Demo 1.2

      10:36
    • 17. Assignment: Anticipation

      6:34
    • 18. Ball Bounce Explained

      7:31
    • 19. Animate Ball Bounce

      15:57
    • 20. Complex Ball Bounce

      22:34
    • 21. Assignment: Ball Bounce

      1:25
    • 22. Squash & Stretch Explained

      8:42
    • 23. Animate with Squash & Stretch

      20:05
    • 24. Assignment: Squash & Stretch

      1:21
    • 25. Follow Through Explained

      9:01
    • 26. Follow Through Demo 2

      13:08
    • 27. Follow Through Demo 3

      14:04
    • 28. Follow Through Demo 4

      18:12
    • 29. Secondary Animation Explained

      9:30
    • 30. Animate Like A Hero

      3:56
    • 31. Congrats! What's Next

      0:54
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About This Class

Do you like watching great animated videos? Have you wondered how their animation is so smooth and appealing? Have you also wondered how they learnt their craft or is it just talent? Is there any secret that you are missing in order to animate the same as those awesome animators? What are these secrets? Where can you learn those?

Well if you ever wondered any of the above questions, you are in luck. Because today, I am going to teach you the secrets to those awesome and great motion graphics videos. Something you won’t find on the internet, at least not to this scale in such details. 

In this course, I will teach you the animation principles of motion graphics. Something that’s evolved from the traditional animation principles, more relevant to nowadays motion graphics work. The secrets of great motion graphics. I will go over each principle one by one with several real project demonstrations to show you how to apply these principles to real work. This course contains 12 animation projects that I will be working on to help you understand these principles, You will learn:

  • #1 ultimate animation principle: timing and spacing
  • How to animate using graph editors in After Effects
  • Animate with value graph
  • Animate with speed graph
  • How to animate with ease
  • Animate with Oscillation
  • How to apply Anticipation and Overshoot
  • Animate bouncing animation
  • How to apply Squash and Stretch
  • What is Secondary animation
  • Follow Through in animation
  • After Effects tips and tricks
  • After Effects keyboards shortcuts 
  • Best animation techniques to date
  • After Effects best practices
  • How to think as an animator 
  • How to approach project with animation principles
  • How to animate like a hero

The concepts and techniques covered in this course are fundamentals and essentials that you will be able to apply to any motion graphic works. Some of the basic tools, tips and tricks of After Effects can also be translated into any type of projects.

This is an introductory course and it’s for anyone who wants to learn the secrets of great animation and getting into motion design, adding animation to your graphic design and illustration. 

Although it's an introductory course, there are a lot of things that we need to cover in this course, so a basic understanding of design tools from Adobe suites will make this course easier to follow.

