American English Slang | Phrases for Work | Cloud English | Skillshare

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American English Slang | Phrases for Work

teacher avatar Cloud English, Innovative English Courses

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

56 Lessons (6h 50m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

    • 2. Taking This Course

    • 3. Keep Me in the Loop

    • 4. Keep Someone on Their Toes

    • 5. Speak Your Mind

    • 6. Up to Speed

    • 7. On the Same Page

    • 8. Bounce Ideas

    • 9. Keep Me Posted

    • 10. Get the Ball Rolling

    • 11. It's a Deal

    • 12. Give Somebody a Hard Time

    • 13. Off on the Wrong Foot

    • 14. Explore All Avenues

    • 15. Game Plan

    • 16. In the Bag

    • 17. Sticking Point

    • 18. Loose Ends

    • 19. Square One

    • 20. Call It a Day

    • 21. Last but Not Least

    • 22. Down to the Wire

    • 23. Like Clockwork

    • 24. A Matter of Time

    • 25. Sleep on It

    • 26. Set in Stone

    • 27. Pros and Cons

    • 28. Do's and Don'ts

    • 29. Big Deal

    • 30. Jump to Conclusions

    • 31. The Best of Both Worlds

    • 32. Cut Corners

    • 33. A Lot on My Plate

    • 34. From Scratch

    • 35. The Last Straw

    • 36. Blew It

    • 37. Know Something Inside Out

    • 38. Going Above and Beyond

    • 39. Drop the Ball

    • 40. My Hands are Full

    • 41. No Can Do

    • 42. Go the Extra Mile

    • 43. Dodge the Bullet

    • 44. Fire Away

    • 45. Good Point

    • 46. No Sweat

    • 47. Good Thinking

    • 48. Method to My Madness

    • 49. Music to My Ears

    • 50. Couldn't Agree More

    • 51. Get to the Point

    • 52. Spot On

    • 53. I Don't Buy It

    • 54. I Owe You

    • 55. Two Birds with One Stone

    • 56. Course Conclusion

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About This Class

If English is your second language, it can be very frustrating to feel behind the conversation when talking with native English speakers. 

Why does this happen?

One reason is that native English speakers use common phrases that come from culture. That means, looking at each word in the phrase won’t tell you the meaning. The result is that you’re not sure exactly what others are talking about and you can’t express yourself as naturally as you would like to. 

If you’ve ever felt this way at work or in your daily life, you will get a lot out of this course. This course will focus on English phrases more common in workplace situations, however, the course is useful for anyone interested in learning American English phrases, expressions, and idioms. 

You won't just learn English phrases in this course, you will master them—you will know how to use them in your daily life. And if you feel uncertain about anything you're learning throughout the course, I will answer any questions you have.

Let the journey begin!


Meet Your Teacher

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Cloud English

Innovative English Courses


My name is Luke. Hi.

I'm the founder of Cloud English and the co-founder of yoli. I've been teaching English for years, and over that time I've discovered powerful language learning methods that make learning English much easier and more effective. My courses have helped thousands of people become more fluent in English.

My courses will help you: 

