American English pronunciations-Learn to Speak with an Authentic Standard American accent | Aria DeMaris | Skillshare

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American English pronunciations-Learn to Speak with an Authentic Standard American accent

teacher avatar Aria DeMaris, Dialect Coach & Actor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

61 Lessons (2h 40m)
    • 1. intro - Welcome to the Course

    • 2. Introducing Your Instructor

    • 3. What You Will Learn in This Course

    • 4. 4 Keys to Success

    • 5. tools workspace

    • 6. What is a Standard American Accent

    • 7. What Is the Difference Between an Accent and a Dialect

    • 8. How Did This Accent Originate

    • 9. Which Regions of Us & North America Speak With a Standard American Accent

    • 10. What Is the Difference Between the American & Canadian Accent

    • 11. Phonetic Differences Between These Accents

    • 12. Why Is It Important for an Actor or Non Actor to Know This Accent

    • 13. Breathing, Posture & Vocal Warm Up's

    • 14. Warm Up's & Fine Tuning

    • 15. Body & Voice Exercise

    • 16. Articulation & Diction Exercises

    • 17. Other Voice Exercises

    • 18. Diction Exercise

    • 19. Oral Posture & Placement

    • 20. Loosening the Jaw Exercise

    • 21. Relaxing the Temporalis Muscle

    • 22. Opening the Back of the Throat

    • 23. Listening Skills

    • 24. Points to Remember

    • 25. English Pronunciation & Phonetics

    • 26. Main Vowels & Their Sounds

    • 27. Different Vowel Sounds

    • 28. Short Vowel Sounds

    • 29. Long Vowel Sounds

    • 30. Vowel Rules

    • 31. Vowel Pronunciation

    • 32. Vowel Sounds & Symbol Review

    • 33. Vowel Pronunciation Practice Sentences

    • 34. Weak Vowels

    • 35. Common Vowel Mistakes

    • 36. Introduction to Diphthongs

    • 37. List of Diphthongs

    • 38. Diphthong Practice & Review

    • 39. Introduction to Consonants

    • 40. 6 2Consonant Blends

    • 41. Stop Consonants

    • 42. Silent Consonants

    • 43. Voiced and Unvoiced Consonants

    • 44. Key Consonants

    • 45. Consonant Practice

    • 46. Common Consonant Mistakes

    • 47. Pronunciation, Stress & Rhythm

    • 48. General Tips on Speaking

    • 49. Contractions

    • 50. Unique Sounds & Spellings

    • 51. The Difference Stress Makes

    • 52. GlidesSemi Vowels

    • 53. Combining Vowels & Consonants

    • 54. Introduction to Rhythm and Melody

    • 55. Intonation and Pitch

    • 56. Pitch Tones and When to Use Them

    • 57. How to Know Which Words to Stress

    • 58. Differentiating Between Statements & Questions

    • 59. Varied Intonation

    • 60. final review

    • 61. final notes

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About This Class

If you are looking to expand your repertoire as an actor or wanting to speak more clearly, and perfect the Standard American for your interpersonal or business relations, this course will help you speak with fluency and confidence as an authentic American. You’ll learn everything from vowels, consonants, diphthongs, rhythm, pitch, melody, grammar, and how to develop your hearing, which will enable you to learn and grasp this American sound.

Meet Your Teacher

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Aria DeMaris

Dialect Coach & Actor


Hello, I'm Aria.