Meet Your Teacher

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Hongshu Guo

Motion Designer

Top Teacher

Hey! My name is Hongshu Guo and I'm a motion designer from Toronto, Canada. I've been animating in Adobe After Effects for more than 6 years. Animation is one of my passion and I am so lucky that I am able to work on all kinds of animation projects every single day at work for the past years. When I am not working, I always like to travel. Travelling gives me time to slow down my mind to enjoy the nature and world around me. It also provides me with new perspectives as well as inspirations.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hi, I'm Hongshu and I'm a Motion Designer in Canada. I have been animating professionally for more than six years now, working in advertising agencies and studios for clients like Adidas, PayPal, Walmart and many more. Today, I'm going to be teaching you the most practical animation principles that only apply to modern motion graphics. Something that's extremely relevant that I wish I knew when I first started. Something that completely changed how I animate in a good way, that brought my skills to the next level and accelerated my career to be able to work on those big name clients. If you're like me when I first started, sitting in front of a project not knowing where to start or just hoping to get a great animation at the end by nudging a bunch of keyframes, browsing many of the awesome animation done by amazing studios, wondering how they did it and why isn't my work anywhere near what they're doing. Either if you're a beginner animator or if you're a pro with After Effects for many years and not knowing how to get to the next level, this class is for you. In this class, we'll be focusing on the fundamentals of animation, animation principles that are relevant to modern motion graphics. We'll first cover timing and spacing, the number one most important animation principle there is and will completely change how you animate every single thing the rest of your life. I will introduce you two type of graphs, the value graph and the speed graph, and demonstrate how to animate with them in the graph editor to gain full control of your animation. Moving on, we will be covering some of the more advanced topics like what is oscillation, how to use anticipation and overshoot, how to animate complex bouncing animation with value graph, squash and stretch techniques, examples of follow through and what is secondary animation. Other than all of that awesomeness that we just mentioned, we'll also be covering After Effects keyboard shortcuts, workflow tips and tricks, anything that's needed for you to master After Effects and animation principles to animate professionally. This is your ultimate animation dream course. Research shows people will retain 90 percent of what they learn if they practice, and only 20 percent if they don't practice. This course is structured in a way to maximize your learning. There's a small assignment after each section for you to work on and practice those hot and fresh topics. There are a total of 12 animation projects that I'll be demonstrating in this course, showcasing all of these animation principles in real practice. If you follow along with my demos and finish all the assignments, you will have a great demo reel and ready to go out and get work immediately. This class is not easy, it's filled with tons of concepts, in-depth lessons, exercises, and projects. If you made it through the end, you will have the tools you need to explore infinite options in animation and continue on your own journey with confidence. I hope to see you in class. 2. Timing & Spacing: Hello everyone, welcome to the first class. In this class we're going to talk about timing and spacing. The reason I made this a first class, is because timing and spacing is the single most important principle in animation, yet no one really talks about it, at least not enough people are talking about it. It is a secrets to a great good-looking awesome animation that people don't teach you that I'm about to unveil. If you only learn one thing in my entire course, I want you to take away with the understanding of timing and spacing. I can't stress enough how important it is, everything else I teach beyond this class is based on this principle. Without further ado, let's jump right in. First, let's talk about what is animation. But simply we have a stake here, and people may say, from A position to B position when it animates, that's animation, however, this is not really animation, this is only a movement, or a position change. What is animation? In my understanding, animation is everything that happen between A position and B position. This entire thing in the center is animation. We'll elaborate more on that later on. In this lesson, we'll talk about the single most important thing in animation. The single most important principle, the overarching principle that will change how you animate every single thing for the rest of your life, the thing that you should practice the most more than anything else if you want to be a professional animator. What is it then? The thing that differentiate an immature animator and a professional animator, is the understanding of timing and spacing. If you understand timing and spacing as an animator, you already be better than 50 percent of the animator out there. If you finish this course and do all the projects and understand the essential skills that we taught in here, I can guarantee that you would be better than 80 percent of the animator out there. Because most of the animators don't know about these essential concepts, and what makes up a great and professional animation. Next, let me explain to you what is timing and spacing in the animation. This demo here is made available to download so that you can play with it. It is beneficial to be able to understand how the object moves based on how you change your keyframes. Here we have a stick and two positions. Let me just hide this, and turn on this animation here. As you can see on the screen, first, let's talk about timing. Timing is pretty simple. At zero second here, I have a keyframe on this stick, and at 30 frame I have another keyframe here, on the position property so that the stick change from one position to the next. Now, if I play it, this is the animation that we get. What is timing then? As we all know, this animation right now it takes 30 frames to complete, and the 30 frames is the timing for this animation. That's the duration of the animation, and also how long it takes for the animation to happen, that's timing, easy to understand. However, not a lot of people know what is spacing, and what a spacing means. Now, let's say I want to make this animation faster, make the stick to move faster, how do I want to do that? Some people may say, well, you can make the two keyframes closer so that we can modify the timing, and then now it moves faster. Instead of taking 30 frames, it can take maybe 23 frames to complete the animation, so that's faster. Another way might be just, let's go back to right-click "Keyframe assistant" "Easy ease", so that the animation is easing in and easing out and it appears, so the animation is faster. After these two ways, this is where most of the animation will stop. However, there's much more to it. Some people ask, "Why is my animation so plain or boring, it doesn't look so smooth, it doesn't have the energy that I wanted?" Here's the ultimate answer to all your questions. It is not the only two frames, A and B, these two frames that you're concerned with. As a professional animator, you're responsible for every single frame in your animation. What do I mean by every single frame? Let me turn on interpolation. Every single frames from A to B, these are all the frames that the stick move in order to get from A to B. As a professional animator, you're responsible for every single frame in this animation. Even though you can't see them, if I don't turn on the interpolation, most of the times the only two frames that you should see is beginning and end. But think about it for a second. Most of the time when we set up keyframe, we're only seeing the two keyframe that we set up, A and B, and ignoring everything else in between. All these. If you're only concerned with these two key A and B, and all you do is simply just ease the two keyframes, you're missing out on infinite option that you could have on your animation by changing the spacing. That's why your animation looks so plain and immature. The only way to become a professional animator is to take the responsibility of all of your in-between frames and manipulate them with a purpose, and the way to do that is by using timing and spacing. Now, you probably understand what is spacing. All these in-between frames, one between another, these are called spacing. Remember the timing that we have is a duration of the animation. Now, you're only concerned with A and B, two positions and the duration of the animation. When we talk about spacing, that's when we talk about all the frames in between A and B, and how we manipulate all the frames in between to create the animation that we want. The next question is, how do we change spacing? Timing as we all know, we can change the keyframe on the timeline here. Let's say I have two keyframes, I can easily drag the keyframes to change the timing. That's very simple. But now, how do we change the spacing? In After Effects, spacing is actually controlled by a graph editor which is hidden. That's probably why most people are missing out on it. It is this very little button here. Looks so simple and unimportant. However, this is probably one of the top three most important buttons in After Effects. Well, After Effects, you've got all these buttons and you got hundreds of effects, precess and so many other tools in After Effects. But this button here, is what you use 80 percent of the time for your professional work. If you're missing out on this, this button right here, you're missing out on 80 percent of the possibilities of your animation. That's why your work doesn't look so professional. But don't worry since you're here, we're teaching you how to become a professional animator. After this course, you will be better than 80 percent of the animators out there. Now, let's come to a different composition on the left here using keyframes demo to play with some of the spacing so that we can get different animation. You can see here. Let's set the keyframes here to linear. Just hold down command and then left-click. Set the keyframe to linear. Now, if we preview this, you can see this is the linear animation that we get. However, if we select both keyframes and come to this graph editor to manipulate some of the spacing right now. By the way, for the graph editor, there are two different types of graphs. One, is value graph and then the other one is speed graph. These two graphs, works differently. We're going to talk about both in detail in the upcoming lesson. But for now, just bear with me. I'm going to show you some of the possibilities we have. First, let's come to the speed graph. We can right-click Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Now, once we make a default easing, you can see the spacing of the frames changed. Now we have more of the stick in the beginning and the ending on the animation, meaning they're moving slowly at the beginning and then moving slowly at the end. Now, let's drag this curve here, make it more dramatic. Now let's see what we have, what the animation looks like. Without changing the timing, it's still 30 frames, you can feel that the animation actually looks faster. If I make it even more dramatic, just drag this all the way, like this. Let's see what the animation we have. Now, I can click on this Hide All button. I can hide all these interpolation. Just seeing the two frames at the beginning and the end without seeing any the in-between frames. This is what the animation looks like. You can see it's got much more energy and then it's got character to it. It doesn't look so boring anymore. This is a curve that we get here. Let's see if I change the curve like this, make it faster at the beginning, and it's slowly coming to the end. Let's preview this. You can see now, the stick moves fast at the beginning and then slowly comes to a stop. Another thing is right now, you can see at one second, zero frames. I have this curve all the way at the bottom here. This is speed graph, meaning at zero second, the speed of this object is zero. However, if I drag this up here, that means the object already has a speed coming into the frame so that it's not starting from zero. Let's preview this. That's how it looks now. Now if we have a curve like this, the stick is going to move slowly at the beginning and then very fast at the end. Let's preview this. Stop very abruptly. Now you can see with the changing in spacing, we can get so many different options to our animation. This is what the in-between frames look like with our curve looking like this. If we show the comparison here, on top we have the linear keyframes, and then at the bottom, we have the easing keyframes. However, at the bottom, we can modify the spacing of the frames however we want and achieve so many different possibilities to our animation. That's what I wanted to show you. I wanted to show you how many options you have with manipulating the spacing of the animation and what we can achieve. We'll spend most of our time in this course in graph editor. I'll teach you how to animate in here and to visualize animation based on the different graphs that we have and it will take some practice. But I can assure you that you'll get there by the end of this course. Once you're familiar with the graph editor and be able to adjust it with purpose, you will have full control of your timing and spacing, and be able to take responsibility for every single frame of your animation. Thus, animate anything precisely to do whatever you like. Not only that, you will have the confidence of knowing you can do anything you want and not limited to the two key frames and the system default, Easy Ease, or use plug-ins to get the desired look. You will be able to achieve everything and anything manually with graph editor. 3. Value Graph Explained: Welcome back. In this class I'm going to show you how to use Value Graph in the Graph Editor to modify the spacing of the animation. Here we're back in this After Effects demo file, and then right now I'm under Easing Keyframes Demo. Here I'm going to demonstrate to you how to change the value graph in order to change the spacing of the animation. We can see over here right now, I got two keyframes, edit on this layer, the stick here from one position to the next. It takes about 30 frames, and 30 frames is our timing. Keep in mind, we're not going to change the timing of the animation. All we're doing is just to use a value graph to change the spacing. Right now you can see the stick is only moving on the horizontal position. It's not moving up and down. So that's why I need to go to the Position property and then right-click Separate Dimensions. Now you can see, the X position and Y position are separated. Now we can delete the Y position because we don't need it anymore. We just need to use the X position, and this chart here, this demo with all the in-between frames, this is to show you how the spacing is going to change by modify or changing the value graph. This is a very good way to visualize because most of the times when you are doing animation, all you need to do is to set two keyframes at the beginning and the end. If I don't have this, all the frames in-between, you wouldn't be able to realize what's happening to the animation itself. If you're only concerned with the two keyframes, remember, as I said in the first lesson, it is not only the two keyframes that you're concerned with, it's all of the frames in between that you need to take responsibility for if you want to become a professional animator. Now, let's go to the Graph Editor. This little button here, just click on it, and I want to use this button here, Fit graph to view. It's going to fit to my view here. I want to make it bigger. Before I do anything, I want to check which graph am I in. You can click on this button here. It shows you the type of graph that you are in. Right now I'm in the Speed Graph. But in this lesson, I want to talk about the Value Graph. We're going to talk about the Speed Graph later on. Let's just switch to Value Graph, and this is a graph that you get. What it means right now is from left to right, it's actually increasing in time from left to right. Just like your timeline, it's increasing in time. Then from bottom to top it's increasing in value. Whatever value it is, right now the value is X Position. If you modify the size of the object, it's going to be increasing in size. In this case, we're increasing in X Position values. This graph, you can see there are two key points at the beginning and the end, and these two points correspond to our keyframes. If I click on the two, hold on Shift, click on the two points here, select the two points on the Value Graph. If I go back to the timeline, you can see the keyframes are selected. Modifying or changing the points in the graph is actually changing the keyframe. Say, if I want to change the timing of the animation, I can just grab this point and then move it to maybe 25 frames. If we go back to the timeline, you can see our keyframe is changed to 25 frames. Since we don't want to change the timing, we only want to play with the spacing, so I can change it back to 30 frames. Now first let's do a default Easy Ease. Let's hold on shift and click on both keyframes and then hit F9 to Easy Ease the keyframe. Now, you can see this is a system default Easy Ease, and you can see over here the spacing of the sticks are changing. It's closer together at the beginning and closer together at the end. What it means is that, it's slowly picking up speed and then going faster in the middle, and then going slower at the end. If I play the animation, you can see it's slower at the beginning, picking up speed, and then in the middle it's faster and then slowing at the end. So the way to visualize the graph is, at first, because right now, the thing that I want to teach you is to just by looking at the Graph Editor, the Value Graph, you will be able to tell what the animation is going to be based on the different type of graph you're getting in the Graph Editor. For the Value Graph, what you need to remember is, here at the zero second mark, you can see there is a Bezier handle. There's a tangent of the curve and right now the tangent, the Bezier handle is flat. So flat means zero, speed is zero. At the beginning of the animation, the object speed is actually zero, and then as it goes to the middle, right now you can see these points here. If I add a tangent, I can just click on command and then hold on command, with mouse left-click. I can see there is a tangent that I added in the center. This tangent, this Bezier handle is actually steeper, it's not flat anymore. It has a angle that's going diagonally. The steeper this tangent is, the Bezier handle is, the faster the speed is. Based on this graph, we can tell the animation at the beginning, since the Bezier handle is flat is from zero, going faster, and then slowing down at the end. That's also what this charts tell you. The closer the spacing are, the slower the animation is, and then the further apart the sticks are, the faster the animation. Let me just delete these points in the middle here. Go back. Then let's go to the end of the animation. Right now, if I just slightly changing the flatness of this Bezier handle and you can see it's not flat anymore. It's probably got like a 10 or 15 degree angle. So that means the animation doesn't stop at the end. The speed of the object is not zero as the end because zero is flat and now it's never becoming zero. So if I have more key frames go pass this or animation go pass this, the stick is just going to keep moving. It's not going to stop at zero because the handle is not flat anymore. Let's say if I move this all the way down, you can see the tangent, the bezier handle is much steeper, it's so steep that you can see this chart here the stick are further apart, which means the speed is faster. Based on this type of value graph, we can tell that the animation, the object goes from zero speed, slowly picking up speed and then going faster, faster, faster, and then at the end. The end never stops. So it happens very abruptly. It's very fast at the end. If I play the animation, you can see what it looks like. So that's what it looks like. This Kappa curve you can see it's slow at the beginning and then fast at the end. If I show you another type of curve, so this is just for you to play around with, I'm going to have this file available to download. You don't have to remember everything I teach you. We're going to practice every single thing that I teach you here and then you're going to be able to just look at the value graph and know what type of animation is going to happen to our object. Well, the ultimate goal of knowing the value graph is to just look at the type of value graph you have and knowing what animation is applied on your object. So we're going to get there with practice, with more lessons to come, but I guarantee you in the end, you can be so precise with your animation. You can just mimic whatever animation you see in other people's work and then make your animations so smooth, and so precise, and deliberate to do whatever you want with your animation. Now, so as we said here, if I just grab this handle, pull it over, and then grab the first handle, pull it all the way, you can see our chart here it's so close together at the beginning and then further apart in the middle. Let me make it so extreme. So you can see what it means this at right now, the object is moving so slow at the beginning, it's easing, easing, and then all of a sudden, it picks up speed so fast and then it slows down again. Let's see what it looks like with this type of value graph. You can see without changing any of the timing, only changing the spacing of the animation, this animation feels much faster than our linear animation, it's got so much energy to it. Another thing I can do is even I can just pull this thing back a little bit and then pull this forward so that you can see the bezier handle a steep at the beginning, which means the object comes in with a speed before our object at zero second is with zero speed. Now, since it's got a curve at the start which means the object already has a speed coming into this frame, and it's fast at the beginning, and then slowly, slowly stop at the end. Let's see what it looks like with this type of animation curve. Speedup the beginning and then slow down in the end, and you can also see the first two stick they're so further apart, which means fast at the beginning and slow at the end. Then there are some other ways that I can modify the graph. Let's say if I want to change it this way and now just remember steepness equal speed, flatness equals slow, and you can see from the first second, the graph is steeper. Just look at the bezier handle. If the bezier handle is now flat, it's got speed. The steeper the bezier handlers is, or even the tangent of the graphics, the faster the movements are. So it's fast at the beginning, and then around 15 frames, it's slowing down. It's almost flat, but it never stop at the center here. It never comes to a stop, and then goes faster again. Let's see this animation. So fast, slow, fast, look at that. So that's interesting. If you don't know how to modify the spacing, how can you achieve that? There's no way that you can achieve. You can probably achieve it, but it's not going to be so smooth. By just changing the spacing of this animation, we get this smooth transition. You can see the object slowing down the center there, and then if I want to add another keyframe here, let's say if I want to add another key frame, just hold down command on the keyboard and then left-click, add a keyframe. So this is how you add a keyframe. If you go back to the timeline, you can see I also added a keyframe in the timeline. But once you know how to animate graphs, you don't even need to go back to the timeline, you just do everything, you just add keyframes, do your animation within this view here. You don't even need to go back to the timeline view. This thing is so flexible, you can do so many things to it, you can do so much stuff. Right now you can see the tangent is not flat. What if I made it flat? It's flat here, which means the object stops at the middle, the speed actually becomes zero for a moment and then pick up speed again. So if I preview this animation, you can see the object stops in the center. Now, what I want you to do is just to take this project file come to this easing keyframe demo and then just play around in the value graph, just make sure you change it to value graph instead of speed graph, and then see what kind of spacing you have over here and what kind of animation you will have with different type of graphs. Next, I'm going to show you how to use value graphs to animate some of the icons and how to apply the things that I showed you here to actual projects, actual animation. 