- Become more confident in English conversations

- Master English vocabulary, phrases, and expressions

- Take your English pronunciation and fluency to the next level

- Improve your English listening skills

- Think in English when you're speaking English

- Sound natural saying exactly what you mean

Here, you can find courses on business English, American... See full profile

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1. Course Introduction: If English is not your first language, you may have experienced something like this. You're at work. You work in an English speaking environment. And someone says, I keep me in the loop, keep me in the loop or something like that. And you're not sure what it means? What do I say? That feeling of frustration, right? I know English, but maybe I don't know this phrase. That feeling of being a little bit behind everyone else, not being able to communicate on that native level. Why? Well, it's because spoken English and written English are not always the same. There are many things that native English speakers say that maybe we don't learn in school, that maybe we don't write. That's called slang. Slang is stuff that we say that we don't, right? That's what slang is, and that's what this course is all about. This course is going to be focused on phrases for work, that means phrases we may more often use in professional situations, although all of the phrases that we learned can be used in many other situations as well. This course is part of a series of four courses related to American English slang. Each course has a different focus, so make sure to check out those other courses as well. My name is Luke. I'm an English teacher from America and I've helped thousands and thousands of students improve their spoken English, which again is what this course is focused on now a little bit about the style. So we're going to deeply explore each phrase. We're going to talk about each one in depth, what it means, how it's used. And then we're going to, for each one, look at a few examples. Okay, So if that's your learning style, if you'd like to really learn things deeply so that you really know them, so that you can really use them in your everyday life. Check out this course. By the way, for the whole course, you'll be able to see my face just like this. And I'll also be using a digital blackboard so that you can take notes along with me. And that helps you really remember each phrase very deeply again, so that you can use it in your everyday life. Okay, so hope to see you in the first lesson. 2. Taking This Course: Welcome to the course. I'm glad you decided to join before we get started with our first phrase. Before we get started with our first lesson, I want to just give you a bit of a foundation so that you know what's going to happen in this course and how you can take it so that you get the most benefit from it. So each lesson in this course is going to be one phrase. We're going to talk about one thing per lesson. I want to keep this course simple in that way so that we can focus on what's really important, but what's really important in this course? Well, what's really important in this course is that you know how to, you know how to use what you learn. Let's make that our main goal, okay, So let's just say that clearly, you are learning these things so that you know how to use them in your life. All of the phrases that we're going to talk about, that should be number one. Now maybe you say, Okay, yes, but I'm really taking this course because I want to understand my friends who speak English natively or understand my coworkers, my colleagues. Okay, fine. But if you know how to use them, the expressions, the phrases we're going to talk about, you definitely will know what they mean when you hear them, right? So using is a little harder, just understanding, right? So let's make this, let's make this our goal, okay? How are we going to do that? Let's go through how we're going to do that. So that again, it's really clear. First we're going to focus on the meaning. I'm going to introduce the phrase and I'm going to talk about what it means basically. And in some cases, the background why it means that sometimes there's a historical reason, sometimes there's a cultural reason, or sometimes there's a little picture that we can use to give us a feeling for why we use this phrase where it comes from, the basic idea. So once we understand that, Hopefully that helps us remember it, then we can start talking about the context. Now the focus of this course will be things related to, things related to work. I do want to make it clear though, that even though we're focusing more on work-related phrases, these things can be used in lots of other situations and we'll talk about those situations throughout the course, okay? Once we've got the basic idea for each one, then we're going to go through examples. The best way to really get a feeling for something is to look at examples. Honestly, I'm not sure how you can really understand any native phrase or expression without knowing some kind of context. It's like learning a word. Great, I know the word, but I have no idea how to use it. Write some words, work in this situation and not that one. Well, I'm going to teach you which situations you can use this phrase in and which ones maybe you shouldn't use this phrasing. That's what we're going to talk about, and that's why we're going to spend a fair amount of time with each phrase. We're going to really give it, our attention. Really pay attention to what it means. Really pay attention to the context or what's around it, how it's used by looking at the examples. So that again, your understanding is deep. You really get it. Now for each thing that we learn, you will not hear me talk about it as slang. Why not? Because we don't say that slang. Slang, that slang. We don't that's what it is. Slang is spoken language that's used in a particular situation or context. That's what slang is. You'll hear me refer to the things we learned as phrases. And I'll often use expressions and you'll sometimes hear me use idioms. And these can often be used in the same way. There are some small differences between them, but you'll hear me use these three, these three words, phrase, expression, an idiom. And you won't hear me talk about these as slang because we don't talk about slang, words, phrases, or idioms in that way. Before we get started, let's just talk a little bit about how you should take this course. I want you to really pay attention to this, these three things. And if you do these three things for each phrase we learn, I think you'll really get it. I think you'll have a very clear understanding of each one. So first, as we go along, take notes. I'm going to be writing here just like this throughout the course. So take notes along with me, write down simple things just so that you remember how this is being used. What's the situation it's being used in, right? In what way are the variations? And we'll talk about variations to if you feel that you've missed something or something isn't clear, watch it again. Repeat what you just saw. There's nothing wrong with that. That's totally fine. Watch it again. I would also encourage you to do your own research throughout the course, lookup other examples of the phrases we talk about. And also I'll be mentioning many words and phrases throughout the course besides the main ones. So I encourage you to look those up on your own. Try to make your own examples, try to figure them out. And if you're not sure, you can always ask me, happy to answer any questions you have throughout the course. So please, please ask if you need help. It's very well known that if you want to really learn something, you have to do it. There has to be some creation involved. All right, Now if you've just listened to this course, that's input. And okay, great, maybe that will help you understand your colleagues who speak English natively or maybe when you're watching movies, you understand people better. Who I know that I learned that one in this course. Great. Yes, got it. Can you use it though? So I would really encourage you to make your own examples after each lesson, make two or three examples after each lesson. I'm going to mention it through out the course. But still, if you want to say that you know this and you want to be able to actually use it in your daily life. You need to make something with it. What better time to make something with it then? After each lesson, right? So right after each lesson I would really encourage you to make your own examples not exactly the same as mine, maybe in a similar style, but your own example. You have to really struggle through the example and that struggle is really important. That's the thing that you'd go through to get used to the feeling of using it right in once you're used to that, then when you find yourself in a conversation, you can use it without difficulty. Which again, is hopefully your goal for the course. Okay, so that's that. Good luck with the first lesson, and I'll see you there. 3. Keep Me in the Loop: Keep me in the loop. Keep me in the loop. This one is about staying up to date about information related to something. It's about. It's about knowing what's going on. It's about knowing what's going on, knowing what's happening. Usually related to some, maybe a project, maybe it's an event. Usually there's something happening and you want to make sure that you know what's going on. It doesn't have to be a project. But that's pretty common. Let's say there's, I'm going to draw a circle here, 1234567. Okay, this person, these are all people. It's a little circle people, these people inside of this, Let's call this the loop. It's not really a thing. We call it a loop because the people inside of it all know basically the same things. They all have shared knowledge so that they can talk to each other and all understand each other well so that they don't miss something. And if somebody is not in the loop, that means they don't know what's going on, don't know what's going on. They're not up-to-date. These people have not kept this person in the loop. The ways to keep this person in the loop might be a phone call and e-mail, whatever. But regardless, they are staying up to date. They might then ask to be kept in the loop. And people often say this expression at the end of a conversation. Okay, keep me in the loop. Talk to you later. Bye. Keep me in the loop, talk to you later. So this person might say to the other people, hey, can you guys keep me in the loop? Oh yeah, sure. La, La, La. They tell him what's going on and now he's in here. Now, he knows. So he's in the loop. And before these people say goodbye to each other, they might say, All right guys, keep me in the loop. I'll see you see you on Monday. That means if anything changes here, you need to let me know or let everybody know that way when we come back to work on Monday, We can all start from where we were on Friday with that new information in mind. But this sounds like it's only used for work. In fact, it's not. And we'll look at a couple of examples. But it can definitely be used in more casual situations related to friends, although it is often about some event. Some project, for example, I'm a little too busy to work full-time on this project, but keep me in the loop so that I can give feedback on changes. Now this isn't just colleagues, maybe this is a boss who just doesn't have time. To do everything related to this project because maybe he has to be in the loop about other things too. So here's, here's the boss. Let's say this is a manager here, and here's one here and a manager here and a manager here. And this manager is working with some people on a project. And this one is working with some people, some people here, Some people here. All right. Now, these people are all working every day. So whatever they're working on, whenever it is, there are always changes going on. This person, the boss, has to make important decisions about the whole company, maybe, right? So if this person doesn't know what's going on here, if this person doesn't have the latest updates, how can they make good decisions? So this doesn't mean that this person is working on this stuff all the time and the making all these little changes. No. It just means that they are aware of what's going on and this person will tell them some updates every day, maybe once a week. And then this person can then give feedback. The feedback will be good feedback because this person knows what's happening. So now they are in the loop, and let's call this thing the loop. This is the loop and maybe this is a loop to end the loop in the loop, in the loop. Okay? So this is the idea, it's about knowing what's going on. We sometimes use this expression with stay. I want to make sure I stay. I want to make sure I stay in the loop. Why were you late? Why were you late? The only reason I didn't come to the meeting on time is because nobody told me it was changed 11 AM to ten AM. Nobody kept me in the loop. Okay. This sounds like an excuse that someone is giving for being late, but okay. Maybe they just didn't know. Is it their fault? Well, we don't know if this person didn't ask someone to keep him or her in the loop, then maybe yes. They would have said, Hey, please make sure to please make sure to keep me in the loop so that I know if anything changes about meeting times. Okay. Then if she didn't say that, maybe it's her fault. Maybe it's someone else's fault because they didn't tell her and it was their their responsibility, their job, to tell her about changes to meeting times. Okay. This one is not a project, but it still is related to knowing what's happening. So we can use it here. The last two examples make it seem like we can only use this for formal, for formal situations. And that's not, that's not right. So I just want to be clear about that. And I actually want to give you a short story, something that happened to me once to show you what I mean. Okay, So it was a near Halloween? Near Halloween. And on Halloween everyone will dress up, go to parties. Right? And so I I was invited to a party and I thought it was a costume party, a party where people would dress up, but it was a costume, a costume party. So I dressed up as Harry Potter. And then when I arrived as Harry Potter and I noticed that nobody else was wearing a costume. I was the only one who was dressed up. So I said, Hey, why am I the only person dressed up? And someone said you didn't you didn't hear. We decided just to have a regular party. This is not a costume party. Well, I wish somebody had kept me in the loop, then I wouldn't have dressed up and now I wouldn't be so embarrassed. Okay, this happened. It wasn't that bad. It was kind of kind of funny and people understood. But I wasn't kept in the loop. I wasn't maybe paying attention to messages in the group chat that we had. And so I actually, it was kind of my fault, but I wasn't in the loop. But notice that it is for some thing that's going on a party in event a meeting, usually there is something going on and we don't just say it. Sometimes people will generally talking to a friend. Okay, Well, see you later. Keep me in the loop. That means tell me what's going on in your life sometimes, but that's not as common as having some thing going on. And then when you're talking to someone on the phone saying, all right, well, I'll talk to you in a couple of days. Keep me in the loop. That means let me know if anything changes. Sometimes we also say keep me up to speed. If someone is out of the loop and then we need to let them know what's going on. Say, let me get you up to speed. Let me get you up to speed. All right, so now you are in the loop about keep me in the loop, hope it's clear. 4. Keep Someone on Their Toes: to keep someone on their toes. She always keeps me on my toes or it really keeps me on my toes or I'm trying to keep you on your toes. This is an expression to mean you're paying attention carefully or you're able to quickly adapt. Okay, so it's used when we want to talk about quickly, quickly adapting to things or paying attention, really paying attention. So if I said something that had no meaning like there are three bananas on the floor next to a giant purple fish, then you might say, Well, wait, wait, wait. What did he say? Why am I saying that? Maybe I'm just trying to keep you on your toes. That means I'm trying to make sure you're paying attention. You're listening. Pay attention, Pay attention. I'm keeping you on your toes. So this is a good thing. Usually it's a good expression to mean someone is helping us. To always be paying attention or something is helping us to make sure that if something changes, we can quickly adapt, we can quickly change. We can adjust to whatever is happening, okay, And we could be talking about things people say we could be talking about a person we could be talking about. A thing that we do. For example. I always drink coffee in the morning because it helps me stay on my toes or it keeps me on my toes. I always drink coffee because it keeps me on my toes. Makes me feel alert. I always feel alert when I have coffee. It's going on, huh? Ideas. Ideas. Okay, I'm always on my toes, So if you're standing on your your standing flat on your feet, you can't move quickly. This is how you can remember it, but if you're standing on your toes, it's not a terrible foot. It's not bad changing. Very nice. Terrible. If you're standing on your toes, then of course, you're more nimble. If something comes towards you, you can jump out of the way. Why? Because you were on your toes. And if somebody is nimble physically or in this kind of way about paying attention or adjusting to situations adapting quickly, we might say, way too way to be on your toes. Way to be on your toes like saying Good job, Good job. Way to be on your toes. I saw you adapt very quickly. I saw you jumped out of the way. I saw you react suddenly. Way to be on your toes. Way to be on your toes. OK, so hopefully you have an idea about how we use it and what it means as we always do. Let's look at a few examples. My boss keeps me on my toes. He's always asking. What did you do today? Have you finished everything? I'm actually glad he does it. It means I never slack off. Okay, so it's the person who keeps me on my toes. What does that mean? It means I'm always making sure I do what I'm supposed to do. I get the things I need to get done. Done. I know that sentence sounds weird, but it's correct. Okay. He's always asking What did you do today? I know in my mind that I need to tell him at the end of the day what I did. So I better I better make sure I do everything I want to. I want to impress my boss, right. I'm actually glad he does it. It means I never slack off. This is to be lazy, basically slack off means to be lazy. Okay? So people can keep other people on their toes. So maybe there are two friends, and they are They're at a rowdy of rowdy bar having a drink, Okay. And, uh, they just wanna have a drink and then go home. They just wanna have a conversation, have a drink, and then and then maybe go home. But there's a really, really drunk guy in the corner over there, and it looks like he wants to fight somebody. He looks like he's in a bad mood. You know how really drunk people can be. Sometimes sometimes they want to. They want to just fight. I've seen it happen quite a few times, actually. And so and so I might say to my friend, Hey, stay on your toes. Stay on your toes. Here. It means pay attention. Pay attention. Be ready. Toe act. Now, that doesn't mean be ready to fight. It may mean just be ready to leave. Be ready to get out of here. Just to be clear, staying on your toes could have a physical meaning here. That means don't just sit there and, uh, but actually, maybe stand up even and be ready to move quickly in case that person who's looking at us wants to actually fight with us for whatever reason. But it also means be aware of what's going on. Pay attention, Stay on your toes. I have a funny feeling funny feeling that the drunk guy in the corner is looking for a fight. We may need to get out of here quickly. Get out of here means to leave to leave A funny feeling. Does that mean ha ha. Funny, No. Ah, funny feeling is when we we may have an intuition. Intuition is when we have a feeling that we don't completely understand. We don't know exactly where it comes from, but it's a feeling that tells us what's going on and my feeling right now is that that guy who's really drunk and kind of looking at us, that guy is trouble, and we should be careful. We should be ready to leave at any moment, so stay on your toes. I could also say Be on your toes, OK. This expression can be used in many, many different ways. It can be physical, but it can also be about behavior. It can be caused by or it can come from the things that we do. Like I said, having coffee, but it can also come from other people. Okay, so it it's very flexible. Try to make your own examples to get a feeling for it and look out for it. Watch for it in movies and TV shows so that you can really deeply understand it. 5. Speak Your Mind: speak your mind. Speak your mind. Speak my mind. She spoke her mind So you can change this to the to the past future. You can change the tents of this one. Change the tents, the verb tense. You can say different people here. My, uh there. If you say there, then you have to say mine's right, our minds. So this one's pretty flexible. And I think if you think about it, it's probably something you can guess. This is one of the expressions that I feel is easy to guess the meaning of Imagine that you're your mind or your brain has a mouth. That's a funny thing to imagine. So here's your Here's your brain. Here's your brain right in this Got all this the goopy stuff here, and your brain also has a mouth. And when it wants to say something, it just says it. So what does that really mean? Well, it means that it doesn't have any filters, and it's very honest, and maybe normally a person would be careful about how they're speaking. Or maybe they are trying to say things in the right way so that they don't hurt anybody. Or maybe they would say only 80% of the truth and hide 20% of the truth. They would hide. People think about these things when they're speaking. Who am I speaking to? And, uh, how much of the truth should I say? Maybe. But if you speak your mind, you have some problem with something you haven't issue and you want to tell somebody about it. And usually you tell the person who's causing your issue right. I'm going to speak my mind. I'm going to go in there and I'm going to speak my mind. Maybe it's a boss. Maybe it's a coworker. Maybe it's a girlfriend boyfriend. Maybe it's a family member. Whatever. When you speak your mind, you don't worry so much about these things. You don't think too much about how you say it. You just say it and you're pretty honest in saying it. You speak your mind now. Sometimes we use a similar expression, and this is getting a little old, so I'll just mention it. But I'm not recommending that you use it. I gave him a piece of my mind. I gave him a piece of my mind. Now this is always about anger, expressing your anger to the person who caused it. So let's say it's your boss. He's a bad boss. He's always shouting at you. And finally you say, You know what? You're always shouting at me. You're not nice to me. I really can't stand this anymore. You gotta change or I'm gonna quit just telling you. I've always been very good employee. I worked very well. You've always been unkind to me, and I can't stand it anymore. Then later, this person goes home talks to he's or her husband or wife. Maybe I was work today. I finally I finally gave my boss a piece of my mind. I finally spoke my mind. So it's about removing the the filters. It's about removing. The filters usually don't want the filters. OK, that's basically basically what it means, But to understand really how it's used, I think we need to look at a few examples, as we usually do. Before we talk about this example. I want to just make one thing very clear. I mentioned that speaking your mind and give someone a piece of your mind that these are similar. I want to be clear that giving someone a piece of your mind usually means speaking in in anger. But speaking your mind doesn't always mean that you're angry just to be clear. Usually speaking your mind just means you say 100% what you feel and what you're thinking without many filters without being too careful, sometimes in a way, which is blunt because it's so honest. Sometimes we say brutal honesty. Maybe you're the boss and somebody comes into your office and says, Well, I finish this, You look at it, you say, Well, it's terrible. Do it again. But I worked really hard. Do you think it's good? Well, I can do better. Do it again. It's terrible. So you're speaking your mind there. You're speaking your mind. Okay. Really, It just means you're not being too careful about your words, and you're saying exactly what you mean without thinking too much. That's the idea. So I usually speak my mind. Some people don't like that. I usually speak my mind. Some people don't like that. That means if I have an opinion, I'll say it. I think I think you're rude. You're very rude, I think not to me. Usually because we don't talk very much. But I think just how you're talking to others, you're quite rude. That's not very nice. Well, I'm just just being honest, I'm just speaking my mind. I'm just speaking my mind. Okay, sometimes that could be very helpful, right? If someone always speaks their mind, sometimes they see you a little blunt, a little brutally honest. But it could be very helpful if you have the truth. And if someone is saying what is really there So sometimes it could be maybe a really good thing, A really good thing. When you feel though, you have some pressure or anxiety we might use. Speak my mind to say, Get that bad stuff out. I just need to tell somebody. I just got speak my mind. I got to speak my mind and again. Usually it is to the person who is causing that. Sometimes siblings are very honest with each other. Brothers and sisters, right? Very honest. And that's because they're so close because they're so close. They can be very honest, they can speak their minds and they might say to each other, You know, I'm glad we can talk like this I'm glad Aiken just speak my mind to you. And I don't need to worry about being careful or being over overly polite. I feel like I can just be honest. Yeah, of course. Of course. So, usually you can speak your mind to the people who are closest to you. Okay, Now, maybe maybe one sibling did something that hurt the other siblings. Feelings, whatever that might have been forgot about his or her birthday or whatever. I'm a little upset with something you did. I'm a little upset. Upset means unhappy with something you did or about something. You did OK. Says the other. Just speak your mind. I can take it. I can take it. That means you could be honest with me. If you're upset with me, just clearly say the reason. Let's communicate clearly. Even if it's not very, very nice. Where brother and sister or were brothers. We can say this to each other. Honestly, I can take it. I can handle it, can handle. It means that you're not going to hurt my feelings too much. If you're totally honest with me, you're not going to hurt me. Just say what you want to say I can take it. There's ever any very difficult thing or any stressful thing or any painful thing that may happen to you, But you feel that you're strong enough for that. You can say I think I can take it. I think I can take it or I can take almost anything but not this. I can take almost anything but not this. We can also say handle almost anything but not this. Personally. I really appreciate if someone can speak their mind to me, I really appreciate that. That means they feel comfortable enough with me to be able to just say what they want to say and not worry too much about me being upset or maybe me being offended or whatever I like. If people just speak there, mine's think it's I think it's good 6. Up to Speed: up to speed up to speed. This one, I think, is pretty easy to understand. Let's Ah, let's visualize it first. By the way, we can't really We can't really change it. We have to keep it just like this. Get me up to speed. Get me up to speed. Keep me up to speed. Help me get up to speed. Okay. I'm up to speed. I'm up to speed now. Okay, let's imagine some some cars. Cars. Really cool cars like these cars. Let's say they're going this way. Okay, There's another car. Okay. Some cars here, a bunch of cars and all of these cars Air kind of together. Okay, All of these cars were going the same speed, same speed. There's