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1. intro - Welcome to the Course: welcome to learning an authentic standard American accent. You just took an amazing for step towards mastering this new skill. So maybe you want to expand your repertoire as an actor to help you gain those American speaking rules in TV, film or the stage. Or maybe you want to speak more clearly and sound more distinctly American for your own interpersonal or business relations. Whatever your reasons are your in the right place to learn what you need to know to have you speaking like an authentic American. 2. Introducing Your Instructor: a little about me. I've lived and worked around the world. As an actor, voice artist and a dialect coach. I've created my own database of dialects and accents while teaching people from all over the world one on one in workshops or on various professional TV and film sets like Altered Carbon Lost in Space and Supergirl. It's really my passion to not Onley learn accents but also teach them. So I'm really excited to share my knowledge and my teachings with you. So thank you for joining and allowing me to help you reach your goals and put you on the path to success. Now, before I start, I just want to point out that there might be some times throughout the course that you might see me exaggerating my lips and mouth movements a lot more than usual. So I might look a little funny and you can laugh at me as much as you want, but it's really to help you see and hear how I formed the sounds 3. What You Will Learn in This Course: In the first section of the course, you'll learn what the started American accent is, along with its origin. Why knowing the standard American accent is important. How to develop your listening skills, what materials you'll need for your success in learning this new accent. Later on, each section will guide you with learning the vowels, continents, phonetic alphabet rhythm and melody, warmups and tools. 4. 4 Keys to Success: now the first thing to remember is that perfecting a new accent isn't something you learn in a flash. It's possible to learn it fast, but it can be tricky. And although it is tricky, it's really fun and incredibly rewarding. Keep in mind that everyone hears and learns in their own unique way and in their own time and pace. So reviewing what you've learned and completing the assignments and lessons will guide you in becoming proficient with this accent. It takes practice and dedication to ensure that you can speak in this new accent authentically and with confidence. So, apart from improving your listening skills, which we will work on, learning an accent also requires knowledge of phonetics, Orel placement, rhythm, stress, energy and some grammar. You'll become familiar with all of these points and be able to comfortably speak in an accent that's different from your own native one. Now for you actors out there. It's a really good idea to start with General American just because it's not only the most sought after accent, but it is the most neutral. So once you've mastered this accent, you can branch out to other ones like New York or Southern US states or Irish, British, French. You can have fun mastering as many accents as you want 5. tools workspace: tools and workplace recommendations material you'd like toe work on or practice with, such as monologues, scripts, anything you enjoy reading, like novels, magazines or newspapers. There will be material and resources provided for you at the end of the sections that you can download and use to practice with. If you like a recording device like your phone computer or a handheld recorder, headphones are optional. But I really recommend them because they can really help you. Listen closely and focus on the exercises in this course as well as your own recordings. A mirror to familiarize yourself with making the right mouth movements a notebook for your notes, a pen or pencil to write your notes or underlying or circle anything and highlighter if you want to highlight any specific sounds or words apart from doing the course, exercises and assignments set up a time each day that works for you to practice what you've learned for 10 to 15 minutes. This will help you achieve your goals faster. Having the right mindset is vital when learning any new skill. You have to have patience, commitment and an open mind. You have to be hungry and excited in orderto learn anything new you want to be really great at as it takes dedication and discipline. Don't get down on yourself when you're learning, and if you ever feel frustrated, just give yourself a break. Go for a walk binge. Watch some TV. Do anything to just get your mind out of this. Think of this as learning a new language because in a way it is just like a language has its own tongue and mouth movements with rhythm and stress, so does an accent. Assignments are at the end of the sections and subsections to help you develop your listening skills and to better understand the curriculum. 6. What is a Standard American Accent: what is a standard American accent? So although the notion of standardized American accent is a little funny, because language is always evolving the statin, American English or s a sometimes call General American accent is the accent we here as the most mainstream American English, and it's not based on any particular region in the US It's referred to as a standard accent consistently used across U. S broadcast media, having no distinct regional, ethnic or socio economic characteristics. Most people call this accent neutral or accent lis, since it has no distinguishing features. And the speakers can sound as if there from anywhere if you want to skip over the history of the accent and how it originated. Although it is pretty interesting, you can click on Section two to the first lesson and skip ahead. But please watch. If you're interested in knowing more about the history of this accent, 7. What Is the Difference Between an Accent and a Dialect: What's the difference between an accent and a dialect? It can be a little complicated to understand, So let's break it down. An accent is the way that a group of people or one particular person sounds. It's basically the way somebody pronounces words and the musicality of their speech. Everyone has an accent because each person has their own way of pronouncing words. I haven't acts that in relation to someone from Texas. They haven't accent in relation to me, so it's all relative. Another way to think of it is as a person's pronunciation style. An accent can be influenced by different factors, like a person's socioeconomic status, background, native tongue, social class and ethnicity. Examples of an accent include the difference between how some people might pronounce the words either like either or either ask, like ask or acts important, like important or importance or important pecan as pecan or pecan caramel like caramel or caramel or garage like garage or carriage. The word rough in America can be pronounced something between roof and rough, but they can also pronounce it with a strong emphasis on the new sound. Rough in Canada can be pronounced with a strong emphasis on the new sound as well, sounding like roof, so these sounds can be pronounced differently. In both countries, a dialect refers to not only the accent and pronunciations but also the grammar and vocabulary that people use within a group. So in other words, it's a different version of a language. Two people could be speaking English and be expressing the same idea, but with different dialects, the pronunciation, the grammar and vocabulary would be different. For example, someone from North America could say, I like the apartment and someone from the UK could say I fancy the flat. It's the same exact meaning but different vocabulary. 8. How Did This Accent Originate: How did this accent originate? A little bit of history for you. What we know to be the standard American accent was shaped as a result of the British colonization of North America during the 17th century. The first permanent settlement in the New World was established by English colonists at Jamestown, Virginia, in 16 07 We aren't exactly sure when this accent took form and became widely used by Americans, or when they started to sound noticeably different from the British. During the 17th century, dialects from many different regions of England existed in every American colony, which allowed for the mixing of different dialect. It was also majorly influenced by immigration from Europe and Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries, and a more consistent American English became common by the mid 18th century. Since then, American English has evolved into various regional dialects, widely influenced by European immigrants and their languages. Influences also came from Native American languages. The British American colonists were completely new to the various animals, plants and places in this new world, and so they adopted many words into their own language. Words such as skunk moose, raccoon came from Algonquin chocolate chilli and coyote originated from Now, it'll ask second language, and these words, along with several others, made their way north since the colonization of Latin America, several counties District's Canadian provinces and American states come from Algonquin, like Mississippi, Michigan, Quebec, Chicago, Illinois, Saskatchewan and Wyoming, and several others. Other borrowings, or what are known as loan words, came from Mexican Spanish. Words like Ranch, Gorilla, Plaza, Cigar, Rodeo Canyon and guacamole, along with cities and states like Nevada, Arizona, California, Los Angeles and Las Vegas are just a few more examples. Other loan words, including Anonymous and Metropolis, came from Greek kindergarten and Waltz came from German Entrepreneur Cafe genre, and Rendezvous came from French bagel klutz. Nagy came from Yiddish. 9. Which Regions of Us & North America Speak With a Standard American Accent: which regions of the U. S. And North America speak with a standard American accent. This is a very generic assessment of regions where you would predominantly here this accent spoken more. Of course, how a person speaks is influenced by many factors like upbringing, native language, ethnicity, immediate influences, status, etcetera. The West Coast, like California, Washington, Oregon, are geographically, where a more standardized American accent would be heard more consistently, along with Omaha, parts of the Midwest, Colorado, North Midlands and parts of Philadelphia are other places where you might find this accent less accent. 10. What Is the Difference Between the American & Canadian Accent: What's the difference between the American and Canadian accent? Because we're talking about the General American accent and American English could be spoken all over North America. It's important to include some points about the Canadian accent as it's part of North America. Canadian and American English are classified together as North American English. Chronologically, most outsiders and even native English speakers find it hard to distinguish between the two accents, especially since for many people, the Canadian accent can be hard to identify. The fact that it's a Commonwealth country and has a connection to England on the UK may also account for its particular speech. Just like America. Canadian English was formed by English and Irish immigrants, but it was heavily influenced by the influx of roughly 45,000 British loyalists with their British English during the American Civil War. Roughly 100,000 Americans migrated to Ontario in the War of 18 12 and in the following decades, those Ontario inhabitants settled to the western Canadian provinces, spreading their American accent across the country. This mixing of dialect ultimately led to the American like sound. For most Canadians, you confined general American sounding accents all over Canada, including provinces and cities like Vancouver, British Columbia, Toronto, Ontario, Alberta and other provinces. This doesn't include the Maritimes or the Quebecois, as they both have very distinct accents. For instance, it can be very difficult to differentiate between a person from Calgary or Seattle or even Winnipeg. But if you hear accents from the Maritimes, their accents are very unique. For example, the island of Newfoundland, with its way of speaking majorly influenced by English and Irish immigrants, has kept its very unique accent that's completely different from the rest of Canada. 11. Phonetic Differences Between These Accents: so there are several different accents in Canada, just as there are in the United States. And there's a few dead giveaways to sounding Canadian Canadian raising is a term that explains what some Canadians dio when they pronounce def thongs to part vowels, pronouncing these with, ah, higher part of the mouth. Which leads to why some Canadians might pronounce their our sound differently from Americans. The most common end picked on our words like about sorry and out, which Canadians sometimes air, made fun of for pronouncing them as about Sorey rhyming with story instead of an open oh sound sorry and haute instead of out. But these are mainly stereotypes, and out and about might sound more like Oh, and a boat. But not exactly standard American pronunciation for out is an hour sound. The sometimes Canadian out is between O and our American out sounds more like out Canadian out. Sounds like the use sound is almost swallowed, and the O sound is tighter. There's sometimes a slight imaginary e added at the beginning of the word as well, like oat. Another tight oh sound is own. Some Canadians might pronounce it like own project in U. S. A. Is project. For the most part, sometimes Canadians can pronounce this as project or project rough in American sounds between roof and rough. And sometimes Canadians can pronounce this as roof and rough as well. Sometimes the R sound, as in car, are given Ah, hard are sound, especially in the provinces in the Maritimes, like Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. Canadians are also known for using a as an exclamation, although, of course, not all Canadians do this. Just a Some say Canadians pronounce the last letter in the alphabet, as Zed and Americans say Z. But this might be half the population that actually does this and again. Another stereotype in conclusion. The stereotypical Canadian accent can sometimes have a more clipped sound than its American sibling. With almost a hint of British intonation. The mouth is more closed or tighter, especially with the O and how sounds. For instance. Take the word tomorrow, some Canadians might say tomorrow, and the General American version sounds more like tomorrow, which is a little more relaxed and a wider sound 12. Why Is It Important for an Actor or Non Actor to Know This Accent: if you're an actor from another country or other regional area of the U. S, then you know that having a solid, standard American accent is vital in this industry. No matter where you are in the world, chances are that the opportunity to audition for American films or TV shows and pilots will come up. If you're well trained actor, furthering your accent skills will only add versatility and confidence to your repertoire. If you've moved to North America from abroad, or plan to most of the rules you audition for will require a standard American accent. Onley a very small percentage of auditions for film and TV. Call for regional or foreign accents, which is sad and unfortunate but true. But once you've nailed it, your confidence will rise in the audition room. And the great thing is that once you've picked up the speech patterns and nuances of the General American accent and feel confident with it, you can branch out into learning other regional American accents like the Midwest, Michigan, Ohio, Chicago, East Coast, New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia and Boston, along with Southern accents like Tennessee, Georgian Texan and the Northern States like Minnesota, Montana and North Dakota. More than 800 million people speak English globally, and over 500 million of those people are non native speakers. Achieving this American accent will help you speak with more clarity and help you communicate with both native and non native speakers more effectively. So as a lover of dialects and language and as a coach, I am fascinated by people's unique accents. But many of my students don't feel the same way or share the same love for their own accent . So maybe you're new to the country looking to assimilate into the culture. Or maybe you're a native. But because of your regional influences and the way you've been speaking your entire life, you have an accent. You want to adjust these air. Just a few reasons for learning. The standard American English accent, along with the next points speaking with the General American accent, can be a challenge for many, especially if English isn't your first language. This can lead to insecurities, where people feel reluctant to speak, maybe believing that they're hard to understand because of their accent and because speech is such an expression of who we are learning. This accent will give you the confidence to express yourself effectively without any doubts or