4. Value Graph Demo 1.1: Now that you know what value graph is, in this video, I'm going to show you how to animate with value graph. Now here we, have a file with three type of icons, and we're going to animate the three icons with value graph, something that I showed you before. But before we do that, I want to show you the bad example and what most people do. Here, we have an animated version. Here's what I have. This type of animation, I only apply the default easing to all the keyframes. If I hit U here, you can see I put two keyframes, and then I easy ease them with the system default easy ease, that's the animation that I have. A lot of animator they just stop there. This is considered a bad example, is what most animators do. They just put two keyframes and they use the default easing, nothing else to it. But there's a lot you can do with value graph to just manipulating the spacing of the keyframes to get a different type of animation. I'm here today to show you how to do that. This is not what we want, let's start with a brand new composition. This one, I haven't animated yet, but we're going to call it good example. Now, let me just show you what I have here. Basically, the first three layers, if I toggle between the eye icon here, you can see this is a clock I have. First, this one is a clock body and then I have a clock handle, and then the checkmark. This one, the green layer, we have this arrow here, down arrow, and then this globe here. Now the third one, I have a pen here, and then all those content on the board and then this notebook here. Last there I have is a background. That's all we have. First, let's put the green layer, this globe to the first layer so that we can animate the globe first. Let's zoom in, hit on Z, and then drag with your mouse. First of all, let's identify this layer, and then I have the anchor point right in the center. If you don't, by the way, if you are not seeing the same panel as my After Effects, you can go to Windows, Workspace and then just choose Standard Work layout. If you are still not seeing it, just reset standard layout to save layout. This way, you're going to get a default standard layout, and now we should be seeing the same thing. Let's go to the scale. Just hit S on keyboard, and then let's put in a keyframe. I want to drag this timeline, make it bigger, and so I want this icon to stop maybe after 15 frames. Command Shift right arrow, go forward 10 frames and then command right arrow, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. You can see right now we're at 15 frames. Hit the stopwatch here, add a keyframe, and then go back, change C scale to zero. Now we have a movement here for the globe. What I want to do is go to the curves editor, fit the graph to view. Let's select "Keyframes" and then hit F9, easy ease. Now what I want to do is I want this to pop in. I want the globe to start from zero, but then pick up speed and then slowly just stop at 100 percent. I want the speed to be faster around this front portion of the animation and then slowly easing into position. Let's see what I got here. Click off the layer and then, it's still too slow. What I want to do is just drag this handle all the way, give them more energy, something like this. Let's preview. Yeah, that looks cool. That's pretty good. Then go back to the timeline, make the timeline smaller. We can just copy this already animated keyframes onto this arrow here, command V. We should have the same animation for the two elements. However, since it's a down arrow, it should have a coming down like a momentum somehow. I also want to change the position property, hit P, and then at this point here, I want the arrow to stop moving. Then around zero second, I want the arrow to come down from the top. There's one thing I want to point out. Going forward, every time you animate the position property, I want you to right-click separate dimensions. This is so important. If you're working with value graph, you have to separate dimensions for the X and Y position and animate those separately. Think about it, value graph, it's time versus value. But then if you have position is X and Y value is two different values. If you want to animate with value graph, you have to separate the dimension of X and Y so that you can just control one of the value. It's so important, it's key here is to just right-click the position property and then separate dimensions. Now, I can check off this exposition because we are only concerned with Y position. Then I just want to drag this Y position up. Let's preview this. The arrow just comes down, but it's got no energy because we didn't modify the graph yet. Let's go to the value graph, hit on this fit to view, and then select the two keyframes, F9, easy ease, and then I want a similar curve here for the arrow so that the animation is consistent. Now, let's go back and preview. Something like that. It's got more energy to it definitely. Looks nice. Now let's do the same thing for the second icon. This first layer is a clock. I want the clock to animate in the same as a globe. I just don't want to copy this scale property, put it on the clock here, go to zero seconds. Also, you need to make sure the anchor points, the point where the animation is based off need to stay in the center. If you go top here, this pen behind tool can allow you to move around the anchor points. Let's say if I have the anchor point on the top here, if I go to rotation, hit on R and I rotate, I'm going to rotate based off that anchor point position. That's not what I want. I just want to go back. I want the clock to come in from the center. The other thing that we need to pay attention to, is that the hand of the clock need to come in with the clock. What I need to do here is just to select the layer of this hand and then use this pick whip icon to just drag and then parent it to the clock, so that when the clock moves, the hand moves with it. Let's just change back to the original position. Now what I want to do is right-click position properties, separate dimensions, maybe around 15 second. I want the clock to settle in position. Then go back. I want the clock to move up so that I can change make the Y position drag. Just drag it to the right so that it moves down from zero seconds, so it comes up like that. That's the animation, something like that. Then now I want to modify the graph editor. Just go to the value graph. Then remember how we select the two keyframes. Another way you can select two keyframes is that just double-click on the Y position. Now, if I click one time, you can see the keyframes are not selected. If I double-click, these two keyframes are selected and then I can hit on F9, easy ease. But this time, I want this clock to ease in position. I want the clock to shoot up first, and then easing into position, something like that. Something like that. Let's go back to the timeline here, let's see what we have. It's still a little abrupt. Another thing I want to do is for the clock I don't want the clock to show at the beginning, I only want the clock to show when it's moving. What I need to do is just click on this layer and put the mouse at the beginning of the layer. Just drag it back a few frames so that the clock doesn't show up at the beginning. Now you can only see a hand, but then I need to drag the hand as well. Now let's preview this. You see that, it's subtle but nice. You can see this clock is not showing in the beginning, but when it appears on the screen, although it's sudden, but it's got a very subtle movement easing into the position. I want the clock to come in maybe a little earlier so that drag the two layers. Something like that. See that, it looks good. Now it comes to the clock hand. This one I just don't want it to move. Just hit R. I don't just want the hand to just rotate constantly because this is going to be an icon animation, which it's going to be static at the end. I just want this hand to rotate, stop there, but then when it comes in, I want it to just maybe rotate from negative 200-something degree. Something like that. Let's hit F9, easy ease, go to the value graph, add a bit more easing too it. Just use this S curve. Give it more energy. Let's see what it looks like. Another thing is I don't want it to stop at the beginning. I want to start moving already when it comes in. What I need to do is just, I'm thinking, just change it to this type of curve so that the hand is already moving. It's already got a speed at zero second when it comes into the frame so that it's not just starting to move when it comes in. I want the hand to start moving already when it comes in and then easing into position. Something like that. Let's see, or maybe the motion is too much. Maybe I can change it back to negative 150 instead of negative 230. Yeah, something like that. It works. Now it's our checkmark. The clock comes in and then for the checkmark is easy, let's just copy the globe here and then go to zero second, put the cursor timeline indicator at the zero second, select this check command V, paste it in place. Let's preview this. Something like that. It looks pretty nice. Let's save the project. 5. Value Graph Demo 1.2: Now, finally, it's our notepad. For the notepad, I wanted to come in from the top, move down. Same with the notepad, I got these line elements, and then this notepad. But then the line need to come with notepad, so I need to parent the line to this layer here so that it moves with it. Then the pen, that's fine. Hit P on the keyboard, and then right-click "Separate Dimensions." Now we've got y position, so I want the notepad to stop around here, 15 frame. Let's get our stopwatch here and then go to the start. I want it to start from the top, maybe somewhere around there. Let's click on both keyframes. Hit F9, Easy Ease. Go to the Graph Editor, make sure you're in the Value Graph, just click on this y position. So if you have both x and y position selected, it's going to show you this pink line of x position but this is not what you want because you won't be able to zoom in on the y. Just click off and then click on this y position again, so it's only showing you the y position. Now, same thing, I want the notepad to come in with a speed and then easing into position. Go back to the timeline here, and then I want to do the same trick as the clock. I don't want to see the notepad at the beginning, so I'm going to drag these two layers, the content, the lines and the notepad to the right a few frames so that it's now showing. You see the layer? It's not showing at the first frame and zero frame, and then two frames without anything and then pop into the scene, slowly easing into position. Let's see. Something like that. Since my notepad is coming from top to bottom, I want my pen to come in from bottom to top. Right-click "Separate Dimensions", put a keyframe here and then drag it down. Go to the Graph Editor, just F9, Easy Ease, set graph to view, and then just drag this curve. Make a curve like this so that it's easing into position, something like that. Then just drag it back a little bit. Just make sure if your mouse is like this, you are dragging the whole layer, including the keyframes. This is not what you want to do. What you want to do is just when your mouse becomes a two-headed arrow, you can just drag this layer to modify where the layer is going to show up on the timeline without changing the keyframes. Do you see the keyframe there? It's static, it's not moving with the layer? This is what you want to do. If your mouse is just one mouse cursor, you're going to drag the whole layer with the keyframes. This is not what you want to do. Let's preview, something like that. It looks nice. If we want to even go further, I can also animate the lines here. I already have a precomp here, but we can just go inside this precomp, double-click, zoom in. This is what we have. We have the lines and the dots. You know what we can do? We can just do one lie and then copy and paste. Let's see. Where's the first line? This is the first line. I want to put it on top, and then just go to the scale. Make sure to put the anchor point. Just go to the pen behind tool, drag the anchor point to the far left of the line. Now the lines going to animate based off that anchor point. Go back to the Selection tool. Now you can see when I click on this line, it's got an anchor point on the left. So just check off this link button here so that I can animate the Scale property. Hit a keyframe, go forward 10 frames, and then put a keyframe there. Only modify the x value. Change it to zero so that the line can just grow up horizontally, something like that. See that? Now we can just Easy Ease. Go to Graph Editor, Value Graph, click on the Scale property and then drag this handle to this S-curve shape, something like that. Now I can just duplicate this line animation to the three lines over there. Delete this one, delete this one, delete this one. Then I can just Command D, Command D, Command D. That's D for duplicate. Then I can move these animated lines down to replace the ones that are already deleted. Now I've got four lines that's animated. But then another thing is I want them to be staggered. I don't want them to animate and come in at the same time. I want to stagger them by two frames, something like that. This is too small, so I don't want to animate this circle anymore. All I want to do when the line animates in, I want the circle to pop onto the screen. Just change them, the starting point of the layer to the same starting point as the line so they just come in like that. Drag everything back one frame. I feel like the circles come in too fast, maybe move it back one frame further, something like that. You see? Now we can go back to the good example. Let's see the final animation for the notepad. You see? Now what I want to do is just to stagger the three icon animation. After this globe settles in position, I want to start the clock, and then once the clocks settles in position, I want to start the notepad. Three seconds of animation. There you go. That's how we animate using Value Graph. Now let's compare the good example and bad example, see what's the difference between using Value Graph and not using it. This is a good example. It's got more energy. It looks very smooth and it's got a purpose. It's very deliberate. However, let's see the bad example here. It looks very flat. The whole animation is it doesn't have any life to it. It's just no energy at all, very systematic. It looks very default. Well, there you go. That's your first lesson now how to animate with Value Graph. I'll see you in the next video. 6. Value Graph Demo 2: In this video, I'm going to show you another example of how to animate with Value Graph to control the speed of your animation. Now, I've already got this file set up. You can take my file. I'm going to put it available to download so that you can use this file to practice. So here in the file, you can see I have this graphic here, made of just one line. I've one layer at the bottom, just as a hint of the logo, what it looks like and then I can just lock it. On top, I have another layer that's in color. What I want to do is go to this down arrow and then come to this button here, add a trim path effect. If I change the ending value of the trim path, you can see the lines actually animating as if it's drawing onto the screen. Now, I want to put this percentage at three percent to only show a portion of the line and then if I animate the offset value, if I change the offset value you can see the lines are actually moving along the path. So this is how we want to animate this logo here. It's very simple. All I want to do is to put a keyframe here at zero second when the value is zero and then go to the fifth second and put one full rotation. Put one here in the front and if I preview the animation, this is what I get. The line is just traveling along the path. I can cut the preview here, hit on "N" and that's how it's going to loop. However, right now it's so boring. We didn't add any easing to it. We didn't change any of the Value Graph. It's just one simple animation with two default keyframe. Here, I want to show you how to use Value Graph to animate this. I want this thing to resemble as if there is gravity taking place so that when the line moves up to the top, it's slowing down because it's going up. It's slowing down to the top and then once it goes over the hump, it moves faster, faster, faster until this point here when the line need to go up again and slows down and then go faster again when it enters the slope and then it goes slow, quick, and then slow, fast and then slowing and then go very fast. Basically, I want to have this line to animate as if there's gravity taking place. Gravity in effect. How do we do that? First, we need to put a keyframe whenever there's B change. Let's say on the zero second, we have to have a keyframe at zero second and then if I toggle the timeline over here, so before the line comes to the top, it just slow down and then after it goes over the hump, it should go faster. So this is where the speed change. We need to add a keyframe. Now, go forward. Over here, this is where the line needs to slow down, I need to add a keyframe and then on the top, it needs to go faster, add a key frame and then over here, same thing, should slow down starting from there. Then this point here should go faster starting from there and then this point, speed change; this point, speed change; and this point, speed change; and then this point, speed change. So those are all the points where the lines need to change in speed. Select all of them, right-click "Keyframe Assistant", "Easy Ease". This is going to be a default easing. If we preview this, that doesn't look right. It's not very smooth and then it just doesn't make sense. Now, what we're going to do, select all of them, go to the Graph Editor. You can see this is what it looks like. I just want to select this Offset value. Go to this button "Fit to view". First, we need to think about it. So at this top point here, going into this point, the line should be slowing down because it's going up. Which means the line should already have a speed at the beginning and then I don't want it to slow down all the way to zero because right now if I just zoom in on this, it's "Z" on the keyboard and then zoom in. You can see this Bezier handle is totally flat. I don't want it to be flat because it means the speed is zero. I just want it to slightly taut a bit so that it's not flat but when I drag the handle, you can see those two handles are broken. That's not what we want because we want the speed going in here and then going out to be the same. So what I need to do is just select this point here and then go to the Convert, Select a keyframe to Auto Bezier, which means that two handles are going to be locked together. Now, you can see when I adjust one handle, the other one changes too. At this point, I just slightly want to adjust this handle with an angle so that it never stop. However, at the beginning, the line should go faster because otherwise there's not enough velocity for it to go over the hump at the top. So basically at zero second, I want this to already have a speed. Remember flatness equals zero, steepness equals speed. So I want this graph here to have a steeper slope here. To have a bigger angle, so it goes faster and then slowing down and over here, at this point, it should go faster, faster, faster. Which means at this point, the Bezier handle, you see is broken again. I just need to lock them together. The Bezier handle need to be on the angle, something like that, so that it has speed and then from this point going out, it's already got a steeper angle. So that it means from this point going up, it's fast first, with a momentum from the last part of the animation from this coming down. It's still got the momentum and then all of a sudden when it reached the top, it slows down again. But right now, this curve here, you can see it's flat, let me lock it first, which means it's zero. However, I don't want the speed to be zero, so I wanted to slightly adjust this curve here, something like that and then go to this frame. It's essentially the same thing. First, let's lock this and then same thing, put a steeper graph to it, something like this so it go faster and then over here at the top, lock this over here, it's slowing down. But I don't want it to be flat, otherwise, it's going to mean zero. I don't want it to stop there so it goes all the way over here. It should start picking up speed, lock the handle, change it to something like this. Then over here, same thing lock the handle, give it a very gentle curve and then keep going. Over here, lock the handle. This part, it should start speeding up, goes to the top. From here, it's going to slow down. We can first make it flat and then give it a slight angle and then at the end, it's going to be moving faster again, something like that. So if I see the whole graph, you can see this is what it looks like, it's very smooth. Now, let's preview the animation. You can see now it's very smooth. There is speed change when it goes up, it slows down and then when it comes down, it moves faster as if there's gravity taking place. With this example, I just want to show you how to by just manipulating the spacing of the animation and then using the Value Graph, you can actually achieve something that you are not able to achieve if you are not using the Value Graph. Then this animation is going to be super smooth and you can do so much to it. Now, if I want to do a logo reveal, I can maybe just duplicate this layer, Command D and then put it behind that. Maybe I can move this back one frame or two frames so that it starts two frames slower, maybe just one frame and then I can change the fill color of this to maybe a blue color, something like that. Maybe I can duplicate another one, put it behind it and then offset one frame. Change this color to a bright yellow, something like that and then if I preview, you can see there is two lines with two different color that's trailing behind. But this time, the animation is much more complicated. It looks complicated, but it's very simple to do. Now, what I want to do is maybe just unlock this one. I don't have a trim path to it yet, so I can just add a trim path effect. Then maybe set the final end value at 100 [inaudible] at the fifth second mark and then go back to zero second, set the value to zero. Then I want to change the opacity back to 100. Now, let's preview the animation. It's almost like a draw on effect. So this is how we animate this logo reveal. 7. Assignment: Value Graph: Congrats on finishing this first section. So far, we covered two important topics. One is timing and spacing, the concept of timing and spacing. Two is value graph, what is value graph and how to animate with value graph. With that said, here comes our first assignment on value graph. Let's take a look, see what it is. Here is the file that I already setup for you. I got three logos here, and I want you to use the same way that I teach you in the previous two classes and animate this logo. You can choose any one of them, or if you want to do more, you can animate all three. But I want you to animate those logos with value graph, something that I showed you in the previous classes, and it's very simple. You can just animate all these elements in each logo and you can go into each composition to animate those. Then if you want to do all three, you just go into each composition, animate all these elements. Maybe it's either scale, position change, rotation, whatever you want to do, just don't forget to use the value graph to animate all of them. Once you're done with this animation, you can share it with me so that I can provide some feedback to help you with learning. All right. That's it for the class project. I can't wait to see what you come up with. Good luck. 8. Speed Graph Explained: Welcome back. Did you have a hard time with value graph in the previous lessons? Don't worry you're going to get comfortable with it once you practice a lot and then start using it in your projects. Today, fun time again, I want to show you another type of graph in the Graph Editor, which you know is going to be the Speed Graph. If you have problem learning value graph or had a lot of pain learning it, don't worry. I can assure you this Speed Graph is going to be 10 times more painful than the value graph. To be honest, Speed Graph is easier to get lost, and it's just not as intuitive as the value graph. However, sometimes in certain situations, Speed Graph is the only thing that you can use to animate, so the Speed Graph is as important as value graph. However, if you like value graph more, you can, in the future, animate more with value graph. I also know some animators, they only animate with the Speed Graph. Depends on what you like, you can choose whatever ones do you like to animate with. However, there's certain situations that you have to animate with Speed Graph, something that you cannot do with value graph. Remember this project I showed you before, this loop animation. Today, in this lesson, I want to show you how to achieve this loop animation with a Speed Graph instead of the value graph. Now, let's go into the keyframes. Remember how we animated this line animation? We just put in a keyframe whenever their speed change, and then we modify in the value graph based on our understanding of steepness equals speed and then flatness equals zero. Whenever there's speed change, when the line goes faster like this part here, the line goes faster, we want a steeper graph here, and then one is slows down. We want a smaller angle like more gentle curve here, so steeper curve means faster animation, and then gentle curve means slowing down. In the end, this is the type of graph that we get with this animation. This is the value graph, it's very smooth. Now, let's see what it looks like in the Speed Graph. Let's click on this icon, go to Edit Speed Graph. What is that? Look at that. With the same animation, this is a Speed Graph that we get. Let me make it bigger. In the Speed Graph, you can see the x-axis, it's going to be increasing in time, and then the y-axis going up, it's going to be increasing in speed. Remember, when we animate this line, we add a keyframe whenever their speed change. In the front, we want the speed to be high, and then going up all the way to the top, we want the speed to slow down. That's why you can see it's almost close to zero, and then when the line comes down again, it should speed up, and that's why you can see over here the speed goes up again. The graph can tell, the graph can show you that right now, it's almost like 400 pixels per second, the speed goes up and then slows down again, goes up, slows down, goes up, slows down. That's how we get the same kind of animation with a Speed Graph. However, I don't want to just show you the end product, I want to show you how to do it if we don't have this in position. Now, let's just go back to the timeline, and then hold down Command left-click so we can change all the keyframe to linear keyframe, and there's no speed change anymore. Select all of them, go to the Graph Editor. Now, make sure you're in the Speed Graph. This is a Speed Graph field with linear keyframes, everything is flat, there's no speed change. However, the speed is not zero. Right now, it says 70 pixels per second, and you can see that zero line's over here. Now, what we're going to do is just to adjust the speed at each point of the animation to whatever speed that we want. Remember, in the beginning, we want the speed to be faster. We can drag this up. Then at this point here, we want it to slow down. However, when I drag it, you can see the two handle just broke, same thing with the value graph. What we need to do is just to lock the two handles, select this one and then go to set to auto Bezier just to lock. I want to do all of them so that I don't have to worry about it later on. Just select the two keyframes there and then lock the handles. Lock them, lock them, lock them. Now, when I drag one of them, the two is going to come together, go hand-in-hand. That's how we want the speed to go down. At this point, it should start to speed up again, just put it way up and you may ask me how fast do we want it to be? Right now, it says 100, how fast do we want it to be? To be honest, it just comes with practice and experience. First, you never know how fast you want it to be, but it really depends on the timing between the two keyframes. Then the rule of thumb is to just make the curve as smooth as possible without any spikes so that it should look pretty smooth. Now, we can just do the first round, and then if it's not fast or slow enough, we can adjust later on. I just want to put it something like that. At this point, slows down and then this point's faster, this point's slow. You see this thing here, that looks weird. I don't know why. Maybe it's because it's not fast enough. I don't know why. Then at this point, faster, this point's slowing down, and this point faster slowing down. Let me just adjust the handle here, something like this is not smooth at all, just adjust this one here. Sometimes when you're adjusting the Speed Graph, it doesn't work like the value graphs. When you adjust one of the handle, nothing else changes except for that handle that you're adjusting, but then for the Speed Graph whenever you change something, there's always something else that's changing with it. You just have to deal with the uncertainty within the Speed Graph, as long as you have something smooth or it looks smooth, your animation should be good. Another way, right now, I have this Speed Graph adjusted. I can go to this icon here and then show reference graph. That case is going to show me the value graph underneath, so that this case, I can just tell with the Speed Graph I have right now, it almost similar to the value graph that we get lift previously, so I can tell the animation is probably going to be something similar to what we had before. Let's just preview this and see what happens. Slows down, goes faster, slows down, goes faster, slows down. Yeah. You know what? It actually looks pretty good. It feels very natural except for the first loop, I feel like the first loop is on the top there, it's not slow enough. It's too fast, so I just want to adjust maybe one more thing here. However, I don't want it to slow all the way to zero, maybe I can drag the handle so that given more time to easing in and out of the frame so that there is a slight ease to it. There's a moment that says hanging there, something like that, and then let's preview it again. Yeah. It looks better, it looks much better. Just pay attention to the first loop. Yeah. Enhance there at the top and then goes down again. This is how you do a similar animation with Speed Graph. Then next video, I'm going to show you one more example of how to use Speed Graph to animate. 