another car way back here because this car was having some technical issues. Technical problems, Right? So now there's a car way back here, and it wants to be the driver of the car. Wants to be with all the other cars altogether. Right? Okay, so maybe maybe these cars need to slow down a little bit, and this car speeds up a little bit, and then now they're all together. Okay, so it's sort of like they did something. This car did something. Now they're together as they should be. This is the idea, but we're usually talking about information. If you remember the expression keep me in the loop. That means let me know what's going on Were actually talking about something very similar to that. Keep me in the loop. Means give me the information that I need to stay up to date get me up to speed. Means I wasn't in the loop. I was behind. I didn't know all of the things that these people knew. And so once I know that, then I'm up to speed. So it's sort of like the thing that you get to do once you know what's going on and these people are the ones may be responsible for telling you what's going on. And then you are responsible. Maybe toe ask what's going on. So you might say, Can you get me up to speed? Maybe you were on vacation, right? You're part of a team and you were on a vacation. And so you come back and a lot of work has been done while you were gone. We're going for two weeks Well, you need somebody to tell you what has happened in the last two weeks. It is as though you are that car who's behind the others. All of the others are ahead, and you need to ask, um, could you could you guys help me get up to speed on everything we can add on everything? Or could you guys help me? Uh, help. Get me up to speed on everything. It could switch these around to basically tell me what's been going on the last two weeks. That way I will know. And if I know that I can communicate with you about what you're working on, if you don't tell me what's been going on, how can I know? I haven't got up to speed? I haven't got up to speed, So that's the basic idea. It's sometimes used to talk about other things, not information. Sometimes it's used to talk about maybe things that are actually a little bit slow. Ah, process, for example, that slower than it should be. And when it increases or gets faster, we say it's now getting up to speed, so sometimes we use it like that. But usually it's it's used in this way in this way. So let's look at a couple of examples. Maybe there's Maybe there's a CEO at the top person in a company who was away in another country for a long time, meeting with suppliers or whoever in another country. And the CEO knew what was going on in the company, obviously, but not at the same level of detail as he would normally get. And so he might ask to be caught up to speed or to get up to speed, caught up or get up so that he can have all those extra details that he was missing out on or that he had missed out on. I've been away a few weeks. Someone get me up to speed someone, get me up to speed. Yep. Eso basically, we've been blah, blah, blah, blah. And here's ah, PPT. And here's some documents and here's this and here's that Okay, Yep, Now I think I've been caught up to speed. I think I am now up to speed on everything. I am up to speed on everything. Thanks a lot. That's great. Let's Ah, let's do whatever we have to do. Basically, it's like that. But because he's the CEO, he may need to say what the next action is. He's the leader. So he's the boss. Now that you're up to speed, what do you think we should do next? Now that you're up to speed? Okay. We've told you everything that we've been working on. You have all the details now tell us what we should do. Your the bus. Give us the details now that now that this has happened, we use this way of phrasing, things to talk about. One thing needing to happen before another can happen. But the other thing has toe happen now that now that you're feeling better, let's continue our lessons. Let's continue our lessons now that you're feeling better. Okay? Same idea here. Same idea. He's the boss. He needs to say what to do next. Now that he is up to speed 7. On the Same Page: on the same page on the same page. So we talked about being caught up to speed or getting up to speed. That means knowing what's going on so that we can really communicate if I don't know what's going on and all of you know what's going on, whether this is a study group or a group of friends doing something together or people in a company for many different situations. If I don't know what's going on, I cannot participate in what you all are doing. You guys are doing something. I can't be part of that until I have the same knowledge that you have until I've been caught up to speed until I'm up to speed. If I'm not, then we might say, Ah, we we weren't on the same page So these these two expressions up to speed and on the same page are similar in some way because it's about having the same understanding of something . But it's not on Lee about missing information because you were gone like like up to speed. Means like up to speed is used to express. Being on the same page is more about maybe our perspectives in the world. Or maybe our understanding of something or the way that we're thinking about Ah, situation basically. And sometimes we have the same information. We have the same information. But our our view of that information is different. And so we're not on the same page. And if we're not on the same page, then we can't really communicate. Maybe we think we are communicating. We're talking, but you think something and I think something, and those two things are very different. So often we need to before we try to decide something very important. We need to make sure we are on the same page, not only about updating someone, but about making sure we have the same understanding. And often we're talking about the details of something. Maybe we're talking about how we understand this. Here is some fact that is true, but let's make sure we understand it in the same way First, before we have any other any other conversations where we're going to Ah, we're going to hold an event and my understanding is that I will be in charge of actually planning the details of the event. Like the speakers at the event and the food at the event and arranging the space. And because you're good at advertising marketing, you'll be doing that part. I just I just think that But if we don't spend the time to make sure that that is what we think each of us will do, then we're not on the same page. So it would be good to make sure we are on the same page to make sure we're on the same page before we continue. All right. All right. So let's just make sure on the same page we're going to have this event, um, next, um, next next month and we're gonna go for around 400 guests. Does that sound about right? About 400 uh, people at the event. Oh, yeah. Yeah, that sounds okay. Now, I will, um I'll be in charge of the basically setting up the space and getting the speakers, and also blah, blah, blah, blah. Is that Is that right? Do you understand it the same way? I just I just want to make sure we're on the same page. Yeah. Yeah, that's right. And you will be basically doing the marketing like Facebook and Instagram and posting on the website. Right. That right? Yes. That's right. I can do that part. I'm good at that. Okay. Perfect. All right, I I think we're on the same page. I think we're on the same page, so let's get started. Let's plan this. I'm excited. I'm excited. So I think this one is more general than up to speed. This one is about our understanding of the information. And you want to make sure that we are reading the same page of the book before we go to the next page of the book. You can remember it this way. That can be our. That can be our visual for this one are visual. Imagine a book, Book, book, book the Hey, you're on page 47. Right? I'm on page 47. Are you on page 47? Yeah, I'm on page 47. We're both on page 47. Yeah. Okay, good. So let's go to the next page. Page 48. Yeah. Yeah. Okay. We're on the same page. Good. Good. All right. So let's look at a couple examples now that everyone is on the same page. Let's start the meeting. Let's start the meeting. So maybe before we have this meeting, we just spend a little time making sure all the details Air, right? Kind of like how? I just explained for the the event. The two friends talking about who will do what Right. I just want to be clear. 1234 Does everybody understand? Yes. Okay, now that we are or everyone is on the same page, let's start the meeting. The meeting can begin because if we don't do that first and we start the meeting, your understanding and your understanding and my understanding will all be different. And we will have confusion, chaos, misunderstandings, misunderstandings. Okay, Now, we'll look at an example of how not being on the same page can cause problems. Misunderstanding, chaos, disagreements. Okay, people working on a project together and they don't have the same understanding. They haven't talked about the details first, to make sure, and it causes a problem. I think the main problem was that we just weren't all on the same page. We just weren't all on the same page. We're not. Philip was under the impression that he was going to be paid, but we hadn't discussed that with him before Dana and myself assumed that he was just interested in working with us and wasn't too concerned about pay. Otherwise, we thought he would have brought it up. Anyway, We had a huge argument, and he ended up leaving the project. So he left the project because he thought he would be paid, but he never said before they started. How much are you going to pay me or this is paid? Right? Or I just want to make sure before we start that were on the same page about payment. Oh, uh, I didn't know you. You wanted to be paid. This is a very small project. We don't have much money. We're not being paid me and Dana. So we're just working on this because we really care about it, OK, well, maybe then I'm not interested. Oh, I see. Okay. Okay. Well, that's okay. I'm glad we're on the same page. At least the problem is that they didn't have that conversation. And because of that, he left the project. Philip left the project because he didn't ask that. And then the other two just assumed that because he didn't ask it. He didn't care about it. So maybe they should have said, You know that that you're not going to be paid for this, right? This is just a project based on interest, right? They didn't They didn't ask. So this is what causes the problem. They weren't on the same page. Okay, so I'd like you to when you make an example, think about something quite different from mine. Make it far away from mine, but try to use on the same page in your own way and make it fit in the example. Think about a time in which you maybe had a problem because not everybody was on the same page. Describe it in detail. You can do it in writing or you can record yourself speaking it and then listen to it again . Make sure you use this expression on the same page. 8. Bounce Ideas: bounce, ideas, bounce ideas were bouncing ideas. I think this one has a great visual. This one has a great visual. I like to think about it like this. Okay, now imagine there's a circle of people. Okay, this is just for our visual, and they and one of them has a ball. One of them is holding a ball in this ball represents his ball represents an idea. And when we talk about ideas, we throw them out. Just throw out an idea. Whatever. Throw out throughout an idea that has two meanings. One meaning is just say it. The other is let's get rid of it. But here, I mean, just say your idea. Okay? Now this ball is pure white, pure white. Okay. And for whatever reason, all of these people are are different colors because they've been painted wet paint. Purple, blue, yellow, green, orange, red. Everybody is a different color, and the paint on them is red. This is just to help. You kind of visualize what this means. No, I I have my idea here, and I throw it to somebody else, and then it hits them in the head. And now, now, because it hit them in the head. The white ball has a color on it purple, and then they throw it somebody else. And then it hits that person, think in the head. They catch it. Now it has a little green and then throw it around in the ball goes thinking, thinking, thinking, naming, naming the needing, needing like this So the ball has bounced around. Bouncing ball is like this. Don't don't don't. The ball is bouncing, so it's the same idea when we bounce. Ideas around were usually with a group of people talking about an idea. And as we talk just like the ball, things are changing because the more the idea bounces around, the more colors are added to the white ball. So the more the more the idea becomes may be refined as we discuss it, and people add their own thoughts, their own ideas to it. So this suggests that this idea is getting better as we talk about it. To bounce ideas around doesn't mean we have to be strict or serious to bounce ideas around , and we often add around really means that we're just discussing things in a freeway. Adding to each other's ideas. And maybe this is a very creative. Maybe this is a very creative process. Now if it's two people, then we might say bouncing ideas or bounce ideas back and forth. I had a great meeting with Tina. We talked about a lot of things. We bounced a lot of really good ideas back and forth because there two people. So it's only going this way and this way, this way, this way. Bouncing ideas around, maybe with a group back and forth, maybe two people. But here the focus is that we want to make the ideas better by discussion. You're not keeping them to yourself. You want to hear what other people want to say about the idea. And that's what this expression is all about. When we use this, when we use this phrase, we're talking about wanting to get other people's thoughts about our ideas, their opinions, their views, their views. And this might be in what we would call a brainstorming session brainstorming session, a meeting in which we're all talking about ideas. There are many ideas happening and the ideas are being discussed. Bounced around. Okay, so that's the basic idea I think it's pretty simple once we have that visual in mind, and I think we can look at some examples in our first example. We have a group of friends, a group group of friends, and they are on a vacation and maybe, ah, maybe it's six people on vacation together, right? And they want to do fun things. But on the third day, they're not sure what to do. So we say. After bouncing ideas around, they finally agreed to go parasailing parasailing after bouncing ideas around. So this is not about a meeting it could be. Could be about a meeting brainstorming session. But this is more casual. We're sitting around having coffee, maybe having a drink, talking about what are we going to do? What are we going to do today? What fun thing we could do? Well, we could go. You know what? We could we could go to that. There's a really interesting beach there, and they have a lot of fun stuff. Yeah, okay. But I can't just walk around on the beach. That's not fun. What if we if we found out some of the activities that they're doing at that beach you OK? Well, like what? Well, maybe Jet ski. And yet I'm not very interested in jet skiing, and I've heard it's really expensive, but I have always wanted to go parasailing. Yeah, parasailing. That sounds fun. So these ideas are buying Boing, boing, boing, boing! Bouncing around and they're finally figuring out what to do. They finally agreed to go parasailing. This is where you have a parachute, a parachute connected to usually a boat speedboat, and you're sort of hanging here in the air, taking selfies and trying not to drop your phone into the ocean. That is parasailing, so it can be used casually or formally, and we can say, also back and forth. And in the next example, we're going to talk about when we use it for something that is one direction not even back and forth, just one direction. So let's look at that example. So here we have two colleagues and one wants to get get the opinion or reaction of the other of the other. So maybe it won't even be a discussion. Maybe it's just to get feedback. Maybe it's just to get feedback. Of course, feedback may be very important If you have an idea, sometimes you don't know. Maybe I have this idea. I think it's great, but it could be really dumb. Sometimes we have ideas that we think are great, but in fact they turn out to be very silly, dumb ideas. So we turn to our colleague who were close to and we say, Hey, Leo, do you mind if I bounced a few ideas off of you off of you? Or we could just say off you? We don't have to have of mummify. Mind if I bounced a few ideas off you? No, go ahead. Not all means. That's fine. I don't mind at all. Oh, great. And then we bounce the ideas. Boing, boing, boing! It's sort of like throwing the ideas. So now it's less about the discussion and Maura, about getting maybe feedback, usually bouncing ideas around or bouncing ideas back and forth is a description off. What happened? We bounced ideas around for an hour and finally decided to go parasailing. But here were making a request. A request to bounce ideas off of someone. What do you think about that? What do you think about that one? What do you think about this? What's your feeling about that one? Bouncing ideas off of someone is a way to get feedback. So this is a request, and this one, I think, is very useful. In fact, as a description or as a request, this expression is very, very useful. Don't forget to make your own examples. And if you want mawr examples before you write yours, look this expression up online. See if you can find it on Google or some other place online. Look for it in sentences, and if you look at a lot of sentences, you'll haven't even better feeling for it. 9. Keep Me Posted: keep me posted. Keep me posted. This is basically the same as saying, Keep me up to date. Keep me updated. Let me know. Let me know if anything changes, Let me know if anything changes. Let me know if anything is new. Whatever. I want to know what's going on. And this could be used in lots of different Lots of different ways. It can be used with friends. Can be used with a spouse like a husband or wife. It can be used in the workplace. It's not formal. It's not casual. It's right in the middle. Very useful. Imagine posting something. We use the word post when we talk about, for example, social media like Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, whatever. When we put something up on whatever social media we use, we post something, we post it. And so when you post it, other people know what's going on. So they're up to date now, but this one is different. It's the same idea. You can think about posting something, but it's telling a person what's going on. Maybe sending them a quick text message, and maybe it's just updates about what's happening in a particular area or for a particular project or something going on in your life, right? So, for example Okay, you have a friend and your friend's wife is having a baby, and you go there to maybe bring some food to them, right? You cook some food and you go and bring it to them in the hospital because they're just sitting in the hospital. So you cook a nice meal, you say. Is there anything else I can do to help? No, thank you So much for the food. We're just We're just waiting here at the hospital. And then you say, Okay, if you need anything, just let me know. And if there are any changes, whatever keep me posted, keep me posted. That means I want to know any new updates. Maybe she went into labor. Labor is, is when If the baby is coming out or whatever updates, let me know what's going on. Send me a quick tech text message. Or maybe you need something else. Whatever it is, keep me posted. I want to stay in the loop. It's similar to that one, too. Okay, let's let's go through some examples. Keep me posted about Jim's condition keep me posted about Jim's condition. So here we're using it in a larger sentence about something. Keep me posted about this. It's almost always used like this about is the proposition proposition when we want to say what it is or what its for what kind of keep you posted? Everything in my life. What? Oh, about this. Oh, Jim's condition. Okay, I got it. I got it. I will keep you posted about Jim's condition. What does that mean? Jim's condition. Well, it means Jim is having some kind of medical problem. Maybe Maybe he got into, Ah, car accident. And ah, you want to know if he's recovering? So you went to see him at the hospital, just like you went to see your friend whose wife was having a baby. And, uh, you leave. But you tell Jim's wife who's there in the hospital keep me posted about Jim's condition. Condition means how he's doing. Is he improving? Is he awake? Is he talking? Is he in critical condition? Which is bad? Very bad. Keep me posted about his condition. I'm his friend. I want to know the updates and his wife says, OK, OK, I will keep you posted about his condition. Thanks for sinks for your concern. Your focused on that. You're worried about Jim. Okay, so you want to stay posted? I just I want to stay posted. I want to stay posted. All right, let's try one more example. So let's stay with the example of Jim. Jim was in a car accident. He got hurt, but now he's getting better. He's recovering, but he has to stay in the hospital. But at Jim's workplace, there's a a lot going on. There's a merger happening. The merger is when two companies become one company to become one huge company or one bigger company. That's a very important thing for any company and may. Maybe Jim is an important person in the company. Maybe he's a key manager. Maybe he's He's some sort of supervisor. Maybe he's a VP vice president. Maybe he's a VP. Who knows anyway, he needs to know what's going on. Great. He didn't die in the car accident, so he's recovering. But still, even though he's recovering, he wants to be part of the process, the decision making process for the merger. I need to know what's going on with the merger. Even though I can't be there because I'm in the hospital, then whoever he's talking with, his colleague says, Okay, I'll keep you posted. Okay, I will keep you posted if anything happens. If anything changes with the merger, maybe there's negotiation between the two companies. About how many employees are going are going to come over to this one. How many are going to be fired or laid off? Uh, what about money? What about the name? So that sort of thing, Whatever, whatever. He will keep him posted about that. He will. He will let him know. He will make sure that he knows. OK, that's the idea. If you have any issues, any problems, understanding the expressions, phrases that we're talking about in this course. Keep me posted. Ask a question. That's fine. I'll be here. I will answer your questions mawr than happy to help you understand These expressions better give you another example. If you want to show me your example. Great. I love to see it. Keep me posted about your your learning progress 10. Get the Ball Rolling: get the ball rolling, Get the ball rolling. Okay. This one has a great A great visual. I like to use visuals because I think it helps. Helps us understand idioms, and it also helps us remember them. Ok, so we have a ball here and here we have a hill, right? No, you're pushing here, or maybe you're not. Maybe you're just standing beside it. But when you do start pushing, it starts to roll more easily, and it can go down the hill like that. But if you don't, if you don't do the initial push, it will never move. It will stay right here forever. So you have to be the first person to take action. You have to be the person to begin. You have to be the person who does something to begin ah, process or to start something that once it starts, can be a little easier to continue. Basically, that's the idea. It doesn't have to be something that will continue forever. But basically we're talking about starting something. And if I were to just connect two words to this, I would say it is starting something. That's basically what get the ball rolling means, and we use it when we want to talk about starting something. But it's not usually for something very simple, like you can start. For example, you can start doing laundry, laundry, washing your clothes. Now, could you say, Let's get the ball rolling on the laundry? I suppose you could, but some would say that it's such a simple, everyday common activity that it's probably probably not best to use this expression for that. It's just so common. It's so every day. If it's a little bit longer. If there's Mawr involved in that in that process, then we might start to say, Let's get the ball rolling So maybe something that lasts a whole day, or maybe something that lasts two days or a week, write something that takes a little bit of effort to begin, like starting a course like this. I really need to get the ball rolling on this course. I need to get started with this course. Maybe that means planning it, writing the examples and organizing it and coming up with the expressions or maybe filming it. I need to get the ball rolling on filming this course, get the ball rolling on often follows it. Let's let us. Let's get the ball rolling on that or we need to or we should we should. And again, if you're just cooking lunch, let's get the ball rolling on lunch. Yeah, probably not. It's too simple. It's too common. Okay, And again, it can be something that gets easier after you start after you begin. But sometimes, sometimes not. Okay, so let's look at some examples. Lets get the ball rolling on these wedding plans. There's a lot to do. Notice that this is a noun. We can use it with the now let's get the ball rolling on that. It's often for a noun, or we can say on doing something so you can also use an I N G. Let's get the ball rolling on building, creating, making something like that, too. All right, wedding plans. That means we have a lot to do to make the wedding happen, right? And ah, we have to maybe send the invitations and we have to hire a photographer and we have to design a cake. That's all right. That's it. No, I don't know. Lots of things go into planning a wedding go into planning a wedding. Lots of things go into planning a wedding, and if we don't start with enough time in advance, then we're not going to do very well, so we should begin earlier. So let's say the wedding is in June. Maybe we're going to start in, Ah, April to planet and get everything started so that we're ready by June and in April, someone will say, All right, Mom, I think we should get the ball rolling. I think we should get the ball rolling on the wedding plans. We need to be ready by June. Let's get the ball rolling now. This example is a personal example related to to this course. You'll never be able to finish filming the course by the end of the year if you don't get the ball rolling soon, if you don't get the ball rolling soon. So let's say, for example, I'm thinking about doing a course, maybe about expressions, everyday expressions, and I haven't started yet, but I have a goal. I want to finish filming the course by the end of the year, okay, whatever year it may be. And so I say, Well, I should really start soon. This big project. Very big project. I need to start soon if I'm going to finish by the end of the year, right? I need to get the ball rolling now. Say that to get the ball rolling soon. Now, this week. And if I don't, I won't be able to finish by the end of the year. Don't be fooled by the fact that I'm always wearing the same clothes. I've washed these clothes many, many times throughout this course. I've had several haircuts throughout this course. I know I look basically the same throughout, and maybe you think I was he filming this all on one day? No, no, no. These air washed these air washed many times. This is cut many times, many times, All right. Anyway, that's the idea. Soon we don't always have to say on that. You could, but you could just say soon. And when you want to do it now, when you want to start now you just say, Let's get the ball rolling. Let's let's get the ball rolling. Just that by itself. That's it. OK, try to think of your own examples. Talk about something that you need to start soon and then use this expression to talk about maybe when you need to start it. And what would happen if you didn't start it soon, okay? 11. It's a Deal: it's a deal. It's a deal or just deal. Deal. Okay, this is pretty simple. And I think many of you will actually know this one, but let's just make sure make sure you, ah, you know how to use it and you know the right situations to use it in. Maybe you know what it means, but you're not sure how to use it. What's more important? Actually, it's more important to know how to use something than just to know what it means, because usually the purpose of language is to communicate. So if you really think you understand it, I would encourage you to stop this lesson. Write down some of your own examples in a little dialogue and then see if your meaning and your usage matches up with mine. OK, so stop right here. If you think you got this one and then we'll see how how close ours are. All right, so a deal, a deal, a deal is an agreement. An agreement. Okay, that's this meaning of deal. There's another meaning of deal, which is a great price. What a great deal. And there's a meaning of deal as a verb deal has several different meanings. But here it's a deal means that we're making an agreement. Okay, it's an agreement and we say this to someone when we agree with the terms that we're discussing. If we want to do something, maybe we want to be partners. Or maybe we have a plan and you need to do some part and I need to do some part. When we both agree, we might say, OK, yeah, it's a deal Deal. It's often it's often just deal by itself. Okay, deal. Okay, deal. Maybe you're making a bet. Could be that you're betting money on something and you say OK, deal, deal, deal. I agree with what you say. I agree with the terms of this agreement. I agree with the terms of the agreement. Deal. OK, that's basically what it means, but how do we use it? So let's let's look at a couple simple examples to to see how we actually use this, this simple phrase or this word by itself. In real life, you have a huge fan base and I have a product they need. If you promote my stuff, I'll give you 20% of whatever I earn How does that sound? Ah, okay. Deal. Okay, It's a deal. Or just deal. Deal. And then they may shake on it. Shake on it. These are the terms of the agreement. These air, the terms promote my stuff. I'll give you 20%. 