misunderstandings. Professional or business relations. A mastered American accent with clear pronunciation will help you in your career and work environment, especially working with the public when talking to colleagues or clients or public speaking or applying for a position you want. Showing your excellent communication skills can advance your career and could possibly help others trust in you more more exposure to the accent. Because so much of the mainstream movies and TV in North America are produced in California , Hollywood and basically all over North America, it's an accent we have easier access to. So anyone around the world can watch, listen and try to pick it up. You can supplement your learning here by watching some documentaries, TV shows and movies while paying attention and mimicking the way the actors or people speak . It can contribute to a healthy social life. Just because you have a foreign accent doesn't mean you can't have a healthy social life. But the easier you are to understand, the easier it is to build relationships with whomever you're speaking with, we all want to feel understood, so improving the clarity of your speech or sounding more neutral American can improve your social skills to fit into your surroundings easier In conclusion, Learning this accent can help advance your career, strengthened communication and social skills. Help your efficiency and you're speaking as you'll be easier to understand, and you won't need to repeat yourself. Improve your public speaking skills, helping you deliver powerful speeches and points with clarity and confidence. Help you build trust and credibility, as others will be able to understand you easily improve your self confidence, being able to socialize with fluency and ease having a positive impact on your social interactions. Tips Moving forward Apart from the aural posture, lip movement, vowels, continents, stress and rhythm, which we will be learning about, Ah, vital part of learning an accent is having a good ear. Developing your listening skill is a major component toe learning any new accent. Remember, you may have been speaking how you do your entire life, so there's a lot of habits that you might have formed through that span of time. One way to work on your listening skills is toe watch films, where the characters speak with an accent from that particular region. You can focus on the kind of mouth, movements, inflections and rhythm you see in here. Then pause after each line of dialogue toe listen and take note of what you hear. Listening to radio stations, podcast and interviews, congee helpful. A swell. Just a note that there will be assignments and lists of resources to help guide you throughout this course YouTube and search the region of the accent you want to hear, for example, people from California to listen to interviews with people from that region. As you go through this course and complete the assignments, you can also reinforce your learning by grabbing a book, magazine, play or newspaper and reading it aloud and exaggerating your mouth movements. The reason for this is to get your mouth used to making these shapes and sounds, and once you've had enough practice, you can relax into the accent with more eats 13. Breathing, Posture & Vocal Warm Up's: breathing posture and vocal warm ups. Before we get started on learning the mouth movements and fundamental sounds required to perfecting this accent, let's take some time to learn some important tips, warmups and exercises. If you're an actor, you know that the development of your voice will strengthen your performance with emotional flexibility in truth. And the same goes for speaking in the real world. Breathing healthy breathing habits are the foundation to a strong voice. If you do yoga or meditation, you may be more connected to your breath. If this is something you need further help with, I recommend working on your breath and voice with a vocal coach or taking some online classes as it would really help you become more aware of your habits and where you might hold tension. The most basic thing to remember is while you breathe, visualize with each, inhale the breath, moving down into your lungs and imagine it releasing as you exhale. This could also help you feel more relaxed while you breathe, allowing you to speak with more ease. Proper breathing technique is helpful in mental and physical health, and it's great for reducing tension in the jaw neck, shoulders back and the stomach. A fundamental part of strong speech is body posture. It goes hand in hand with proper breathing as posture. Supports the bodies. Respiratory system while doing any voice or breathing exercises. The crown of the head should be parallel to the ceiling, with head faced forward and the spine upright yet relaxed. It can help you with feeling more self assured, even if you may not genuinely feel it right away. There is some truth to the term. Fake it till you make it where psychology and brain power is concerned. Studies have shown that a powerful posture is known to send strong signals to the brain. Those signals go from neural impulses that turn into a real physiological response, increasing brain power and intellect. In conclusion, great posture isn't just beneficial for your breathing, but it can also create hormones in the brain that make you feel more confident and engaged . 14. Warm Up's & Fine Tuning: warmups, just as any athlete stretches and warms up before any physical activity. Our voice and the muscles used to make these sounds require some warming up toe work. At their best, warm up exercises will help you speak with more ease and articulation to help with the flow of your tone, along with preventing any vocal strain when using your voice for a longer amount of time, a warm up is a good idea to do, especially since your mouth will feel like it's run a marathon or had a gym workout after each session. To do most warm ups, you should allow for 10 to 15 minutes. The warm ups here are short basic ones. You can also find a resource of warmups listed, or find your own warmups and exercises that work best for you. Another good component toe warming up is keeping hydrated. Start with reducing face tension by massaging the muscles of the jaw and face, yawned widely while sighing to stretch the jaw. Stretch the neck lightly by leaning to the sides front and back. Start to stretch your tongue, stick the tongue out and pointed up and then down and then left to right. First the center of the tongue out while bracing it behind the front bottom teeth. Stick your tongue out fully and pant toe. Open up your breath. Bubble your lips. In other words, blow air while flapping your lips to reduce lip and cheek tension. Truly your tongue. Roll your tongue, which almost sounds like a loud cat. Purring Resonate er's Macon M sound with your lips closed and feel the vibration. Continue to hum and notice. If you feel any vibration, try and hear and feel where the vibration is coming from. 15. Body & Voice Exercise: body and voice exercise. Bring your body into your warm up. To remove any further tension, bend your waist and let your arms dangle. Breathe in and feel the stretch. Swing your arms for side to side and from front to back, then slowly build us into more of a shaking motion. Start to make an ah sound, projecting it across the room. Continue doing this with all the vowel sounds. Make an M sound with your lips closed. After keeping that sound study for some time, open your mouth to make a haw sound and then repeat with each vowel ha her hi ho who he Bend your knees slightly and point your toes out. Maken a sound and hold this sound for as long as you can. Take your fist and rub it slightly on your diaphragm area while bouncing up and down slightly. Sit on the floor and stretch your legs wide apart. Reach your hand to the office of foot, leaning over to one side. Breathe in and imagine you have gills on the side of your rib. You're stretching deeply. Breathe in and out. This is also great for stretching your hamstrings and legs and letting go of tension in the body, since these air only basic warmups and exercises. If you're looking for more in depth training for your voice breathing projection, pitch or vocal confidence, I recommend looking into voice training and classes to help you further. Another great way to train your voice is by over enunciating while reading out loud and concentrating on your voice and breath before a performance or speech. Play with the pitch and volume, speaking louder and then whispering. And you could also try pausing or stressing random vowels and syllables and words that you would probably not stress otherwise or posit. Naturally, a really fun way to help tune your voice and vocal muscles is by good old fashioned singing . Just remember not to overdo it or strain your voice and always warm up before singing especial. 16. Articulation & Diction Exercises: since effective communication isn't just about what you say, but how you say it. Addiction exercises can be very helpful when adding truth and emotional flexibility to the way you speak and get your point across. It can also prevent or reduce any dullness or a monotone way of speaking while strengthening and stretching the muscles of the mouth. It can also bring attention to your speech patterns and habits as well. You can find some diction and tongue twister exercises in the pdf listed here. 17. Other Voice Exercises: other voice exercises. Tongue twisters can really help with articulation. Remember to start slowly focusing on the words and your enunciation. Make sure each word ends clearly and crisply. Repeat the phrase until you become more comfortable and are able to see it faster. If you stumble on any words, just stop and start over. The goal should be to maintain clarity over speed. Here are a few basic tongue twisters to help you with your articulation. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, a pack of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked if Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where's the peck of pickled peppers? Peter Piper picked. She sells seashells by the seashore or serious. Sally sells seashells on the salty sea shore. Red leather, yellow leather, red leather, yellow leather, red leather, yellow leather. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could? Chuck Wood? He would chuck. He would as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could. Chuck Wood Eddie edited it. Red lorry, Yellow lorry, Red lorry, Yellow lorry, Unique. New York. New York's unique. We'll touch on more specific tongue twisters to help with particular bowels and constants later on, 18. Diction Exercise: if you're looking to really work out your articulator muscles, and if speech clarity is something you're trying to improve, the exercise here will be helpful for you. These lines include many of the vowel and constant sounds we use in English before you begin. Start by hydrating yourself. This isn't a tongue twister, so you don't have to rush through it. Instead, what you want to do is read each sentence out loud, one at a time, pronouncing each word as carefully and as clearly as you can. If you feel you're straining your voice or your throats becoming sore, stop the exercise with a little work at this daily or every other day, the goal should be to be able to recite the entire exercise comfortably, with no strain eating peaches and green peas feel sweet. The aim of the game is to keep the frame straight. It led Fred to get the bed in red, he said. It literally tied my kite in the net, causing a fit. Overgrowth around the oaks grew slow over by the oasis. The stock was locked on the dock as a flock flew calmly lost in thought. The awesome, ostentatious Gadi mod flaunted her body. He drove low and slow as Mo followed the crow, the moose and goose surrounded, producing a truce. The cub looked up and was loved by his mother. The dimes took time to find right by the side. It was divine royal coins and oysters on Doyle's were what they toiled. Shepard's shed the sheep bythe shale and shore. The vision was unusual, like a mirage or a luxurious camouflage. There were few fruits for the amused baboons at the zoo. Ruby blew her money on new shoes, boots and blue tulips. He seems to dream of the beach and bright, sunny gleam on the sea. Lukes uncle put up the hut for the ducks under us, the vicious and riveting with vivid, lovely violet and silver colors were evident. The odd author blogged about the palm trees and waterfalls at the spa. His job was to fish for cod off the hot and salty rocks. He loathed the toothache As they try to soothe the tooth, they pushed the wood off the hood. As hard as they could. He mailed the sign adventurous tale and felt fine. 11 ethereal elves left the earthy, unexplained, empty cave 19. Oral Posture & Placement: Orel posture, sometimes referred to as the point of placement or point of tension, is a huge piece when learning to speak with a standard American sound. So let's break down what this means. Orel posture means how the tongue, lips and jaw move to properly articulate a certain language or accent. Placement is where the accent lives in the mouth, which I sometimes like to call the energy in the mouth. The way you speak and I speak will differ because of our own accents. Unique placement. It's how the sounds, rhythm, stress patterns and inflections are formed. It may take some time to fully hear or feel a difference in how you sound speak and how your lips and tongue move in comparison to this accent. But once you do, you'll become better at identifying the differences, and then you'll be on your way to easily speaking authentically in this accent. One thing to remember is that with this standard American sound, the jaw is much more open and free compared to many other accents. Some standard American speakers feel that the focal point is Maurin the pharynx, which is the back of the throat. The sound and energy travels forward to the front of the mouth, the teeth, tongue and the lips, which are more active than some other accents but still not overly used. So as a general American speaker myself, where I feel the point of residence is in the middle of the mouth. This is different from a lot of British English speakers, with their point of residents being mawr forward in the mouth. Ah, lot of Russian accents are further back in the mouth and the throat, and some Australian speakers say that they've experienced feeling their residence in the middle of their mouth, but higher so near the vellum or the roof of the oral cavity separating the nasal and oral cavity. Which does make sense because the jaw is more closed with the Australian accent. When attempting toe work on this accent, it's important to loosen the jaw. Another helpful tip is to visualize the back of your mouth opening wide, like a large cave filling with space. This could be a helpful image, forgetting the aural posture just right, as well as allowing for more space to better feel the energy and vibration. The following exercises will help you with relaxing these bustles and allowing for more space in the mouth 20. Loosening the Jaw Exercise: loosening the jaw exercise. We've gone through warm ups in the previous section, but this is more of a massage. In orderto loosen the massacre, the jaw and joint muscles. While performing this exercise, breathe easily and focus on releasing tension in order to for your jaw. Using your thumbs, press gently massaging both massacre muscles in a forward down motion away from your ears. While massaging, let your jaw loosen, continuing to breathe calmly. Continue massaging gently on those muscles and then start to create small circular movements. Another exercise is to slightly drop your jaw. Then grab your chin and lower jaw with both thumbs and index fingers and gently move the lower jaw back and forth. You may notice some resistance, so the point is to try to release all the tension in the jaws. You're able to move it with Maury's 21. Relaxing the Temporalis Muscle: relaxing. The temporal is muscles you may find tension exists in the sides of your head. This is the temporal is which is the muscle that helps us chew and move our lower jaw. Many people hold a large amount of tension in this area. Along with the massacre. You could massage the muscle with your fingers or use a massage ball. First, make sure your lips are slightly open and breathe calmly. Become familiar with this area by focusing on one side first and placing your finger tips on the temporal is it starts an inch or so above the ear and usually passed the hairline above the temples. Open your jaw wide to contract. The temporal is muscle and notice. If you feel a contraction or tension, gently press your fingers and massage this muscle up. Then take your fingers or massage ball and massage the area continuing to breathe. You can also use the palms of your hands to massage the area, gently leaving your lips open and focusing on your breath. Stretching the jaw slowly and yawning are other ways to stretch the jaw out and release tension. If you feel you may be having excessive tension, frequent headaches, TMJ or teeth grinding issues. Consult a physician 22. Opening the Back of the Throat: throat opening the back of the throat. Because vocal expression comes from our throat, we may hold a