9. Speed Graph Demo: All right. In this lesson, I want to show you another example of how to animate with Speed Graph. Just to help you with learning how the Speed Graph works, I have this composition set out, I have rock and then I have a background, which is a space. All I want to do is to let this rocket just move around the screen within this space here. I want this to move along a path which the path is going to be having all of these ups and downs and then I want the rocket when it goes up, it slows down as the previous video. Then when it moves down the slope or down the curve, it's speeding up. To demonstrate, say if I have a curve like this, your rocket slows down at this point here and then goes faster around here, and then take the momentum with it, goes up, slows down. Something like that. First let's just draw a random motion path. I want to go up here to this pen tool and then I want to maybe draw a smooth motion path, maybe with a curve like this. I don't know. Something like that. If that looks good. That looks good, something like that. That's the motion path of my rocket. There's a few points. I need to pay attention to this curve here. There's a few point that the rocket is going to change the speed. Around here, is going to go fast here and then this point here, is going to have a speed change, is going to go from fast to slow. Then this top here is going to be the slowest, it's going to hang there a bit and then moves faster coming down and then slows down again at the top of there. Then goes faster and then slows down a bit and then exit the frame. That's what we're going to have for our rocket. However, if I just use this line that I drew here, all these points are going to become the key frames on this motion paths. However, these points are not the points with the speed change on the rocket. I wouldn't be able to work with this motion paths. What I need to do is to redraw this motion path with this point, specifically positioned at the point where the rocket is going to change the speed. To demonstrate that I want to lock this motion path. I want to redraw this motion path here, maybe one key over here, and then this is a point where the rocket is going to change speed. I want to put a key frame there. Now on the top, this is where it's going to change speed again. I want to put the key frame over there. It doesn't have to be exact. Then this is a down point where the rocket's changing speed, put a key frame there. Then this is another high points with speed change. I can adjust this handle here. Then over here, this is where it's going to adjust the speed. This is a high point where the speed changes. Then from there is going to exit the frame. Now let me just modify the curve a little bit so that it resembles what we had before. Something like that. Now I can delete the previous one we drew. Make sure you like the curve that you have because you won't be able to adjust it later on once you apply a motion path to the rocket. All right. This is the curve that I like. It's very simple to let the rocket travel along this path. First we need to go to this down arrow content and then shape, go to the path and then add a keyframe on the path property. Then copy this, Command C, copy this keyframe. Then go to the rockets, hit P on the keyboard, turn on the position property, make sure you copy the path keyframe into the rocket position property, Command V. Now if I hide this original line and I can just preview here, you can see the rocket's traveling along the path. Right now it's taking two seconds. I can drag this one, make it maybe take three seconds. Let it take longer time. Yes, something like that. The first problem we have is the rocket is not facing the right direction. So I can go to rotation and then just change the rotation of rocket, like this, so that is facing the right direction. Another thing is we need to turn on the auto orients. Because if I only adjust the rotation, it's just going to face one direction all the time. But then when it turns like here, it doesn't make sense anymore. What we want to do is just turn on auto orients. Its under layer, transform and then auto orients, turn on this, orient along path. Now let me just change the rotation value again so it's facing to the right direction. Then let's preview. It looks fine now. It's always facing the right direction to the path. Hit "U" on the keyboard to show all the keyframes. Another thing before we go to the Speed Graph, we need to turn these keyframes into a regular linear key frame. The way to do that is right-click. First, we need to turn off this Rove Across Time, and then select all of them again, hold Command on the keyboard and then left-click. Now, you can see these keyframes are just regular linear keyframes. Let's go to the Graph Editor. Make sure you're in the Speed Graph. Let's click on the Position. Now, you can see all of these points here, the speed is constant. We can start animating with the Speed Graph to adjust the speed of this rocket. First, at this top point here, I want this rocket to maybe from this point, let me think about it. At the second point here, this should be the place where the rockets is fastest because it's coming down from a slope, that's why this point should be the highest, which means the first point should be lower than the second point. Let's just drag this down a little bit, something like that. Then this is the fastest point. Then when it goes up, over here at this point, this point should be pretty slow. You see there's that broken tangent again. I need to just make sure these keyframes are all locked together. They're all locked together. When I move one of them, both is going to move at the same time. At this point, I want it to slow down because this is top point, it should lose some energy when it climbs up. Then at this point here, it should be fast, which means right now, it should look good. I'm trying to make this point slow without letting this graph go over this max value, because otherwise, the highest point is going to be here. What I need to do, maybe I'm thinking I need to drag this point higher so that at this point, it's still half the highest speed. Let's try to drag these two points so that this point at the bottom of the slope here, this point is the fastest speed and then it goes slow and then faster again. At this point, it's fastest speed and then starts to climb up, which comes to this point here at the top. That means the rocket is going to lose a lot of the energy climbing up, and then that's why it slows down again. The speed is very low and then at this point, after a very big slope, this point should be the fastest, maybe over here. Then it slows down again. Something like that and then it exit the frame. Now, let's preview and see if my graph makes sense. Well right now it doesn't make so much sense because the speed is barely changing. I feel like the changes are not extreme enough so that I don't feel there's any hanging in the air at the top there, which means I need to keep adjusting it. I think at the top there, it's still too fast. I need to pull it all the way down, make sure it's hanging there. Another thing is right now, I need to pull these handles so that there's a hang. As I was pulling the handles, you can see those two curves are adjusting with the handle being pulled. Which means the highest point is not going to be this key frame point anymore, it's becoming this point over here. In that case, I not only need to drag this point all the way up, because one thing I need to pay attention to is this key point here. Keyframes are always need to be the point with the fastest speed. I cannot let the other curve, the other points go over that key frame point. Otherwise, it won't be realistic. It won't be right. In this case, I want this to hang in the air. However, I want this point to still be the fastest, highest point. I need to keep dragging this up. Now that's good and then I need to direct this handle here, these two. Make it hang in the air a bit, and then drag this, pull this up, try to smooth out the curve over here, right now the lowest speeding point is this section over here, which is not right. I need to pull this down and then just try to smooth out the curve. Now you can see this part is not right. I need to put this point all the way up give it more speed. This part here, I want it to hang a little bit, drag the handle, and pull this up. Pull this point up, pull this point up. Then try to adjust this handle here. I think that's more extreme. But the curve is still pretty smooth. It doesn't have weird spikes or whatever. Let's see what it looks like now. That works for me. Look at that. There's a lot of hang time at the top there. There is a lot of speed changes. Another thing is I feel like the whole animation is too fast. It's probably too fast. What I want to do is select all the key frame, and then hold down "Option" on the Mac Autumn PC, drag the last key frame out all the way to the fourth second mark. Let's see if that changes anything. Let's just give more time to the animation. This way, right now, what I did is just adjust the timing of the animation. Give it one more second so that the animation is taking one more second. That's it with this lesson. Now you should know how to animate with speed graph and next is our Speed Graph project. 10. Assignment: Speed Graph: Here I've set up the project for you. I just want you to do the same thing as my previous lesson. We have a astronaut here. You can just animate either this our astronaut or this rocket using the same way that I animated the rocket in the previous lesson. Just draw a motion path first and then apply the motion path to one of the element here or two of them, and then let them just float in the space. Don't forget to adjust the speed graph to make the animation smooth and realistic and nice. Good luck with this project. I can't wait to see what you come up with. 11. Oscillation: Congratulations on finishing the previous lessons, you've made it this far and are already familiar with two types of graphs and how to use them. You are already better than 50 percent of the motion graphic artists out there, which is awesome. If you're enjoying the lesson and benefiting from it so far, don't forget to take a minute to leave me a review. That would mean a lot to me, really appreciate it. From now on, we're going to talk about more of the advanced stuff, what the majority of the motion designers don't know. Hopefully, you are all excited because I am excited, and it's going to get a bit more difficult, so bear with me and let's jump right in. In this lesson, we're going to talk about oscillation. What is oscillation? Oscillation is a movement that goes back and forth put simply. Here you can see on my screen I have a pendulum clock here and with a Santa standing on it. But if I go to the rotation property of this layer, and you can see right now my anchor point is all the way on the top. That's why want to change the value of the rotation. You can see the pendulum is swinging based on the anchor point from the top. Now let's see how we can animate this movement with graph editor. Let's say if the rotation value at the zero second starting from, let's say negative 40, and then let's add a keyframe here. Go forward, maybe 20 frames, add another keyframe, put in 14 positive, and now this is what we have here. Let's select both and then go into the graph editor, this icon here, and then fit the graph to view. Make sure we're in the value graph instead of the speed graph. This is the two keyframe that we inserted. We need to add another keyframe, give it another 20 frames, and then copy this first keyframe, Command C, and then copy here, Command V. Now we have this V shape, which has the keyframe that animate this pendulum swing from left to right. Now if we copy all three keyframes, select copy, and then put the indicator as the last keyframe, Command V, paste it in. Now we have the same movement, just repeating. Let me just copy it a few times. Now we got five V shape here. Let's preview this. You can see it doesn't look so realistic, it doesn't have any energy. Now what we need to do is, first of all, right-click, Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Let's just put in a default easing to it. See what happens. All of a sudden, it looks better already, but is far from what we want here. Now let's go inside the value graph. We can see, the value curve, if we select all the points on the top here and then drag this handle all the way to make it the most extreme, I just want to show you what's going to happen if we have a very extreme curve, something like this. The movement is going to be much more dramatic. However, this is not what we want either. We want to have something in between, double-click on the Rotation, bring up the curve again, and then we can just slightly drag the curve to give it some energy. Now it's much better and it looks much more realistic, very deliberate. That's how we use the value graph to animate the pendulum swinging, and that's called a oscillation in animation. However, in real life, you don't have something like this, just keeps moving back and forth because there's always other forces like gravity or resistance to the object moving. In reality, most of the time, when it swings, the energy is going to lose a bit and then slowly, slowly is going to settle in one place. In that case, let's see how we can animate this pendulum losing energy. Let's go to the zero second, go back to the Graph Editor, double-click on the Rotation. Remember, like I said, when the pendulum swings, it's going to gradually losing energy, something like this. After each swing, the rotation is just going to go closer and closer to zero degree, it's going to decay like this, and then finally settled at zero second. If we preview this graph, I just want to make sure this curve is not to exaggerated. I want to move these handle in a little bit, and then I can use that on the keyboard to zoom in on this section here. Try to adjust this one to be more precise, and then I can use space bar to navigate in the Graph Editor, try to make it more precise. This is going to be the curve that we have for this animation. Let's preview this and see what happens. Now I want to swing so you can clearly see the energy is losing, and then it slowly, slowly settle into position. However, in this case, we do have another problem because most of the time when we have a decay curve like this, as the object is losing energy, it doesn't take the same amount of time for it to lose energy. What I mean is that, for these keyframes, at the end here, each one is going to be closer and closer to each other. What I want to do is just select all the keyframe at the back here, move forward one frames. Select this one, move form maybe one or two frames, and then select this move forward two frames. They're going to be closer and closer to each other because it's lost a lot of the energy, that's why the animation is going to take less time, definitely less time than at the start of the motion. Just want to try to move these keyframes closer. You can see right now, I'm not even in the keyframe timeline. I'm just animating everything in the Graph Editor. I don't have to go back and forth between the actual keyframe timeline and the Graph Editor. I can do everything I want in the Graph Editor itself just to be more efficient. Now you can see I've given significantly less time at the back end of the animation. Then let's preview and see what happens. Yeah, that looks much better now. Now, I found another issue where now this curve here, this point is too high because I feel like from this point to this point is not losing enough energy, so there is a glitch or jump there, which is why I don't want, just want to push it down even further. A lot of this comes with practice. Sometimes you cannot see what the real issue is if you're just getting started. But then after animating for awhile and then looking at other people's work, you're going to train your eyes to look at stuff and then be able to tell what is a good animation and what might be the problem. I'll leave it there. That's your oscillation. In next video, we're going to see how we can use this technique to translate into actual animation work. 12. Anticipation and Overshoot: All right. Now we've got to over the pendulum, the oscillation, it'll be easier for you to understand this very important animation principle, which is anticipation and overshoot. That's what we're going to talk about in this lesson. Well, anticipation is one of the traditional animation principles, but overshoot isn't. But they're basically talking about the same thing. What is anticipation and overshoot? It's actually quite easy to understand. Let's use this logo as an example. Here I have this Bella natural beauty logo, and right now I can turn off these texts layers. I just want to leave this leaf here. Now I want to move this anchor point to the center of the leaf. Now I'd want to move this leaf to the center of the comp. I can use this Title/Action Safe to make sure where is the center of my frame here so I can just align it here. That the leaf that I have. First, what I want to do is I want this leave to pop up from probably like 20 percent of the size and then pop up to 100 percent, or maybe 50 percent. Let's say, let me turn off this action grid. Let's say if I have this leave here and then at zero seconds and I want to go from 50 percent to maybe after 20 frames to 100 percent. That's my motion there. Then let's go to the graph editor. Make it bigger. First of all, let's talk about anticipation. Anticipation is just moving to the opposite direction of where the object is going to move and anticipate. Which means in this case, if I want to make this leaf bigger, I want to add a keyframe maybe around the third frame. Hold down Command and then mouse left-click at a keyframe to anticipate go to the opposite direction which is being smaller. To anticipate it's going to be bigger. Which means at zero seconds it's going to be around 50 percent and then it shrinks first before it goes bigger. Let me select three keyframes. Right-click Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. This is my anticipation keyframe. For overshoots, overshoot means that before the object settle in position, it goes over the final state. In this case right now at 100 percent, before it settles into 100 percent, I'm going to add a keyframe here. Hold down Command and then left-click. Drag this keyframe up so the object actually goes over 100 percent to maybe 105 percent, and then settles back in place. You can see right now in this case, I have both my anticipation keyframe and then the overshoot keyframe. This is the overshoot. Let me drag these handles, makes the motion more exaggerated, and we'll see what happens. What it looks like. Let's preview. You can see the leaf actually shrinks before it moves up, getting bigger. Then it becomes too big before it settles into position. Which makes this animation super smooth, also gives a bit character to this leaf. Right now, the things I found is that the animation itself is too slow, which makes the anticipation and overshoot not so exaggerated, it's hard to see. What I want to do is exaggerate this a bit more just for demonstration purposes, select all the keyframes, hold down Option, drag the last keyframes move it forward. Give it less time, and then try to make this overshoot to go over even more and then anticipate even more. Let's see what this looks like. Yeah, that's better, easier to see. If you take a closer look at this curve here, if you remember what we did in the previous lesson, let's go back to the oscillation example here, clock rotation. Remember this oscillation decaying curve here? This is what it is if you just take the three key frames or even the last four keyframes, this section here. If I were to add more anticipation to this animation, this is exactly what it is coming from. It came from this oscillation move. This section here. If I have a much bigger move, let's say if I have this leaf maybe getting larger and larger to let's say 200 percent or around here, I can Add more key to make this overshoot even smoother. What I need to do is, remember in this oscillation example, we have this last portion of the keyframe closer to each other? Which means in this case here, let's say I have this is the overshoot and then I got six frames for the first keyframes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and then 1, 2, 3, 4. Let's go for four frames, add a keyframe, and then go for two frames, add a keyframe. Then select all of them, right-click, Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Now, what I can do is I can drag this one down a little bit, give it a overshoot and also oscillation move. Make sure the energy is dying, decaying, so each curve is becoming smaller and smaller, closer to this final percentage points. If I have a curve like this, let's see what happens to the animation. You can see it actually balances of it. That's how, although it's not a ball bounce, but it actually bounces a bit. That's how you create a balance animation to the object. If I were to make it more exaggerated, I can make the bounce even more dramatic, the spring even more dramatic. Just drag this up. Let's see what happens. I want to drag this even higher and then make sure I have these handles to control some of the animation, the spacing of the animation. Now let's preview. Now you can see we got something that has much more energy to the previous one. This one's more springy. You can see this type of curve is the same as this oscillation decaying curve here, the last portion of this one. That's how you create a anticipation, which is the first keyframe over here to anticipates the motion. Then we have these keyframe here for the overshoot. Finally it got to the final position, which is the last keyframe here. 13. Animate with Anticipation: Now we've got the leaf animation. Let's finish the logo reveal. I want to use the same method. But I think my leaf's gone too big for the logo. I want to shrink it down. Make it again back to 100 percent. Make sure the final key frame sits on 100 percent here. Something like that over there. Then I'm going to give you more examples. Now, I'm going to animate the position property. I can hit P on the keyboard, right-click Separate Dimensions, make sure you separate dimensions when you use value graph. Then all I need to do is animate this x position here, hit X to add a key frame here. I want to make sure where is the final position. It should start at 960. Then after a couple of frames, it goes over here. This is going to be the final position. I don't know why my leaf is kind of shifted down so that it's not aligning properly with my other layers. Since I don't have any key frame on the y position, I can just fix the alignment here. This is going to be my final position to the leaf, and there I got the initial position over here. Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease, go to the graph editor. Click on x position. I want to see how many frames this is. There's only three frames. Too little. I need to give them more time. I want to see all the key frames. Also this is still too high, I need to pull this one down a bit more. Pull this one down a bit more. The leaf is still springy and then after it settles, I want this to start moving left. Give it 10 frames. This is 10 frames. Go back to the graph editor, give it anticipation after maybe two frames, hold down command and then left-click, drag this key frame up. This is going to be our anticipation key frame. I want to exaggerate this movement as well because the leaf is more springy. I want all the other elements in this logo to resemble the animation on the leaf. Now I'm on the second last frame here, add another key frame, give it a overshoot here, like this. Then make sure you pull the handle of the graph to adjust the spacing so that is going to have more energy. Something like that. Let's preview. Nice. Now I just want to animate this curved line here. Hit P, right-click Separate Dimensions. Make sure this is final position, the x position of the line there and then go backward. Move it to the right. Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease, go to the graph editor, x position and then give it an overshoot. Give it that overshoot. Is going to be subtle. I just want a subtle overshoot here. Drag these handles to manipulate the spacing. Then here, I'm going to introduce something else, the Alpha Matte. What is an Alpha Matte? Basically what you do is you just create a shape here. Then make sure you have a fill in the shape. I can turn off the stroke. I just hold down Option and then left-click to turn off the stroke there. Then with this shape layer, the matte on top of this curve line, I can turn the curve line, go down here, click on this second icon and then you can see there's a Track Matte switch. Then I can use a Alpha Matte, which means wherever this rectangle is visible, the layer below it it's going to be visible. Then wherever this layer is not visible, the layer beneath it is not visible. Which means, at the beginning, and you can see here, my rectangle is over here, but my curve line is all the way outside the rectangle. If I turn it off, you will see that my curve line, it's outside of this rectangle, so if I put on the Alpha Matte, it's going to be hidden. Then once it enters that rectangle, is going to show up on the screen. That's what I need. Something like that. Now you can see there is a overshoot on this curve line layer as well. We're probably going to use Alpha Matte more in the future lessons, so don't worry if you can't understand the Alpha Mattes. We're going to talk about that later. That's what I have. Then I want to animate this Bella layer, hit P, right-click Separate Dimensions. I want to animate the x position. Make sure you have one key frame. This is the final position and then go backward, maybe around here. This is where it's going to start moving. Drag it all the way to the left. Then right-click Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease go to the graph editor, x position, go for three frames add a key frame and then make sure this is the anticipation key frame. You know what? I don't think this key frame is necessary again, because I want this Bella texts disappear from the screen when the leaf comes to the left, this Bella just shoot to the right. We won't be able to see this anticipation. I don't need this, I can delete this. Go back and back and then just, I don't need it anymore. But we'll be able to see the overshoot. Go back three key frames, add a key frame and then make sure you adjust the handle. Something like that. You can see there's a overshoots, and I feel like this is too much. I want to zoom in on this. Go forward two frames and then add another key frame. This is going to be my final position so that I can drag the one before it down a little bit to smooth out the curve. Let's see what happens here. Something like that. That looks nice. Then I can animate this Natural Beauty, hit on P, position, right-click Separate Dimensions. Now what I need to do, just copy this x position, Command C, go to the Natural Beauty layer, put the indicator to the front, this first key frame here, align that and then paste in the key frame. Now it's going to animate the same way at that Bella layer. Now what I need to do is just to add an Alpha Matte so that it doesn't show up over here. It only shows up on the right-hand side of this leaf here. Go to this rectangle tool, draw a rectangle here to cover that final position and put it on top of this Bella layer, this is going to be the Matte Bella. Then duplicate, Command D, put it on top of that Natural Beauty layer, this is a Matte Natural Beauty. Then all we need to do is go to this Bella layer, set the Track Matte to Alpha Matte, and then go to the Natural Beauty layer, set the Matte to Alpha Matte. Next what I want to do is to put the leaf layer on top so that it's covering everything else. I think I accidentally changed the position of this Natural Beauty layer. All I need to do is just go to one of the key frame and then select all of them. Change the x position so that everything moves altogether. That's good. Then what I want to do actually is to move everything forward one frame so that there's nothing on the frame as zero second. Then my leaf just pop on the screen and then pop up. Another small glitch I've found, at first second over here, I can still see that y over there come from the Natural Beauty line. What I want to do is just drag this x position even further to the left so that it's completely outside of that Alpha Matte and is not showing on the screen. All right. That's to our logo reveal and the demonstration on anticipation and overshoots. 14. Logo Reveal Bonus: I'm thinking of doing something else to make it even further, more appealing. What I want to do is right now for the leaf, it's going to be simple, bare with me. Duplicate Command D, and then go to U and then just delete the X Position. I just want this to pop up and then disappear. So this is the scale and then go four, maybe five frames. Change to zero, disappear. Cut this, something like that. Now what I want to do is duplicate a bunch of them and scatter it around the screen. Like that, give it a random. Just drag some of the layers forward and backward a little bit so that they are not coming up at the same time. Give it some randomness. Let's see what happens. I don't know if I'm crazy. You know what I want to do? I want to cut these layers in the front of your frames so that the leaf is already moving when it comes up. Because right now, as it stands right now at the first zero frames for a second, the leaf pop onto the screen, but it's not moving. So that pause, it looks very unnatural. What I want to do is just to cut this a bit. Cut, cut. This one cut, this one cut, this one cut. Now let's see what happens. I want these to disappear earlier. Last three, I wanted to disappear earlier so that it's not interfering with my logo animation. Anyways, there's just something extra to think about. If you don't like this extra spice here, you can just take it off, and yeah if you don't like this, you can just don't do the last part. But all I wanted to demonstrate is to how to use anticipation and overshoot. There you go. That's it for this lesson. Let's go to the next video. 15. Real Project Demo 1.1: Fun time and project time. In this lesson, we're going to use everything we learned so far to animate this illustration, a very short one, maybe only ten seconds, and see what we can do. Without further ado, let's jump right in. Now, after effects and I already have this cassette animation composition created. What I need to do is, double-click on this left project panel here just to load in my headphones Illustrator file, make sure we import it as a composition and then click on Open, double-click on this composition. You can see we have all of these layers separated. Each one is on its own separated layer. I'm going to select all of them Command C, go back to the cassette animation. This is going to be the main composition that we're going to be animating in. We can close the headphone, put the headphones into the SS, put this headphone two layers folder into the assets to make my project panel clean and tidy. Save the project. First of all, let's rename the layers. This one, Sound Production. This one, Cassette, Background. We can lock the background for now, don't need it. Then for the cassette tape, for now, let's just use a green one here. The green one, I want to move the green one in the center. Make sure this anchor point is in the center of this cassette tape. First, I want to animate this cassette tape. Just hide everything else except for the green cassette. I want this to pop onto the screen or maybe from the top. Go to position, right-click Separate Dimensions. Put a Y position, move forward 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and then this is going to be the final position of my tape. Initial position is going to be up outside of the frame, something like that. When it moves down, make sure to have a overshoot. Go backwards, three to four frames, add in a key frame, overshoot, track these handles. Make sure you change the spacing to give it more energy. Let's see what it looks like now. Looks good, except I think, it's overshooting too much. Pull it back a bit. I like that. You know what? I think what I want to do is to just let this headphone slide into the frame and then this one pop-up. I want to move this cassette tape back a little bit so that this one comes in first, the headphone comes in first. Right-click separate dimensions. For this one, I wanted to slide in from the right. Make sure you have a X position. Go for 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This is going to be the final position. Not only the X position, I also want to animate the rotation. Shift R, pull up the rotation value, put a key frame there. Then initially it's going to be outside of the art board, it's going to slide in. When it slides in, I want it to have a rotation on it. First of all, let's do the X position. Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Go to the value graph, double-click on the X position, pick graph to view. Make sure we have a overshoot. Drag it down a bit and then pull the handle. Let's preview this, yeah, something like that. Now, we can worry about the rotation value. Let's go to the rotation. Right-click Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. I want to make sure the rotation value align with the overshoot. At this position here, I want this to overshoot to the opposite direction, a little bit like this. Starting at plus 17 and then overshoot negative seven, comeback as 0. Right-click Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Let's see, preview this. Now, what I need to do is to offset this rotation. Because when you think about it, there's always the offset delay in response. When it stops at X position overshoots, there should be like a one frame or two frame lag for the rotation to happen. These two are too close, so I want to drag this a bit further so that they're not too close to each other. Now, you can clearly see there is a settle. That's it for demonstration purposes. Just want to give you an idea how to work with the curves and also anticipation and overshoot. After this headphone comes into place, I want the cassette tape to pop up. I want to drag this there and then it comes down. Spring a little bit and then settles in position, may be after half a second, it pop bigger. Command S, go to the scale property, makes sure you can go forward 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Then maybe change it bigger to 240 percent of the scale. Then click the two key frames, Easy Ease. Go to the Graph Editor, make sure you have a anticipation here. Go down, just drag the curve, and then add in a overshoot as well. See that? It popped up. Then I want to move this cassette tape all the way to the top, so when it popped up, I want the headphone to shrink down and disappear behind it. Go to the headphone and then shift S, bring up the scale property. When the cassette tape becomes bigger, I want the headphone to shrink and then disappear. Make sure on the headphone, we're going to add anticipation and overshoot. Maybe two frames of anticipation, that's too big. Let's add in 102 anticipation and since the overshoot is going to go behind the cassette tape so we can't really see when it settles in position. We don't need to add in a overshoot to that. I also want them to happen at the same time so I can drag the keyframe earlier. When the cassette tape becomes bigger, I want this headphone to start shrinking. 16. Real Project Demo 1.2: Now next thing what I want to do is just switching between these different colors, cassette tape. The way to do that is, first of all, I want to animate the X position over here. Go to the green cassette tape. Go to the green layer here add a X position here, go for 15 frames. Move it to the left. As I'm moving, you can see the headphone is still on the screen, so I need to cut this layer option right square bracket. To cut this layer, drag it a bit further, cut it here so that when this layer moves to the left, you are not seeing the headphones anymore. But what I need to do as keyframe assistant easy ease go to the graph editor, add in a anticipation, drag it up, adjusts the handle here, makes sure to manipulate the spacing to give it more energy and velocity. Nice. Next one, we can pull up the red one, put the anchor point to the center of the cassette. Now, I want to make sure they're the same size, Right now the green is scaled to 240 percent, so I want the red to be scaled to 240 percent as well. For the red cassette, I wanted it to be the same level, same position as the green one, which means I need to align them better. Something like that, that works. Then I want to align the blue and yellow as well. Put it on top, for the blue one, make sure the anchor point is in the center. Drag the anchor point. Then the yellow one, drag the anchor point to the center. Go to scale property, change it to 240. Go to scale again, change it to 240. Now we have these different cassette at the same size. Just want to align them better. As the green cassette moves off the screen, I can use this D3 X position keyframes I think, Command C and then copy it to the red layer, Command V. Now what I need is just the beginning keyframes for the red to come in, and I want to put a keyframe on the X, go back a few frames. Move the X position to the right so that the tape is coming from the right. Come in like that, and now I want to select the two keyframes. Go to graph editor, make sure I have an overshoot. I feel like it's too fast, so I need to give him more time for it to slow down a bit to match when it exit the screen. Something like that, and then now I just need to move it back a little bit. When the screen exits, the red comes in. Then just copy all these keyframes to the yellow and to the blue, so as the red exits, the yellow comes in, and as the yellow comes out, the blue comes in. Now let's preview this. That looks nice. Although I still want to make sure they're on the same level. I just want to draw a ruler Command R. Now you see a ruler on top and then I just want to draw a line here to make sure all these cassette tape is on the same level. This yellow line is bit lower, so I need to adjust the Y position to bring it up higher. Then this blue one as well, adjust the Y position, move it up higher. You see there's no keyframe on Y position, so you won't mess up with the X position keyframes. That's beautiful. Now I don't need the last three keyframe anymore for it to exit the screen. I just want to keep it there and then where's my headphones? I wanted to duplicate the headphone Command D, pull it on top, and then delete all the keyframes. Delete all the keyframes here. I want to make this headphone bigger, something like this. Then all I want to do is just to animate the Y position. Go backward,15 frames. I wanted to drop down. Right-click keyframe assistant, easy is go to the graph editor. Make sure we have a overshoot here because we won't be able to see the anticipation, it's already outside. Just want to preview this part, so click B here. It's only going to show me preview this part of the animation. That's good. That's what I want. When the blue comes in, settles, I want the headphones to drop down like that and then I want my copy layer to pop up. What I want to do is the same thing. It's just animate the Y position, right-click separate dimensions. Y position, go forward a bit. Move it up, and then right-click keyframe assistant. Easy ease go to the graph editor, fit the graph to view, and then add in an overshoot. Looks nice. Then copy the three keyframes, paste it onto this text layer as well, so they're going to animate the same way and then just offset the first layer to make it happen a little bit later. Now what I need to do is just to add a track matte. This is my alpha matte, and then duplicate one, put it on top of this cassette and then Y on top of the sound production. Then go to the cassette tape, make sure to set it to alpha Matte and then the sound production, make sure to set it to alpha matte also. Now we can see when they enter that rectangle area is going to show up. Another thing is for the sound production, right now you can see it's overlapping with the cassette tape, so I want to move this rectangle even further down until it's not overlapping with the cassette, so that the lines can add drop, it's now going to show up when it's overlapping. Lets go back to the beginning and see what we have. There you go, that's our animation. Also that's our demonstration to how to use anticipation and overshoot, one of the very important animation principle. You can use it for almost everything, whatever you animate, you have to apply these to the animation to make it smooth, and then give it character. That's it for this lesson. Let's go to the next one. 17. Assignment: Anticipation: Welcome back, everyone, here's our assignment time again. In the last video, I showed you how to animate with anticipation and overshoots, and now it's your turn to practice the things learned in the previous lessons. Here we have a document already set up for you, and right now you can see we've got a Assignment 3 composition. Within this composition, I've got all these layers separated for you. You can just jump right in, start to animate. Keep in mind to practice everything we've learned so far. Try to animate it with value graph or speed graph, whichever one you like, and then don't forget to use overshoot and anticipation. That's what this project is all about. Just have some fun with this design and do whatever you want. Before we go, I want to show you one more thing. If you want to animate the background, all these leaves here, in the background, let's see if I can go to layer 5. This is a maple leaf over here. I've labeled all these background leaves with a yellow label so that it's easier to be recognized. Let's say you want to animate this leaf here, one of the effect you can use within the effects and preset panel right here. If you don't have it on the right-hand side, you can go to Windows and then choose Effects and presets here. You can search Bend, use CC Bend It. With your layer selected, double-click on this and now you can see the leaf disappear. We want to go over here on the left-hand side, go into this effects control panel. Then make sure you click on the Start anchor over here. At the end of the leaf, the tail of the leaf, and then put the end on the tip of the leaf. Now you can see some of it is cut off over here. If I zoom in, you can see there's this part that's cutoff. I can easily adjust these two dots over here to make sure all my leaf is visible. Now what I can do is I can animate this bend value. If I change the bend value, you can see the leaf is actually bending. That's how you can animate something bend and say if I want to animate the leaf, I can put 20 as 0 seconds. Hit the stopwatch to add a key-frame and then hit U on the keyboard to show the key-frame. Go for 10 seconds, and then I can put in a value like negative 10. Then maybe go for five frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Put in a value like four, and then 1, 2, 3. Three frames after, I put the value like negative two and then maybe another two frame, put the value as zero, this is like the oscillation that we had before. If I right-click key-frame assistant easy ease and go into the graph editor, you can see this is our oscillation for the leaf. Now I want to drag these handles to make sure we've got the spacing changed. Now I can animate the position value, hit on shift P on the keyboard, and right-click separate dimensions. Go back to the key-frame view. I can add in exposition and go forward five frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Make sure in the fifth frame, the leaf is already inside the frame. At zero second, I want to drag it outside so that it shoots in from the right. Select both key-frames, right-click key-frame assistant, easy ease. Go to the graph editor. Now I want to have a curve like this so that the leaf is easing into position. Now let's preview and take a look. Let's preview the first second. This is what it looks like. Now you have an oscillation on the leaf, it gives it a bit more life to it. You see that? Okay, that looks good. Say if I want to apply this leaf on this layer 6, all I need to do is copy. I can't use the x value anymore because this one should come in from the bottom, so the y position needs to be animated. However, I can still use the key-frame on the Bend property. All I need to do is go to the bend value property here, command C, copy, and then go to zero seconds. Click on this layer 6, which is this leaf over here, and then paste it in. Now you can see the leaf disappear because we haven't changed the start and end value position. I need to put the start at the tail end of the leaf, and then I need to put the end at the tip of the leaf. We can hit U on the keyboard to show the key-frame, let's preview. It's already got a oscillation move from that layer 5 that we just animated. So that we don't have to reanimate everything once again, we just need to copy the key-frame of the bending effects onto the new layer. That's what we need to do, and then if this layer is coming from the bottom, you have to animate the y position instead of the x position for this particular leaf. Anyway, that's all I want to show you for this example and this assignment. If you want to animate the background, that's how you do it, and everything else you should be able to manage animating these on your own with the things that you learned in the previous lesson. I hope you have a lot of fun with this animation and I can't wait to see what you come up with. 18. Ball Bounce Explained: Welcome back. Today we'll be learning how to do a ball bounce. The general consensus that, if you really want to be a real animator, you will need to learn how to do a ball bounce. Which I found is quite accurate because there's so many scenarios where you need this technique, the ball bounce technique to animate objects. That's why we're here today. In this lesson, I want to show you how the ball bounce works. Then I'm going to show you how to animate it in After Effects in the next video. I guess a bigger question here is something that I want you to always remember as an animator, which is, you need to think about what is making the things move. What are the forces that's acting on the object and how to translate that force into animation. When we're thinking about ball bounce, I think the main force that's acting on the ball is going to be gravity. Gravity is pulling the ball down. Then every time the ball hit the ground, is going to lose some of the energy and then it's going to bounce, bounce, bounce until it stops on the ground. Let's say for example, this ball we have here, and this is going to be a normal ball like, what is a normal ball? It's going to be something that's not too heavy and not too light, not too bouncy, maybe a golf ball. Then I have a ball here, if it falls, it's going to fall like this, hit the ground and then bounce one time, and then bounce another time, and then slightly it's going to lose some energy. Slightly, like this and then just stop on the ground. This is going to be our general bounce for a normal ball. Two things I want you to remember or two most important thing for a ball bounce. First is that, when the ball falls, it's going to lose energy. That's why you see the ball hit the ground and then the ball is going to balance lower and lower, each time, until the final stop on the floor. Then the second thing is that, the angle that the ball is hitting the ground, the angle is the same angle that the ball is leaving the ground. If I draw a center line here, in the center, this angle is going to be the same as this angle here. If I draw a line here in the center or even in each of these touching points, excuse my bad drawing. But technically speaking, this angle is going to be the same as this angle. Then this angle is going to be the same as this angle. The angle that the ball is hitting the ground is the same angle that the ball's leaving the ground. That's the second important thing I want you to remember. We're good with this example. Now, let's go to the second example, which is going to be a heavy ball. Let's draw maybe a bigger ball here, heavier ball. When this heavy ball falls is going to fall to a curve, something like this. Fall on the ground. Something like this. It's going to fall on the ground and then it's going to probably bounce and then bounce like this. If you think about a bowling ball, that's how a bowling ball is going to fall. It's going to probably jump one time, a bit higher and then a couple more times, really, really low, barely leaving the ground and then until it stops on the ground. That's a bowling ball bounce. Third, we have a light bouncy ball. This one maybe like a small bouncy ball. If this ball is bouncy, so when it drop on the ground, it's going to bounce even higher. Each time, although it's going to lose some of the energy but it won't lose as much energy as the previous two balls. Something like this. This ball is going to jump, jump, jump, jump, jump. Excuse my bad drawing. But I will Just want to try to convey the idea, like this one. To be honest, it's not very accurate because when the ball bounces hit the ground, instead of a straight line for each top point of these curves, instead of them forming a straight line, it should form something like a decay curve, like this. It looks to me that my curve here, the graph here, it looks like a straight line but it shouldn't be a straight line, it should be a decay curve like this. If I draw a line here, this is my decay curve here. Decay curve. If I draw the ball bounce here on the smaller graph, it should look something similar to this. Each time it's just going to lose some of the energy, until it settles. It's not going to be exactly same as this decay curve, it just, generally speaking, it won't form a straight line, it should be a decay curve like this. Those are three of the examples I want to show you today in this lesson. This is going to be a bouncy light ball and then we have a heavier bowling ball, and then just a normal, regular ball. That's it with this lesson, next video, I'm going to show you how to do this in After Effects. 