20%. So a fan bases up, maybe. Ah, group of followers. Let's say there's a famous person, right? And, uh, the famous person, maybe they don't have any product to sell. But this person who knows the famous person does have a product so they can get money from the person who has the product to sell, right? If they sell a lot because of the fan base, this famous person says, Hey, hey, guys, all of my fans, please buy this and many do. Then they get 20% 20% given to them by the person who makes the product or has the product . Whatever it is, Does that sound fair? How does that sound? We will ask someone. If the terms are good. Does that sound good? If you think this is fair, does that sound good? If you think this is right, does that sound good? If you like my plan does that sound good, is very common. Then it's a deal deal or just okay, deal. Shake on. It means we agree with a handshake, and that is usually a type of contract. And if someone violates the contract, if someone violates the contract and one person could say We shook on it, we shook on it. That means we shook hands. It's often not as formal as a contract. It's not. It's not as formal as a contract, not a serious, but still it's usually considered, Ah, serious agreement. They could negotiate a little bit. Maybe this person doesn't say deal right away. Maybe. They say 20% have about. I have a 1,000,000 million followers. 20% seems a little low. How about 25%? 25%. Then this person says off 25 percents pretty high. How about 23? I can give you 23%. Then they might say it's a deal. This is called negotiating. This is called negotiating to negotiate with someone. The noun is negotiation negotiation, and we used deal at the end of a negotiation. Let's look at one more example. Here we have a husband and a wife talking about terms. Who gets to drive the car? They only have one car. Okay, and they have to decide who will drive toe work. Who gets to They want to, right? It's comfortable. You can listen to music so the person who drives the car gets to drive. The car will have to give something up. They'll have to give up an advantage. They will have to let the other person not do something, maybe, or do something for them. OK, so you will take the bus to work and I'll drive. But I have to buy all the groceries. Do we have a deal? Do we have a deal? Okay, that means that person, Maybe the husband has to take the bus every day, sit on the bus. It's uncomfortable, but he doesn't need to buy groceries. Things from the supermarket on the way home because he's on the bus. But she, maybe his wife, she gets the more comfortable experience. Ah, very nice. I get to drive to work, but she has to. She has to buy everything. She has to buy the groceries, which is maybe inconvenient. But maybe that's what she has to do. So that it seems fair. Then she says, Do we have a deal? Do we have a deal? Very common question and we could answer. You've got yourself a deal. This is a very common way to say it. When we want to agree, you've got yourself a deal. Or of course, we could just say deal, deal. 12. Give Somebody a Hard Time: give somebody. Ah, hard time. Give somebody hard time. Okay? What does this mean? Well, it could mean two different things. One of them is very serious and one of them is not serious. It's teasing. So let's talk about each one of these. I don't mean this means serious. I mean, it's a serious expression when we use it. Okay, so what does it mean here? If somebody doesn't do their best or in some way falls short, we could say something is not good enough. Others might criticize them, right? Others might be critical. And this is often in a more formal setting, especially in the workplace. So if somebody doesn't perform well at work, then another person might criticize him for not doing their best. Okay? Or maybe they do their best, but someone is still criticizing them. If they do that, they're giving them a hard time. Always giving me a hard time about that about that. And it doesn't only have to do with performance. It could be about a characteristic. You're always giving me a hard time about my hand writing. Hey, listen, you're always writing too quickly and I can't read what you're writing. You need to fix your handwriting so that people can understand what you're trying to say. It's an issue. Maybe that's very serious. It's a really criticism, and it could be for family members and friends to Okay, Please don't give me a hard time about being late. I was late because I had something I really needed to do. I couldn't avoid it. Please don't give me a hard time about it. If you give them a hard time about it, then you're seriously criticizing them. You were late. Why are you late? What's wrong with you? Critical. Critical. The other one is kind of the same, but not serious. It's teasing. It's joking around. So if you want to pick out something about someone and kind of make fun of them for it, make fun of them for it or tease them for it. You might say that you're giving them a hard time, and when they say Hey, stop it. Don't tease me for that. Don't make fun of that. They might say, Oh ha ha! I'm just I'm just giving you a hard time. Usually, when it's the serious one, the person who's criticizing won't say I'm giving you a hard time. They'll just say the criticism. Why are you always late? What's wrong with you? Why is your handwriting so messy? What's wrong with you? They just say the criticism and then you say about them. Always Giving me a hard time really bothers me. Ah, but when it's teasing when it's joking, the person who said it usually will say hard time. I'm just giving you a hard time. Don't be so upset about it. I'm just joking. I'm cheesing. I'm not serious. Just for fun. I'm giving you a hard time. Okay, so I hope that's clear. That's how it's usually used. The person who's being teased could say, Oh, stop. You're always giving me a hard time about this as well, like the other one. But it's not as common as the person who did the teasing to say Give you, ah, hard time or especially just giving you a hard time just makes it milder. If you if you say I'm just done, it means it's not so serious. It's not very much right. You're late. Just two minutes late on Lee, two minutes late. It's not so serious. It's mild. Don't be late. I always giving me a hard time about being late. Okay, that's the idea. So let's get a better feeling about this one by looking at some examples. Stop giving me a hard time about my shirt. I like pink. I like pink now. Is this one teasing, or is this one serious? It's teasing, So usually you'll see girls wear pink more often than boys. Sometimes men will wear pink. Sometimes they like to wear pink, and their friends might say who you're wearing pink. There's a girl color the girls where and you might say, Stop giving me a hard time Stop teasing me about my shirt. I like pink. Some people like to wear pink right now, I said before. Usually the person teasing is the one who says this. Yeah, that is more common, I think. But you could use it this way to stop giving me a hard time about that. If it were this, uh, you're always you're always making fun off me for wearing pink shirts. Then the other person would say, Oh, I know, but it's just joking. I'm just giving you a hard time. So that's That's also really common and that one is actually Mawr common. Whenever my boss gives me a hard time about not finishing something fast enough, I work even slower. I'm always less efficient when I'm stressed, always less efficient when I'm stressed. OK, so whenever my boss gives me a hard time or criticizes, criticizes me about not finishing something fast enough, this doesn't mean on time. Maybe it just means not at the right pace, right? Maybe. Maybe the boss thinks this person should thinks I should work much faster. My pace is not good, faster, faster. But whenever my boss does that, I work even slower. Giving me a hard time about that gives me stress. I'm always less efficient. That means you can't work as well. You can't get as much done in a certain amount of time, always less efficient when I'm stressed, stressed, Have some anxiety. Anxiety. Why? Because your boss is criticizing you. This'd is the serious one, not the joking one, not the teasing one. Okay, again, It's often often in the workplace, so I use this example, but it can be used for friends as well could be used for family members. It could be used between parents and kids could be used in lots of different ways. But it's serious. It's serious, and the people who are facing it are usually the ones who will say it. All right, so hopefully this one is clear. Try to make your own example. I'll see you in the next one. 13. Off on the Wrong Foot: off on the wrong foot off on the wrong foot. That might sound strange off on, uh, off on. Well, usually it's connected to something like Get or let's let's try not to get off on the wrong foot. Or I think I think we that that doesn't look like think it all. I'm so sorry. I think we got off on the wrong foot. But what does that mean? Well, it could have a physical meaning. You stepped in correctly, and so you started with wrong foot, but maybe we wouldn't say it quite like that. The basic basic meaning for this expression is to begin a relationship the wrong way or in a bad way in a bad way. And let's use the word relationship very loosely. That means, let's not say relationship is something serious. But the first time you meet someone, or the first time you try to get to know someone, you're kind of beginning a relationship right? It's a it's a word that can be used very, very loosely. It doesn't mean that these two people will be friends forever. In fact, it doesn't even have to be people. We could use it to describe companies. Maybe we could use it to describe animals this expression off on the wrong foot. It's focused on the beginning, the beginning relationship between two thinking things. Usually people could be groups could be a whole business. Companies could be animals. Okay, and it's something we want to avoid. We want to avoid getting off on the wrong foot. If you get off on the wrong foot. Maybe from that point on, the relationship will get worse. You will start to hate each other, but there's usually some cause at the beginning. Some reason why you got off on the wrong foot, right? And so the way we most often use this is to correct for when this has happened. In other words, we've started off on the wrong foot. We've got off on the wrong foot, and we want to make it better because we recognize that it happened. We know that it happened. Okay, maybe. Maybe we met and I thought something about you because of what you were wearing. And then you thought that I was looking at you funny, and we started to look at each other in a way that was not very nice. So Okay, we got off on the wrong foot, so we would use it then to say, Let's start over. Let's let's start fresh. Let's start fresh. Let's begin again. A new beginning, a new beginning, a new beginning. So first we describe that this thing happened and then we say that we would like to have a new beginning. OK. Example. Time Yesterday I think we got off on the wrong foot. I was a little bit angry about something else. Let's start over. So maybe you have a new person who's just started a new job and his meeting meeting other people here in this, maybe workplace, wherever it is. And one person who's introduced this is this is this is Kathy is unhappy and seems like she doesn't like this new person. Hi. Okay. And now maybe this person, the new person feels like Oh, no. What did I do now? I have this this colleague, this co worker who doesn't like me, and I don't even know why now Kathy realizes this. That may be the new person has this impression, has this feeling, and it could over time, cause tension. Tension Over time. It could could maybe later lead to conflict. Maybe, And so And so Cathy would like to start fresh and explain. Explain her behavior behavior the next day. Maybe so yesterday. I think we got off on the wrong foot. I was a little bit angry about something else, so she was in a bad mood because of some other thing. But it seemed to the new person that it was just that she didn't like him or her. Okay, so that's the kind of thing that can cause relationships to go bad instead of good, right and can can cause tension and conflict. So it's good to start fresh to make sure that they can get off on the right foot. Some people will actually say, Let's make sure we get this off on the right foot the right foot It's the opposite, the correct foot. But it's not as common as saying I think we got off on the wrong foot. It's not that common. It's not as common as this one. This one is much more common. Or let's try to avoid getting off on the wrong foot. Now, in this example, we're not talking about people. We're talking about animals, okay? And it works for animals to fluff. Ball went straight to Chester's bowl and started drinking. So of course, they started scrapping. I was afraid they would get off on the wrong foot. It may take some time for them to warm up to each other. Fluff ball is maybe a dog. And maybe Chester is a dog to Chester. Chester is the old dog. Maybe he's been there a while. OK, he's an old dog. He's Ah, maybe Ah ah! Long time pet of the family. But they get a new dog. The family gets a new dog and they named the new dogs Fluff Ball Fluff Ball immediately goes to Chester's water bowl and starts drinking. Now, of course, Chester thinks, Wait a second. This new dog comes in here. I don't know who that is. And now this new dog is drinking from my water bowl. Try to imagine being a being dog. Unacceptable. I'm going to fight scrap. They started scrapping. Scrapping means fighting. Of course. They started scrapping. Have they started off on the wrong foot? Yes, they have. Yes, they have. I was afraid they would get off on the wrong foot. So the person who is describing this is Waas worried before, before he or she brought fluff Ball home that the two dogs wouldn't like each other and look what happened. They don't at least at the very beginning of their relationship, they don't. I was worried about this as though the thing I was worried about has come true. Yeah, this is what I thought would happen. They got off on the wrong foot. They don't get along. It's going to take some time for them to warm up to each other. That means eventually they will like each other. Eventually they can be friends. But because fluff ball did this and they started fighting, they got off on the wrong foot. And it's going to is going to be a little bit more difficult for them to become good friends. To warm up to someone means to sort of get used to them. You feel cold at first. I don't like you, and then you warm up to them and you start to like them more. Usually when we meet new people, we describe our feelings about them. If the beginning, feeling the initial impression isn't good. We describe our feelings about them as cold toward them and then slowly we warm up to them for people and for animals. Okay, so it's Ah, that's a useful expression not only for people but also animals and also even companies and groups. 14. Explore All Avenues: Explore all avenues. This is usually to talk about what is possible. And often we use this expression, explore all avenues. And sometimes we put possible between all an avenues. This is often used when we're talking about solving problems. What does explore mean? We'll explore means to look around and see what we can find out, to see what has not been seen before, to find something new, right? Find something new. And an avenue is, Let's say here it's a road. It's a road. It's usually a long street, but that might be a little confusing. Let's just say it's a road or it's a, it's a path in this case. All right, Now, how can explore all avenues be used to talk about solving problems? Well, here's the problem. The problem is, we don't know how to do something. Okay? This is our goal. This is our goal. We want to get here. And we are here. This is where we are. We want to be here and we're here, and we can't just go here directly. All right. So we need to figure out how to get here. I could go this way and we can go this way and we can go this way. But maybe only one of these ways can get us there. So we need to explore all possible avenues like a, like a rat in a maze, maybe rat in a maze to try to find the end point, to find the goal. And this is the idea, but it really often means to be creative, be creative, and be open-minded, find new solutions. All right, so if we're starting a new business, instead of getting a bank loan to pay for whatever we need to do when we're starting the business. We might explore all possible avenues and we might make a, a campaign, a crowdfunding campaign, in which many people donate money or give money, support us and our new company, our new idea. That might be one avenue and we can say an avenue, well, that's one avenue, Okay, but there are many avenues, many possibilities, many ways to get what we need, which is the money or the funding, the money or the funding to really get our business going. Maybe we have a friend and this friend is in trouble. This friend is addicted to drugs or something. We want to help. But if we say, Hey, you're addicted to drugs, stop it, that won't work. So we need to explore all possible avenues. Let's try some other ways. Take them to a meditation class or maybe do an intervention or whatever. I don't know how to I don't know how to solve that problem, but when we're facing it, we might say, we really need to explore all avenues, explore all possible avenues to find. The best solution. Some problems aren't textbook. In those cases, you need to explore all possible avenues, even if they are unusual, to find the answer. We could change answer to say solution. Best way. Okay, Now let's go through this one. Textbook means not normal. If something is textbook, it's kind of normal classic. And you just do a, b, C, D, problem-solved. All finished. That's a textbook problem. Oh, this is textbook. That means it's easy to define. It's kind of classic and everybody knows how to deal with it, right? That's, that's what it means here. It has another meaning as well. So if it's textbook, just do a, B, C, and D, problem-solved. But some problems aren't textbook. In those cases, those situations, the ones that aren't textbook, you need to explore all possible avenues or try and consider things that you may not normally consider, no matter how strange they are, no matter how bizarre, strange, unusual, even if they are unusual, to find the answer, find the solution. Okay, so this one helps to give you a feeling about the context to see how it's used. Here, It's a suggestion, it's advice. You need to explore all possible avenues. We could use it as a question to have you explored all possible avenues. Have you tried this? Oh, no, I didn't try that. Well, you should try that, but that's crazy. Well, you have to explore all possible avenues. If you're going to really say that you can't do it. Yeah. You're right. Don't tell me. You can't do it until you've explored all avenues first, we can't accept failure. That means only after you've exhausted every possible option. Can you tell me that it can't be done or we can't do it. Or you failed. Only after that, only after every option is exhausted. And there really are no more possibilities left. Really no more possibilities. We can't accept failure. So this is a way to sort of motivate sometimes or push people to think about something they haven't considered before. And to sort of tell somebody that their first try isn't good enough. Sometimes there are different levels to problems. Level one, I tried everything on level one and I want to tell them that level one is not acceptable. You need to go to level to try some new stuff. I might say this. That's level to try some crazy stuff. Then tell me sort of a way to motivate, to inspire, to encourage. Now, what might be the answer to this? If all possible avenues have been explored, we've tried everything, even the craziest, weirdest thing where we might say, it's just not possible. Or there's just no way. There's just no way. Even after another person has said, Are you sure you explored all possible avenues? Yeah. I'm sure we explored all avenues. We tried things that to most people would probably sound crazy. There's just no way it can't be done. It can't be done. Well, in that case. In that case maybe we should just have maybe we should just give up. Okay? So that's the kind of situation you'll hear this phrase in. Either it's time to quit or we need to inspire or push people to be more creative. 15. Game Plan: game plan. Game plan. All right, basically, game plan means strategy. That's basically what it means. A game plan is a strategy, and it could be for a game. That's what it comes from. For example, basketball. In basketball, there are plays, and the plays are specific things that the players will do. Specific places where the players will stand in order to hopefully score, score some points, right? That's the basic idea, and the coach will be thinking about which plays the players should should do, right? Well, this general idea about the kinds of things that the players are going to do to win. This is called the strategy or the game plan for something like basketball. It's actually a game for something like a board game. It's actually a game. What's the game plan? What's the game plan? We say, What's what's the game plan? So that's that's pretty easy to understand, right? The strategy we use to win a game is called a game plan. Nothing could be more simple than that, however. For other specific things. We use this phrase this expression game plan as well, for usually specific tasks. And when we talk about how we're going to do specific tasks. We talk about our game plan and it doesn't have to be a game just to be clear. We use it in lots of situations, but usually it's quite specific. If we're just talking about life, we say Well, in life, I just don't have a game plan. Well, maybe some people will say that, but it's really not common to say it in such a general, such a general situation. Usually it's much more specific when there's something to accomplish something very clear to accomplish and you can. You can succeed and you can fail. And in those situations, we can ask, What's the game plan? What's the game plan? All right, so let's say there are several colleagues working together and they're trying to maybe beat another team trying to do the same thing. Well, that's kind of like a game. They might say. That's a game plan. What's our game plan? What's our game plan? All right, maybe there is another group of people in a company trying to come up with a way to advertise or market to market a, uh, a product, maybe social media marketing or whatever advertising, and they're trying to think of ideas for how to be successful. Well, that's kind of a game to, isn't it? So we can say, What's our game plan? What's our game plan for this particular product for this particular marketing campaign? And we can say also, what's the strategy? What is our marketing strategy now? Often strategy is or can be mawr General eso strategy can beam or General game plan is usually for something specific, with a clear fail succeed at the end, where either one to fail or we're going to succeed and doesn't have to be for companies, either. Could be things between friends. Plan between friends to make something happen. All right, that's a game plan. Even if it's a prank, Let's say there's a prank where one group of friends does something kind of mean to one other friend like, uh, put something on them when they're sleeping. That's a comment. That's a common prank. Well, they can do that successfully, but they need to plan so they have a game plan as well. All right, so let's look at some specific examples so that we can see how to use this very simple expression. Let's work out a game plan about how to make sure this product launch is a huge success. It also say is ah, hit hit means a huge, huge success. Huge success, for example, of movie is often called a hit. It's a hit, a huge success, all right, so there's a product launch that means there's a new product and it's going to be announced and released to customers. And we need to. Well, we can't just release it. We need to think about how we're going to release it. Are we going to make an ad short for advertisement? Are we going to maybe do a social media campaign to try to make it go viral? Viral means Suddenly it becomes very popular and everybody's talking about it, especially on the Internet. We need to work this plan out. That means we come up with it. We come up with or create our game plan or our strategy, and we can replace. We can replace game plan with strategy. We can replace workout in this. In this case, we can replace workout with, come up with and create. We can't always do that just to be clear workout has other meanings other ways to be used as well. But in this case, it means come up with or create about about what? But how to make sure Make sure this product launch is a huge success. If you want to win at anything, you need a good game plan again. Need a good strategy. That means it doesn't matter what it is. It doesn't matter. Doesn't matter what it is. Regardless, regardless of what it is, you need to have a strategy for talking about sports. If you're talking about your job, if you're talking about maybe even your relationships, maybe if you're talking about specific projects, whatever. If you want to win at anything and often we use win for anything in life that we can succeed at that we could also fail at. If we didn't do it well, you need Ah, solid work. Good game plan. Solid often replaces the word good. It kind of means strong, strong, something that will allow you to be successful and we could replace the word win here with succeed. If you want to succeed at anything in life, we could add in life in life, you need a good game plan. Need a good strategy? All right, so hopefully that's clear. I think this one is pretty simple, but it's very, very common and used all over at every level of spoken English, formal situations, casual situations as long as it's about something specific that you could fail or succeed at, has to be something pretty specific usually usually all right, Hopefully, that's clear. Make sure to work on your own examples so that it really sticks in your mind, and I would like to see your examples as well. 16. In the Bag: in the bag in the bag. So this one is a little bit complicated, not because of the meaning, but because of how it's used. So let me just explain the meaning first, and then we'll go into how it's used in the bag means a foregone conclusion. Foregone conclusion means that it's not over. The