lot of psychological tension that we don't even know about, which can manifest into physical tightness and tension. It's important to clear any tension in the back of the throat or the fair ings, which lies in the area between the soft palate and the back of our tongue. There are several ways to reduce tension in the throat and body overall, which include neck and shoulder stretching or massages that focus on the neck and throat muscles. If you feel you have a lot of unnecessary tension when you speak, you might want to look into other alternatives for relief, like speaking with a therapist, a trusted friend or even shocker healing. Working specifically for the throat chakra, try some small yawns. Repeat this yawning motion five times while releasing the throat muscles to slip down as you yawn, Yawn again. But this time, with each exhale, make an aw sound at a note you feel comfortable with lowering the note gradually to sound like a more exaggerated sigh. 23. Listening Skills: the first step toe. Losing your accent or learning a new one is recognising the difference between your own natural speech patterns and the accents patterns you're working on. We've all probably tried imitating different accents for fun, but have we really taken the time to listen to all those characteristics that make it accent so unique? This is where developing a good ear and building self awareness is one of the most important part to perfecting this new skill. It's really important to be totally honest with yourself and constructively critical about what you hear in your voice and speech while you learn this accent. So have you ever noticed and listen to how people around you speak? Do you take note of any subtle or large differences between the way you say something or how you speak in comparison to help others speak or say the same words, it's not only important toe listen, but also watch how the words and sounds are being formed. You might already know what sounds or words you struggle with, so start by making a list of these. If you're not sure or would like to know what other sounds you need to work on, then the following exercise will help you pinpoint what to listen for 24. Points to Remember: think in terms of your words, being loud and proud rather than to flatten down and kept in the back of the mouth. This accent is less musical than other accents and at times can sound a little more staccato, but they're still flowing lyrical quality to it. We'll get it to rhythm, stress and melody later on. But just be aware that your speech doesn't become too flat overall. Sometimes breaking up a word with customized fanatics can help lead us to the right accent . Sound like in the word photography, which could be written and read as photography, placement of sound, neutral lips and a low tongue. Send the sound through to the middle and front of the face, which sometimes creates a slight neighs ality, especially with the a sound point of residents. Reduce over using the lips when making sounds focus on creating flatter rather than really round sounds or really round shapes and limit lip movement. The back of the tongue stays low for the most part, so depending on your natural accent, you might have to pull the back of the tongue down using the top throat muscles. The tongue feels wider with this accent, so focus on using the front of the tongue or the surface area of the front of the tongue Mawr, and not just the tip. 25. English Pronunciation & Phonetics: English pronunciation and phonetics. English is an odd language and can be a challenge for some people learning the standard American accent in terms of its spelling. Ah, lot of general American sounds don't correspond with the alphabet, which obviously makes things more confusing with the way some letters and words are pronounced. For example, the word photo is pronounced photo, but the word photography is pronounced photography. There are several exceptions to rules, which we will go over in future lessons. This is where the I P a. Or International phonetic alphabet is useful to learn, since it's the direct link between the spelling of a word and it's pronunciation. I recommend becoming familiar with this, although I know it can help to write your own version of customized phonetics to help you process and create the sounds you'll be learning you can write. It, however, makes most sense to you. For example, photo could be written as photo. Take a look at the phonetic alphabet. Ah, bat hat map can ah cop mom. Cobb Dawn A make steak break, babe e beat treat seed. Keep yeah. Met Kept wreck. Beg. Yeah, Bit rid tip net. Oh, Caught Taught call lawn. Oh, robe toed rope. Coke. Oh, book. Look. Took good. Do boot stew to move. Uh, cut, but rub shove. 26. Main Vowels & Their Sounds: vowels. Vowels are the letters that create a verbal sound when the vocal tract is open, a e i O U and in some cases why, which is referred to as a semi vowel. The letter Y is a vowel when it makes the I sound pronounced like the word I or as in the word him pronounced as him. The why is a constant when it's being itself, like in the Word yellow or yesterday. The standard American accent is one that, for the most part, puts more emphasis on vowels than on continents. So remember to open up the mouth and imagine the back of it expanding to make thes sounds, especially for the more rounded sounds like out show sound poor and about. Even though this accent concentrates on vowel sounds, that doesn't mean you need to push or put extra emphasis or stress on most fouls. Just keep in mind. I am over enunciating a lot of nice speech during this course just for instruction. So, for the purpose of the exercise is, I recommend exaggerating the sounds you hear and moving the mouth muscles toe, loosen them up so you can get used to forming these sounds. Watch out for something I like to call popping, which is popping the sound where the voice gets louder with certain vowels and syllables of the word. And also you want to watch out for getting to Nathalie sounding, or else it'll start to sound like a different accent. Instead, let's focus on breaking it down into each vowel sound and creating a flowing sound and energy. Slowing your speech down will also make things easier when learning this accent. 27. Different Vowel Sounds: different vowel sounds. Vowel sounds are divided into the following three categories. Short vowels, sometimes called lax vowels, they're sounds that are pronounced in a short form. For many words. They just sound as you would read them, a E i o and U Long bowels, which sounds like a long vowel sound or longer version of the short vowel sound. The terms long and short are not describing the length of time of vowels pronounced. Each vowel has a coinciding long vowel sound as seen below other bowels. These last five vowel sounds listed below are not categorised as a short or long bowel. They include the new sound in Goose, a sound like in foot or put the aw sound Like in Frog our sound liken sound oy sound like an soil? 28. Short Vowel Sounds: short vowel sounds. Usually short vowel sounds are spelled with a single letter versus long vowel sounds that can be spelled with one letter or a sequence of them. An important point to remember is that many words can have the same spelling as another word but have different pronunciations. These are called hama graphs, which we will be learning about later on. An example would be the E A in the word red, which could be pronounced like the color red, the short e sound or the present tense sound. Read with the long a sound. It works in the opposite way, where words are spelled differently but pronounced the same way and mean different things like in the case of bread and bread. Examples of short vowel sounds and their pronunciations are the short A in cat, the short E In red short I in nets short Oh, in dog short you in under because English words aren't pronounced exactly as they're written. Alternative spellings for the short e vowel sound can be spelled like many bread said again 29. Long Vowel Sounds: long vowel sounds. When learning these vowel sounds, it's important to note that there's a constant vowel constant final e pattern. This CB CE pattern happens when a vowel and a final E are separated by a single continent, resulting in the first foul being long and the final e being silent. Examples are cake, race, robe and fine. The CBC pattern happens more often with the long A, I and O vowels, and less often when the first foul is E or you, for example, long A as in cake. Some examples of long vowels are pronounced as follows. The A in Hayes E. And he I as in high. Oh, in hope you As in human, here are some more examples of words spelled differently from the way they're pronounced. Alternative spellings for the long a vowel train Kate Pray eight fanatic long vowels symbol . When the frenetic letter is followed with this symbol, it means that the vowel is pronounced longer 30. Vowel Rules: vowel rules. There are some important rules about vowel sounds when there are two different vowels together. In a word, like in rain, they will make the long sound of the first foul, like in the A and rain when there is one vowel at the end of a word, as in No, the vowel sound will be long when there is an E at the end of a word, as in lake, the vowel that comes before the E will be a long sound, and the E will be silent as in lake. When there is two of the same vowels like in the word route, they create the long vowel sound. An exception to this rule, however, would be the double O in book look and cook when there is one bowel following two of the same constants like the double end in winning the 31. Vowel Pronunciation: Ah, as in odd chop caught, pronounced almost like an aw sound. To pronounce this sound, relax your tongue and drop your jaw as far as it can go, you can even place your hand under your chin and say, Ah, you should feel your hand being pushed down by your jaw as it opens To make that sound, it could be spelled in various ways using Oh a u A w a u g h or O u g h The tip of the tongue stays on the bottom of the mouth, but the tongue rises towards the back of the mouth. You will feel a vibration in the back of the throat. Usually, this foul is given more stress as it is longer than others. Uh, as in man hat ran hand sand grass. The Lohan rounded vowel Ah can be hard for some listeners to distinguish sometimes, but it sounds like a literal a sound. It is between the A sound and father all and the e sound and get a and it usually sounds a little elongated. It is sometimes represented by the letter A in a stressed closed syllable syllables that ended a constant like the word bat. To make this sound, pull your lips as if to smile, but open the mouth up a little more as if you're about to laugh. The back of the tongue raises to the roof of the mouth while the tip of the tongue stays on the bottom of the mouth. Close or touching the bottom front teeth. Oh, as in Box Father Spa. God rock palm This open low back on rounded vowel can be confused in American English, mostly because of it being spelled in many different ways to make the sound open the mouth , Dropping the jaw and relaxing the lips in a neutral position next flattened your tongue so the tip is touching the bottom front teeth, and it sits low in the center of your mouth. Allow the sound to travel through your vocal tract as you pronounce the aw sound, Uh, as in Run Come Flood. Under this foul is similar toe Aw, but it's never elongated. It is a guttural sounding bowel. It's always denoted by the U in stressed closed syllables like in the word son, but can also be written as an O, as in Monday, to make the sound. Keep your face and lips relaxed, dropping the jaw slightly into a neutral position. Position your tongue at mid low height in your mouth, with the tip staying forward but pressing down just slightly. Note that while this sound is used in stressed syllables, the tongue is not tense as in and gets bed, said Lead. This mid front vowel is the most similar to the letter E sound in several languages and is usually represented by an E. In the case of closed stressed syllables like in the word red. Sometimes it can be written as a I like in the words said and again, or with an E, a lake in the words red past tense or head. To make this sound, keep your lips and mouth relaxed and place your tongue at mid height in your mouth, pushing it slightly forward. As the sound goes through your vocal courts, you may feel the tip of the tongue. Push against the bottom front teeth when pronouncing the sound. Okay, as in rich Miss Big been Jim ship, this high front vowel sound will most likely be written with a single I in a closed, stressed syllable like in the word sit. But there are times when an unstrung A E or I can be pronounced as it to make this sound, open the lips slightly, not moving them, and let the air vibrate through the vocal chords with the tongue placed high in the mouth, moving subtly toward the front. You should feel the sides of your tongue touching the sides of your top teeth when creating the sound. If the final constant is spoken or voiced like in the word bid, then the middle vowel sound is lengthened. If the final constant is whispered or unveil voiced, as in the cases of the letters T K, F, P, S, S, H or C H, then the middle vowel sound is quick and sharp bit E. As in sheep, she keeps each key meat this close front. UN rounded vowel sound is usually written as e like in sheep, but can be written as E. A or a single E or final. Why and other various spellings. To make this sound, you slightly draw your lips back, tensing them like you're going to smile and raise the back of your tongue, pushing it forward with the tip lowered behind the front teeth. The lips and tongue should feel tense. Oh, as in Bonn sauce gloss. Oh ah, wrong dog bought. This lacks mid back rounded vowel sound can be mispronounced, and some people may find it hard to imitate. Both all and ah sounds similar, but all is pronounced with rounded lips, whereas aw does not require any lip rounding. To make this sound, open your mouth and round your lips slightly. Position your tongue low in the mouth with the tip touching the back of the front bottom teeth as you let the sound out flat on your tongue and pull it back. Uh, as in took good could book wolf push. This lacks high backgrounded vowel is often denoted by you in a closed, stressed syllable, but may also be written as O. U L or double Oh and various other spellings. This is a guttural sound, and to make it the back of the tongue lifts towards the back of the roof of the mouth. The front of the tongue remains down but might be pulled slightly. Keep your lips in neutral position yet slightly open and found them out a bit while pushing the air out of your mouth through your vocal courts. Do as in blue rule, new tool you chew. This sound is expressed in various ways, such as U E, E, W and double O. It's hard to know when a double O is pronounced as do, but by practicing various words, you'll begin to memorize thes sounds. This sound is tense and pull to the back of your mouth. To make this sound, open the mouth and make a tense oh, shape with your mouth while releasing the sound. Pull the tongue far back in the throat, raising the back of the tongue towards the soft palate or the back of the roof of the mouth . Uh, as in ah, ago above again polite. This is referred to as the Schwab Sound, which is the most common English vowel sound that is known as a neutral sound with no distinctive characteristics. It can use one vowel or a combination of them, and it's not identified by spelling. To make the Schwab sound, put your hand on your dire from and push out making a literal, uh, sound. You do not need to move your lips, tongue or jaw for the sound but just allow the sound to flow through the vocal tract. An example is the word photography for tar gra fee. The Schwab is a quick, relaxed, neutral vowel pronunciation and sounds extremely similar to the short you a sound. It could be characterized by any unstrapped, syllable and vowel. What it's characterized by a or I. It's usually synonymous with the it sound like in pencil to produce the sound. Place the tongue at the bottom of the mouth in a relaxed position, placing the tip of the tongue on the lower front teeth. Little movement in the lips is needed as they stay slightly open and neutral. The Schwab makes it easier for unstrapped syllables to be said faster. The Schwab can occur in a multi syllable word or unstrapped syllable, as well as a reduced vowel sound, a less clear and distinct sound, which could make the vowel shorter. Her as in color nature editor teacher. When you see a vowel followed by the letter are in the same syllable. This is what's called an are colored vowel sound. It could be spelled with a combination of vowel letters, such as you are e. R. i R or O R. This earth sound happens in stressed syllables. The sound is created by voicing the Schwab and at the same time putting your tongue to the position as if you were saying are remember that this is a week sound so the tongue and throat stay relaxed to make the sound, open your lips and round them slightly, or you can leave them neutral, then raised the front of the tongue to the bump just behind the upper front teeth called the Alvey. Older rich. Make sure you don't actually touch it, but instead curl back the tip of the tongue, slightly lowering the mid tongue and raising the back of the tongue. Uh, as in bird were shirt heard for Sir Girl. This, along with the Our Continent, is one of the hardest sounds in the English language. It's usually written using the letters u R E r or I R. To make this sound, remember that this is a tense vowel, so the mouth, throat and especially the tongue will be quite tense when creating it part. The lips rounding those slightly as if the corners are coming together raised the front of the tongue to the al Viola Ridge and, without touching it, curl back the tip of the tongue harder than the previous are colored vowel, Slightly lower the mid tongue while raising the back of the tongue. You should feel quite a bit of tension in the tongue when making the sound. The following assignments will guide you in helping your sense of hearing and visual observations when dealing with vowel sounds. 