19. Animate Ball Bounce : In this lesson, I'm going to show you how to animate a ball bounce in After Effects. As you can see, I have here already a scene setup, and then I've got this small ball here in the center, the yellow one, and then this bigger ball which looks heavier. Today I just want to show you how to animate these two ball bounce. First of all, I need to put the anchor point in the center of the ball. I just want to put it in the center like that, and then this ball here, I want to put this anchor point in the center of the ball. First of all, let's animate this small ball here. This is going to be the ground. Let's use a line to mark where the ground is so that we're not going over into the ground. Go to Position Property P, and then right-click "Separate Dimensions". So the ball, we're only going to be animating on the Y position first for the bounce. Let's set a keyframe on the Y position, go forward 15 frames, 10, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 frames, and drag these keyframes onto the 15 frames mark, and then go back to zero seconds, lift this ball up. I can let it just drop from outside like that. Now, what I want to do is, I want the ball to maybe bounce every 10 frames, let's say. Go for 10 frames. The ball is going to still be on the ground, so each time it's just going to hit the ground. So 10 frames on the ground, 10 frames, just copy this keyframe, and copy this keyframe. So I set a keyframe every 10 frames, but the ball is not moving its position because it's always hitting the ground. Then let's select all of them, Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease, go to the Graph Editor. First of all, let's make sure we're in the value graph, not the speed graph, and then we're only working on the Y position. If you think about it when the ball drops, it's going to accelerate. So this curve here, this handle here, should be something like this. Remember steepness equals speed in the valid graphs, so the curve is going to be steeper and steeper, which means the speed of the object is moving faster and faster. So that's what happens when something drops from top, it's going to go faster, faster until it hit the ground and lose some of the energy. Remember in the previous lesson, I told you that each time it hit the ground, the angle when it hits the ground is the same angle when it leaves the ground. So what we need to do is here we need to drag this angle. This angle here need to be same as this angle when it hits the ground. So I want to try to do something like this same angle, so just drag this. Then it's also going to lose some of the energy, which means each time when it hits the ground it's going to jump lower and lower. So I just want to create a curve, something like this, and then I need more keyframes. I want to copy command C, and then go for 10 frames, command V, add a keyframe, and just modify this curve here to make this curve more subtle, and go for 10 frames, copy and paste another keyframes. I want to zoom in, make this curve very subtle. Although the curve is not as aggressive, it's very subtle, I still want to make sure that the angle that's going into this point here is the same angle that's leaving this point. So here I want to make sure the angle is right, and also the ball is losing energy. So if I fit the graph to view, this is what it looks like. Now, let's preview and see what happens. This ball right now, it feels a bit heavy to me. The second jump is too low, so I want to modify and adjust the second one. So this curve here is too different from this one here. I want to modify it and just to give it a higher peak here so that it's similar to this one. I just want to make sure it doesn't look so heavy because we have another heavy ball for the second demonstration. So I want this ball to be not so heavy. I want it to be a little bit more bouncy. If you want to make it very bouncy, you can make these curves so high, and then each one you can just have it lose a little bit of the energy, so each curve is still very high. In that case, the ball is going to be super bouncy. Let's preview it again and see what happens. You see? Drop, drop, drop. I feel like the timing is a bit off. I need to just drag all the key to the left so that the whole thing is happening much faster in two second. So there you go, this is your ball bounce curve, something similar to this one. Next one, I want to do this, I can hide this small ball and then just click on this big one, put the big one on the ground, go back to zero second, and hit P on the keyboard, just right-click Separate Dimensions to add a keyframe. I want the keyframes to be the same as in the previous small ball. First of all, I want to go back to zero second and then let the ball just maybe fall from above. Then when it falls, Command C, Command V, just copied this y position, maybe paste it four time, because I don't think it's going to have the same number of bounces as the previous ball because this one is too heavy. Then just select them all right-click keyframe assistant, Easy Ease, go back to the graph editor. The same thing, the ball is going to speed up from the start and then the curve is going to be something like this. By the way, if somehow your handles are joined together like when you move one of them, the other one moves as well, remember this is C, convert selected keyframes for auto bezier. So once you click this one, these two handles are going to be joined together. So you wouldn't be able to adjust them separately. In that case, it's hard to manipulate them to a curve as a bouncing curve. All you need to do is just hold down Option on the Mac or Alt on PC, and then your mouse cursor change to a two-line arrow, and then that's when you can just drag the other handle and break them. Another way is to just click on one of those icons here to break the handle. Right now we're just animating this heavier ball here. I want the energy to lose super quickly. Now let's preview this. Still a bit bouncy, is still not heavy enough. Let's take a look again. It still feels a bit bouncy to me. Another mistake that I made just now is right now you can see the timing of these keyframes are the same. However, it shouldn't take the same amount of time for it to bounce for every single bounce. Because the ball is losing energy, each bounce is going to take less time to complete. So that's why I need to move these keyframes closer and closer to each other at the back-end. I still feel like the first bounce is too high. I just want to make it even lower and then zoom in, use Z on the keyboard to zoom in, get closer to be more precise with the curves. Let's try and see if that works. Yeah, that feels pretty heavy to me. The ball feels already very heavy. Yeah. It feels like a metal ball. So this is going to be the curve that we have for a heavy ball. Then let's go back to this small ball to adjust some of this timing at the back-end because it's not going to take the same amount of time for each bounce at the back-end to happen because it's already lost some of the energy, right? So I need to just grab all these keyframes at the back and then just make them closer to each other. It's going to take less and less time for the bounce to happen. All I need to do is just bring the keyframes together. If I go to the keyframe bill, you can see it's further apart at the beginning and then slowly, slowly, they're just coming closer to each other. Let's preview this small ball here. I feel like the first frame is too far away from the second frame, so I need to move everything closer to each other. Then I'm trying to drag this curve out. Something like that, s o that the first bounce happens sooner. Yeah, something like that. The next thing I want to do is just add a X position to this ball bounce. First I'm going to move this to the left here, add a keyframe, and then maybe when it stops, I'm going to drag this X position. You can see all of a sudden we have all these curves. What does that look like? Do you remember this? Is this something that I drew from the previous lesson? The ball would just drop. This is a perfect example of a ball bounce. Let's preview this. Look at that. So that's my first ball. Then if I have my second ball here, go to the front, I'm just going to adjust the X position, set a keyframe there, and then go to the end. Drag this all the way to the right, set a key frame there. Let's see, another ball bounce. Next, all we need to do is just to add a rotation, shift R, put a rotation at the zero second, and then maybe 16 degrees. Let's see. I need to rotate it more. I feel that the ball is sliding, so I want to move back to the X position. Then let's preview again. All right, there you go, that's your ball bounce animation. You can add a rotation value to the small ball as well. It's going to be essentially the same thing as this big one. Now you can already feel the material that this ball is pretty heavy. 20. Complex Ball Bounce: In the last video, we talked about how to animate a ball bounce in After Effects. This is what we get from the last video. In this video, I'm going to show you how to animate a more complex ball bounce. Let's go to the other composition I have here. Here we go. We have the same scene here, however, let me show you what is the animation that we're trying to achieve here in this lesson. Now you can see my ball is actually interacting with those boxes here, it hit one place and then hit another place, and then it goes up to this stair thing and then it hits this wall and bounce back. It's pretty realistic, so in this lesson I'm going to show you how to animate this in After Effects. If I select all these keyframes here, you can see there is motion path to this animation and then it resembles to the ball bounce curve that I showed you in the previous class. The ball itself is losing energy after each bounce, and also, the angle when the ball hit the ground is the same angle as the ball leaves the ground. Those are the two general rules that we need to follow when we animate. Anyways, I want to delete the keyframes now and then show you how to do it. Now we have this ball, I struck the ball over here into the scene. First I want to pull a ruler down so that I know where is the ground. This is going to be my ground here. First, what I want to do is I want to animate the Y position first as a general balance. I don't want to animate X and Y at the same time, because that case, if you're just started, is going to confuse you because there is so many things that you need to consider. To make things easier, let's just animate the Y position first as a ball bounce, straight up and down ball bounce. First of all, lets add a keyframe here at zero second on the Y position. Go for 15 frames, one, two, three, four, five. Drag this key-frame to the 15th frame mark and then go back to zero second. Now I can just pull this Y position. Pull the ball outside of the frame so that the ball is dropping from the top, like that. Then another 15 frames, one, two, three, four, five. I just want to copy this Y position again, because after when bounce the ball is going to hit the ground again. Command C, Command V, and then maybe another 15 frames, one, two, three, four, five. Command V. Right right the Y position is not changing, it has the same value. One, two, three, four, five Command V. Let's right-click key-frame assistant easy ease, and then let's go into the graph editor. Make sure you are in the value graph instead of the speed graph, fit the graph to view with this button here. Now I just want to change this curve to be a bounce curve. Remember, we had this ball bounce here. Then if we go into the graph editor and then pull up the Y position. A ball balance is going to be like this. I want to transfer this curve into this ball bounce that I have here. The ball is going to fall from the top. Then I just want to pull these handles, make sure the angle going into the ground is the same angle as leaving the ground. Maybe I want to add one more, 15 frames, one, two, three, four, five. Then hold down command on the keyboard, mouse left-click, add a key-frame. Just slightly adjust this handle here, because last one, the energy is losing and there's not much energy at the end, so I want the curve to be more gentle, very gentle. Now you can see this is going to be my ball bounce animation. Lets preview and see what it looks like. I feel like the third curve here, is too low. I want to pull this up a little bit more, making sure we still have the energy for the latter part of the bounce, let's preview this. Yeah, that looks better to me. Now what is going to happen is I'm going to add in the X position change. In order for the ball to hit this box spot and then hit this circular stage. Second, I need the ball to come from the left as if someone throw the ball into the scene, right? So I need an exposition value change. Now since when I hit the X position, my Y position value graph is not in this graphic panel anymore, however, I need to see this Y position in this graph editor in order to know what is happening. In order to do that, we have this icon here. If we hit this icon, the Y position graph is always going to show in this graph editor. Although we are in the X position graph, this Y position graph is always going to be in this graph editor. This way, I can use this Y position as a reference and then I can animate the X position. Now, what I want to do is just to drag this ball. Right now if I just change the X position, you can see the ball is moving to the left. I want this ball to move all the way to the left outside of the frame and then add a key-frame there. Then, around the two second mark, I want to drag this X position out. Now you can see there is a bouncing curve. Is going to show me what's happening right now, I just want to drag it all the way out. Something like this. Now, when I look at this curve here, I want to make sure the ball when it comes down, following this motion path, it's going to hit this box first and somehow it's going to hit the stage second and the energy, the momentum is still going to carry the ball over to hit onto this stage here, this box here. When I look at the curve right now, it does what I wanted, because the curve right now is going to bring the ball up to this stage here. However, the latter part of the motion path is not going to work because the ball is going to hit this part and then hit on this wall here and bounce back instead of keep going forward. In that case, we need to animate and change the Y position. What I want to do here is, just drag the timeline indicator and then try to figure out when the ball hit this box, at which frame the ball hit that box there. So around here, if I just drag it one more frame, it goes over to the bottom, I need to make sure the ball is going to hit the box at this frame here. I want to add a keyframe on the Y position, hold down Command on the keyboard and then left-click on this Y position value graph. Now, I can delete this graph because the ball is not going to go down anymore, is going to bounce up. So I need the bounce to happen at this frame here, instead of the frame after it. I need to delete this frame, hit Delete on the keyboard. Now, I want to slightly adjust this keyframe to make sure it touches that box. Let me zoom in, I'm just dragging this up and down to manipulate the Y position. Right now, I want to make sure it hit that box. Then what happens is, the ball is going to bounce on that point, that's why I need to drag this handle. However, right now the two handle is connected together, when I change one handle, the other handle changes as well, that's not what I want. I need to break the handle. To break the handle, I can select this icon here, hit on that and then it's going to break the handle. Now visually we can see the ball just after it hit the box, it's going to bounce up, that's what we want. Then we just want the ball to just keep going forward, hit the stage, that's what I want, and then maybe I want this curve to go even higher. Let's try to make this curve here in the graph editor higher, just drag it higher. So that there's still a lot of energy carrying the ball to hit on this box over here. If I make this curve higher, I better make this curve even higher because I don't want these two curves to seem too similar, which means the energy is not losing enough and that makes it unnatural, unrealistic. Still making sure the angle is the same and then just hit that and the energy is going to carry the ball over to this box here. I want to find that point where the ball touches that box, over there. However, I think it's too much to the right, I need the X position to come over to the left a bit more, that's why I want to change at this point, the two second mark. I want to change the X position to the left, a bit more to give the ball more room on this box. You see, instead of hitting almost at the corner there, I want the ball to hit more to the left. That's when the ball hits, I want to add a keyframe over here on the Y position, hold down Command on the keyboard, left-click, add a keyframe, and now we can delete this keyframe here. The keyframe after it, we don't need that anymore. Now, the ball is going to bounce up again. Remember, I told you how to change the handle. To break up the handle, use this icon over here. Another way is you can hold down Option key on the keyboard or Alt on the PC and then you see that cursor has changed to this arrow here. Now, once you drag the handle, it's going to break that handle for you, I just want to make sure when it bounces like that, it's going to have less energy than the previous bounce, maybe something like that. I still want to try to maintain the same angle here. Now, when it bounced on to that wall over there, that's where it hits. At that second, the X position is going to change. The ball is going to change its direction, coming to the left-hand side. Now, I need to add a keyframe on the X position, hold down Command on the keyboard and then add a keyframe on the X position. Now I need to drag this X position down to make sure the rest of the motion is going to a different opposite direction. Now since the whole animation lasted for three seconds, I need to drag this final keyframe on the X position to the three second mark. However, right now I feel like there's not enough energy, since the ball hit that wall, I need the ball to bounce up a bit more. Right now you can see the curve, it just goes straight down, that's not what I want. What I want is this ball to bounce up a bit more, something like that. Then I feel like the X position right now is messing this up, because right now I need to make the ball to come even farther to the left, if the ball goes this way and then it makes more sense for the ball to travel farther to the left. That's what we have so far, I think it looks good. There's one more thing we need to fix because remember, like I said in the previous video, when the ball loses energy in the backend of the animation, it's not going to take as long as a front end, which means all these keyframes is going to get closer and closer to each other when it comes to the end. But right now when I started, I only put 15 frames apart from each keyframe so that all these keyframe right now they have the same timing between each other, which doesn't make sense in real life. We need to bring some of these keyframes closer to each other at the end and just to try to make it more realistic. In order to do that from here, I need to bring these keyframes closer. Now I don't have enough height for this bounce here so that case I need to drag it up. Now I feel like I don't have enough X position in there anymore, so I need to just maybe drag the ball even closer to the left so that after the bounce the ball is still traveling to the left like that and then hit the ground. Then I need to bring this bounce closer, let me zoom in, I want to see how many frames we have here,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, so that's six frames. I want this bounce to be a bit more noticeable. I still like to have a little bounce on the ground, that's six frames. Then 1, 2, 3, 4, I want to add a bounce that's four frames and then 1, 2, 3, maybe add a bounce to three frames and then one, maybe add a last final slide bounce as two frames so that it ends at this point here, it's going to end at the same time as CUX position. Now I need to just grab these handles, give it a bit more bounce to make it very natural. Let's see what we have now. Yeah, that looks much better. Let me de-select and see it more clearly. Now we haven't had any rotation to the ball. We can just add some of the rotation so it looks more realistic. But you can tell all of a sudden the bouncing at the end part it looks much more promising. Let's bring our rotation value here, "Shift R", and then add a keyframe at zero seconds. Let's try to put one full rotation before it hit the wall. Then after it hit the wall, I want it to rotate in the other direction, so it's still zero but then I want to add in maybe negative 270. Let's see what it looks like. I feel like the ball is rotating too much, so right now I need to bring the first rotation down, 2-40 something, and then bring this one up. Another thing is the last keyframe of the rotation, if I bring this rotation keyframe back maybe two frames so that the rotation and earlier than the other two keyframes, the other position keyframes, it's going to give you an illusion that the ball is going to slide into the final position because there's no energy for it to rotate anymore. It gives it a more realistic feeling, so let's see what it looks like now after the changes. I think what I want to do is, I want to extend the keyframe on the X position maybe for two frames to give an illusion that the ball is also sliding. I want to add a keyframe and then drag this one down. I don't want to change this keyframe, drag it to the right because it's going to mess up some of my keyframe in the front. If I add a keyframe and then let the bow just keep traveling further, it's not going to change anything that I animated previously. Let's take a look and see what it looks like. Yeah, I like that. So that's the stop is more smooth, it's not so abrupt. Then although the ball is rotating at the beginning, it looks to me that at the end it doesn't have enough energy to rotate anymore, so it just slide on the ground until it comes to a stop. There you go, that's how you do a more complex ball bounce. After this lesson, you should have full control of your object in some of the scenarios you're going to encounter when you do the animation. Now you can just fully control your object and do whatever you like. 21. Assignment: Ball Bounce: Here is our assignment time again. In the last video, I showed you how to animate a ball bounce with both heavier balls and lighter balls, and I also show you an example of how to animate a complex ball bounce. If you're not super clear on how to do that, you can still go back and watch that lesson again. In this assignment, I've got a composition setup for you already. Here, we have a assignment for ball bounce. Basically, what you need to do is to animate this ball here in the scene to drop from the top and maybe just land on those boxes. I've got all these boxes separated for you, so that you can move them around if you want them to interact with the ball. If you don't want to interact with the boxes, you can just let the ball drop from the top and then hit the ground to practice some of the bouncing animation. Whatever way you want to choose to animate, this is going to be a great exercise for you to get familiar with a ball bounce animation. It's something that you're going to need in the future for professional projects. In this assignment, all I want you to do is to have some fun with the scene here, and I can't wait to see what you come up with. Good luck with this assignment. 22. Squash & Stretch Explained: In this lesson, I'm going to quickly show you squash and stretch. One of the traditional animation principles that we're still using in today's motion graphics. Come take a look. Here we have a ball bounce curve that I drew before. Normally our ball is going to be a regular circle here. Then when the ball bounces, when the ball falls onto the ground, I'm going to draw on this motion path here, it's going to slowly stretch a bit. When the speed becomes higher and higher like this, it's going to stretch a little bit. Then following this pattern, when it hit the ground it's going to squash. It's going to become squashed onto the ground and then it's going to lose energy. When it comes up, when it picks up speed, it's going to stretch again. At the top there it should be still in like a circular object and then it's going to stretch again falling down, squash onto the ground. Something similar to this. If we know this graph here and we have squash and stretch in mind, it's going to be pretty easy to translate this thing into After Effects. The only rule we have here for squash and stretch is going to be a rule called conservation of volume. So basically what it means is that, say if we have a circular ball, something like this. But then when we stretch the ball, when the speed becomes higher and higher, and then when the ball moves, you would have something similar to this with the same volume as the original object instead of something like this. So this is wrong because it doesn't seem to have the same volume as the previous ball. You've already changed your subject. Say, if we have a square here and then when the square stretches, you would typically have something like a rectangle with the same volume. However, you wouldn't have something like this because this volume is much bigger than the previous object. So this is a no and this is a yes. Which means how do we translate this part into After Effects? Now let's turn on our After Effects. We have a ball here in the center of the screen. If I go to my scale property, hit "S" on Scale for scale. I have right now my ball is at 170 percent. Let me zoom in. This is my ball. If I have my ball, let's say we only have a exposition change. Let's say the ball is going shoot to the right from the left. Let's try this. Let's go to Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease, go to the Graph Editor. This part we already talked about in the previous lesson. I just want to try to drag this curves editor, it gives more energy to this ball here, maybe give it more timing. Let's preview this. It's too slow. Push it back. Let's say if I have the ball like this, and then when the ball comes in, I need to go to the Scale property, turn off this link button, click on it, unlink this button. So when this ball, I want to hit a key on the scale property, when it travels, it should stretch a little bit. It's going to stretch in the horizontal axis. However, if I only stretch the horizontal axis and make the Y-axis unchanged, I'm already changing the volume of the ball. The ball is becoming bigger than before, which means it doesn't make sense anymore if I change it to 200 percent originally 170, so that's 30 percent of change. If I have a 230 that's going to be 60 percent of change. If I have a 60 percent of change on the X-axis, I need to have a 60 percent of change on the Y-axis, which means 170 minus 60 is 110. So now I got plus 60 here and minus 60 here. Now, I'm reserving the volume of my original object. I'm not changing the volume. I'm not making it bigger, I'm not making it smaller. I'm just redistributing the volume and make the horizontal axis scale bigger and the vertical scale smaller. When the ball stops it's going to change back to this original volume. Let's see the animation. All of a sudden we can see it's more playful and now we've got more character to this animation. We barely did anything. We only changed the X position and then now I added a squash and stretch. Another thing is I haven't even added overshoot at the end yet. So let's say if I have a overshoot at the end here, add in a keyframe, pull it up for a overshoot, so the ball is going to shoot over. I think its's shooting over too much. Let's pull it back a bit more. Something like that. Then I want this squash and stretch to be shooting over as well. If I have the final position like this, this is 270, 110. Let's say over here, let's change it back to 160 and then 180. So that's minus 10 and then plus 10, let's try and minus 20. So originally we have 170, so minus 20 is going to be 150, and then this part is going to be 190. Now I'll just Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease. Let's see what we have here. It's going to stretch, and then as it's stopping it squashes as if there is a sudden stop, and then it's just going to bounce back a bit more. Something like that. I just want to give you an idea of the number one rule in squash and stretch, which is conservation of volume. So basically you have to keep the same volume as your original object. You cannot change the size of your object, the volume of your object. Because a lot of the object we have in motion graphics is going to have the scale property. All you need to do is just to modify the X and Y scale separately, make sure you maintain the same volume. Then it's going to add an extra layer of fun, extra layer of energy or character to your whole animation. That's why it's one of the animation principles. All right. That's it with this lesson. Next, I'm going to show you another example. 