result hasn't happened yet of whatever it may be. But it's very easy to say what the result is going to be, whether you're watching a basketball game and it's obvious who is going to win before the game is finished, or maybe an election, and it's clear who's going to win before it's over or you're trying to get something and you're very sure that you're going to get it. Maybe it's a new job. Maybe it's a goal that you're trying to reach it work. Maybe you have a sales quota and you're so confident that you're going to reach your sales quota and get that number. That's your target. You're so confident that you're going to get there. You'll say you've got it in the bag and we often say, I've I've got it in the bag. We could also say It's in the bag. It's in the bag. So maybe Linda needs to. She needs to make. She needs to make $500,000 in sales this month. It's only the 20th of the month, and Linda has already sold 470,000 so she could say it's in the bag. She's easily going toe going to add 32 that she's got 10 more days. Easy, she might say. A piece of cake. Piece of cake. It's in the bag. I've got it in the bag. I think a good way to remember this is to actually imagine a bag. So you've got You've got a little bag here on the ground. It's got It's got string on it and you put things that are yours in a bag. Write things that are yours. Go in the bag. Say this is just gold, right? It's a very traditional story, Okay, It's almost as though it's yours, and you're already carrying it away in your little bag. It's almost as though you have the bag in your hand full of gold, and you're already leaving to go home and have a relaxing weekend and drink some drink. Some strawberry smoothies or whatever you do on the weekend. Okay, so it's it's like that a foregone, foregone conclusion. So it's really an expression of confidence. It's an expression of confidence. We say it with this face in the bag. They've got it in the bag. I've got it in the bag. We've got it in the bag. It's in the bag. It's in the bag. Okay, so let's look at some examples can be a little bit tricky to use. If we go over a couple, I think that you'll be able to have a feeling for actually how you can use it if you want to. Okay, first example. I thought I had that job in the bag, but then they hired someone else. I was crushed. I was crushed. All right. Now, this is why this one can be quite a little bit complicated, because in the bag, as we've said, is an expression of confidence. Right? And when we say I thought I had it in the bag, it's clearly a way to say my confidence was misplaced, so we won't say. I thought I thought I have it in the back unless we're telling a story about the past in which we were incorrect and in fact the result didn't end up, didn't end up like we believed it would. All right. So when we use this one and we are very confident in the moment, we'll say I have it in the bag. This job, this job is in the bag And that's what maybe she says when she's talking about it right at that moment, I've got it in the bag. She's telling all of her friends, it's in the bag. I've got it in the bag. But then, huh? What happened? They hired someone else, totally surprised. Now maybe it's because she was overconfident. Or maybe it's because she was right to be confident. And then suddenly someone who's deciding who to hire changes their mind for unknown reason , right? And actually, they should have hired her, but they hired some some other person. So just keep that in mind. When you use thought, you're saying that your confidence was incorrect and when you're saying it in the moment, you are confident, OK, but that doesn't mean that you will actually be right in this case, she was not right. Her confidence was misplaced. She was incorrect in her assumption, her assumption that she would get the job. So finally, she's crushed. She's crushed. Crushed is an emotional thing. If someone says I was crushed, that means maybe emotionally devastated. This is an emotional thing. This is always a negative emotion. You failed at something. Something terrible happened in your life. You are devastated and you don't have to say emotionally. All right, let's look at one more example just so that we can. I feel that we really understand this expression. Another win in the bag. Nice job. Another win in the bag. Nice job. This win is a noun. Another means this person has won many times. Many winds, maybe, or at least more than one in the bag here. Does this one mean a foregone conclusion or an actual wind? Is it actually over? This one probably means it's actually finished. So let's say you've got a friend who's, Ah, a really good tennis player. May be your friend is a pro tennis player, very good and has won many, many tennis matches, many matches, and you go to watch your friend play on and she wins. She is so good. And so after the match, you meet her and you say Wow, great job. Another win in the bag. OK, so this one isn't always used to say it's over. I've got it. I'm very confident that I will get the results I want. Sometimes it's used to say I did. I got it. Another win in the bag. Another success in the bag. Another successful project in the bag. Another month's quota in the bag so it can be used to talk about past accomplishments as well. Usually right when they happen. Right? Right as they happen. Usually usually. Okay. Nice job. Nice job. This is a common way to congratulate somebody. They also say, Great job. Great job. If somebody does something, well, we can say to them. Great job. All right, so now I think we can say we have another common American English idiom in the bag in the back. It's in the back. We've learned it. We've successfully learned it. You understand it Now go out there and use it. All right, guys, I'll see you in the next one. 17. Sticking Point: sticking point sticking point sticking point. What does this mean? Well, I think we can. We can have a visual for this one. You can have a visual for this one as a way to help us remember it and to get a feeling for how it's used. All right. Now let's say there is a little ramp. Okay, let's say there's a little ramp. Or maybe it's a little hill. And on the hill there's a little little thing here. Maybe it's a piece of dirt. Or maybe it's Ah, Iraq. Whatever. Okay, now we're going to roll some marbles. Downhill. We've got some marbles here. Little little metal balls, maybe. And they're going toe. Go down the hill and maybe the marbles usually go rule BoingBoing. One boy bounced down the hill. Right? But sometimes a marble gets stuck right there and can't move. And then because this marble gets stuck here, then the next marble gets stuck and the next one gets stuck and the next one gets stuck. And all the marbles air now stuck. Why? Well, they're stuck because of this thing that's in the way, right? This thing is blocking the marbles, keeping them from moving. They are stuck here. This is the sticking point because it is a point at which everything sticks okay. So usually a sticking point is used to talk about things that are keeping other things from moving forward, stopping progress. And it could be about a process. For example, maybe you are doing an application. Let's say it's, um let's say it's a visa application, and in the visa application you have to submit. You have to submit your maybe bank statements to show how much money you have right now. Sometimes you have to do that. But for whatever reason, your bank is not giving you your bank statements anyway. Whatever. Well, the process can't move forward until this happens. So you could say I'm at I'm at, uh, sticking point in this process in my visa application process. Okay, but that's very specific. We could make it more general mawr Abstract mawr abstract. Maybe you're having trouble learning something, and there's some concept that you're not really able to understand, and because of that, you can't move forward. Well, this isn't a process, but you are learning something, so there's a sticking point there. I can't understand this concept. Maybe a team can't work together, and maybe it's not because of any one person. Gen your the sticking point. Maybe it is. It could be, But it could be just the sort of team team dynamic. I don't know. I don't know what it is, but we have reached a sticking point. And then we have to have some meetings to talk about where the issues are. Maybe there's a communication gap or somebody doesn't know something, and they're not asking for help. Maybe this is complex. Or maybe it's a a bigger issue, a more abstract issue, like motivation. It could be any number of things. The point is, for some reason we've stopped here where we can't really move forward, even if it's not a very specific thing. Okay, so this is the idea. This is the idea. Recently I've been watching a YOUTUBE channel and on the YouTube channel, there's Ah ah guy. He's a musician trying to Maybe it's the reason I use this. He's trying to build a big machine Ah, marble machine that plays music with marbles and it's really interesting. I love it. But every episode for every video something happens that stops the progress of building this, this machine, whatever it is, that is the sticking point that is the sticking point for whatever it is that he's trying to do. Okay, so let's look at some more examples so that we can get a better feeling for this. This expression. We've reached a sticking point in our negotiations. Maybe it's just that were both so stubborn. Stubborn means you won't budge. You want budge? You won't move. You won't compromise. Maybe these two people who are negotiating over a period of several weeks they could call these negotiations negotiations. Now they can't move forward at all because they've reached a point where they just won't agree to what the other person wants. They want something so much that they're unwilling to give anything more. So I could say that negotiations have reached a sticking point. That doesn't mean that it's done forever. Usually, a sticking point is something that can be overcome. It's it's almost never the end, and it's never used to talk about the end that's used to talk about a a thing that is in the way of progress, and that's basically it. That's what it means. OK, all right. So let's look at one more example. I want to be clear, though this could be something specific. It could be. It could be that one person has said one thing. We're done. One thing that has stopped these in this case, it's their stubbornness, and that's kind of abstract, but it could be something very specific. He wants $45. I won 38. This is the sticking point. So a very specific number is the sticking point or some other thing. It doesn't really matter. The sticking point is your inability to understand the basics of Excel. If you refuse to learn it, how can we keep track of anything? So maybe there is a small company and the company is growing. Maybe it's a startup company and the company is growing, and because of that, there are more sales on DA more staff, more staff, and early on they could just this this company could just kind of guess and keep track of things generally right, keep track, keep track means to keep tabs on something. Keep tabs on something to know what's going on right to know what's happening or two sometimes follow. Follow. Follow something here. One person is responsible for something, maybe keeping track of payments, for example. Okay. And because they are, they haven't learned this. They aren't able to do this. Well, maybe not at all. And so they've reached a sticking point. They have reached or come to, ah, sticking point. It's on you. It's on you to learn excel, but you haven't done it. Haven't learned Excel. So that's why we're at this sticking point. That's why we've reached the sticking point. You need to take a course or something. Learn it so that you can so that you can do what you're supposed to do. Okay? And you can use this. This is a very specific one. You can use this to talk about progress being stopped. Don't forget to make your own examples so that you can get the feeling for this expression and others. I've said this before, but I'll say it many more times. Making examples is what forces you to think about what these expressions really mean and how they're really used. I made these examples myself, wasn't looking at other things pulling examples. I had to think about each example, and that forced me to try to make examples that made it clear to you. Now you to make it more clear to yourself, should make your own examples. And then when you need to use something like sticking point, it will be easy, a piece of cake. 18. Loose Ends: loose end, loose end or often loose ends. Actually, it's usually plural. Usually this one is plural. Okay, what does this mean? Well, it's when we want to talk about things that are unresolved. Things that are resolved have a clear conclusion. We know what happened. There was a problem. There was an issue. Something happened. Oh, and then finally this conclusion. So let's say it's a movie. You watch a movie. Something happens in the movie. Somebody gets killed in the movie. Then at the end of the movie, you find out exactly who did it. And then that person goes to jail and the movie's over. Of course, other things happen, so there are no loose ends. But if there are still lots of questions, maybe we know who did it or we think we know. But something else happened that makes us confused. And we wonder, what about that person? That person maybe did it to, uh, so I feel that it's now unresolved and there isn't a clear conclusion. So we call that a loose end. Imagine a imagine and not okay, not kn ot okay. And it's a very complex not, you know, there are some some knots, with many, many strings tied together. But then there, some just kind of sticking out here. Okay, so there's to to sort of, ah, strings or lines here and then in the middle. There's a not and for some reason there's just some stuff sticking out. Is that from this or, uh, it's It's a loose end. It's a loose end. I don't know why this is here. I don't know why this is here, because I see this end coming in and this end coming in. It should be a simple, clean, not tied together in the middle. What's going on? I feel confused and maybe a little bit frustrated. Okay, so we usually don't like loose ends and and often loose ends suggest mystery like in movies . But we could say, If we don't understand something, a problem at work or problem in school, we might still say thes loose ends are driving me crazy. That means they're frustrating me that bother me. I'm trying to understand something or solving issue or understand an idea in my school work , and I just can't figure it out. I understand part of it. But then there's this thing that I don't get on that thing that isn't working, Whatever it is. OK, we can call these unresolved things loose ends. Okay, so let's look at a few simple examples. So for the first example, let's say there's a supervisor in charge of a team of people. And Friday is the deadline, and whatever they're working on, let's not talk about the details that could distract us. Whatever they're working on needs to be submitted to the, uh, maybe the VP Vice president. Maybe the VP's name is Mrs Lang. Okay. All right. So this person, the supervisor, asks this person who's maybe the senior person of the team. What's going on? Give me an update. Uh, tell me what's what's happening. What? What did you finish today? We solved the main problem. OK, so there was a main problem. There was some kind of big problem. We saw the main problem, but we'll still have to tie up some loose ends before we can submit this to Mrs Lang. Okay, so what does that mean? So here was a big issue that this team was working on for weeks. Finally. Okay, It's good. Got it fixed. Everything is good, except there are a few small things that need to be fixed or adjusted or changed. Sometimes we say tweaked Tweet, tweet just changed a little bit so that we can say that it's finished. So maybe it's 98% finished. OK, so loose ends here. We have some loose ends to tie up. We have to tie up some loose ends or loose ends to tie up really gives us a feeling that this is quite minor, not big stuff. And usually loose ends are very small things, just little pieces that are unresolved and we say tie up because it's kind of a reference to rope or string. I showed you the not before with the the two main pieces and then some loose ends coming out of the not we can think about that, and we want to tie up the loose ends so that they're not just sort of confusing little pieces that aren't supposed to be there that are unresolved. So we often use this with loose ends, tie up the loose ends. I wish that movie had tied up the loose ends because now I'm very confused for before we submit this on Friday morning. Let's just tie up these few loose ends and then we can rest easy, knowing that we did a great job. Okay, so here it's for here. It's used for a work situation. Let's actually look at it. Used in a movie situation, talking about a movie I really hate when movies are over and they're still a bunch of loose ends loose ends to think about. The problem is that writers like to create really complex plots to excite the audience. There's just never time to resolve everything. That's why I like TV dramas more. Okay, so this person prefers a TV series where the story happens over maybe 24 episodes, 24 episodes. Because any unresolved things can be resolved throughout the Siri's, or maybe even in the next the next season, which is the next year? 24 episodes, maybe this season sometime next season or maybe the end of the show, the loose ends will be tied up resolved. But the problem with movies is that any loose ends that come up because the plot is so complex. Imagine the plot is like that complex, not the plot is so complex that these loose ends that pop up can't all be resolved because there isn't enough time. Movies may only be two hours long. Okay, so loose ends really often is used to talk about movies, TV shows and stories. But like in the previous example, we can use these to talk about work problems, school problems and life problems as well. Often problems, little frustrating things. And again, usually these things are minor, not huge problems. They're usually quite small. 19. Square One: square one square one. Okay, Square one. Um, I think this is a reference to board games. As I understand it, this is a reference to board games. When you play a board game, you have little pieces and they will move around a game board a game board. It's funny board games. You play on a game board. It sounds weird, but and the game board maybe has many squares. And you might that that that that that that that that that move along right? Okay, so we call the beginning space or the start. We might call it Square one, but now we're not going to really be talking about board games, moving pieces. But that's a good visual for us. That's the visual I would like you to use to remember this. You have a little peace playing games with your friends. Everybody starts from square one and then don't thumb. You move around the board, and the first to get here to the finish is the winner, right? I'm sure you've played games like that before. Well, square one is the beginning point, the very beginning. The the very, very beginning stage earliest point of something and we often talk about square one when we're when we're doing a project or were building something or we're doing something complex we are, we are creating, creating something complex and the most common way to use Square One here is to talk about failure similar to starting from scratch, similar to starting from scratch. When we go back to square one, we go back to the start. We had to go back to square one. What that means is we've made so much progress. But then things start to go wrong and we realize that everything we've done so far has been in the wrong direction and we're never going to reach the finish. If we continue like this, the only way to really get there is to stop, clear away all of the progress we've made return to the beginning from scratch from the beginning and then start working, using our knowledge of the mistakes that we made. Perhaps, And so we often talk about failure this way. We like to talk about failure by needing to return to the beginning, and we say we had to go back to square one after three months of work We had to stop everything, go back to square one and see what we had done wrong the first time. And then it took three more months, and finally we were able to finish it. Whatever it is, project something. You're building something. You're making something. You're doing a big thing right when you need to go back to the beginning. We also say it's a good idea to start from square one. Sometimes when you work on something, you have already pieces made from others and you're trying to make this thing and you take the pieces and you put them together into this thing. But if you start from square one, you have nothing to begin with. You make everything you make every piece of this. All of this is your work. You do this and then this, and then this, and then this all of it. So we really started from square one with this, and it often means to think in a clean way without being influenced by other things. So let's say, for example, there's a company that makes a phone and it's very popular, and then they're going to come up with the version two Version two of the phone, which is this phone now. They could take this phone and just make this phone, but it's just a little better. A little better that would be called on iteration. An update, an iteration, That's I O N. It's a little change to make something better, a little change to make something better iteration iteration iteration. But if the team says you know what, forget this. This is going to be the greatest phone ever, and we're going to build this second version without even thinking about this phone. We're going to really begin from the same beginning place we did with this one. That doesn't mean they completely remove this phone. It just means we're going to make this one way better. And so when they're announcing the phone to the public, they'll say, as a point of pride, this phone is the best phone we've ever made. We didn't just iterated on the last phone and do a minor update. No, we went back to square one and we built what we think is the best phone ever made, so sometimes that could be a good thing. I don't want you to think it can only be a bad thing. All right, So hopefully you have the idea. Let's look at some examples. The team in charge of this, this project, they have a big meeting. Things were not going well. They've tried everything. It's just not working. And finally, after three hours, one person just says, This isn't working. We need to go back to square one. We have to go back to square one. It's the only way. So usually this is the last resort. The last resort is the final thing. That you will try to resolve an issue. It's the thing you want to do. Least who wants to begin again? How terrible is that? Wouldn't it be better if we could just find the issues and fix them? Yes, of course. So going back to square one is usually the last option. The last resort. Okay. And so this is probably said with a lot of frustration in the voice, Frustration And again, Sometimes you will say this when you're proud of how hard you worked on something later. But when you're in the moment now, maybe not. Maybe you're very frustrated. Maybe even emotional. I don't want to make it seem like this back to square. One usages Onley for technical projects or things with big teams. In fact, it's used in everyday life, too. So here's an example. Let's say some friends are planning a trip planning a trip, but they've made a major assumption. And the assumption or the thing they've said is probably going toe be OK. Probably going to work out is that they can borrow Alberts car. Maybe Albert is a friend of theirs who has a car. None of them have a car. Maybe their teenagers, maybe 18 19 years old. They want to take a road trip. Maybe it's a road trip, so they don't have a car of their own. They want to borrow Alberts car, Okay, And they're making all of these plans. They're coming up with ideas. We can go here, we can do this, and we could go to this festival, go to this music festival. It's gonna be great coming up with all these plans and all these ideas. But then one person says, Okay, all of these plans air great. But if we can't get Albert to lend us his car, we need to start back at square one. We need to start back at square one with our planning. So this isn't a major project. It's not something technical. It's not really technical, but it is something that they're working on. If they go too far with this basic assumption and this is wrong, then they'll have to start again. They might have to give up on their trip or find another way to get there by by bus. Yeah, but buses don't go to every city, so that's going to be a very different trip. They'll have to begin the planning from the beginning and come up with a completely different idea. Okay, so it can be used for this kind of thing between friends as well. But usually it would be a major inconvenience, a major inconvenience to go back and start again. And yet it may be necessary. We started from square one and built the whole system ourselves, build the whole system ourselves. This is someone who's proud of their work proud. This kind of pride is a good pride. I'm happy with what I did. Maybe most people will borrow pieces, as I showed you before from other companies. Maybe they're building an app, and many APS will use things called S DK's s de kay's to sort of plug into the app to make it more powerful, which is fine. But perhaps perhaps it's something to be proud off if you didn't need to do this stuff and you could design everything, make everything Look at how much work we did. Look at how much we accomplished. Look at how good it is. We didn't even use any other companies programs. We didn't use any SD case. We did everything on our own. Pretty impressive, right? We started from square one from nothing from zero from a piece of paper drawing, uh, maybe an app screen on the piece of paper and going from there to this pretty amazing right . People's so made. Okay, so this is what square one means. This is how we use. It's more common to say back to square one. Okay, Give an example of when you had to go back to square one. Try to speak it. Don't write it. Speak it. Record yourself. Speak freely. Tell it as a story. Remember to use the expression, then listen back and see if you made any mistakes. Write down little notes. It will help you to become more aware of your speaking. 