32. Vowel Sounds & Symbol Review: Ah, as end involved problem follow. Ah, as in cat lam damp e as in speech. Keep meat. If, as in will fits meant Yeah, as in dress. Get a medic. Uh, as in father Art spa, the Schwab, as in parrot travel balloon. Ah, as in fault thought, uh, as in cut gum some, uh, as in hood cook Would who as in flu gloomy fruit are, as in dinner, assert standard are, as in bird stir, learn, serve word. 33. Vowel Pronunciation Practice Sentences: Let's put these vowel sounds into context. Keep in mind that not all the contacts will make the most sense, but it's just for your pronunciation practice. Listen and watch the following sentences. Pause and know what you see in here. Listen a second time and read the sentence out loud again, taking note of what you hear and feel. Ah, as in hot rock Obvious. It was common for them to wander through the shops and stop at the restaurant. Aw, as in arm lot, Doc, All the tick talk of the clock mocked the man on the dock. If the a sound is followed by the are in the spelling, then close it down into an aw sound as in farm alarm warrant charm yarn. On the farm, I found a charming orchard. Our as in car. The car came across a stark charm, tarnished in the dark A as in land Bad rag. On Saturday, I traveled to the gallery in the capital toe look at a statue of a fat cat. Ah, as in run under muffin shunned money. I told my mother to come over on Monday to relax and do nothing. Opened the sound out towards awe as in car, but make it more forward in the mouth. Avoid dropping the jaw too much. One love. It's Huck from the nun loved the summer sun and wanted to have fun but had to study, so she felt shunned. If the ah sound is followed by double L, then send the sound to the back of the mouth so that it's more of a deeper sounding. You sound like the one and cut dull lo skull. They uncovered a dull skull, adding it to their collection. Ah, as in cross claw saw caught. Paul was appalled at the naughty daughter who was caught by the law E. As in speech Keep feast. He would keep preaching about the queen's speech that made him feel and tear up. Yeah, as in end Gets bed, said lead. In the end, she won the bet and kept the dress it as in Will fit sit. I would sit in the kitchen and rift with him as he would dig through all of his hymns. Ah, as in advice Society, remember, glide the tongue backwards towards the neutral vowel Schwab and keep the back of the tongue high sent very tech, and I submitted my tiger picture for the official photography competition. O as in Putting Sugar could book push, He stopped at the brook and took a good look at the wolf through the woods. Do as in blue rule, New tool. You chew true. Start on a small, neutral vowel Schwab, and then glide into this sound use. Spoon. Lose The beautiful moon rose above a group of loons in the lagoon. Her as in color nature editor, Word first teacher. On Saturday, the teacher took the kids to see the wonders and colors of nature nature her as in learn. Stir were for certain. They were determined and certain toe learn about the birds and the earth's surface on Thursday. 34. Weak Vowels: week. Vowels The following vowels can be considered weak vowels as their vowels that could be pronounced very softly. They occur in the weak syllables of longer words. When making these weak vowel sounds, you use less energy and less emphasis on them with a slightly close draw position. The's week Vowels Are you as in you particular e as in she busy the Schwab, as in, uh, tomato it as in it English. Similar vowels Long E versus Short E. The short E vowel is usually spelled with one E and followed by a constant, as in the word bed. The long e sound can be spelled using to ease, as in the word sheep or with an E A. As in the word dream Long E eat team each deepen freedom long I to make this long I sound properly. You want to focus on opening up the back of the mouth, as in the O sound, but the lips stay neutral as you create this long sound, as in the words below, Fly ice right time smile. Island short U Sound. This sound is guttural, meaning you really feel it coming from your diaphragm with a burst of air coming through your vocal tract. Put your hand on your diaphragm and on your throat. You should feel a vibration in the throat and a small construction in the diaphragm. When making the sounds below bus, fuss must trust tux up long you vowel. This vowel sound can be spelled with a single you like in tube or with a combination of I E . W ou or double Oh, so it can be a little confusing. Focus on rounding the lips and pushing them out for the initial you or boo sound and then tightening them slightly at the end of the vowel sound as in view. Eunice Cycle youth, Huge glue, few mule the shoe are the Schwab sound is what we hear commonly in unstrung syllables, since English is not a syllabic but rather a stressed language. Several words in the English language carry this sound. With this being common, remember that words like to and the sound like a Schwab, so sounding more like tough and the try and think of flattening these vowel sounds. For example, instead of pronouncing Chako late as it's spelled, the actual sound would be more like chocolate instead of memory, it would sound more like memory. Take a look at the examples of vowels turning into the Schwab sound below competition scientist Chocolate Machine Her The short I, the short I it sound is slightly guttural, especially in relation to the long E. Listen to a few words with the long E sound and you'll feel a long vibration in your throat , whereas with the short I sound, you'll feel a burst of vibration in your throat. Listen and repeat the words below short. I fit live ship mitt hip compared to the long e sound, as in the words feet leave sheep meat heap. 35. Common Vowel Mistakes: common bowel mistakes. English is a challenging language on the standard American accent. Sound can leave you with many questions. The following are things to watch out for When you focus on learning the vowel sounds. Be aware that some vowel sounds are pronounced more prominently than other vowels, meaning there is more stress in the vowel. The vowel, A Oh I and E can all be strong vowels, as in the words decide. Confront, Succeed Fortunate Descend, Father Vowel length. There could be confusion with which vowels need to be pronounced for a length of time because it can result in changing the meaning of the word in a sentence. The best way to know the difference is by practicing the accent while reading out loud to learn which vowels in words need to be longer or shorter. The following are examples of word changes that could be made when the proper length is not added to a vowel. Lt'd lead or lead that bait. 10 10 Let lit seek sick pitch peach bid bead A and E vowels. As you can see from the previous examples, it's important to be very specific. The same can be said for the A and E vowels, since they're so similar to one another. The middle vowel sound combines both of these vowel sounds, but if you mispronounce them, the word takes on a different meaning, like in the following words. Fed Fad. Big Bag 10 10 Band Bend Send sand short. Oh aw, sound. There are times with the American accent when the awe sound in the words caught or lot can lose their aw sound vowel shift of long. Oh, dropping your jaw with this long o sound is important in getting the sound right. Think of your mouth expanding wide in the back to make the sound, as well as adding a small W. At the end of the vote for the following words drove own Glo thrown. Both wrote, Thrown long a sound this long A sound needs a slight dropping of the jaw, some tension in the tongue and your lips being pulled apart to the sides. If you're having trouble with the sound, smile while you pronounce the following words. Aim made. Wait, tame play. Faith may 36. Introduction to Diphthongs: introduction to Def Thongs in Greek. The word if thong literally means having to sounds. Whenever a vowel makes the new or different sound, the diff thongs come into play. One way to explain it is one dominant vowel in duration and stress. In conjunction with another vowel reduced in duration and stress are paired together in a group to create one single sound as they are. A combination of two sounds focus on making a smooth, flowing transition between them. An example of a diff thong is the word coin. Both vowels are beside each other, working in conjunction, creating a sound very different from their isolated O or I sounds would make. 37. List of Diphthongs: list of def songs. Now that you're familiar with vowels, dip thongs will be much easier for you to learn. Below is a list of American English def thongs to become accustomed to. Even though some of these words have only one vowel, they're still considered a diff thong. The reason for this is that when you're pronouncing a certain letter and it makes a long vowel sound, it's imitating the two vowel sound. One thing to note is the first sound in a diff thong is usually louder and longer. I this stiff thong, which sounds like the I in lie, sometimes uses I I g h and why spellings to create this I sound to produce this. Relax your lips in a neutral position, open your mouth wide and place your tongue low in your mouth, flattened so the tip of the tongue is touching the back bottom. Front teeth make the aw sound and connected to the I sound, pushing your tongue forward and raising the mid tongue to the roof of the mouth. You should feel the jaw moves slightly up as if to close ty five. Like pine mice. A the diff thong, which sounds like the A in Great has alternative spellings like E Y a Y ai and A to create the sound. Open your mouth slightly with your jaw somewhat lowered. Since this is a 10 sound, make sure to pull the lips in a tense position as if to smile. Then raise the center of the tongue to the top of the mouth and push it forward as you let the sound out with the tip of the tongue behind the bottom front teeth able break. Thanks. Beige taste. Oh, this def thong, which sounds like the O and go sometimes uses the letter pairings. Ow! Oh, A and O to make the sound focus on the lip rounding and the movement of the jaw first begin with the lips relaxed, dropping the jaw and pulling the tongue back lightly after dropping the jaw around the lips for the final vowel sound. Oh, and pull the front of the tongue back slightly. Phone float slow. Rose Coach, how this stiff thong, which sounds like the out in town, uses letter groups like Oh you and ow to create the sound. The first part of this sound lives between the aw sound and the A sound and ends in the our sound. First drop, the jaw widened and flattened the tongue, so the tip touches the back of the bottom front teeth. As you release the sound, the back of the tongue arches and lifts up a little to transition into the next sound. Smoothly. Bring your jaw up as if to close your mouth. Pull the back of the tongue back to the throat and round the lips for the sound, as in the word look loud. House brown cow loud boy This stiff thong, which sounds like the toys sound in boy, can be spelled with an O. Why or oi? To make this sound, form a circle with your mouth lifting and pulling your tongue back lightly. Then quickly push your tongue forward and spread your lips. As if to make the smiling e sound, the mid front tongue arches up to the roof of the mouth as the jaw slides up slightly. You may or may not feel the tongue grazing the back of the bottom front teeth as it moves forward. Join Oil Oyster Point Employ. The following assignments will guide you in helping your sense of hearing and visual observations with def thongs 38. Diphthong Practice & Review: diff thong practice and review her as in color nature editor word teacher. The teacher like the colors better in the nature picture rather than the other one. O as in Go tighten the lips a little and create the sound at the back of the mouth. Grow stone robe. Ah, hollow groan was heard through the window of the lower part of the home. Her, as in Earth, were burned. The girl with the faux fur was at the church and heard the bird shirt. How as in house. Now start with this sound on the same vowel that's used for Get a but open up the mouth a little more ground amount. Stout. A crown of brown flowers circle around the base of the mountain near the town. Oy, as in soil coy poison. This sound ends in a brief. Yeah, sound annoyed by the noise, the boy went to play with his toys. I as in shy, hide, dine, Tie the wife. I was fine as they dined on the island eating pie under the shining sky, our as in cloud pound. Now how they found that the mouse was Justus allowed is the cow, so they went back into the house. A as in fate, sane pain eight. The Waves would break while he kept saying through the pain of the ankle sprain. 39. Introduction to Consonants: introduction to continents. Continents are all the remaining non vowel sounds in the English alphabet. The's sounds are not like the open mouth and vocal tract bowel sounds. Instead, the airflow is usually obstructed by the positioning of the tongue, teeth or lips, and this results in a constant sound. When a continent and vowel are paired together, they create a syllable. Most continents rarely sound like they're letter name like in the case of the letter C, pronounced literally as the word see, the sea in central is pronounced liken s, but it can also be pronounced like a K A, as in cat. 40. 6 2Consonant Blends: constant blends, Constant blends or constant clusters are a group of two or three different constant sounds when pronouncing a word with a constant blend, Each sound of each individual letter is clearly heard. For example, in the word train, both letters T and R are distinctly heard. On the other hand, there are also constant dia graphs, which happened when two continents combined make a noticeable sound. For example, the word church, the sea and age combined make a very different sound from the isolated C and H when three or more continents are blended to create a sound like in the word light, this is what is known as a constant try graph, for example, S C. H in the word schedule. Examples of constant blends blend clay climb creature dream, freedom glitter, gravity plant pretzel schedule sketch sleep snap space stone swing trust 20 Twist 41. Stop Consonants: stop continents stop continents are B, P, T, D, G, K and the global stop. You can think of a stop constant in two parts. First, there is a stop in the air flow in the vocal tract. Second, the air that is interrupted is suddenly released to produce the constant sound. The letters B, D, G, K, P and T are the most commonly used constant stops. They're also known as aspirated, or PLO sieves. Since there sounds produced with a small explosion or puff of air in the mouth, there are differences and how these constants are produced. Like the B and P, which Onley uses the lips. The D or T uses the tip of the tongue to touch the gum behind the upper teeth to form the sound. When creating the hard G or K sound, the back of the tongue raises and pulls into the back of the mouth, pushing against the soft palate. The global stop is when the vocal folds stop air in the throat or what's known as the Gladys stopping the sound and then releasing it. It almost sounds like a quick a sound. An example would be the word cotton in general, American most people wouldn't pronounce the hard double T sound, so it would turn into a global stop, almost like a very quick cotton. More examples of this would be the words kitten fitness eaten football button, Manhattan, Brighton Certain Curtain fountain. 