23. Animate with Squash & Stretch: Here's our second example on squash and stretch. Here we have a modern concept furnitures to our logo. In this lesson, we're going to animate this logo with squash and stretch techniques that we learned in the previous lesson. First of all, let's take a look what we have on this logo. We have a sofa, lying arts, let's separate it from this box background. Then we have a jar, let's separate it from this background box. Then we have a light, let's separate it from this box, and then we have our slogan, our logo, name of the company, and also a background. We can lock the background for now, we don't need it anymore. In this case, I want to introduce squash and stretch. What I want to do is, I just want these block to shoot in from outside of this frame from different direction one by one, and then reveal these furniture within the boxes to reveal the whole logo. If you don't know what I'm talking about, just bear with me, and then we're going to animate this logo quickly with squash and stretch. First of all, let's animate this top right one here. I want to animate this one. I want to go to the position property of this right one, hit P on the keyboard. First, what I want to do is to move this anchor point, go to the pen, behind tool on top here, move this anchor point to the bottom of this box, and then go to position, separate dimensions. Make sure you key the key frame on the y position. Go forward 15 frames, 4-5, and then this is going to be the final position of our boxes here. In this one, make sure we have the y position, that's outside of the frame. This part of the icon is just going to shoot in from the bottom of the screen, like that. I don't want to animate the drawer yet, so I can just check this I icon to hide it for now. Let's just do all these black boxes for now. I can hide the sofa and then hide the light. Now I've got two keyframes, select both, right-click keyframe assistant, easy ease. Go to the graph editor. I'm going to move faster because I don't want this to take too long. Go to the y position, add in a overshoot, hit command, and then left-click, add a keyframe, drag this one. If you know what I'm talking about, I've talked about overshoot before. If you missed the lesson, you can watch the previous lesson on the overshoot. I want this to overshoots like this. Now this is what we have, and since we're demonstrating squash and stretch, I want to squash and stretch this block here. Just go to shift s, and link this x and y scale, make sure we have a keyframe set at the beginning, and at the end. This is going to be the final state. However, in the middle, I want this to probably become thinner and longer. Then I want to hit the overshoot state. I want this to squash a bit, and then settle down to its final position as preview. Shoot, and then settle. Let's right-click, keyframe assistant, easy ease, go to the graph editor. Make sure we dragged all these. Sorry, we need to select these keyframes, and then manipulate all of these keyframes to give it a bit more energy to manipulate spacing. That looks good to me. Then I want to animate this red corner block here. This one, I wanted to shoot from the left. Now I just want to change the anchor point to the left center of this box, around there. Then I'm going to just set a keyframe on the x position. Now I'm going to drag this one outside, like this, and then make sure we have a overshoot. If you know the final position of this box here is 966, I can overshoot it to maybe like a 1,050. Maybe that's too much, just drag it a bit more. Then I can just right-click, keyframe assistant, easy ease, go to the graph editor, and then drag these curves to manipulate the spacing of the animation and give it more energy. Let's take a look at what we have. I still need to drag it even further, because right now it's not outside of the frame yet. That looks good. We have this one come in and then we also have this one coming from the left. But now I need to add a squash and stretch, go to the scale property and check this, and then hit a keyframe. This is going to be the final state, and then hit a keyframe at the beginning. That's the beginning and the end. The stretch is going to be on the x. Oh, sorry. One thing, I forgot to maintain the volume of this box here. You see? Sometimes I even forget too. I think I just break my own rules, not my own rules, but break the rules of maintaining the volume of the object. If it's 70 on the x, that's minus 30, now we need to change it to 130. Over here, if this one is plus 15, this one should be minus 15, so minus 15, is 85. That looks better. Now I need to follow the same rules. Over here is 130 and then 70, I want to keep these numbers the same so that it looks consistent. Everything looks very consistent, the animation is consistent, the branding looks consistent. Over here, I just want to flip the number over here, this is going to be 85 and 115. Now, if I just delay this animation here, I want this to shoot in first and then this to shoot in after that. Let's see what we have now. That looks cool. Now this one, I want to shoot it from the top. Let's go to this left box here, make sure we have this anchor points on the top. Go to p position, right-click, separate dimensions. I want to put a keyframe on the y and make sure this one drops in from the top. It's going to overshoot, like that. Then select three keyframe, right-click, keyframe assistant, easy ease, go to graph editor. Just drag this curve to be consistent with the rest of the animation. Now, what we need is, hit shift s for the scale, and link the scale property. Now this one is going to be similar to this first one. It's going to be 115, 85 here. Oh sorry, I forgot to hit a keyframe, so go back, put a keyframe on the scale at the beginning and the end. Those are going to be the final and the start state of this box, and now around here in the middle, it's going to be 70,130, and then over here, is going to be 115, 85. Let's select all the keyframe, right-click, easy ease, and just drag these keyframes outside a bit to manipulate the spacing, give it more energy, something like that. Then delay this animation even more, so that I have this one shoot in, this one shoot in, and then the third one shoot in. They don't shoot in at the same time. Let's preview this. I want this when it shoots, and I want this to still align with the bottom there, so I want the Y position when it overshoot to lie at the bottom there. Oops, just go to this one keyframe, the keyframe of the overshoot, and then drag this y position down, so that when it overshoot, it still align in the bottom of the logo there to make it more neat and tidy. See? Yeah, that looks better, and now since we have all these boxes ready, I can turn on these graphic icons. One, the first one comes in and settles. I want this jar to move from the left to right. Go to P for Position Reckless Separate Dimensions when this one settles here, this is where it settles, and then I want this one to slide in from the left. Then make sure we right-click "Easy Ease", and then we can let it slide in. Maybe just let it ease in, make a curve like this. Make it ease in like that, and then the sofa, hit P on the keyboard is going to also ease in. This is going to be the final state, and then drag this to the right. Right-click "Keyframe Assistant", make sure you have a curve like this so that the sofa is also easing in from the right, and then the last one is going to be the light, hit P on the keyboard, right-click "Keyframe Assistant", right-click "Separate Dimensions", and then make sure to put a keyframe on the X, go forward a few frames, and then drag the X position to the left so that the light is coming in from the left to the right. Easy Ease, go to the graph editor, put in a curve like this, just let it ease into the position. Also, I want to cut these layers so that they're not showing on the screen until that point when it needs to ease into the boxes. I want to cut it here, option left square bracket. For this one, the Drawer, option left square bracket, cut it from there, and then Sofa, cut it at the keyframe, option left square bracket. Let's see the animation. Yeah, that's beautiful and fun. Now let's animate the logo, Modern Concept, which our modern concept is here. We have these come in like that. How about if we have our modern concept to come in also with the squash and stretch? Let's hit P on the keyboard, go to Position, right-click "Separate Dimensions". Let's just let this text to come in from the bottom. Let's see. Oops, make sure we hit a keyframe on the Y position instead of the X, and then come in from the bottom there. Right-click "Keyframe Assistant", "Easy Ease", make sure we have an overshoot. Overshoot it, don't overshoot it too much. Like that, and make sure we also manipulate the spacing. Drag these curves. Let's preview, and now what I want to do is go to Scale, set a keyframe at the beginning and the end, and then when it comes in, uncheck the link icon, maybe change it to 70-130, and then when it overshoot it becomes 115, and then 85, and then drops. Let's go to Keyframe Assistant, Easy Ease goes to these. It's going to be similar to what we did just now to the logo itself. Try to make everything consistent. Let's see what we have here, let's see. I think it happened too fast. I want to select all the keyframes, hold down Option on the Mac, Alt on PC, drag the last keyframe, space them out. Yeah, it looks good, something like that, and then we can have the Better Living maybe just pop in, hit S on the keyboard. Make sure we have the anchor point at the center of this tagline and then hit a keyframe on the Scale Property, that's 100 percent and then change it to zero percent. At the start, right-click "Keyframe Assistant", "Easy Ease" go to graph editor, add in a overshoot like this, and then I just want to pull this modern concept layer a bit closer to tie the logo animation and the text review better. When that settles, I want this text to come in already, and now when I bring this forward as well, let's see what we have. I think the modern concept part, not so smooth, I need to space out some of the keyframes to make it smoother. Let's see what we have. There you go. This is our final animation with squash and stretch. Hope you like this, and let's go to the next video. 24. Assignment: Squash & Stretch: Welcome back. Here is our assignment time again. In the last video, I showed you how to animate with squash and stretch. It is one of those animation principles that will give your animation more of a character and bring it to life. In this assignment, I've got a scene setup for you. In this After Effects style, I've got a Assignment 5 composition. Within this composition, I've got all these layers. I've labeled them in different color for each section, each panel, so that it's easier for you to recognize and animate. In this assignment, I want you to apply some of the animation principles that you learned so far, especially with squash and stretch to practice and do some exercise with it. I hope you can get more familiar with squash and stretch, and be able to apply them in your future animation projects. If you don't want to animate the whole scene, if you feel like it's too much, you can also animate maybe a couple of panels here. This is going to be a nice piece for your portfolio later on as well. I hope you have a lot of fun animating this assignment over here. Don't forget to share with me after you're done. I can't wait to see what you come up with. 25. Follow Through Explained: Welcome back. In this lesson we'll talk about an essential motion graphic principle, which is follow-through. It is one of those principles that will instantly make your animation look more polished and more professional. It is very easy to do, but not a lot of animators out there are using it enough. So far, we've talked a lot about the different animation principles. I hope you are hanging there and had a lot of fun learning and doing all the assignments. Bear with me, we're almost there. First, let me explain what is follow-through. Put simply, it is the overlapping movement or overlapping action of parts of an object. Maybe it's hard to understand the definition, but it's really easy when I show you what it is. Here we go. We have in this composition, I've got a background, and I've got a bunch of objects. These two layers at the bottom are locked right now, if I turn the eye icon on and off, you can see this my background layer and I've got a lot of objects, just static in the background as well. I'll treat these two layers as a background. All these little dots here that I have, you can see I have a bunch of them. Let me show you first what is follow-through. First of all, I want to animate this square here, only the first one, this layer 12, and then I'm going to add in a y position. This is where the square is going to start moving. Then after 15 frames, go forward 15 frames 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. I'm going to drag it up. It's going to go up. Then another 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This is 15 frames. I'm going to drag it down like that. Then I'm just going to repeat, come up 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and now they're 15 frames. I'm going to copy the last two keyframes, Command C and then paste it in where my timeline indicator is Command V. Go forward another 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, then paste it in again. Now I have a movement here. It's going to go up and down, and up and down. Something like that. But then we haven't applied anything we've learned so far yet. First of all, I want to apply a default easing. Just right-click Keyframe Assistant Easy Ease. Then I'm going to add in anticipation at the beginning, maybe one, two, three frames. Let's go into the graph editor and then make sure we're in the value graph. Just double-click on the y position, fit the graph to view. I'm going to add in a keyframe over here after three frames, hold down command on the keyboard, left-click add a keyframe, pull it up. This is going to be my anticipation. Then I'm going to select all the keyframe here on top, drag these handles. Just to manipulate the spacing of the animation. That's it. Let's see what it looks like. That's good. That's what I want. Then what I want to do is go back to this timeline, copy all the keyframe here. Command C, go to zero second, select all the other square layers, and then Command V, paste in all of the keyframes. If I hit on U on the keyboard, you can see those keyframes are exactly the same. If I preview this, everything is going to move all together at the same time. You can treat these squares as one single object. Right now this one object just like a bar, that's moving up and down, oscillating up and down. Let me save the project. Then in this lesson, what we're going to talk about is actually follow through. The most basic version of follow-through, it's just offsetting keyframes. You can also call it a staggering animation. Just like these little squares. If I just offset all these layers, maybe by two frames each. If I go to my timeline here, go forward. My layer 12 is a first square over there, and then go forward two frames. Offset this one, two frames, offset the next one another two frames. Now you can see I've offset, all these layers by two frames, one by one. If I preview the animation, let's see what it looks like now. All of a sudden you can see it looks much more interesting. It's completely different from what we had before. Look at that. By offsetting all of these keyframes, I've got a completely new animation, and this is the most basic version of follow through. Just by staggering all these layers, you can get a different field, difference dynamic to this animation that you have. Remember, I talked about the definition of follow-through. It's the overlapping movement or overlapping action of parts of an object. If you treat all these dots as one single object, and these little squares are a portion of the whole object here, and the animation right now is overlapping. That's how we achieve follow-through in the simplest way. That's one option that we have. Let's say instead of offsetting by two keyframes, I'm just going to offset each layer by one frame. That's what it looks like by offsetting just one frames. Now so far we've done two frames apart and now we've done one frame apart. Let's try maybe five frame apart. What happens if I have all these layers offset by five frames? One, 2, 3, 4, 5. Let's see what it looks like, five frames apart. That's what it looks like. Well, there you go. This is the most basic form of follow-through. Next time when you're doing follow-through, just remember follow-through is offsetting keyframes. There's so many scenarios where you are going to need follow-through in your animation. With follow-through, there's a million different ways that you can offset your keyframes. There's going to be a million different way to offset your keyframes, and that's how you create so many different feel to your animation just by offsetting your keyframe differently, and using the principle of follow-through. This is going to be my first demonstration to you. The most basic follow through. 26. Follow Through Demo 2: Welcome back. In this video, I'm going to show you another example of using follow-through to animate text. Now you can see in my composition, I have a gamer logo, and you can see in my composition here, those are the layers that I have. I have got a glow layer. This is all the glows that I have on the lines and I'm going to leave it there for now. Then I have a white outline, which is this front whites outline layer. If I toggle the eye icon, you can see what it is. Then I have a gamer blue body. This is the main body layer that I have. Then next I have a pink outline, which is almost at the back of the blue body layer. Then it's my background layer. In this video, I'm just going to animate this gamer layer. Let's get to it. First of all, I just want to animate this gamer blue body. I want to do something similar to the previous video. I'm going to hit P on the keyboard for position and then Right-click separate dimensions. I only want to animate the y position. Hit a key-frame at zero seconds. Then I'm going to go forward. You know what? I'm going to go forward 15 frames, so 10 frames and then 1,2,3,4,5,15 frames. I'm going to drag this one up for better preview. I can just turn off all the other layers. Just want to focus on this one for now. Then, you know what? I think what I'm gonna do is I'm going to drag this one key frame forward to make the timing even longer. Now I've got one second for this animation to occur. Then I'm going to go to the next second, which is two seconds. I will drag this y position down. Basically what I'm trying to do is to do an oscillation for this gamer text and then it's just going to go up and down on the screen. Then I'm going to go to the three seconds. I can just copy these two key frames, Command C, Command V, and go to the fifth second. Keep, copy and pasting all the key frames. I think that's good enough for me. A total of 10 second animation. If I select all of them and go to the graph editor, you can see this is our remember the up and down oscillation move that we had before. This is what I'm trying to do. Then I'm going to select all the key frames. Hit F9 easy ease. Next I want to add in a anticipation in the first few frames. Let's just drag it over here and then add a key frame, Command, Left-click, drag this one up to add in anticipation. Next what I want do is just to select all the key frames and then drag the handle out to manipulate the spacing of the animation. If I go back to the keyframe view and then set the preview to maybe around here, let's see what we have now. Maybe the top is too high over there. I want to adjust when it goes up. It's those bottom keyframe, I just want to pull them up so that my gamer text is coming down on the preview. Let's try something like this. Yeah, that works for me. That's what I want. Then all I need to do is to copy all of these key frames, Command C, and then turn on this white outline layer, Command V paste. If I hit on U on the keyboard, I can see all the keyframe and then go to this pink outline, turn it on, and then Command V, paste it in, hit on U to show the keyframe. Now I've got all these three layers with the same key frame. If I preview it, you can see they're all moving at the same time. However, this is not what I want. What I want is remember the most basic version of follow through. If you treat this whole line as one body, you can tell that these three layers are different parts of the body. I want these three layers to overlap, one is animating. I don't want these three layers to animate at the same time. The first one that's going to be animating as a front one, which is the white outline. Then I'm going to go forward maybe three frames. I'm going to delay this blue body layer by three frames. I'm going to drag all these key frames forward by three frames right over here and then go forward another three frames, 1,2,3. Drag all these key frames over here. Now, I've got a follow through. Let's preview this. You know what? I think it's too much. Let's delay them by two frames or even one frame. Let's try one frame. Start it by one frame, and then drag these backwards, another frame, drag these, and let's preview. This is what we have by delaying the keyframe by one frame and then we're not done yet. Next what I want to do is to separate all these letters into its own individual layer and then overlapping all of these letters so that I get in more complex overlapping effect. First, what I want to do is go to this gamer blue body. Since we have five letters, let's duplicate this layer by four times so that we have five layers, 1,2,3,4. What I want to do is use a mask to mask out each letter on these five layers. It's very simple to do. Let's try it now. Just go to this rectangle tool on the toolbar and then select the first blue body. Click on the rectangle toolbar. Then I'm going to just drag a rectangle on the G. Next I'm going to drag a rectangle on the A. Then click the body three, click on the rectangle, drag it on the M. Let me turn off the outline. In the pink outline, just make sure you're selecting the middle part, the M, without selecting any of the other letters beside it. Then let's go to the fourth one to click on the rectangle tool. I'm going to select E here. Hit on V. I'm just going to select this E here. But here there is an angle to the R, so I need to adjust the mask so that I'm not selecting any of the R over there and then click on the fifth one. Just select this last letter. Let's zoom out. Now, I have all of these letters separated. If I go to the eye icon, you can see G is separated, A is separated, M is separated, E is separated and R is separated. Next what I want to do is select all five layers. Hit on U on the keyboard. Show all the key frames. I want to offset these key frames by just one frames. The first one and then go forward one frames. Move all these keyframe forward one frames, and then move all these keyframe forward by one frames. Go for a one frame. Again, move all these key frames, and then move all these key frames. By offsetting key frames, let's see what's happening. That's what's happening. Now it's interesting. Another thing, next we're just going to keep doing the same thing for the white outline. Just duplicate four times 1,2,3,4. Then click on the first one, select the rectangle tool, mask out the G. Let me zoom in. Then the second one, mask out the A. Select the third one, mask out the M, and then mask out the E. The last one, mask out the R. Now I'm going to select all of these five layers. Hit on U. I'm just going to adjust all the key frames to offset them by one frame. Follow through just basically offsetting key frames to get a more complex animation. Then the last one is a pink outline. I'm going to duplicate four times 1,2,3,4. Let's just solo these layers. Hit on this solo button here. Then make sure you check off this transparency grid so that you have a black background. Since our pink outline is a glow, so right now everything is on top of each other. That's why you're seeing this blur here. But we're going to fix that real quick. Hit on the first outline. These are all mashed together. Let's see if it's going to work. Now de-select the solo. I just want to offset the five layers. Same thing, just offset the key frames by one frame. Go for a one frame, drag these out by one frame, and then go forward another frame, drag these out. Then go forward another frame. Drag these out. Drag these out forward. This one is wrong here. You should not drag this out by one frame. If you hit on shift is going to snap to the timeline indicator so that it's easier to drag all these key frames. Now, let's see what it looks like. That's what we have by just offsetting key frames between the letters and also between the three graphic styles. This is the type of animation that we get. We actually barely did anything. We basically just copy and pasting all the keyframe that we have. All these layers all have the exact same key frames, but now they're just offset differently to get this interesting pattern look. Now the only layer that we have is this glow here at the beginning. I'll just leave this one to you so that you can explore more how you can animate this glow layer. But the purpose of this demonstration is to show you how to work with follow through, let me turn off this glow, how to work with follow through on a text layer. This is the animation that we get finally. That's it with this lesson, let's go to the next video. 