20. Call It a Day: Call it a day, call it a day. This is a very common colloquialism. Here's a word that you might not know. Colloquialism. It's kind of long and kinda hard to say QU IA LISN. Let me make sure I've spelled that correctly. Colloquially. Holism, yeah, sometimes hard to remember how to spell that one. Low queen, Lizzo them colloquialism. This is a common phrase, set of words or sometimes one word that native speakers of a language we'll say that's generally casual. That's not something you'll see in maybe formal written English. So we call it a colloquialism. It's basically just a common spoken expression, sometimes an idiom that is used casually, okay? It's used pretty casually. Call it a day. What does this really mean? Alright, let's call it a day. This is how you'll usually hear it. Okay. I think we can call it a day. I think we can call it a day. This is actually really simple when we're working on something and we may not be finished with everything, but we're we're ready to stop for today or it's time to stop for today, or we've reached a point where we can rest and go home and come back the next day when we're there, someone can say, let's call it a day. We can call it a day. Let's call it day, and that means it's time to end. We can continue later. So it's usually used like that, often used for maybe the leader of a group who's managing others, or maybe a manager or a boss who was in charge of a team. Okay, everyone, Nice work today, let's call it a day. See you all tomorrow. It doesn't usually mean all of the work is done. Not usually. It's usually used this way. However, sometimes, sometimes when we finish everything, people will say, Wow, I think I think we're finished. I think, I think, I think we can call it a day. And so sometimes people will use it to say, we are totally finished with this thing, even if it's in the morning, doesn't matter what time it is for the other one, the way that it's usually used. It's usually used maybe in the evening when it's time to go home. Right. We're finished for now. For now. Just for now. But the whole thing is not done, right. I think we can call it a day here, means we're ready to stop because we're actually finished. Sometimes people will also use this one when they just want to quit. They just want to quit. They don't want to do it anymore. You know what, I can't figure this out. I'm calling it a day and that sometimes means they just want to quit. They don't want to continue later. Sometimes. Usually not. Usually. It's used in the first way. Okay. Basically it means time to end in all of these, it means it's time to n, but it's just used slightly differently. Just slightly differently by some people. And I'm trying to explain how some people use it so that your understanding of it is a little more broad. In this course, I'm not just telling you, Hey, this means this. Alright, next one. If we take each thing that we learned as an exploration, I feel that we can really learn each one deeply and get the feeling for each one that I think is very important. So I feel I should explain how people, real native English speakers, use this expression and all of the other ones we're learning in this course. Okay, so let's look at some examples. Okay, So like I was talking about before, we may have a boss who was in charge of a team and they're working on a big project and they have a deadline. They have to finish everything by the 16th and it's the 12th today. They need to finish by the 16th. Today is the 12th. So they have so much work to do and everybody is working overtime. But the boss can see, Manager can see that people are just so tired. And so it makes sense to have everybody go home, come back the next day, refreshed. And so he or she says, Great job everyone. Let's call it a day. See you tomorrow. See you all see you all in the morning for you all in the morning. See you all tomorrow. So this is a way to say we're finished just for now. We could have someone ask, maybe someone has really tired and they just want to let this person know that the boss know that they think it's time to stop for today. Haha, hey, do you think do you do you think we could we could call it a day? I'm exhausted. And then the boss might say, yeah, okay, alright, let's call it a day. Let's call it a day. Another example, we have two classmates to university classmates and they're, they're studying for a big exam. And one, It's getting late. One says, I think we've studied enough, it's time to call it a day. It's time to call it a day. But the other says, but the exam is tomorrow and I'm not ready. If the exam is tomorrow, you've got to do all your studying tonight. The exam is in the morning, right. Okay. Well, I'm calling it a day. You can keep studying. That means I am going to stop now. I'm going to stop now and go to bed. Maybe hit the hay, right? Hit the hay or go to bed. You can keep studying. One person is giving up. So this one is pretty much the same as the last one, but this one kind of feels a bit different because they are stopping. They've decided to call it a day themselves, this person, and leave the other person to continue working. So one person can say, I'm going to call it a day, you can keep working. If we say though, let's call it a day, Let's call it a day then that means the whole group, the whole team. No, no, no, no, no. I think you should call it a day you need to sleep before the exam. Let's, let's call it a day. Maybe this person would try to convince this person to actually stop studying and go home and rest. Okay, so we can use it this way too, although it's pretty much the same as the last example, there is one more thing I wanted to just mention about this, this expression. Call it a day. We often say this at points along steps of a process. So if this is the end, this is the end. We may be here and unwilling to call it a day. We have to get here first, we have to finish this, this, we could say small goal. This small goal, then we can call it a day. The next day we must finish this one. We have to get here. So often it's used when we reach smaller goals, we complete something, we've done enough. We have done enough for now. We're satisfied. Usually we're not just in the middle of something and working and not finished with this part that we're working on now. And then suddenly someone says, let's call it a day and everyone just stops. Know, usually we have to get enough done for now. We need to be satisfied. Maybe we need to reach a small goal, then we can call it a day. That's how it's usually used. 21. Last but Not Least: last but not least, this is a very interesting idiom, and you may often hear it. For example, at a conference when there are speakers, different speakers and the person who's announcing the speakers is introducing the last one . They might say last, but not least then say the name of the speaker, and we'll look at some examples in just a minute. But what does it mean? Well, it means I'm saying this last, but that does not mean it's the worst. Because sometimes when we talk about things in order or we could say in sequence, in order or in sequence, we say them from best to worst. Sometimes it goes from worst to best, but often we say things from best to worst. So it's a way to sort of emphasize or focus on the idea that hate this thing that's last doesn't have to be a person can be a thing. This thing that's last has nothing to do with how good it is. Just happens to be the last thing I'm talking about. So I say last but not least, and then you directly say the thing. Last but not least, Steve, whatever his name is, But again, we can also use it for things. So why don't we look at a couple of examples so that we can get a feeling for this? So we're at a conference and there are, let's say, five speakers on the second day because the conference is something that usually lasts a few days. And we had one speaker and we have the second speaker. Then we had lunch. Then there was 1/3 4th and now we're here. OK? And this last speakers name is Dr Alice Brighton. Whoever that, maybe, and the person who's either the host or the moderator of this day's talks. Maybe the events, maybe the Q and A sessions. This person is going to introduce Dr Atlas Brighton. So hey, says where? She says, Thank you to all the speakers today. Now, does this sound formal or a little bit casual? It's more formal here. It's more formal. Actually, this expression can be used in a formal way or an informal way. Thank you. All the speakers today. Now, last but not least, I would like to introduce you to Dr Alice Brighton, Dr Alice Brighton, and then Dr Alice Brighton comes up onto the stage and everybody claps, okay? And she starts talking. Hello. Thank you very much for the introduction. My name is Dr Alice Brighton. I will be talking to you today about penguins or whatever she wants to talk about. Okay, so let's look at some variations of this variations. Variations means different, different ways. We could say this. Please give a warm welcome. Please give a warm welcome. We could say that. Please give a warm welcome to Dr Alice Brydon. Now, last but not least, I would like to introduce Dr Alice Brighton. Please give her a warm welcome. Or please give her a round off. Applause. A round of applause. What does applause mean? That means we all clap called a round of applause. OK, so we could use this right before, like we did here. Last but not least, I would like to and then say the thing. We could use it right before we say what we're going to do. I would like to introduce, or we could say directly the thing. The person now, last but not least, Dr Alice Brighton. Right. Okay, so that's how we use it in this situation. this one is a little bit mawr formal, and in the next one we're going to look at how we can use last but not least in a more casual, relaxed day today. Sort of situation. So let's look at the next example. OK, today I need to buy a new pair of pants shoes and last but not least, a new phone. This probably, of course, means maybe a smartphone. Or, if you're watching this in the distant future, maybe, ah, a brain implant. Whatever you future people use to get on the Internet, maybe you don't use smartphones anymore. This is 2000 and 18 and we use smartphones now. OK, so, um, today I need to buy a new pair of pants shoes and last but not least, notice how I say it when I say last. But not least, I'm gonna pause. My voice will stop. Then I'll say it. Then I'll stop again. That's called a pause, and this is used in pretty much every situation where you would use last but not least today. I need to buy a new pair of pants, shoes and last but not least, a new phone, so it sounds like that. Okay, this one is much more casual because I'm just talking about my plans for today. Do I have to say it? No, I could just not say it and say and the new phone, So why would I say it? What would be the reason? Because I want to focus on the fact that, yes, this thing I'm going to do is last. But it may be the most interesting thing I'm going to do. What's more exciting? A new phone, shoes or pants? Probably a new phone. So I want to emphasize the fact that maybe I'm most excited for this thing and last but not least, can be used to do that. If we wanted to do a variation of this, we could say and most important, most important, a new phone. You could say that to here. It's about the same as last but not least last, but not least, doesn't mean most important, but it does focus on the fact that it's not unimportant, so that kind of means it's pretty important. And in this situation it probably means it's most important, or maybe the most exciting. Now you may be asking yourself. OK, but is this common? Well, all of the expressions were talking about in this course are common. If they weren't very common, I would not have put them in this course. Okay, I say all of these regularly, but it's very important to note pay attention to the context. I gave you the example of the presenter, the speaker, and this example to show you that they could be used to focus on the last thing in both of formal and a casual situation, which means that this one is very common, very useful and something that you can use almost anywhere when you want to focus on whatever last thing you're talking about. 22. Down to the Wire: down to the wire down to the wire. Okay, This one's pretty simple. It means, uh, something is uncertain until the very last moment. Sometimes we say until the deadline, but right up until the deadline we can imagine the deadline is is a is a little wire, and we're going right up to that. To that point, it's often used for a competition or competitions. Matches. Games often sports things between groups. That's very common. But sometimes we use it when we have a kind of competition with ourselves. So one person could do something and it could be down to the wire. Then the thing that might be uncertain is not who will win, but will I be able to finish on time? Will I be able to do this before the time runs out? So, for example, maybe there's a film, a film festival, and the deadline is the 17th. Oops. I wrote in 11. So I'm just gonna make it the 11th the 11th. You have to submit it by then. Your little movie that you made and you're trying to finish it. You're working really hard. You work all night, the day before, and all day the next day and right up until midnight, and it's uncertain and it comes right down to the wire. That means I don't know if I'll be able to finish it before midnight on this day on the 11th on the deadline. Okay, so I want to be clear that when I say something is competitive or uncertain up to the up to the deadline up to the last moment, it doesn't have to be between 22 people or two teams. It could be a sort of a little competition you're having with yourself to finish something . So that's the idea, and it comes right down to the wire. We often use the word comes here or came in the past. It came right down to the wire. It was down to the wire. You could say that, too. I think a good visual for this one would be a race and the race. You have a finish line, so let's say there are two horses running in a horse race and you have the finish line here and let's say the finish line is actually a wire that stretched across the track and the horses are running and they're neck and neck, neck and neck, neck and neck is another expression that we use to mean two things. Air so close doesn't have to be horses, maybe its two people trying to finish something on time and one will win. One would lose after they reach the end. We will know the winner or the loser. So their neck and neck, neck and neck and one of the horses crosses right in front of the other right before the other. But up to the finish line, we didn't know who was going to win. Could have been this horse or this one. We didn't know, so it was right down to the wire. It was down to the wire. It came down to the wire. Okay, so that's that's how it's used. Let's look at some specific examples. I finished with two minutes left. It was down to the wire. It was down to the wire. So maybe this one is about taking an exam. So there's someone taking an exam, and the time limit is two hours. Okay? And who I'm working on the exam writing, writing, writing. It's a very long exam. I don't know if I'm going to finish, If you don't finish, then the answers that you didn't finish will be counted as wrong. But you finished on Lee two minutes out of two hours, only two minutes before the deadline. Before you have to put your pencil down. You finished. You answered all the questions. Oh, that was close. That was close. That means I almost didn't. That was down to the wire. It was down to the wire. So here we're having a competition against time. A race against time. I'm not competing exactly against the other students. They're doing their own exams. Yes, but here were racing against the clock. So this one can be used like that. And the uncertain thing is, will I finish on time or will I finish before the limit? So here it's not used to mean I want to beat others know here, it means will I be done before the deadline? Sometimes when we talk about something being down to the wire, we're less focused on time and more focused on how close things are less about when it's finished and more about how close the two competitors are. And we gave the example of the horse before the horse race to horses are neck and neck. They're very close, right up to the finish line, right down to the wire. Right. The last example. It was all about time. Can I finish on time? I'm racing against a clock here. We're focused on how close these two people are in an election. And so, if we say something came down to the wire were talking about how they won or lost by only a narrow a narrow margin, a narrow margin, the election came right down to the wire. Smith won by only 900 votes and maybe totally there were two million. So if there were totally two million votes and the difference between the two people in the election, whatever it's for maybe governor or mayor or whatever, if there are only 900 votes between them, it was close. And people who were watching the results on TV on the news, they really didn't know as they were counting and reporting the votes. Maybe this one would go up and this one would go up. And this one and this one and this one and this one and then by the time all the votes were counted, one of them one, but only by a little bit. So maybe people at home who have already voted are watching at home, and they're counting the results, watching on the news. And they say, Oh, now Smith is up by 10 votes and this person is up by 1000 votes, and now Smith is up by 350 they are reporting the results almost like two horses racing to the finish line. The finish line here is when the votes are all counted. When they finished counting, that's the finish line. That's the wire here when they stopped counting. When they're done, when all the votes are counted, then they will say who won. But it's not like this person is going like this and winning by a lot. No, we don't know the final result until the very end until all the votes are counted because it was so close, it was down to the wire 23. Like Clockwork: like clockwork like clockwork. Now this is basically the idea of things happening very smoothly, with no delays, no problems, no unexpected problems. And it could often be about things happening exactly on schedule. So it's often related to time things happening when they should happen. Because maybe there's a system that's really good. System is perfect because the system is perfect and everything works well. Things run like clockwork. Maybe nothing bad happens or because nothing bad happens. Then things work very well. You could look at it either way. Sometimes when we use like clockwork, we're not talking about events in time. We may be just talking about a system that works very efficiently, efficiently. The company works like clockwork. They really, really worked like clockwork. So let's say, for example, you work in an office and one person in your office always arrives at exactly the same time . Shelley Shelley comes to work at exactly 8:23 a.m. Every single day. It's like clockwork. Okay, so there were talking about how punctual she is, how punctual she is and how regular maybe her life is, Or maybe how regular the public transportation is, or however, she gets to work. Something is very regular in her life, and maybe it's just her personality. Maybe it's her personality anyway, anyway. It happens like clockwork. But maybe we could say this company is so efficient. The whole company runs like clockwork and there. Yes, it's true that things happen on time, but the focuses on efficiency. It's very efficient. There are no sudden problems because the system is so good. The system is so good that problems are handled before they even happen. So it's a really, really efficient company, and it runs like clockwork. Okay, now maybe we're talking about the subway system. This is a good example to use subway system and if it if it is managed well and there's good, maybe technology and people, we might say the trains always run on time. And so because the trains run on time, the whole the whole transportation system, the whole subway system runs like clockwork, runs like clockwork or is like clockwork. We could say that, too. The whole subway system is like clockwork. It runs like clockwork. The trains always run on time. They're never late. There are never any delays. It's very, very efficient. The whole system runs like clockwork. But if you wanted to say the opposite, then you could maybe be talking about New York City, where I live. I live in New York and in New York. It's kind of a joke to say something like this asking what time the trains will arrive is like asking if it's going to rain on June 3rd in 10 years, 10 years from now, right? Basically, there's no way to know the train is either there or it's not there. Maybe it's there 10 minutes later than it should be. Nobody even knows when it should be there, so the trains do not run on schedule. In New York City, the whole system is a mess. It doesn't run like clockwork. But in other parts of the world I've been to, for example, many cities in China, like Beijing, the whole system runs very smoothly, very efficiently. It seems like we're inside of a when we're in the system. We're inside of a well, a well, why's my marker black? A well oiled machine, a well oiled machine, and these two are often used together. It's a well oiled machine. The subway system. It runs like clockwork. It works like clockwork. This company is a well oiled machine. Everything works like clockwork. There are never any problems. Everything happens on time. Everybody hits their deadlines. Okay, this is the idea. Let's look at a few examples. It's example time. So one colleague and a company comes into another office. Maybe there are different offices around this large, this large company campus. Maybe it's just a different department, okay? And this person has to visit this person in this department. Two different departments, different offices, going in the same campus or the same large company area. Wow. Wow. This office runs like clockwork, but my office is so disorganized. I wish I could transfer. It's amazing how much difference Ah, good manager can make. So this person is giving credit, giving credit to the efficiency of the office to the manager of the office. The manager is responsible for making this particular office run like clockwork for run like a well oiled machine. Whereas the office that this person is from my office is a mess. Maybe their manager is lazy. They don't care. They, uh they're kind of relaxed. Okay, This person this person runs a tight ship. Another expression. If you run a tight ship, it's an H. If you run a tight ship, that means you're kind of strict. You make sure people do what they say they're going to do. You hold people accountable, right? And you, you force things toe happen on time, you don't want to have any waste. And he wasted time or energy in in the office. So you run a well oiled machine. You run a tight ship. Things run or work like clockwork, for this example were just focused on time on being exactly on time. Which is often how like clockwork is used because clock is in the word clock is in the word . So we're often talking about time. So here we're not really focused on the whole system. But often those two things are connected because the whole system working well, causes things to be on time. Anyway, we're focusing here on something being exactly on time. One guard left and like clockwork, the other arrived to relieve him. Relieve him. So maybe you have a guard with a gun in a uniform standing at a post for two hours then at exactly 7 24 Whatever. He, uh, leaves his post. And exactly at the same time, another guard, huh? Comes up to that post and stands there. He has relieved the guard that was there before relieved. I will relieve you. That means I'm going to give you a break. Basically, I'm here to relieve you. Sometimes it means I'm here to take your job. But it often means I'm here to give you a break. You can go rest now or go somewhere else. Okay. This one is about something that happens exactly on time. When you make your example, think about something that's very efficient. That works perfectly in your life or in your school or in your city. Make sure to include like clockwork in your example. You can do it. Spoken or written. I think spoken is probably better. Especially if you're recording. So good luck with that. And I will see you in the next one 24. A Matter of Time: of matter off time, a matter off time. Okay, if something is a matter of time or on Lee, a matter of time. Very common to say on Lee. A matter of time, we say, Well, it's It's only a matter of time until someone says this. What they really mean is this will happen. I'm sure 100% it's going to happen. I just don't know when the question is, When will it happen? Basically, the word is inevitable. Inevitable. It's inevitable. That's what that means. Inevitable means something's going to happen. It's inevitable that blah, blah, blah, blah blah is going to happen. It's only a matter of time, and you can add that after you say something that is inevitable, just say at the end it's only a matter of time. It's only a matter of time or at the beginning. It's only a matter of time until and say the thing that happens, okay, and so if you're very confident in your ability to learn English and you're always improving and you're getting better and better and better, you could say it is on Lee a matter of time until I am a fluent English speaker. It's only a matter of time. There's no question in your mind about whether or not it's going to happen. You're very confident and sure it will happen. But there are some things that might influence when it happens. Maybe how much free time you have to study or learn. Maybe your job. Maybe your kids distractions. It's going to happen. It's only a matter of time, but right now I have to do a few things. I'm taking care of things. I'm a little busy, but I will. I will become a fluent English speaker. I'm very sure I'm very confident. Okay, so that's what this means. That's how this is used. And it could be used for good or bad things. It's not really focused on good or bad. It's about inevitability and good things, and bad things can be both inevitable. So it's kind of neutral. It's neutral. It's not formal. It's not informal. It's not good. It's not bad. It's just a statement off certainty in the future, With the time part of the certainty unclear, you don't know when weeks, days, years, who knows So, for example, if I keep doing nice things for her. Eventually she will like me. It's only a matter of time. So, like here really means like me in a romantic way. If someone says, Do you like me? It's a weird thing to say. If it's not romantic, very strange. Don't ask somebody. Hey, do you like me? Unless you want to know if they like you in a romantic in a romantic way, it's kind of awkward to ask anyway. Don't ask anybody if if they like you or not, because you might get an answer you don't like. Um, so basically, this guy really wants this girl to like him in the same way that he likes her. He really likes her. He has a huge crush on her. He's in love. He's in love. Maybe it's his. Maybe it's his classmate. Maybe it's his colleague. Whatever. OK, but anyway, she doesn't feel the same way. She doesn't feel the same way. Doesn't feel the same way. So his plan is to to win her heart or to win her over could say, Win her heart, win her over. Maybe he's right. Maybe he's wrong. It should be clear that he thinks that it's inevitable. He thinks that it's only a matter of time, but she might say No, not in a 1,000,000 years, not in a 1,000,000 years. Maybe he's deluded. Maybe he doesn't realize that it's not going to happen. Maybe she maybe she is out of his league. If there's someone who's maybe way better looking than another person, then there's maybe no hope for them to be together. And so someone might say she's out of my league. She's out of my league or I'm out of his league. Not so often. Usually the other person is describing that person. She's out of my league, or sometimes he's out of my league, too. Where he's out of your league, she's out of your league. That's the advice that this person's friend might give them. Just stop, stop. She's out of your league. Only a matter of time here focuses on his hope and his persistence in trying to get what he wants. It's only a matter of time before I quit. It's only a matter of time before I quit my job. I can't stand it anymore. I can't stand this job anymore. This is a common thing that happens to people right. People don't like their job. They know they're going to quit. They're not sure when it's going to happen. It's inevitable. They're just not sure about the timing, because there many factors. What things do you need to think about when you hate your job? You know you're going to quit, but you're not sure when you need to think about how you're going to get money. Next, you need to think about whether or not you can get a better job next time. You might need to think about your career direction. Do I want the same job, or do I want a different job, right? What am I going for? Maybe I'll switch careers that's possible to switch switch careers. And so maybe you're thinking about all these things, So that's why you haven't done it right away. You're willing to bear this job for now. To bear something is to hold on to something negative, something you don't like. I can bear it. It's OK. I can bear it for a little longer. I can wait and hold this bad feeling a little longer because I know what's going to happen . Maybe this person isn't really going to quit, but they're telling themselves this as a way to feel a little bit better about this bad job . Oh, if I quit, yes, I'm going to quit. Ah, this will be great. So then that might help them feel less maybe stressed about their job. Or maybe feel a little less agony. Agony about their their current job. All right, so we can use it here, too. And again, it doesn't mean it actually has to happen. It doesn't mean it is actually inevitable often not always, but often the person who says it simply believes it's inevitable, but not necessarily not necessarily the guy who really likes the girl. He thinks it's inevitable, not necessarily, not necessarily. Okay for this one. Rather than writing your own examples, try to record yourself on your phone, use an app on your phone record yourself and then listen back to it. Don't write anything before try to use it. Freestyle By giving yourself that feeling of pressure, you're going to get used to it. If you do it enough, when you actually face a situation when you might need to use a matter