42. Silent Consonants: silent continents. Silent continents are letters that are written but not pronounced in the word over. Half of the words in English have silent letters in them, which is what can make American English so tricky. There are some important things to remember when dealing with silent constants. Here are some rules and examples B will always be silent when in the final word position and spelled using the pairings M B and B T. Some examples are crumb Climb debt Subtle. Some Lamb D will always stay silent in the spelling pair of D. J and D G. Like in the words wedge adjective Bridge badge gadget adjacent. It's also silent in the word Wednesday G will be silent in the spelling pairings of GM or G N like champagne Design, Norrell, Sign Nat, Foreign Align, Cologne H Stay Silent and the spelling pairings of G H or in the final word position E H or O. H. Some examples of GH words include ghetto spaghetti, ghost gherkin, ghastly. It can also be silent in certain CH pairings like an architect cord echo chemical archaeology. But it can also be silent when spelled in conjunction with W like in the words weather when while Why white? Which que is always silent when it's at the beginning of a word following an end like in the words Knack Night knob, No knife, New Neil. 43. Voiced and Unvoiced Consonants: voiced and unveil voiced continents. One important thing toe learn before moving on to how to make constant sounds is the difference between a voiced and unveil voiced constant. Both types of constants use the lips, teeth, roof of the mouth, upper palate and breath to create the proper sounds. Voiced continents require the use of the vocal cords to create the sound, which means you'll feel the vibration in your vocal tract or throat when producing the sounds. B d g j l M N r The as in the word that v w Why and see are all voiced confidence. Voiceless continents do not need the vocal cords to create the sound. Instead, it may require more aspiration the burst of air or breath occurring with this release. Okay, as in thrill, are unveil voiced continents. 44. Key Consonants: But as in bear bed base black. This is a voiced, constant sound, meaning that to produce this sound, the vocal chords must vibrate. The B sound is similar to the unveil voiced P sound. Both the B and the P sounds use the same mouth positions to produce them. Remember, on voiced means that there's no sound. Just the air passing through the mouth, huh? As in pair. Push pride to make both B and P. Start by parting the teeth slightly while still keeping the lips closed. Press the lips together and release the air for P or the sound for B. Keep in mind that the aspiration or PLO sieve for API is much larger than the aspiration for a B sound. Uh, her but the Sha as in choose culture. Eventually the Chua Sound is unveil voiced, which means Onley air passes through the mouth, and it's similar to making the J Sound. Take note that there are words spelled with Chua that become a k sound as in mechanic scheme schedule. Remember that since the Cheetah is not voiced, it needs a little more pressure between the tongue and roof of the mouth. Yeah, as in Joke gin Jaar Soldier gem. The sound is voiced, which means you're making this sound with the vocal chords to make both the CIA and the GIA sounds. You want to create friction by placing the tip of the tongue on the ridge behind your top front teeth. The tongue stops the airflow. So next art your tongue toward the roof of the mouth, releasing the air and sound through the narrow gap between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. The time should feel somewhat flat against the roof of the mouth. When making this sound, the lips flare out as the sound and breath is released. Gia, you uh uh, as in dog dark determined. The D sound is voiced and is very similar to the unveil voiced sound. When making this sound, the air is momentarily blocked from leaving the vocal tract. The tip of the tongue presses against the tooth ridge right behind the top front teeth. The tongue flattens out slightly and the sides of the tongue push against the upper teeth. When the air is released, the sound is aspirated. Note that the aspiration for the sound is less than the aspiration duh. Uh, that sound is unveil voiced to produce it. Use the same instructions as the one to make the sound. The difference is that the air that is released for the sound is aspirated. The aspiration for a sound is much bigger when it's the first sound in a word, as in top or the first sound of a stressed syllable, or when it goes before any constant other than our. Here are some alternative tea sounds. When T occurs between two vowels, it sounds more like a duh like in writing little butter. Better tutor medial T when the tea occurs before en or em in a word of more than one syllable than it sounds like a global stop. The abrupt sound in the throat. When T occurs after en or em, it's usually dropped. This is not a rule, and not everyone does this, but it's very common. One native general. American speakers talk casually and quickly. Some examples are the words 20 Plenty County winner Internet Interested, which can be pronounced as interested or sometimes interested. Final T Sometimes when the T occurs at the end of a word, it isn't fully pronounced the tongue goes to the upper gum ridge area but doesn't release the full aspiration or sound. The exception to this is when the final T follows a voiceless constant, such as K F or S, as in left Act boat Lost late night H as in How have hell happy. The sound or H sound is unveil voiced and does not need any work to come from the vocal chords on Lee Breath. To create this sound, open the lips a little with the title low in the back of the mouth, the back of the tongue tenses in the throat, and the air going through should sound like a hard breath, but with no sound or vibration coming from the throat, the front part of the tongue can move into the next shape or sound in conjunction with the sound T and age combination. Unveil voiced sound, as in I thought Theater, their own three. The on voiced and the voiced The sounds share the same spelling and apart from one constant it being voiced, and the other on voiced their basically exactly the same voiced sound as in there. The that to make the voiced the sound relaxed, the lips and open your mouth slightly placed the tip of the tongue between your front teeth . As you push the air and the sound over the tongue, you will feel the tip of the tongue touched the bottom of the top front teeth softly. You should feel a small vibration where the air flows between the upper teeth and the tongue. The on voice sound is made in the same way. The very tip of the tongue comes through the teeth and lightly touches the bottom of the top front teeth. The air passes through the mouth while the rest of the mouth remains relaxed. The only difference is that in this case there is no sound being made and Onley air being pushed between the tip of the tongue and the teeth. The F sound is unveil voiced but very similar to the voice to V sound, so they're made in the same way. The main difference is that the V sound is voiced as in fall front foreword base, the as in very velvet vast. To create the F and B sounds, hold the jaw in an almost closed position. Take your top teeth and place them lightly on your bottom lip. Press your lips lightly into the bottom of the top front teeth. Push the air out of the mouth between the top teeth and bottom lip. The lips are kept quite relaxed when making this F sound. When making the V sound, you should feel a vibration in your throat as its voiced, but also a vibration in the lips and bottom of the front teeth. The hard cheese sound go as in gift. Glad, great. The G sound is voiced and similar to the unveil voiced K sound. To make this sound, raise your tongue into the back of the mouth, pressing against the soft palate to briefly cut off the air flow. Then release the tongue with a small breath of air and the vocal sound. Since this is a voice constant, huh? As in kite karate kiwi. The case sound is on voiced and very similar to the hard G sound. To create the K sound, use the same instructions as with the hard G sound. Raise your tongue into the back of the mouth, pressing against the soft palate to briefly cut off the air flow. Release the breath or aspiration, but don't use any sound as this is an invoice constant. The amount of aspiration used to make the case sound is more than what's required for the G sound. Q. As in Queen Quail Quiz Quaint Quarter, the cue sound is voiceless. Both the Q and X continents are made with a K sound. To make the cue sound, raise your tongue in the back of the mouth, pressing against the soft palate to briefly cut off the air flow. Just a Ziff you were to make the case sound, then release the breath and around the lips as if to go into the w sound X as in oxymoron ox. Example. Oxford. The X is a voiceless constant, and it sounds more like a ks or hard G Z sound. You hear the ks in words like Taxi Mexico. Explain extra. You hear the hard G Z sound in words like example. Exhibit exotic. Note that some expelling zehr actually pronounced with a Z sound like in the words xylophone and seen on to make the X sound. Raise your tongue into the back of the mouth. Pressing against the soft palate, cutting off the flow of air just like the K sound, then release the breath and go into the next letter Sound in the word Oh, as in late light gold. The voiced L sound actually has to arrangements. There is what's called a light l and a dark L. The dark L is characterized by this symbol in the international phonetic alphabet. The L is a light L. And it happens when it proceeds avowal or def thong in a syllable of a word. Like in the words laugh relief flavor. The dark L occurs when it comes after the vow or def thong in a syllable, like in the word goal full tool. The dark else sounds almost like a harder l sound at times or like an old sound and contains two parts. In the first part, there is this almost non existent vowel sound. The second part sounds like the light L and ends up in the same position as it is well to produce the l Sound. The tip of the tongue is placed against the tooth ridge while pushing the air alongside the tongue and between the sides of the teeth. This is a voiced, constant sound and can be defined with the motion of the tongue. Mm. As in magic make man, this M sound is voiced. It's what's known as a by labial nasal sound, which means your lips are closed while creating the sound, and the sound comes through your nose. To make this sound, press the lips against each other, blocking off air from escaping the mouth. When you add the voice sound, the soft palate will release, which will allow for the air to pass through the nose. You'll feel a vibration in the vocal cords as well as the nose M. As in night, nurse and in the end, sound is voiced. And like the M sound, it is a nasal Alvey oler sound, meaning the tongue will press against the teeth ridge. With the air releasing from the nose similar to the M sound, you should feel a slight warmth and vibration in the nasal area with the sound to create the end sound. The tip of the tongue presses against the tooth ridge as well as along the sides of the teeth, blocking the air flow. When you apply the sound, the soft palate drops for the air to pass through the nose the sound is voiced, so you feel a vibration in the vocal chords and nose. And as in thing king tongue sing. If you see a word ending in N. G or has energy in the middle of the word, this is the young sound. If the word has an N, K or M C, it's pronounced like the in sang. Both of these sounds are nasal continents, which means the air passes through the nose when pronouncing them. The difference, however, is that while the end sound is made with the tip of the tongue placed against the teeth ridge with the only sound, the tongue is pulled further back in the mouth and pushes against the soft palate to create the end of the sound, as in car your park right Red ran. The standard American accent is a road IQ accent, which means the speakers will pronounce the R inwards. Non Roddick speakers like British and Australian speakers don't pronounce the R in several words, which is known as are dropping. It's a good idea to circle your ours on your script or reading material when practicing to make the R sound, the tongue lifts towards the roof of the mouth in a cupping shape. The tongue can relax a little bit, but curls slightly upwards and back from the gum bridge, you may feel the sides of the tongue touched the inside of the upper teeth. When you do this, remember that the tongue never touches the arch of the mouth or the tooth ridge as in sand sale summer son, the s sound is on voice and very similar to the sound. To produce this s sound, place the front of the tongue close to the tooth ridge. The tongue tip should come very close to the back of the upper front teeth. Hold the tongue in this position, keeping it slightly tense. While you pushed the air through the small space between the tip of the tongue and the front tooth ridge, you'll feel the sides of the tongue brush against the sides of the teeth in the front of the mouth. The as in zoo zebra Zanzibar. To create this sound, hold the lips slightly tense while placing the front of the tongue as close to the tooth ridge without touching it. The tip should feel close to the back of the front teeth Keep the tongue somewhat tense but less tense than in the S sound. As you push the air through the small space between the front tooth ridge and the tip of the tongue, the side of the front of the tongue may touch the sides of the teeth while making the sound . As in, she show wash fresh. The sound is on voiced, but it's similar to the Asia sound. To create this sound, flair the lips out a little in a slightly tense position. Raise the tongue towards the roof of the mouth as if to make the s sound. Drop the tip of the tongue down, creating a gap between the tongue and roof of the mouth. Push the breath out between the tongue and mouth. Arch through the tooth ridge. You may feel the front of the tongue touched the side teeth. Gia As in exposure visual confusion occasion. The je sound is voiced, and it's similar to the sound. But unlike the sound, it's very rare to make this sound open the mouth fanning out and rounding the lips slightly . Art your tongue to the roof of the mouth without touching it. There should be a small space between the tongue and roof. Arch released the airflow over the tongue, which will create some sound that almost sounds like a J sound combined with a sha sound. What, as in weight, where water welcome the one w sound is a voice sound, and in order to make it, keep the jaw in a slightly close position and form a small tight circle with the lips as if to make the new sound. Then arch the tongue towards the back of the mouth. Yeah, as in yellow, you my dizzy. The yeah voiced sound is very similar to the long E vowel sound, especially in the word dizzy. To make this sound, keep the jaws slightly closed, lips neutral and push the tongue forward, keeping the Midtown close to the tooth ridge and hard palate. The sides of the tongue should push lightly against the size of the teeth. When making the sound, the tongue is held closer to the tooth ridge for this sound than with the long E Sound 45. Consonant Practice: B as in Bear Mob job labour bird. They brought the balloons to the big building to surprise her on her birthday. Hard see theon voiced constant that sounds like a as in class cup. Great soft C theon voice constant that sounds like S as in Circus City pencil before she cuts the cake. Kathy's face was surprised to see the Candies and colorful icing ch sound as in chain church cherry. They decided to give the checkers to charity as the Children would rather play chess and eat Cherries and chocolates. D as in doughnuts, Dolphin dinosaur. All they did was dance from dawn until dark in their own distinct and different styles. F as in family food. Fun flower. Their friend caught a photo of the fancy flamingo chasing the fish in the fresh water. I finally got to take photos of the giraffes after waiting for hours by the flower defense . Hard G, as in goat gift garden Soft G. As in giant bridge January, we gave the goats some green grass and fed the gentle geese after playing with the guinea pigs and goats H as in hen hat hippo harmonica. The helicopter hovered high in the sky over the houses and hostile horses. J as in juice Jackal Judge The magician performed his magic with his jack war on stage after the jovial jester juggled and joked K as in Key Kangaroo Kick the cake. Keith War Have koalas on it that matched the color of his khaki pants. L As in lock library legend. The lightning scared the lazy lion who lounged looking at the elephant following the lost lizard M as in macaw magnet Moon mug. After the market, we made up our way to the mossy hillside through the mid morning mist en and ending, as in rang. Nurse News Night Long thing I know The Gong show at the Thanksgiving dinner in November will leave me wanting to take a nap. P as in place popcorn Panda, Penguin Pigeon. The pretty princess in pink put the popcorn in the pot and played with the pony Q. As in quilt quail quartz, tranquil liquid. The quiet queen used her quill to write inquisitive questions about the quest. Our As in Royal River Robot Railway, the Shakespearian critic reflected and reviewed what he wrote before remembering to call his sister s and sh as in sleep scientist shale show, sipping my slushy on the sand and shale while letting out a big side for taking a swim in the sea. Tea and, uh, as in two thirst beef they teach late. They interviewed for the position, tirelessly trying to meet a pleasant writer who could create a thriving and trusting environment. B as in Venus Volcano vacuum vase. Vapid on her vacation, she walked from the cove to the village under her Violet Vale, listening to the violinist what? As in water wail window, the whistling woodpecker watched the wall in Wallaby carry his walnuts near the waterfall. X