27. Follow Through Demo 3: Here is another demonstration for follow-through, and this one is going to be easy. I'm not going to animate the whole scene. I want to leave the scene to you so that you can explore more on your own to animate maybe some of the background and these additional elements. But the only thing I want to animate and show you how to work with follow-through are these layers, these yellow layers which are already labeled. If I select all of them, you can see what they are. Let me bring them to the top. Let me turn on this eye icon. You can see this is all these elements are this one review here, and I'm just going to show you how to use follow-through to offset some of the keyframe and then make the animation interesting. First, I want to zoom in. Let's animate this circle here, circle profile figure. Let's drag the anchor points all the way to the center. Then this one, it can be simple. Let's just animate a scale change. Go forward 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and then make sure the 100 percent, it's on the 15th frame. Go back to zero seconds, change the scale to zero. This circle is going to pop up. Select to keyframe, right-click, keyframe assistant, easy ease, go to the graph editor, and remember we need to add in a overshoot, maybe go back 1, 2, 3, 4, and then add a keyframe. Drag this one up. For a overshoot keyframe, maybe drag this one for one more frame so that it's happening around the third last frame. Drag these handles, and let's see what we have. That's nice. That's nice. I want to animate this background rectangle as well. All I want to do is go to the scale property and check this link button on the scale property and make sure we have the anchor points on the far left. I want this rectangle to grow to the right, and the way to do that is to, first of all, add in a keyframe on the 15th frame. This is going to be our final state of this rectangle, and then from the start, I only want to change the value on the x-scale. Let's make this x-scale zero. Now what you can see is the rectangle is going to grow horizontally only to the right. Let's do the same thing, right-click keyframe assistant, easy ease go to the graph editor, and then 1, 2, 3, go backward three frames, add in a overshoot. Drag all these handles. That's it. Let's see the animation. Even these two, I want to offset the keyframe as well. I'm just going to drag this circle layer backward, maybe two frames so that this rectangle comes in first. That's it. Looks good to me. Then I'm going to try to find the first star. This is a first star here. Now I can just copy the keyframe on the scale property of this circle, Command C, copy, and then make sure we have the anchor points of the star at the center of the star. Now let us go to zero second, click on the first-star Command V, hit on U. We can see we already paste in the same animation keyframe that we have from the circle here, this layer, and next what I want to do is I want to add in a rotation as well. Shift-R, this final rotation value for the star at the 15th frame is going to be zero. Then we can go back to the zero second, maybe change it to negative 270, and then select the two, F9. Go to the graph editor. Remember to add in an overshoot, putting a keyframe on the graph, and then just drag all these handles. If you like, the overshoot is too much, let's change it back to maybe plus 35. Let's preview this animation here. Then the scale overshoot, I want it to be 155 or 125 or maybe 135, make it even bigger. That looks good. Next, all I need to do is to make sure all these stars have the anchor points at the center. I'm just moving all the anchor point to the center of the star. This is the last one. Nice. Then copy all the keyframe on the first star, and paste it on to the rest of the star. But make sure you have the timeline indicator at zero second so that it's going to start pasting in all the keyframe at zero second. Command V, hit on U. Now you can see all these keyframes, and next one, what we want to do is this line here. Let's just copy the keyframe on this white background, Command C, and then go to the line, make sure we have the anchor point all the way to the left-hand side of the line. Then, go to scale property and check this link here, and then paste in the keyframe from that background rectangle. The same thing with these lines here, go to scale and check this, paste in the keyframes. This one too, go to Scale uncheck this, paste in the keyframe. This one too, uncheck the Scale and then paste in the keyframe. Now, if we collapse all these Layers, let's see what we have, without any offset, everything is happening at the same time, everything is coming out at the same time. However, that's not what we want, what we want is to offset these Layers so that we get a follow-through effect. First of all, let's try to find the stars, so this is the first line. If we think about it, I want this white rectangle background coming first and then I want this circle coming first. When the circle comes in, I want that blue line come in and after the blue line, I want all of these stars to come in. This Layer 39, is the first star and then I want the stars to offset by one, two, three, maybe three frames for each layer. One, two, three, just offset the stars by three frames. After all of the stars, we have the two lines over there at the bottom, just to offset the lines over there, so the first line comes in and then the second line comes in and the third line comes in. That should be everything, let's take a look at the animation. That's what we have here, the animation for this review. In this example, I was also using many of the same keyframes, just copy-pasting on the Layers and then offsetting the keyframes, or offsetting the Layers to get a overlapping effect to make this animation more interesting. So that's another example how you can apply follow-through. Now, since we get this part of the animation done, it's very easy to apply this part of the animation to these two parts over here. Let me just quickly show you how to do that. Let's select all these Layers here and then pre-compose it. Command Shift C, rename it to Review 1. This is our Review 1 Layer with all the animation. Now what we can do is just go to the project panel and then duplicate this Layer in the project panel, Command D, to get a Review 2 and then duplicate another one, Command D again, Review 3. Now we got three different Review Layers with similar animation. I can drag this Review 2 from the project panel into my timeline here. This is going to be my Review 2 and then my Review 3, I can drag it back into the timeline and this is going to be my Review 3. The next thing I want to do, I'll just hide all these too, I want to find these two profile images and then drop it into the Review 2 and Review 3 composition to replace the woman profile picture. This Layer here, this is Head 3, that's just Command X, cut it from this composition, go to Review 3, Command V, paste it in. Make sure we have the anchor point in the center here. Drag it up at the same position as just covering the girl's profile and next what I want to do, just copy the keyframes on the girl's profile for this one here, paste it in and we can just hide the girl's profile. Now we should get a profile of the guy over here. Let's just go back to the main composition again, find the second profile here and then cut it from this composition, go to Review 2, paste it in, put it on top of the girl's profile, make sure the anchor point is in the center here and then just align the Layers with the girl's profile Layer. Hit U for the keyframes, Command C and then Command V. Now I can hide the girls' one. Now we got another review, let's go back to the demo. Turn on these two and if I hide all these elements here, just hide all these two layers and then let's preview the animation. Another thing is, I don't want these three reviews to come in at the same time, so I need to offset the three reviews again, just like how I offset the stars. Preview this. Look at that, it seems like the whole animation is pretty complex. However, it is not so complex because I'm mostly just copy and pasting all the key. I know these reviews are different from the previous storyboard, we still need to change the color of these lines and then change a couple of the stars to make sure these three people have three different reviews, but this is essentially the idea of how to use follow-through offsetting keyframes to get your animation more interesting. My assignment to you is to take this project file, you can reanimate these reviews if you want and then finish up this whole scene to animate all the other elements. This is going to be a pretty beautiful piece for your portfolio, or you can use it to practice your craft, something that you learned in these lessons. This is going to be a beautiful piece for you. You can also share it with me and I'm looking forward to see what you come up with. 28. Follow Through Demo 4: Here's our final demonstration on follow through. I'm still not going to animate the whole thing. Don't want to make it too complicated, I just want to explain the idea of follow through and you can take my project, this project file, and then finish up on your own. Just use the things learned in the previous lesson to make this piece more interesting and something that you can put it on your portfolio or show it off to your friends or family. I only want to animate this middle part here. I've got this yellow bar and then I've got a box here, an animating line, and then the happy line. First what I want to do is to animate this bar, shooting up hit P for position, right-click separate dimensions. I only want to animate in Y position. Just go to the zero seconds and then go for 15 frames. 10, one, two, three, four, five, adding a Y position keyframe. This is going to be the final state of our bar and then go back to zero second, drag it down. Something like that. Then select both F9. Easy ease, go to the graph editor. Make sure we're in the value graph. Fit the graph to view, and go backward three frames to adding an overshoot. Drag this overshoot over here. Make sure you drag these handles to manipulate the spacing. Go back to the keyframe view. Let's see the animation. Woah, Woah, Woah, this overshoot is too much let's pull it back a little bit, something like that. Okay, cool. Another thing is since we want to demonstrate follow-through and, remember follow-through is the overlapping action on parts of an object and right now we only have one object. How do we use follow through? For a bar or a block like this, we can actually use to add more points on this shape, and then we can manipulate the shape just like how we manipulate the shape in the squash and stretch lesson, we can also manipulate the shape here. So what we want to do is, hit on this arrow here, and then go to content, go to group, go to path, and then add a keyframe on the path. So the path is going to be a rectangle when it lands on here, which is the final state of this bar. But then when it's animating going up, what we can do is go to this pen tool over here, up here, go to pen tool and then choose this add vertex tool. I can add two points on this rectangle, and then I can manipulate the shape of this rectangle. Let's say if I want to make this rectangle thinner, and then drag these two points up as if this center is where the force is coming from and then the center is going to go forward first dragging the left and right wing of this rectangle to go up. Also, I want to go use this convert vertex tool, hit on this line here, drag a smooth curve here instead of a sharp like angle. Now I have a curve here. So what I want to do is when it comes up from zero second, drag this keyframe back to zero. It should come up something like this, and then I also wanted to overshoot. For the overshoots, maybe drag it back because I want this bar to be pretty thin when is traveling up and then when it overshoots over there, I want this one along these two points to come down. Still need a curve here. Go up and down and then settle. However, when it settles, I need another overshoot to have these two points down like that before I reach the final position. Swings back like that. Then let's right-click keyframe assistant, easy ease, go to Graph Editor. Since we're manipulating the path of an object and this path doesn't have a value graph, to be honest. In this case, even if you're selecting value graph, it's still going to show you speed graph. In this case, we cannot use value graph anymore, but good news is we already learned speed graph so all we want to do is to drag these handles to give our animation more speed. Something like this, to give him more energy. Let's see what we have here. Zoom in, zoom out. Let's preview. Now you can see our bar has some character to it. It's not a boring bar anymore. It's got some character. It's pretty fun, it's interesting to look at, it's like a noodle bar or something. I'm happy with this animation. However, I still haven't offset anything yet. Right now the path animation is still aligned with the position property. What we want to do is we need to offset the keyframe for the path. All we need to do is to drag the path for maybe two frames. One, two, let's try three frames. Drag the path forward three frames so that everything is offset by three frames and that gives you an illusion that when the bar comes up, there is a delay in response for the transformation of the shapes. Let's see what we have now and see if it makes sense. Yeah, it gives you more of a natural feeling and now we can animate happy. This bar comes in, I want happy just to come in from the, from the right. Just go back to zero second, hit a keyframe on the exposition, go for 15 frames, and then drag this final exposition, go back to zero, drag happy outside. Right-click, keyframe assistant, easy ease. What I want to do is go back to value graph. I want to add in an easing curve like this to have the happy shoot in like this and then I want to cut this layer around here using option left square bracket. Let's see what happens, what it looks like if I cut the layers from there. Just shooting from here. Instead of all the way from the border coming into the frame. Since I've already cut the layer over here and the text has already traveled somewhere around here but since we cut the layers, we cannot see. When the layer starts the tag is already over here in the frame so that's what we want and now I just want to do the same thing in a previous demonstration. I want to commend D, duplicate the layers and then I want to use a mask to mask out each letter. Like that and then I want to offset the keyframes. I want to offset the keyframes. I need to see the keyframes, I need to drag all these forward and then select both keyframes. Just offset by one frame. One, two, one, two, three, one, two, three, four. Then just drag them back over here. Let's see what it looks like. Now, we got the bar comes in like this, and then when it almost lands Happy comes in. See that makes sense. That looks good. Then we want to animate this outline here. I want to do something simple. For this outline, I just wanted to grow from the inside. Let's go to scale, and then uncheck this scale unified icon. Now, I can just manipulate the X scale and Y scale individually. What I want to do is on the 15th frame, it's going to be the final state of this box. Then from the start, I want these values to be zero. Then I want this box to come up vertically first to 100 percent around here, and then grow horizontally if that makes sense. Maybe over here just set it to, instead of zero, set it to 20. Something like that. I want the box to come up vertically first and then grow horizontally. Select the three keyframe, easy ease, and then go to the Graph Editor, need to add in a overshoot. Like this. Overshoots. Let's see the animation. If I offset this after the yellow bar comes in, when it almost settles, this box comes up. That's when we have the animating line comes in from the bottom. What we want to do is go to this animating line, and then P for position, right-click "Separate Dimensions". Let's just animate the Y position. Go for 15 frames, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and then drag this one down. Easy ease, go to the Graph Editor, add in a overshoot. Remember to drag all these handles to manipulate the spacing, give it more energy. Let's see what we have. I think it's too slow. Let's go back to the Graph Editor. Make sure this curve, it's more exaggerated. Then let's see over here. Let's bring the timing shorter, bring these keyframes closer to each other. Something like that. Then next, we can do something similar to what we did for the Happy. We can mask out each letter in this word and then offset the layer so that they all come up one by one. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Then select each one, mask it out. Next, we just need to offset the layers. Let's show all the keyframes. Then I want to move all these layers back or forward in time. When the box becomes bigger, I want these animation texts start coming up like this. Let's see the animation. Now what we need is to use a Track Matte, something that we talked about before to cover everything that's outside this rectangle box so that the animating line is not showing until it enters this box. First, I need to group them together, create a new composition, pre-comp those, Command Shift C, and this is going to be the animating comp. Next, I just need to draw a rectangle here, the same size as that box, and then put it on top of the animating comp. Now, I can just go to the second icon here and go to the Track Matte, set this layer on top of it as a alpha matte. Now you can see when the word is entering the area of that alpha matte, that's when the word is showing up. However, you can still see a little bit of the text over here. I need to go inside and then maybe adjust key here instead of 681, let's drag it even down, maybe make it 700. But now the only issue is that I have to change them one after another. I can't change them all at the same time because they are all offset already. I need to go into each keyframe and change it to 700. Let's go back to the main composition. Let's preview the animation. I need to make this box animation a bit slower, because right now it feels very abrupt. Let's see. Let's preview this. Let's preview the animation. That's what we have. It's pretty fun and happy, I guess. That's another example of how you can apply follow through to your animation. I want you to take this project and maybe animate the rest of the scene yourselves, or maybe change some of the texts here that I have and make it your own so that you can have something beautiful for your portfolio. This is for follow through. I hope you've learned everything and now you can explore on your own. Just take my project file and start practicing some animation. Good luck. 29. Secondary Animation Explained: In this lesson we're going to talk about another motion graphics secrets, which is secondary animation. When we talk about secondary animation, it's hard to explain. It's everything that's not necessary for your story-telling. Meaning some of those sparks that you see in some of those motion graphic works, they are secondary animation, so today here I want to show you three examples I've found on the Internet, and these three difference explainer videos, they all have a bunch of secondary animation inside them. I just want to show you and give you an idea what it is and how you can explore on your own, because there are so many different ways to think about secondary animation, is going to make your animation look more polished and more professional, it's going to give your story more of a character to it, so without further ado, let's take a look. 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As you grow, you'll unlock exclusive content that can be dropped directly into your presentations and shared with key stakeholders. Flight school doesn't require a huge time commitment. You'll go through interactive courses at your own pace, online or even on your phone, check-in whenever you have a few minutes. When you're ready to turn knowledge into know-how and can no longer resist the urge to fly, get yourself over to Twitter Flight School and take flight. All right, in this example you can see when we talk about secondary animation, for example, this scene here, you can see the trail of these paper airplanes. Those trails are secondary animation because those trails are not necessary to help with your storytelling, but they're there to give more of a visual appeal to our animation and to enhance your animation. That's why they're there, and that's why it's one of the modern motion graphic secrets to add secondary animation to your work so that your work look more polished and more professional. If we jump forward, you can see those trails. It's just going to add more visual appeal to the whole piece. Even these circles over here, they're very subtle, they're animated and sometimes you barely see them. They only last on the screen for a couple of seconds, but it's going to add more visual appeal to the animation. Look at those trails over here, there are so many different kinds of trails here, and those are secondary animation. This final scene here with paper airplane going up all these trails, and these trails are all look symmetrical, and these two are the same. There are three type of trails, and that's the first piece I want to share with you. Now let's go to the second one. Just pay attention to the secondary animation in this piece as well. Yeah, enjoy. [MUSIC] This piece is super fun here, and you can see it has a lot of secondary animation, all this sparks over here, the lines over here and the scribbles over there, especially with the trumpet seen over here. All these shapes, lines over there, those are secondary animation. When the dog land on here, it's got this shape burst over here as a secondary animation. So generous speaking, this one, this piece its got a lot of great secondary animation, and I just want to get you to start thinking about secondary animation in your project and think about how you can apply those in your own work to make it more visually appealing. So that's another piece I want to share with you. This piece is done by the great motion studio Giant Ants. Let's see another piece here. Is maintaining your existing applications costing you time and money? Not to mention your sanity. Is your software bloated with patches and temporary workarounds? 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Rehost, migrating your applications to the Cloud to improve scalability while reducing complexity and support costs. Ready to re-imagine your business. Whitecap can assess your existing applications and recommend a modernization strategy to help achieve your digital transformation goals. Visit us at whitecapcanada.com to get started. All right, you can tell this piece has a lot of great secondary animation also. Whenever there is a contact, you can see when the hand click the button there, there is a secondary animation, the burst and then there's a swirl scene here, and there's contact, there is line burst, some line bursts over there. The good thing is, for this line burst, you can just create it once as a composition in your project, and every time you need some kind of contact, secondary animation, you can just grab that composition and drop it in your timeline. Just keep reusing the same secondary animation, is very easy, and thus you can see all these circle lines over there. All right, so that's pretty much it in this video. I just wanted to show you what is secondary animation, and quickly, and just get you thinking about it so that in the future you can apply those techniques in your own work to make your animation look more polished and professional. That's it with this lesson. 30. Animate Like A Hero: All right, guys, here is our final project. It's finally here. As you can see, I've already have a After Effects file setup for you, and this is the final assignment composition here. Within the final assignment composition, we've got a lot of different elements here on their own separate layer so that you can animate each one individually. What I want you to do with this project is to apply everything you learned in this class. Remember all of the animation principles that we were talking about: the squash and stretch, follow through, anticipation, overshoots, animate with value graph and speed graph, and keep in mind your timing and spacing, all that. I want you to apply everything you learned so far as much as you can to animate this scene here. This is a beautifully designed scene, so you can treat it as a blank scene and how these elements come into the scene. Like maybe the lamp just coming from the right, or maybe it just drop from the top. It doesn't have to be really realistic. I want you to exaggerate some of the motion, some of the animations. Maybe the lamp can squash and stretch when it falls from the top and then maybe the lamp can also even bounce a little bit. Like these little elements here on the wall, when they come in, they can bounce too, they don't have to land straight onto this wall rail. This ceiling light, maybe it can oscillate back and forth, left to right. All these leaves here, maybe you can bend a little bit. There is a sofa, maybe it comes in with an overshoot and everything. They don't come in at the same time, you can think about follow through. All these animation principles that we learned so far, you can apply them. Maybe if you're just started and you can't remember all of them, you can make a checklist. Each time when you're animating one element, think about all these animation principles, the checklist you have, and see which one on the checklist you can apply to the specific element that you're animating at that moment. I just want you to have some fun with this final assignment. This is going to be a great exercise for you to get familiar with all of the animation principles that we talked so far. It is very important to remember all these, because when you are doing your own project or working on a real-world project, you're going to need these animation principles to bring your animations life. Another thing is, I don't want you to be limited to the scene that I set up here, this illustration that I set up here as a final project. If you are maybe an illustrator or graphic designer and you already know how to set up a beautiful scene and you just want to get started with motion graphics, you can also animate any of your own work, something that you're proud of, and something that you're excited about. If you have a beautiful illustration piece that you want to animate as your final project, you can do that too. The idea is to practice what we learned so far in this class and be able to apply them in one piece and animate it as a full polished professional animation, so that you can put it on your demo reel to pitch it to your client. I hope you have a lot of fun animating this final assignment, and I can't wait to see what you come up with. Don't forget to share with me your final project. I'll be here to help you along the way to give you feedback or comments to help you improve. Good luck. 31. Congrats! What's Next : First of all, I want to congratulate you on finishing this course. It's not an easy class, but now you've made it. It's been a blast teaching you over the last period of time, and I hope you got a ton of knowledge out of this course and you're excited about taking on whatever comes next. You might be still working on some of the assignments, I hope you are because the best way to retain these knowledge is through practice, and it's painful, I know, but we've all been there. Don't forget to share your assignment with me and your fellow students to get feedbacks and encourage each other. I hope you had a lot of fun taking this course, and if you can take a minute to write me a review, it would be really appreciated. I also have some other animation courses that you can check out if you're interested. I hope these principles and secrets will help you immensely as it did help me, and if you have any question going through the course, I'll be here to help you. Thank you so much for taking the course. Happy animating.