of time, a matter of time or only a matter of time, it will be easy. It will come out often when you're in a situation and you need it. It's not there because you're not used to being in this kind of situation. You're not used to that feeling, so if you can get used to that feeling when you need it, you'll be relaxed. And when you're relaxed, it will be there in your head. Stress. It's interesting stress and feeling pressure and feeling nervous actually causes you to freeze up, become tense and forget what you wanted to say. Forget all the things you learn. So it's just a Zim Porton to give yourself that little bit of pressure because then it becomes comfortable. Hey, good luck. 25. Sleep on It: Sleep on it, sleep on it. Often said as let me sleep on it or why don't you sleep on it or I need to sleep on it. Sleep on it. Does that mean I sleep on a thing? Well, yeah, but that's not why we're talking about this common idiom. Sleep on it means to consider something or think about a tough decision. Write that again because that's not very clear. Decision to think about a tough decision, really it's used when we don't want to answer right now. When we're faced with a very difficult decision, a very difficult choice. When someone asks us to give an answer right away and we don't want to, because we want to think about it more. Maybe the answer we give right now will be the wrong answer. We need to really consider it deeply. We say something like, let me sleep on it. I need to sleep on it as a way to say, I want to tell you maybe tomorrow or I want to tell you in 24 hours or let me go home tonight. Think about it. Go to bed. Maybe I'll have a dream about it that will help me get my ideas around whatever this difficult thing is. More clearly, right? More clearly, it'll help me see this issue. Decision, whatever more clearly. So it's almost always about decisions. And yes, sleeping is part of it usually. So it is something that happens overnight. You go home, you go to bed, you wake up. But it's not that sleeping is the thing that makes you know, the right decision. It might be, maybe your dream helps you make the right decision. But really it's that you need time, can't decide right now. And it's most useful as a way to just say, I can't answer now. I can't answer now because I'm worried. If I do, I will make the wrong decision. So it's actually a really great tool to put off, to put off, to put off those decisions. Alright, so let's, let's look at a few examples so that we can have a better feeling about how to use sleep on it. You are at a job interview and you do really well. And the interviewer finally says, we want to offer you the job. Offer means we would like you to have the job. Would you like to accept it? But maybe you've had interviews at several places and you're still thinking about maybe working at another place. You can't say yes right now. You can't just say Yes, I'd love it. Thank you. Maybe you need to wait to hear back from the other company you've interviewed with, right? Whatever the reason you might say, Do you mind if I sleep on it? Do you mind if I sleep on it? Of course not. That means of course. Of course. I don't mind. I mean, it's it's okay. It's okay if you sleep on it. That means you don't have to answer yes or no right now. You can go home. You can think about it, or maybe you can wait to hear from the other company and see if they give you a job offer, right? But really what it means is you go home, you think about it. You relax, you watch some TV, you think about it some more. You go to bed, you wake up, and you have a new perspective, or perhaps you feel you have a clear mind. Clear mind means you know the right thing to do. Maybe the answer is yes. Maybe the answer is no. But after thinking about it, after sleeping on it, at least you have a clear mind. You've been able to come to a decision and then you call back this person and you say, after sleeping on it, I've decided. And then you can say whatever your decision is. I've decided to take the job. I've decided to take the job. I've decided not to take the job. I've decided not to take the job, whatever. But you can say after sleeping on it, did this, I thought about it carefully. Okay, so I think this example should make it pretty clear, but let's, let's just look at one more. So you're talking with your husband or your wife about the possibility of moving to another city, maybe in the other city, there are more, more opportunities or opportunities. But you just don't really want to leave or you're not sure, you need to think about it some more. So your husband or wife says, I really think we should move. I really think we should do it. We need a fresh start. A fresh start. When you do something new and you change your life, right? We call that a fresh start, a new page. Sometimes we call it a new page. Hope you're writing down these expressions. A fresh start, a new page. But you're not sure. You're not sure they feel sure. You're not sure. And so you don't want to just say yes, yes, let's do it. When in fact, you have some doubt, you have some doubt, you have some uncertainty. You're a bit reluctant. And so you say, I'll have to sleep on it. I'd like to sleep on it. Can I sleep on it? Yes, of course. Or okay. Okay. I'll have to sleep on it. People know that when you're talking about major life changes, getting a new job, moving to a new city. People know that these things take some consideration and you can't just make a snap decision sudden, you need to think about them. And this is a great expression for doing that, maybe one of the best, because it's not just a few minutes that you need to think about it. Can I think about it for a minute? There's still a lot of pressure. But if you say I need to sleep on it, then you can go home and relax for a while, go to bed. You have plenty of time. 26. Set in Stone: set in stone set in stone. I think this one should be very easy for you to remember if you know what Stone is. And you know it is a very hard material, right? And if you try to break it, it might be very difficult to break some stone is very, very hard, right? So imagine writing words in stone. Imagine. Imagine that we carve some carve some words into stone, right? How long will those words be there? A long time. And will it be easy to change those or edit them? No, it will not. So four words or things in general that cannot be easily changed, such as rules. We say that they are set in stone. Sorry, I can't. Why not? Because it is unfortunately set in stone. Or when we want to talk about things being very flexible, we can say, Oh, it's okay. We can make changes. It's not, It's not. It's not set in stone, so that one suggests some flexibility. And maybe here we're talking about a calendar date. When is the when is the conference going to be later this year? Um, we're not sure yet, So we're just trying to find the right date. It's not. It's not set in stone. Do you have any preference? Do you have any preference? Oh, well, if it were in the first week of November, that would be perfect. Okay, I will. I will certainly keep that in mind in mind. Okay. Well, how about How about if it isn't flexible? I'm sorry that you can't attend. I wish we could adjust the time of the conference, but we've already sent out all the invitations. I'm afraid it's it's set in stone. It's set in stone. Unchangeable here. Unchangeable. That's the cool thing about this one. You can really use it. How you want to talk about the two opposite things. Flexible things where things that are very unflappable. We can use it again to talk about rules. We can use it to talk about actual words written down. They were set in stone. Famous words perhaps. Okay. Or sometimes expressions that can't be adjusted. You can't say set on stone. You can't say set with stone. You must say set in stone. It's the only way that you can use this expression. So this expression is set in stone. Ah, Okay. you could use it to talk about maybe some ideas that are very old, that maybe people had a long time ago that everybody agrees with. You could talk about lots of different things using this expression. So let's, let's let's look at a few examples. So maybe there is a very strict principle. Maybe there's a very strict principal and the principal is talking to a group of students. And maybe the principle is concerned that students may may break the rules may break the rules so he or she wants to make sure it's very clear. Thes rules are unchangeable and they've been there a long time, and they must be followed. And if they're not, then they will be reinforced. They will be reinforced. Okay, so we could say these school rules are set in stone, set in stone. That's to make them feel even mawr. Maybe more important, right? Don't break them unless you want to be punished severely. Oh, this is a really strict principle, punished severely severe severe means that it's very serious are very bad. Often, if you have a severe cold, then you you don't have a minor cold. You have a terrible cold, right? Your coughing and your nose is running. You have a severe cold. But this is severely, which is an adverb and verb is about a verb and the verb ease punished, punished, which is the verb form of punishment. Okay, And the rules being set in stone like this saying it like this makes them feel more important, more powerful. The principle could have said, these rules can't be changed. These rules will never change something like that. But saying these rules are set in Stone creates that picture in people's mind when they hear it, and it gives it a feeling of seriousness. It gives it a feeling of permanence, as though Oh my goodness, it's been here for all time, for eternity. It feels like that. So here it almost makes thes rules sound like ancient things, and that might make them even more serious about following the rules. But hopefully that's what the I think that's what the principal hopes now here is an example that might be closer to everyday use. And let's notice that we can add pretty much here to mean there's some room for flexibility . Maybe, maybe, but it's it's basically unchangeable. Okay, The meeting time is pretty much set in stone. I doubt they will change it just because you have trouble waking up early. So maybe there's a new person working for a company and there's a meeting at 9 a.m. Okay, maybe that's early for for a meeting. But one person who needs to attend the meeting often has difficulty getting up very early and arriving at the meeting on time. Okay, And so maybe another colleague. Another colleague is giving advice to this person basically saying Stop trying to have the meeting time changed, right? This person can't come on time. And so this person is saying, Oh, you, let's change it to 10 right? Let's change it to 10. This person is saying, Listen, you're new here, Okay? This meeting time has been 9 a.m. We've had this meeting at 9 a.m. Every Tuesday for the last two years. It's pretty much set in stone now. There's a time aspect here because this meeting time has been 9 a.m. For two years. It's set in stone. If it were a week, it wouldn't be set in stone, so sometimes it's because of time because it's been a long time that something becomes fixed and less changeable. So the suggestion here is the meeting isn't going to change. You need to change. You need to learn to get up earlier so that you can arrive at the meeting on time. This is your issue, not this meeting which has always been at nine, and everyone else is able to arrive on time. So hey, this is your problem. This isn't going to change. So sometimes we can use this one when we want to give someone advice and let them know the rial situation. This is a permanent unchangeable thing. And so the only thing that can change here is your behavior, whatever it may be. And we could be again talking about a time, a date or rules I sometimes use set in stone. When I'm talking about opinions when I want to let somebody know that I'm open to something , I have an open mind. And I explained my opinion after I say it, I might say, but, um but, uh, my my views aren't set in stone. My views aren't set in stone. I'm open to other ideas. What do you think Just to let people know? Hey, when you say your idea to me, I will actually be listening to you. I really want to know what you think. And maybe maybe if your opinion is different, I will be able to change my opinion. If it's maybe carefully explained. So go ahead. Say what you think. 27. Pros and Cons: pros and cons, prose and cons. This is maybe one of the most useful expressions that we will learn if you already know this one, great. But we still need to talk about how we use it because it's so important in conversations, because when we're talking with others were often talking about what the good points are and what the bad points are about anything about ideas about what we're doing about maybe a place that we might visit about a project about a teacher or whatever. It's so many different things, maybe something we want to buy, right. We talk about the good things and the bad things. We talk about the advantages and the dis the disadvantages right when we're talking about almost anything we're comparing. Things are trying to decide the best thing to get this camera or this camera. Well, what are the pros and cons of this one? Right, So that's how we use it, the pros and cons of this, and you can put almost anything here, and sometimes we ask the question. What are the pros and cons? What are the pros and cons? And it's really just a simple way to say, what are the advantages and disadvantages? But notice how long it takes to say advantages and disadvantages, advantages and disadvantages, advantages and disadvantages. It's very difficult to say. Pros and cons so easy, right? So it's it's a great it's a great little tool for expressing this long thing. Now what if we want to break thes apart? Can we say the pros are the pros are yes. Can we say the cons are Yes, yes. The cons are that and then say what the negative points are. So the cons are the negative and the pros of the positive like that. Okay, so this one's so simple, but so, so useful. Sometimes we say this and this I think it's also a very useful phrase, and I will look at We'll look at the typed examples, as we usually do, but this is a common. This is a common thing. You hear the pros outweigh the cons, or you might see it the opposite. So you might see the cons outweigh the pros. The pros outweigh the cons. Either way, what does this mean? So if we have a scale and we have the pros and cons here, let's say we're deciding. We're deciding the pros and cons of this particular place to visit on our vacation. Okay? And we say, Okay, that there, this many pros and this mini cons So it's OK, the pros outweigh the cons. But if there are more cons than we say, the cons outweigh the pros. Should we close the business and start fresh, start a new business with a new idea? Yeah, I think the pros outweigh the cons, the pros of starting over. That means the reasons to do that outweigh the reasons not to do it. So it's not that they're pros are the positive reasons. It's it's the reasons in favor of whatever is being suggested. Should we close the business? Yes. No, yes, No. I know closing a business is a kind of negative thing, but that don't get confused there. It just means these things are in favour off doing what I suggested in favor of doing what was suggested or what somebody is talking about whether or not that thing is a positive thing, whether or not it's a negative thing. Okay, so I hope that's pretty simple. Don't get too confused. It's actually pretty simple. What are the pros and cons of retiring at an early age? Retiring. I think You probably know that means when you finish working in your in your life and you can just relax. Well, I think the pros would be that you'd have less stress and you'd have a lot more time to spend with your family and friends. But I think the cons outweigh the pros. If you retire early, you might get bored and not have any goals to work toward. You may also have to be more careful with your money now. It's important here that we understand these air just opinions, and people can see these things differently. Someone here this person could say that the pros outweigh the cons. Maybe these things to this person. The pros outweigh the cons because they're better than the cons, having less stress and spending more time with family and friends. So it's really subjective, even though it's exactly the same things as pros and cons, and this person maybe thinks that the cons outweigh the pros. Retiring early is not a good idea. The cons of retiring early outweigh the pros of retiring early. The bad things about retiring early outweigh or are more than the good things about it. That doesn't mean Maurin number like there are two here and three here it could be, Oh, there are two things here and three here that means thes outweigh these. Well, it could be, but it could be that this one is really important. And there are five things here that are not important. So these air five small things and one huge thing. So you could still say the cons outweigh the pro's. You can still say that It's a very subjective, subjective, different for each person, depending on their view. Their opinion, almost everything has pros and cons. Nothing is all good or all bad. It's important to consider them rationally in order to make good decisions. This is basically saying rationally means not with your emotions, but by thinking through them, huh? These things and these things the pros and the cons. I think if I think about all of these, I will be able to make the best decision. The most rational decision you must consider. Think about rationally all the pros and cons. Okay, So to really remember this one right. Your own long example. Talking about the actual pros and cons of something in your life. You could do this as a written example or a recording. You could turn on the recording app on your phone or on your computer and actually speak and try to use pros and cons in your spoken example. Talk about something in your own life. Maybe it's better to speak your example without writing at first. That will force you to have to think creatively and include the expression these two words , pros and cons. Then, once you listen back, you should be able to see whether or not you used it correctly and naturally. All right, I'll see you in the next one. 28. Do's and Don'ts: do's and don't do's and dont's dues. Adults. We often say it very quickly like that dosing adults, and we often say the do's and don't of of of so the do's and dont's of some particular thing. If you're going to do this thing, if this is your activity, then you need to remember this thing to do. This is a good practice, a good practice or sometimes this is called best practices. Best Best practices don't things to avoid things, things to avoid doing, doing, tongue, doing, doing things to avoid doing don't do those things OK, do is things you should do. Don't things you should not do, so the meaning here is pretty simple. You'll see this written in several different ways. Sometimes it's just written is that But sometimes, usually in fact, you'll see it like that so that it's separate. It feels separate, and here we already have one apostrophe, and so we don't put another one there. It's usually how it's written. Sometimes you'll see it written just DUIs and don't and I've even seen an extra one in there. But I like to write it like this. Okay, we could be talking about a skill, things that takes skill like a like a presentation. Have you given presentations before to a group of people? What are the do's and don't what did the do's and don't do. Talk to the audience, move around a little bit, speak loudly and clearly make eye contact. What are the don't don't read your PPT and then, uh, don't look down all the time. Don't stay rooted to one place like a tree. Okay, so those were the twos and don't of giving a presentation in public. Maybe we can do another course about that sometime. This phrase this expression can be used quite generally. So in this example, we're talking about a presentation. But we could use it to talk about other things, too. What are some things to avoid in a workplace where the do's and dont's of this, this workplace things you should do and not do your first day where that one of the do's and dont's here. Oh, make sure you don't just say your opinion in a meeting, you want to say, Excuse me, can I say something and then if someone says yes, go ahead, then say it. Okay, thank you. Good to know on may be every company is different So the do's and don't in a place like a company, the do's and don't of doing something a particular thing. Do, for example, the do's and dont's of teaching What are the do's and dont's of teaching. Okay, so that's the idea and we almost always put of after it. If we're going to say what it is or we've already said what it is, then we just say What are the do's and dont's? And then we might say the do's and don't are and then say what they are. So let's look at a couple examples. Okay, let's talk about the do's and don't of sales the do's and dont's of sales. First, we'll start with what you should do what you should do. Always remember to use the client's name as often as possible. Okay, I won't go on because well, actually, I don't know the do's and dont's of sales because I have never been a sales person and I don't think sales would be a very strong area for me because when people say, Oh, I actually I don't like that I usually just say OK, see you later. Have a nice day Sales People have to push and push. It's a different skill. Okay, so let's talk about the do's and dont's of sales of sales. Now can we say you may be wondering, Can I say a do is a do is the first to do The first do is is the first do is it Sounds strange. Sounds a little bit weird, so I wouldn't recommend using it like that. Some people might. You hear people do it once in a while, but I would recommend avoiding it, saying, Oh, do one of the dues do number one we don't always have to use do Why do we have to use do we ? Don't number one Always use the customer's name. We didn't need to say the word do there. Okay, so usually when we're using Do's and Dont's were using the S Do's and dont's and they usually go together. The dues are maybe sometimes, but it's just not as common as putting them together in a phrase. In American culture, there are many do's and don't when it comes to etiquette and avoiding faux pas. So this is not a single process like presentations. This is the goal that we have. Etiquette means following following the rules, we can call it rules off politeness, for example, how we should speak to others in public related to our etiquette or at a dinner table how we should eat. Can you grab something with your hands? Right? That's also etiquette. That's also etiquette on avoiding faux pas. If you break the etiquette and you do something very strange, then you've made a faux pas. Now what is a faux pas? A faux pas is actually a French word. It's not an English word. I think it means false step or a missed a missed step. Basically, when we say full power talking about social mistakes, it's not illegal, but it makes people uncomfortable. So our goal is having good etiquette and avoiding faux pas, avoiding faux pas like burping at the table in America Faux pas. Don't do that, but you're in another country and be like China, for example, and you burp at the table. It's OK. It's not a big deal, so it's not a faux pas. So our goal is avoiding this and having good this basically what are the do's and don't when it comes to that. So this is a great place to use when it comes to when it comes to, because then we can just say any kind of topic, even if it's several things together. So the great thing about when it comes to is that it's a wonderful connector. You can say many things here. Etiquette, faux pas, shopping, any kind of thing here I'd still use Do's and dont's here, uh, what are the do's and dont's when it comes to And then whatever you want to say, basically any kind of thing that you could have do's and dont's about, so it makes it very easy to connect them together. I think this little phrase is very, very powerful. It means about that about that related to this kind of thing or if it's a group of things, these kinds of things, these kinds of things very useful, what are the do's and don't sweat. It comes to really learning new expressions. What are the do's and don't when it comes to learning and using new expressions? Well, it's a good question. First, let's start with the things that you should do. You should always make sure to pay attention to how the expression is used, not only what it means. If you only know what it means, it's basically useless. You need to pay attention to the context with around it. If you pay attention to that, you'll have a better understanding of it. Every time you see it. Over time, you will understand it more and more deeply. On the other hand, the things that you should generally avoid she probably avoid just looking up the translation of an expression in your own language. Why? Because if you do that, it's often missed. The reason that expressions air tough is that they're related to the culture. They might have connotation or suggested meaning that can't really be translated. And often the translation is a general idea. That's kind of kind of close to the expression, but it's not the expression or idiom. It's just close. And so if you really want to know it, translating it is probably not a good idea. May want to take a course with someone who can explain them one by one, carefully for hours and hours and hours 29. Big Deal: big deal, Big deal or a big deal? Ah, big deal. Say that to this has to common uses. One is important. If something is a big deal, it's important. Could be an important event, an important event and important honor. Hoops port, an honor or just in honor, maybe an award. It could be in important thing of some kind, important thing. And why do I keep writing it without the tea and important value, Something that's important to you? Or it could be used to say, Who cares? It doesn't matter. It doesn't matter or I don't care about that thing. It doesn't matter. Maybe to me, and this is kind of the opposite of this one. And if it's used as the opposite meaning it has a usually a sarcastic tone, a sarcastic tone, it might be said as big deal, big deal like I don't care. Who cares? It's not important. Maybe you think something happened, which is important, and I say a big deal. What I really mean is that's not important. That's not important. I can't say a big deal here if I use it this way, but you can hear in my voice that I mean the opposite, Okay, But sometimes it's like double sarcastic double opposite. All right, double more clearly. It's like double. That means I say, proud, a big deal and it sounds like I don't think it's a big deal, but that's because it's such a big deal. Or and we can say this such a huge deal so important that if I joke about it and I say a big deal, it's kind of funny, kind of funny, like you win an Oscar award and I said a big deal. Of course, it's a big deal, but I'm saying it sarcastically, so it doesn't mean this big deal at sort of a double opposite big deal, which is a little difficult. But basically it means it's so big that I can joke that it's not big and you get that because I'm saying it this way with this face. Big deal. Okay, let's look at some examples. I got promoted to manager today. He got promoted to manager today. Promoted means you got a higher position in your office or in your your workplace. Wow, that's a pretty big deal. That's a pretty big deal now does this one mean the real meaning. That's that's an important thing. Ah, an important thing that's significant. That's impressive. And if I were going to replace it with one word in this one, I would replace it with the word impressive. That's impressive. That's impressive Here. Big deal is used in the genuine way, not in the sarcastic way again. If you use it in the sarcastic way, you'll just say, big deal like I don't care. That's not impressive, and it's just that and you have that tone. But if you say a whole sentence like this, Wow, that's a pretty big deal. It means I'm being honest. I'm being genuine. I really mean what I say. Genuine meaning. Okay, let's look at another example. Honesty is a pretty big deal in my family. Honesty is a pretty big deal in my family. That means honesty is very important to me. I really care about honesty, and people in my family care about it, too. We never lie. We never lie, and you could talk about anything like this. What's important to you? What are your values? What are your values