as in X ray Box six wax the flexible. Fox was excited about listening to the saxophone as he sent a fax. Yeah, as in Yak Yoga. Yon Yield. The gypsy played with the yo yo near the yacht while telling a funny story about the yellow pyramids Z as in Xerox Laser scissors wizard xylophone. Zealous Zeppelin zoomed over the dozen zebras eating the zucchini 46. Common Consonant Mistakes: common continent mistakes. Depending on your native dialect, first language and where you're from, you may find some sounds are harder for you to make than others. Here are a few pitfalls to watch out for when working on continents. Our vowels short Our versus long are The R sound is one of the most commonly used sounds in English, and for that reason it's important to make sure that you pronounce it clearly in your dialogue. Just remember not to overplay the R sound, for example, the word hard. It should be pronounced hard, not hard, adding Unnecessary our sounds. Remember toe Onley voice the ours that are in the spelling. If you're from England intrusive, ours happen often, which is adding an are where there wasn't one to begin with, as in the word China. Or, as in the phrase, I saw it. Listen to the following our sound combinations, then practice, pronouncing the words as you hear them. Our particle artist, articulate air despair, fairground stairs, ear or her as in tier hearing Earth Year. Her as in pertain every Eastern exercise or Oracle World Motor Iron Tire. Liar. Fire. Sure, confusing the chair sound more often than not. This sound is pronounced like the Chua in chain, but there are some words in which it's pronounced with a sound, as in chivalry or like the K, as in the word chaos. A few examples of the different sounds and words which, as in rich catch chimney picture the K version as in psychology, Echo Chemical and the Silent ch. As in yacht over hitting the T sound. Make sure you don't hit the tea sounds too much, especially in a final position. Very often, the tea or double T becomes what sounds like a D or a combination of a T D sound, as in a bottle city water. Better computer Beatles Seattle as opposed to the stronger T sound in words like Attack, retaliate, attract abstract. You can get away with losing the T sound like in the words Internet, Internet often often chestnut chestnut th sound. Some people will mispronounce the th sound and make it sound more like a T or s. This can happen with several non American English dialects, and it can make it hard for people to understand the meaning of a word and can lead to changing a word all together as in think sink thick, sick, thick tick themes seems thin. Sin 10 or thin 10 Thorn Thorn Practice The following sentence. The victory had three roses with thorns and thistles, and this made her happy. Thankfully, for a clearer picture, you can also analyze the following words this Versace dis think vs sink thick versus sick, thick versus tick. The th stopping is another mistake speakers can make where the th sound becomes a D sound. For example, this dis that debt there dare I thought dot confusing W and V continents. Because thes two constants one voice can sound slightly similar to one another. Some people make the mistake of exchanging one for the other. Examples are bow vow wary, very weird veered wheel veal while vile wine vine. 47. Pronunciation, Stress & Rhythm: pronunciation, stress and rhythm. You've learned the proper pronunciation of vowels, def thongs and constant sounds. Before we get into stress and rhythm, let's take a look at some other pronunciations to be aware of and things to remember. Other sounds to watch out for sound are versus l examples. Father Bottle Water Hard are at the end that isn't trilled. Often Asian speakers might struggle with these sounds. W v as in water weight, vowel, varied went some European languages. Switch the pronunciation of these two constants th the as in thing the that there, through this sound is not found in some languages and often substituted with other continents. Shun fiction, diction, meditation pronounced as shun it as in wanted. Wanted. Laughed. Played one ending. Three different pronunciations. Another thing to watch out for is adding what sounds like a Schwab sound in between words to make it easier to get to the next word, try to avoid doing this. Some Spanish and Italian native speakers do this at times. For example, the sentence it was covered in shadow can turn into It was a covered in a shadow 48. General Tips on Speaking: general tips on speaking. Just as your own native accent or dialect has its own tone and rhythm, so does American English. Practice is key for speaking it as authentically as possible. The short a sound turns into a Jiff thong sound before the nasal continents, as in the words ran lamb mask hand. More often, you want to drop the why or what's known as yaw dropping in words like pursuit, which would be pursuit Tuesday, would turn into Tuesday. Duke would turn into Duke. There's also something known as ungrounded. Vowels on rounded vowels sound more flat and are pronounced with the lips more relaxed. UN rounded vowels can be heard in the words bought, which sounds more like bought Offend, which sounds more like offend slow it down. Each language has its own speed, for instance, some of the faster languages include Spanish, Japanese, French, Italian and then English in the fifth place. Slowing down will also help you with the next tip. Articulate your words more when practicing the sounds you've learned, exaggerate and open the mouth, dropping the jaw, especially for the big O and all sounds. Even if it looks and feels silly, it's for the purpose of practice and getting your muscles used to being used differently. Although General American accents have a habit of un rounding certain vowels or turning some into the neutral, relaxed Schwab sound, it's important to open up and stress the other vowels, as in the words Tomato around forward. Once you sound clear and articulate, you can start relaxing the drawn mouth more when practice your listening skills. When listening to videos, recordings, podcasts, etcetera, make sure to pause and register what and how the words are formed, along with what syllable and sound is stressed. Inflection. Carry the energy to the end of the word, but don't rise in inflection. This could be tricky for people with very melodious native accents like Irish, for example, to counter act this focus on keeping the energy throughout the entire word but dropping the inflection down instead of dropping the inflection down, it would be dropping the inflection down phrase, pausing when speaking casually. Americans usually speak in groups of sentences or phrases and take short pauses between each phrase, articulate the focal word in a sentence. There's always a word that's more emphasized in a sentence, and that becomes the focal point. For example, the guy just ran in there. Here, you would be emphasizing the guys timing by pausing after just and emphasizing it slightly before completing the sentence. Or you could emphasize the action itself by stressing the rant. The guy just ran in there. We'll get more into words Dress later on. 49. Contractions: contractions, contractions shortened longer words, making speech faster and can make you sound much more casual and natural. It's not ideal to use contractions in business and professional dialogue all the time, however. But using words like don't your there sounds more natural than do not you are and they are More examples include Cannot Can't. I am, I'm Will not, won't do not don't the following will definitely go a long way and sounding more like a native American. Give me, Give me We are where or even were I don't know, I don't know. Or even oh no want to wanna going to Ghana? 50. Unique Sounds & Spellings: unique sounds and spellings we already know. The English language comes with its own quirky characteristics. For instance, there's more than one way to pronounce words that use the same letter groupings like Rough bought, Tough through Bo. There are also words that are pronounced the same but have different spelling and meaning, which are known as Hama phones. Some examples are Bo Bear Blue where Seen Plane. Then there are silent letters that can raise questions and stir confusion. Some examples are knife school Ghost Crumb, daughter Listen, Christmas I'll knee Nome Psychology. Half wrist mortgage. Then there are words with silent letters that have more continents than bowels or more vowels than continents, creating more confusion. Examples are crystal chlorophyll encyclopedia site, symphony rhythm, photosynthesis, Gypsy. There are strong and weak syllables in American English pronunciation. As we've gone over earlier in the course with weak syllables, the vowel will gravitate towards a shorter and less intense quality of sound, which can sound quieter. Basically, the strong vowel means there's more stress in that bowel, and the week vowels have less stress. The highlighted vowels and syllables are what you want to stress. For instance, the words forget date reference adequate threaten 51. The Difference Stress Makes: the difference stress makes. There are words that, when stressed in a certain way, can change the meaning of that particular word. It's also used to express how a person feels, which can become misinterpreted if the word is not emphasized in the right way. Hama Graphs and Hama Phones The following words are what are known as Hama graphs and Hama phones. Ah ha McGrath is a word that has the same spelling as another word but has a different meaning and a possibly different sound. Ah, homophone is a word that has the same sound as another word, but it's spelled differently and has a different meaning. Alternate If pronounced with the stress on alternate, it means the first choice. As in, you have an alternate choice. Alternate. If pronounced as alternate, it means switching from one thing to another, as in the seasons. Alternate bow as in tow, lower your head is pronounced as bow bow, as in bow and arrow is pronounced. Boh contest, with the emphasis on the con means a competitive event or competition contest. If the emphasis is on the est, it means to oppose or argue, as in I contest to that attributes when the second syllable trip is emphasized. Like at tribute, it's used to describe something as being caused by someone or something. The damage can be attributed to the weather. Attribute. When the first syllable at is stressed, as in a tribute, it means a quality found in someone. One of her greatest attributes is improvisation and flexibility base or bass. If pronounced with the long A sound fast, it means a certain type of fish. For example, the bass swim freely in that part of the lake base. When pronounced with the long A sound a base, it actually means an instrument in music or a very low, deep sound. For example, he plays the bass in their band close. If this word is pronounced with a strong s sound, it means near in proximity. For example, they lived so close to each other. Close, if pronounced with more of a Z sound like clothes that an s sound. It means the opposite of open, as in to close the window. When you pronounce the word wound as wound, it means an injury, but if you pronounce it as wound, it means to wrap up something such as a rope string or bandage. I wound up the thread before I started. Sewing course is spelled the same, but has several different meanings. A few meanings are listed below course, a class with lessons and assignments to complete. I have to complete the course assignment course, a path or route or direction to follow. The ship is on course, course, a course of food served together in a meal. He's deciding what he wants for his main course course, a procedure to implement in a situation. This is the best course of action to take lead pronounced with the long E Sound lead means to be in charge off. He is the best person to lead. Lead can also mean an advantageous position they're in. The lead lead can mean a new piece of information to help solve the problem, as in, we just got a lead from a witness. Lead, pronounced with the short e sound lead is a particular kind of metallic chemical element. Alchemists believed lead to be the oldest of metals. Wind pronounced with the short I sound, as in bit refers to air blowing or a strong movement of air wind pronounced with a long I sound as in line can refer to toe wind a ball of string or yarn in sports, it can refer to wind up and take a swing or a wind in the road. Reyes is a word that spelled the same pronounced the same but has many different meanings. It could mean to raise the amount of a certain thing. For example, raise your eyes, raise your hand, raise in a job salary, raise the Children parenting, raised the alarm toe. Warn of danger. Raise the roof to cheer or make a lot of noise or toe literally raise the roof building and construction. Remember, Ah Homophone is a word that has the same sound as another word, but it's spelled differently and has a different meaning. Some more examples of Hama phones Alter board cellar council flower jeans to there. Pray meet hair. No, our band very I Night light. On the other hand, Ah ha McGrath is a word that has the same spelling as another word but has a different meaning and a possible different sound. Some more examples of Hama graphs. That letter I saw novel fall tire 52. GlidesSemi Vowels: glides and semi bowels. Glides are constants that proceed and glide into the next vowel, being modified by the position of the tongue and the lips. It's a quick, non syllabic part of a word that is still articulated. A semi vowel is a sound that, when pronounced, may sound like a vowel but is actually a constant. For example, why a semi vowel does not totally interrupt the airflow, but it does constrict the air from passing more than a regular vowel. Would examples are w sounding like do in we work Who West? Why sounding like E in year, you cry, Yes, fly usual. 53. Combining Vowels & Consonants: combining vowels and continents. Let's now put what you've learned into practice with the following words and sentences. Follow along with the audio and video and then repeat and practice for over 50 years. You would know it's spring by the Diggory house. The prettiest flowers you ever could see would bloom faster than anyone else's. A wife would be bent over by the garden, tending the flowers while a husband brought her more mulch and lemonade. The happy couple would be found outside, tending to the garden, sneaking a kiss or two whenever they could. This was the happiest home in town. A few springs ago, Mrs Diggory, florist by trade mother by nature, was not outside tending to her flowers. In fact, all that was in front of the small yellow house was a patch of dirt. Instead, she could be seen getting into her small SUV every morning at 9 a.m. On returning in the evening at 9 p.m. Every evening last spring, the SUV had changed to a beat up Volvo. Every night she returned home. Ah, little older and a little lonelier. Those few springs ago, Mr Diggory was seen leaving his home for the last time, he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's as a man who had little faith in doctors. He wasn't brought in until Mrs Diggory had begged and forced him after he forgot how he ended up in the town square for the third time. By this point, Mr Diggory's body was rapidly failing him. After a few discussions and warm kisses, the couple agreed that what was best for his health was being placed into smiles and love nursing home. Sure, he laughed it being placed in such a cliche, but he'd only be 20 minutes from his darling wife. Mrs. Diggory was even able to convince the home to give her darling husband a room with a view to the nearby lake, where Mr Diggory had brought her frequently for picnics and their kids and grandkids for fishing. Every morning at 9 a.m. Mrs Diggory would drive into town to her flower shop, where her daughter, Tanya, around the day to day operations. She would spend an hour or two talking about the current orders, how the talents people were doing and what her two grandchildren were up to. Then she kissed her daughter goodbye and head over to smiles and love 54. Introduction to Rhythm and Melody: Now that you have a grasp on the vowels and continents, let's try and focus less on those and mawr on rhythm, melody and stress rhythm comes as a result of the message you're trying to convey. So just like a song, each dialect and language have their own unique rhythm and melody to them. So again, let's try and shift our focus and use our musical ear for this section. The sound stress and syllables are what gives us thes musical notes of sound that create the general American rhythm and melody. Words with multiple syllables always have one syllable that's more stressed than the others . So there is a rhythm guideline with this accent, which is that the emphasis of words happened in beats just like musical notes. This means that there will always be stressed and unstrung syllables in dialogue, and any unstrapped syllable usually becomes that very popular and very much used Schloss sound 55. Intonation and Pitch: pitch and intonation basically mean the tone of your boys. In other words, the rise and fall of your speech rhythm, vowel length and intonation are what characterizes an accent. So, just like in a song, there are high notes and low notes. When you listen to music, do you ever notice how the rhythm affects you and how you might move or dance, or even sing it with the right stress, speed and pitch? Next time you listen to music, pay attention to this and see what you find. These notes are what gives some parts of a song more residence, making you feel more or focus on that specific word more than the others. And the same thing can be said with language and speech with standard American English. There are three notes that people use when speaking low, middle and high. Low tone usually comes before a stress word. Casual tone is relaxed. Dialogue neither stressed or un stressed. High tone is used for emphasizing specific words. The reason low tone usually comes before a stress is to create more contrast in the different tones, to show strong feelings for whatever word or idea you want to stress. At times there is a very low tone, and it might happen when someone's speech falls towards the end of a thought. But we're only gonna focus on the three main tones. Keep in mind that your own unique native accent has its own patterns and melody that might slip out when trying to pronounce words in the standard American accent. Once in a while, it can lead to stressing the wrong words, which could result in your message not being clear or given a slightly different meaning altogether. Some foreign accents don't give stress to certain words or syllables, so each word is basically given the same stress, which is very different from American English, which has its peaks and valleys within the melody. Other accents sound more monotone, so you want to make sure you stay away from a monotone sound and put stress where it's needed, which we will be getting into. It's important to recognize your own speech patterns and melody in comparison to the standard American accent. Understanding what distress and how melody and rhythm works will give you clarity, confidence and stronger speaking skills to sound like an authentic American speaker 56. Pitch Tones and When to Use Them: what it comes to this accent. You want to imagine that you're reading musical notes because each syllable will have a note. It might even help you to give each tone a number so you can make low one middle to and high three. And if it helps, you can even use your hand to visually see the difference in the tones. Let's focus on the three tones low one middle to hi three. The following are examples of when you would use the high pitch when you're asking a question if you're requesting specific information when you want to give significance to a certain subject to show your emotions or when teaching someone something new. So this could be a lot of fun, as you can start paying attention to the way people say things and what words and ideas they stress the most. So normally, when American English speakers get excited, they can start talking faster and faster, stressing on Lee the most important words to get their point across stronger. So it really depends what idea or word is most important to you in the phrase. So ask yourself what word or point do I want to stress the most. For example, the sentence. I'm giving you an option. I'm giving you an option. I'm giving you an option I'm giving you on option. I'm giving you a new option. I'm giving you an option. Take a look and listen to the next statements and questions to start understanding the melody and rhythm questions. What do we do now? The word now has a higher pitch. Are you hungry? The word hungry has a higher pitch. I'm not sure if we're in the right place. Not has. Ah, higher pitch. Did you like it? Like? And it have more stress and a higher pitch statements. This is what I believe. I has a higher pitch. I was really trying to get it just right. The word really has a higher pitch. I'm so sorry. I completely forgot the words. So has a higher pitch. Let's check out the place. You recommended the word you has more stress and a higher pitch. 57. How to Know Which Words to Stress: it can be hard trying to navigate which words to stress. So the best way to do this is to break the words down into two categories. In linguistics there are content, words and function words, content words which, as you probably guessed from the name, gives the content of the message like people places things such as computer mother car adjectives, which are description words like charming, tasty, messy, beautiful burbs, which are action words like Run, think solve and adverbs that are worse that describe verbs like slowly. Now. Sometimes the main point here is that content words are the words that we want to stress mawr in the phrase function. Words are usually unstrung and reduced in order to give the content words more energy and importance. There used to bridge the content words in order to create a functioning sentence. These words include on in at four, so auxiliary verbs am Waas is Kan ar were had did articles and the quantify IRS. Few little, many, much. Some pronouns. He she, they, her him and conjunctions. And but or for yet first, then all right. So now that we can distinguish between content, words and function words, let's get into the three part approach of figuring out the correct rhythm, stress and melody. First, find your content words, which are the words you'll be stressing the words that you'll give more energy to and place emphasis on rather than the other words. For example, the phrase the keys are in the car. Keys and car are more stressed. Second, once you know you're stressed content words, you want to give them a slightly higher pitch than the other words. You can do this by making them louder and prolonged in order to stress their importance. For example, the keys are in the car. Third, you then want to reduce the function words slightly so that the content words stand out more and so that the function words don't interfere with the content. Words. Keep in mind that the constants are given less attention as well. This is because in American English, we really like to get through the sentience or words and ideas as smoothly as we can until we hit the next emphasize content word. We reduced the vowels in the R and in so that they become the Schwab sound. So it looks and sounds something like the keys are in the car. The main thing we want to create is a balance of the lows and the highs. The stressed and unstrung est the long and short to create the intonation. To help you find the music in the language, every syllable gets a different musical note. It should never sound monotone, But it shouldn't be high and stressed all the way through. So remember, balance is key. These elements are what help you stress the important words to create a certain mood examples. Where you going would look and sound more like Where you going or where you going? There are questions I have for you would look and sound more like there are questions I have for you. So try to imagine the notes as I say these phrases. I don't know Data. That's so funny. That data. You're the best data. You have to try this Data data. Did you hear what happened? That the data data 58. Differentiating Between Statements & Questions: there will usually be an inflection in tone with questions, especially towards the end of the question. Be aware, though, that there are some native speakers whose inflection goes up even when making statements, which is known as up talk. And it doesn't sound as professional or as confident with statements. You might want to try and slow down slightly when stressing your point towards the end of the sentence. Examples of questions Have you been working all day? Did you want to play? Did you see that? Hey, how are you? Do you take your coffee black or with cream? That's not what you asked for, was it? 59. Varied Intonation: it may be hard to get out of the same rhythm and tone you've been speaking in your entire life, but you can think of it as if you're learning a new song. So if you're finding it challenging to get out of your natural speech pattern or possibly having an issue with a monotonous same note speech, try the following exercise. Pick a song and sing along, mimicking the pitch, rhythm and melody of it as best as you can. Take one sentence and just focus on the pitch to find the melody. In other words, take the words away and only focus on the sound pitch. Next. Working on a sentence or phrase, sing it playing with the pitch, singing a couple more times and then go back to speaking it. In a normal dialogue, you may find that it sounds smoother and less sticky or dull, helping you sound less accented and monotone. This should help you get out of any flat intonation or going back into your native rhythm and pitch patterns 60. final review: he did say he was coming at eight, didn't he? I guess he's gonna be late. Rohan is such a noisy boy. Where do you work? Rather than be melancholy all winter, he should try to be happier in order to keep the audience's attention. They told the students at school to avoid discussion and to speak on Lee about important points. In the report, he found a brown mouse on the ground after moving to the spoiled Newtown. The sunset was beautiful that evening, reminding us that all good things come to an end. There were many cars in the theater parking lot. It was hard to find a spot. What do you like to do in your free time? The embarrassed friend entered the elevator, forgetting what he needed to get. She's moving away and won't be seeing her friends for a long time. My family and I go to the beach every weekend. I couldn't agree more 61. final notes: congratulations on making it to the end of this course. I am so proud of you, and you should be proud of yourself. You know about vowels, continents, def, thongs, pronunciation, rhythm, pitch stress and melody and have learned to combine them. So let's go over some last few important tips to remember and some do's and don't important standard American characteristics. Remember, standard American is more bowel emphasized than constant, stressed Constance can change to other constant sounds. Connected speech is important when creating an authentic American speech pattern that flows with ease. Although it's common for many vowels and def thongs to flatten as well has become reduced into a Schwab sound. Make sure to open the jaw wider for those Oh's and ah's And our sounds think in terms of your words and sounds being more loud and proud rather than to flatten down for these sounds as in out About and Boat, and wrote as thes air sounds and made in the back of the mountain. This accent is road IQ, which means that the R is always pronounced the short a sound, as in ran and dance has a diff phone quality to it, which sounds more like ran and dance. The lips are usually more neutral compared to other dialects, except when making that you sound so avoid over using the lips. For the most part, there are sounds that are more forward and made with the middle or front of the face, which sometimes have a slight neighs ality, especially with that a sound like in weight Mary mate Safe. Eight. Use more of the front of the tongue when creating certain sound rather than just the tip. DUIs. If you haven't memorized the I P A, you can use informal, customized fanatics to help you process and make the right sounds Write it, however, makes no sense to you like in the word psychology, which could be pronounced and written as psychology. Remember to slow your speech rate when learning the proper pronunciation of a word. Listen to yourself in your recordings while you speak and make note of any sounds, words, sentences you might have some trouble with. Start to find out which sounds trigger a less American sound from you. So you know, which wants to work on more often isolating a word, repeating at five or six times. Then put in the word back into the context or using it in a different context has also been known to help with learning an accent. You can use what's known as an elocution exercise, where you place a cork between your teeth holding it outside of your mouth and talk in the accent with the cork. This will help the muscles over work and talk around the court so that when you remove it, the accent will become easier for you to speak. Read out loud and practice as much as you can, reading and listening to dialogue and text simultaneously. It can really help you to become more aware and comprehensive, so turn on those subtitles. When you're watching a show or movie, you can listen to Amazon kindle audiobooks with textiles. Well, you can listen to radio news stories online. And if English isn't your first language, check out some DSL websites like English club dot com, toe learn english dot com es el dash bits dot net. Once you have a grasp on the basics, start to speak in the accent as much as you can just practice speaking as you normally would accept in this accent you might pause more and have to think about how to form the sounds before you say them, but in time this will help make it second nature to you. This gets your mind off the page and the words as you haven't had the chance to pre planned or rehearsed. Um, it also helps with muscle memory and in time with confidence. Have fun speaking with a friend. You trust a family member or just talk to yourself for an hour or two or for the entire day , try and challenge yourself. Try and find a native speaker to talk to. You can find North American language partners online through social media and Skype. Er zoom with them twice a week or more. If you can't, you can even record your conversation and ask them to correct you in order to help your comprehension. Listen to your partner's speech pattern and study their melody, pronunciation and rhythm of their speech. Keep in mind you'll have to find someone who lives or is from the standard American region of the U. S or Canada. Now, for the actors out there auditioning for a role or for anyone who has an important interview are meeting practice speaking in this accent for at least 20 minutes before your meeting or audition Teoh, ease yourself back into that particular speech pattern. If you do go back to your native accent, don't stress about it because mistakes are an important part of learning. And on that note for the actors, remember that each accent has its own energy vibe. Flare, whatever you wanna call it. So remember to take that into account when working with this accent, meaning this could be the clothes you wear, how you move, how you style your hair. Just get into the character, their backstory, secrets, their objective social class obstacles, etcetera because everything that makes up your character also influences the way your character speaks and moves. Learn slang and idioms. Use Google to search for some or listen to native speakers in person or in TV and films, and see what slang, words or phrases and idioms they use and go back to the course and its earlier sections, along with the exercises as much as you need to so you can improve and grasped the concepts of sounds. Don't avoid giving too much neighs ality to certain vowels like a which can quickly head to a different accent. Don't give the accent too much twang unless you want to sound like you're from Texas or places in the south of the U. S. Remember, stress can change the meaning of a sentence. For example, he is scared. He is scared. The emphasis is on. Scared stresses the person's emotional state. He is scared. The emphasis is on the is, which shows a confirmation of his emotional state. He is scared. The focus on he clarifies that we're talking about this particular individual as opposed to a different person. Our your were for your and or in sentences. So when you pronounce these words on their own, they sound different from when they're put in a phrase because of the connecting speech that flattens these vowels into the Schwab sound, or when in a sentence this goes from or two on her like a cake or pie. Our this goes from being an hour sound and forms an R sound. This is ours, or this is ours. Your this because more of ah, your sound. Here's your mail unless you're emphasizing that the male or item belongs to a specific person which would turn into this is yours or here's your mail your again. This sounds like you're or your you're going to the movies with sound more like you're going to the movies. We're This sound takes on a more worse sound. We're going on a trip. Four. When spoken in a sentence, this sound becomes a first sound. Instead of this one's for you, it would become this one's for you. So my last words of advice to you get excited. Practice is everything when learning a new skill. So go wow into the world and practice your accent in public. The more you do it, the faster you'll be able to perfect it, gaining more confidence and learning more and more each day. Use the resources, the PDS and downloads to help you along your learning path or whenever you want to review anything. Remember, I'm here to answer your questions or for one on one coaching. So if you feel you want private coaching, I'm here to help you achieve your goals and work with you on your path to success. So I welcome you to contact me any time and thank you so much for joining me and all the very best on your artistic business and personal endeavors. Good luck and goodbye for now.