that you share with your family members? Honesty, Maybe spending time together. Spending time together is a really big deal in my family. Could say spending time together is a really big deal to me. It's a really big deal to me. Put down your phone. Stop looking at your phone all the time. Let's spend some time together. Uh, come on, it's a big deal to me. It's important to me. Okay, so this is very genuine. You're telling someone that this thing is very important to you and you want them to care about it, too. So you say that it's a big deal to you or your family or your friends? Did you Did you buy water? Oh, no. I forgot to buy water. That's okay. It's not a big deal. It's not a big deal. That means it's not that important. It's OK that you forgot. It's not a big problem that you forgot because it's it's not that important. It's not that important for this one. When you want toe, let somebody know that this thing is not that important. You don't need to worry about it. Don't sweat it. Don't sweat it. Don't worry about it too much. It's OK. You could say also no big deal. No big deal. Just no big deal. No big deal. That means don't worry. Don't worry. Or we sometimes shorten it. This one sounds maybe a little strange, but it's very common. No biggie. No big, very, very common. I forgot to buy water. I'm so sorry. No biggie. No biggie. I'll buy some tomorrow. No biggie. This is very casual. Very casual. Okay, so you use that 1 may be with your friends With people close to you. Maybe not with your colleagues. Maybe not in more formal formal settings. This is very casual, but also very common. Okay, so we've got no big deal, which means not that important. Don't worry about it. We've got a big deal. A big deal. It's very important. Or maybe it's very significant. Or maybe it's very impressive. Okay. And then we've got which were not looking at. In an example, we've got big deal. Big deal. Which we say with the casual, sarcastic tone to mean. Yeah, who cares about that? Okay. Now try to make your own examples. Try to fit them into maybe a dialogue, see if you can fit them in naturally. Use big deal. No big deal. Not a big deal. Maybe even no biggie. See if you can use them naturally. And then when you want to use them in real life, it should be much easier because you've already made examples. You've put those pieces together in your head already. Good luck with that. And I will see you in the next one. 30. Jump to Conclusions: jump to conclusions. Jump to conclusions. OK, jump. I think, you know, going like that, we might use jump in a non physical way. For example, jump jump to page 87 in your books. Jump to page 87 in your books. Okay, that means go there. Go there. But we say still jump. Okay, so jump could be used in a non physical way. Not just you jumping conclusions. That means you. You state what is going on. You state what is going on, or you you say the result of something. OK, so conclusion might be at the end of a speech, you would say Finally, I think you would say the final point or we try to understand something. We don't understand it. We study it, we think about it. We look at it, we take some time, and then we make a conclusion. We make a conclusion. Okay? Now, if that is what these two mean, what could jump to conclusions mean? And is it a good thing? No. Jump to conclusions. That is a bad thing. It's something to avoid. We might say it to remind ourselves not to do that. We might say it to say you did that and you shouldn't have done that. We might say it to tell someone that if they do that, something bad could happen as a warning. So basically, don't assume what is true based on Lee On what? You know now, because probably you you don't have. You don't have all the facts. Don't have all the facts yet. And usually this is for something that at the beginning looks pretty clear. It looks pretty clear. This looks like what's going on? So I'm going to say this is what's going on. But wait, there's more going on. Okay? So don't jump to conclusions. Don't jump to conclusions. Don't decide what's going on before you know everything. We're just here in here, and this is what we know. But in fact, the conclusion is this and all of this we don't know. You don't know this. You don't know this. You don't know this. You don't know this so don't jump to the conclusion because you can't know it. Based on this, it doesn't mean that what you think is true isn't true. No. Doesn't mean that it means what you think is true. Now might not be true, and you should make sure to look at all of the facts, all of the evidence, maybe everything that's going on and then make a conclusion and then decide what's going on . So when could we get in trouble by jumping to conclusions, and I'm sure that you can think of an example. In fact, I would challenge you to make an example based on my explanation here. Before we look at some examples, I would challenge you to do that. Try make your own examples based on what we just talked about. Think about something that would fit into that description. Decides something now, but you don't know everything, so you're irresponsible to decide something. Now you should wait. And if you jumped to conclusions and get very upset about the result, or you get excited about the results, you may find out that your excitement or your frustration was was wrong. Should have been the opposite. Maybe maybe write your own example and then compare it to the examples we're going to talk about now. So maybe there are two women talking and one is in a panic. Why? Because she saw her boyfriend with another woman having coffee at a coffee shop, and he didn't tell her that he was going to meet another woman there. I saw Steve with another woman yesterday. What did she think? What does she think? She probably thinks that may be. Steve is cheating on her. Or if it's a marriage situation, having an affair. Ah, so what should she do? Should she run into the coffee shop and throw the coffee off the table and say, Who is this lady? Who is she? Steve, what have you done? Or should she? Could she wait? Maybe message Steve later? So anyway, she's talking to her friend later. She didn't do that, and she tells her friend about this, and her friend says, Don't jump to conclusions. Don't jump to conclusions. Maybe maybe it's his sister. Maybe it was his sister could be right if they haven't met. Oh, yeah, maybe. Maybe now it doesn't mean that's right or wrong. This one don't jump to conclusions. Maybe it was his sister is just advice. It's a recommendation to avoid being rash. If your rash you act quickly without thinking too much, if it turns out to be his sister. Then it was good for you not to jump to conclusions, right? If it turns out to not be his sister and it is someone he's cheating on you with, then if you mention it the next day, you can say you saw that happen rather than going into the coffee shop and destroying everything on the table and risking the possibility of being wrong about that. So it's just advice here doesn't mean it's right or it's wrong. Doesn't mean the result that she thinks is true is true or not. That's not the point. The point is, don't do that. Don't do that. Don't be rash. Don't do something suddenly based on what it looks like in this moment. Hold on. Wait. Find out more. Ask a question later. Get a little bit more information. First, we could say that's another way to say it. I think you need to get Mawr info first before we jump to any conclusions. Let's just double check the data. Let's just double check the data before we jump to any conclusions. So maybe maybe there's a, uh, team, and they're looking at their sales numbers or their revenue. And maybe They're looking at a graph and it goes like this. Okay, so they see this and they go, uh, what's this? Oh, my God. What happened? Okay, now they could just say Oh, we need to change something. Let's let's take action now. It must be because of X. It must be because off x some reason. And then we decide we're going to change X right away. Is that the best thing to do? Is that wise? Is that a wise thing to do? Maybe not. Maybe not. What should we do before we look at X or decide if X is really the reason we should double check the data? Let's look at the numbers more carefully. Maybe maybe there was a mistake in the numbers. Maybe something is not right. Double check it. Maybe every other company selling the same thing saw the same thing happen because of something else unrelated to this. Something we couldn't control. OK, so we say before we jump to conclusions as a way to remind everybody that maybe maybe what it looks like right now isn't what's really going on. Okay, so hopefully this one gives you a clear picture of how to use this expression in perhaps business situations. Now, what about regret? What if we want to talk about regret? I wish I hadn't jumped to conclusions. I wish I hadn't. Well, that's pretty simple. You would describe what happened because you did that because you made a snap judgment. Usually a bad thing. Not always. You made a snap judgment. And then perhaps something bad happened because of that. You acted on that. You did something and it may be caused a problem for you. Later, Uh, you regret it, and you say, I wish I hadn't jumped to conclusions. I wish I hadn't jumped to conclusions. It means you did means you did. Or I regret jumping to conclusions. Or if I hadn't jumped to conclusions, I probably would have bubble. And then you would say the good thing that would have happened if you hadn't done this thing. Which, in fact, you did do when you're making your example, don't make it look exactly like mine. Don't fit mine. Exactly. Think about what this means and make your own example. That's different. That will really push you to think carefully about this expression and the other ones in this course never make one that's almost exactly like mine, because then you're not really practicing 31. The Best of Both Worlds: the best of both worlds, the best of both worlds. This is a very interesting expression because it helps us express an idea that is otherwise difficult to express. Okay, what do we want? We want. We want to get as much good as we can. But what's true about life in life? Usually, if we get something good, then it comes with something that maybe we don't like, right? Every good thing has something that might be negative. There's a negative and there's a positive. And so when we're when we're doing something, we may have to give and take. So that means basically, if you want to get something, you may have to give up something else in order to get it. And that other thing might be something that you like, So that would be the negative. Giving up something you like is the negative, but you get something good. That's the positive. Okay, you you give something away. You give up something and you can take something for yourself. It's still this is a little strange. Let's let's talk about an example. Okay, let's say food, because I think this is ah really clear example now What do we want? We want to be thin. Maybe right. We want to look good. But at the same time, food is delicious, especially chocolate cake. Okay, now, if we want to be thin and at the same time we love chocolate cake, we may face a difficulty. We may have to decide that eating a lot of chocolate cake would mean giving up being thin or being thin would mean giving up eating as much chocolate cake as we might enjoy eating, right? Yes, that's right. So the basic idea is we want to have both, and in some rare cases we can. Okay, so we might say, if we have the best of both worlds, that we can eat chocolate cake and not get fat. Maybe there's a sugar free cake and we can eat it and still enjoy it, and it's very tasty. I can eat chocolate cake, but I don't get fat. I stay thin. So if I confined a tasty chocolate cake that's sugar free, a tasty chocolate cake that sugar free that I can eat chocolate cake. But I don't get fat because it sugar free. I ate a lot of cake with a lot of sugar. I might get fat, fatter and fatter. I wouldn't be happy, but I can now have both. I can stay thin Anne Chocolate Cake. Yes, that's great. That's the best of both worlds. So this is the perfect expression to talk about those two worlds when we're able to find the perfect balance, were able to find the perfect balance where we can have the things that we enjoy without giving up anything too much. Maybe we have to give up a little bit. Maybe I would rather have regular chocolate cake, but at least I can have both. Someone who works at home might say, You know, it's really great. I work at home. I get to be productive and talk to people when I need to talk to them. But I also have the peace and quiet of being able to stay at home. And if I want to take the day off and just watch TV, I can. It's the best of both worlds, both being connected and productive and having a job and having some freedom and being comfortable in my home. It's the best of both worlds, so that's the idea now we can't always have the best of both worlds. And sometimes when people are asking for too much, we say, You know what? You always just want the best of both worlds. But it's not always possible. You need to be realistic. You need to be realistic. You're not being realistic. Yeah, but I think I just wanted okay. Or or someone might be very smart to find that perfect balance to find that point at which you can have both in a certain way. And then we might say, Wow, you really have figured it out. Nice job. You have figured out how to get the best of both worlds or you have the best of both world's. Okay, that's the idea. Let's look at our examples. You have a job that you like, and you can make enough money. It's the best of both worlds. It's the best of both worlds. Usually, if you want to make money, you've got to do something. And often that means something you don't enjoy. Often people have jobs that they don't like, but they have to have those jobs because, well, they need to make money. That's that's normal, right on the other hand, on the other hand, you've got someone who does whatever they want. They enjoy themselves, they have fun, but they don't have money because they don't have a job. So what if you could find a job that you love? You enjoy going to work every day. And because you had that job you got paid, you're able to support yourself. Support yourself. You could then say you've found a situation where you have the best of both worlds, which is absolutely may be the ideal. Why wouldn't you want to have a job that you love that would allow you to support yourself financially? Course you would. OK. And when you do that, you will have the best of both worlds. I think when it comes to the environment, we need to find a way to get the best of both worlds. We shouldn't have to live like primitive people In order to protect nature, we need to figure out a way to keep up our rate of technological progress and at the same time prevent the environment from being destroyed. Hey, keep up the rate That means continue getting better at the same speed progress means getting better. Getting better technological. Our technology, like the Internet, transportation trains, basically all new things that we that we make to make our lives easier. We shouldn't have to live like primitive people. Primitive people would be people who just live on the land and find mushrooms and Berries and catch fish like early people thousands of years ago, it would say primitive, primitive, early, early and usually very simple. Call that very primitive. Okay, so the best of both worlds here would be that if we want to make sure we're not destroying the environment, we we need to take some steps. But we shouldn't sacrifice our comfort completely and go back to being people who just look around for Berries. We need to do both. We need to develop technology, still live comfortable, lives in cities and have trains and restaurants and all of that stuff and computers and cellphones. But maybe at the same time, we can figure out how to still keep nature nature and not destroy it. In fact, that's what that's what a lot of people are trying to do, right? So we are trying to have the best of both worlds. And sometimes you'll see people say a best of both worlds scenario scenario, a best of both worlds scenario. Okay, so I think that one is a little bit complicated. But if you think it through and look at the examples carefully, you should be able to come up with your own example, so make sure you do that and good luck. 32. Cut Corners: Cut corners. Cut corners. Cut corners. What does that mean? Well, a corner is this area here. This is the corner and here's a corner, and here's a corner, and here's a corner. And let's say there's a race around this, around this square. Let me make a bigger one. And in this race you have to do this. Everybody needs to go around and around and around and around and around like this. In this race, there's a race, everybody's going like this, but one person sometimes goes like this. So they're not going all the way to the corner. They're cutting corners. It's like they're not doing that. Not doing that to make their time faster to maybe win the race, but they are cheating. They are cheating. That's not good, right? It's not a good practice. They're not playing fairly, not playing fairly for their own advantage, their own benefit. You're cutting corners. Now we might use it in a physical way, but usually not usually we're talking about lowering the quality. Lowering quality because we can lowering quality for some reason, let's say lowering the, lowering, lowering the quality. Something for some reason. Maybe to reduce the cost, maybe it's to get something done faster. We need to finish by the tenth. Well, let's not do that. Okay? The quality won't be so good. It's okay, it's okay. We'll just not do it and then it'll be okay. We can finish on time. You have it. That's really cutting corners. That's really that's really cutting corners. I don't think we should cut corners. I don't think we should cut corners. I don't think we should. Why not? Why not just get it done faster, save a little money. Don't do that extra thing. Because if you're a company and you're making a product and the customer feels like you didn't do your best, then they might choose another company next time. They can feel that you didn't try as hard. Let's say for example, we're going through this course. And I think by now you've got a feeling for the structure of each one of these. We talk about the meaning. Maybe we talk about how it's used generally. And then we look at some examples. We look at real life examples that I made. What if after a while, after a few lessons, I just said. All right, I'm just going to explain each one. We're not going to look at examples anymore. Just, just listen to my explanation. Then we'll go on to the next one. Why would I do that? Laziness? Laziness, because I don't want to spend the time to do it. I don't really care about the quality, but I'm not going to do that. I would never cut corners. I can't stand cutting corners. Also, if you really want to learn an expression, I believe you have to have the explanation how it's used. Any variations, maybe. And clear examples of how the expression or the idiom, the phrase is used, how it's used. So it's not good to cut corners. It's not good to cut corners here. I'm using it as a verb. And cutting corners here, cutting corners is not good. It is kind of a verb, but it's being used as a noun. It's being used as a noun. This cutting corners, this thing, cutting corners is not good, not good, maybe long-term. So this is how it's used. It's not often used to talk about physically cutting corners. It's used to talk about lowering quality, trying less hard, being a little lazy to save time, to save money, to save effort. And we often talk about that being the reason why something went wrong. It failed, why they really cut corners, and the customers could tell. So for example, if you cut corners, like using cheap materials or not doing quality checks, not doing quality checks, the product won't be good. This could be for any kind of product, that refrigerator or a smartphone or a computer. This is usually for products. Products, cheap materials might be to choose the, maybe the plastic, the plastic that costs, that costs 3 $300 per, per box instead of, instead of $380 per box. And maybe because you bought this one instead of this one, it's more more likely to break or it's maybe more likely to have some issues. Or maybe it just feels cheap. It just feels cheap. Why does it feel cheap? Because the company, when they were producing it, producing it cut corners during production, during production, during production. Okay, let's look at one more example. You cut corners as an undergraduate and now you don't actually know the subject. University isn't really about grades, It's about learning new things and expanding your horizons. Good luck getting into that doctorate program. Okay, So here we're talking about learning. If you have classes as an undergraduate, that means you're first for years, sometimes three of university, you are an undergraduate. Then after that you're a graduate student. If you get your master's degree or your PhD, your doctorate. So if you cut corners, you don't actually do the work. Maybe you cheat from your classmates. Maybe you just buy answers or you have study. You don't really learn it. You just try to get grades so that you can pass. And for the rest of the time you're just having fun at school. Is this good? No. Because then you don't actually know the subject. Okay. You cut corners. You cut corners studying, so you can do something poorly without much effort. And that is cutting corners. University isn't really about grades. That means it's not about getting an a or a B. It's about learning new things and expanding your horizons. To expand your horizons is to open your mind to learn about the world and learn about new ways of thinking, new perspectives. Okay, Good luck getting into that doctorate program. So here we're not really saying good luck, I hope you do. It means, I think it's unlikely that you will get into the doctorate program. The PhD program, because you don't really understand the subject. He didn't learn enough. I don't think that you will be able to get into the program. They won't let you. You were lazy, didn't study hard enough. That's why how sad. So don't cut corners. When you're practicing these expressions. Don't cut corners. Practice speaking. Use examples from what we're learning. Learn from my examples, get a feeling for it. Do some more research. If you need to. Try to speak your own examples, right? Say them into your phone, record them, listen to them again, and then try it. Try it again, do it better. You don't have to make a very simple example. You could tell a story, talk about a cheap thing that you bought one time, and talk about how maybe that company cut corners. In what way did they cut corners? Or maybe talk about a time when you cut corners and how that affected you in a bad way. To talk about that, if you listen to yourself, you'll be able to find things that you can, correct. Don't cut corners when you're practicing. If you don't, you will learn things really well. You'll remember everything and you'll really know how to use it, which is the goal, right. 33. A Lot on My Plate: a lot on my plate a lot on my plate. Very simply, This expression is used to say we are busy. We can't just say I'm busy instead of saying I have a lot on my plate. But using I have a lot on my plate helps us to one. Be a little bit less direct, a little bit less. We learned the word before blunt, a little bit less blunt. And, uh, we can also use it to explain why we didn't do something or why we can't or why we can't and we will look at examples. We will look at some very clear examples. This is the basic idea. But why? Why do we say plate? What's what's going on here? Well, it's actually it's actually quite visual. Weaken, picture a plate. So here's a plate. Here's a plate dinner plate and, uh, okay, it's on the table like a That's a plate. That's not a plate. Let me try again. All right, Now, here's a plate. Here's a plate on a table and we can start putting some things on the plate. Start putting some food on the plate more and more and more and more and it starts piling higher and higher, and there's more and more and more and more and more. And finally, some stuff starts falling off off the plate onto the table. So I think this is a really good way to understand what this expression means and how we do it. If we start doing too many things in our lives so that we're not able to focus on any of them or do any of them, well, things might start falling on the table. That means we might start. We might just lose focus, focus or we might make mistakes. And when we talk about being busy, we often talk about things that we can take on now. This expression a lot on my plate is not usually used to say I'm busy right now. No, not right now. I'm busy. Not as often as talking about taking on things in this period of time, maybe taking on projects or responsibilities. Usually, now it could be. I have a lot of my plate today. I really can't That's okay, we can say that. But it's, I think Mawr common for things in this period of time to really understand this. I think we need to look at some examples. So let's look at some specific examples for how we can use ah lot on my plate. Sorry it took me so long to get back to you. I've got a lot on my plate now, or I've got a lot on my plate these days. Now let's say let's say, Sam, I sent an email to Tom, an email email, asking for some very simple information. Okay? And Tom took three weeks, three weeks to get back to Sam. To get back to Sam. Get back to here means reply to Sam to reply. All right. Three weeks is, I think, a long time for an email, a reply to an email, right? Three weeks now. That's of course, subjective. What you think is a long time is different than what I think is a long time. So it is subjective. I suppose so. Sam sent this email to Tom, and then Tom says this. Sorry it took me so long. That means he did reply, finally, but it was very late, and Sam might now say, Oh, it's okay. No worries. Don't worry about it. No worries is a way to say It's OK, it's OK. We say no worries or don't sweat it. It's OK, It's OK, It's OK. It's OK. Don't say don't mention it. That means that's a way to say you're welcome. We usually when we want to tell people that they shouldn't be too stressed about inconveniencing us. We usually use these three. No worries, no sweat. Don't worry about it or it's okay. Of course. Maybe when he first saw the email, he said to himself, It's about time. It's about time or finally finally. But basically, he's explaining why it didn't happen. He's explaining why it took him so long that might make Sam feel a little better. Knowing the reason, right? Or maybe not, he might feel it's an excuse. Maybe he feels that it's an excuse. Anyway, this is the reason, or this is the excuse, because I've got ah lot on my plate thes days for this example. We have two brothers. That's a little brother all right, little bro and a big bro. And the little bro says to the big bro, Can you help me with my homework after school? Can you help me with my homework. The big brother says. I would like to, but I have a lot of homework to and football practice. I think I can help when I don't have so much on my plate. So what's going on here? Well, we could say this big Brother is not very nice to his little brother to not help with homework. But let's forget about that for a second. This is a way to refuse someone, generally a pretty polite way we start with. I would like to, but I would like to, but then we state the reason. In this case, I have a lot of homework to two because he's asking about homework and football practice there. Two things because of that. He's busy during this period of time, maybe school finishes at three. He goes to football practice from 3 to 5. Then from 5 to 8, he has to do his homework and there's no time to watch TV or relax. So he feels a little bit maybe stressed or we could say overworked. So here he is, giving the reason for his refusal but also allowing the possibility of being able to help later. So this is not just a simple reason like the last one. I didn't answer you on time because I have a lot on my plate. This is as soon as my plate is less full. I'm going to help you. So it's a sort of promise for the future. And ah, it's it's actually a way to show that you are willing. You are really willing to help, but it's just not possible right now. I think I can help when I don't have so much. Or we could say this much on my plate when I'm when I'm not this busy when I'm not this busy. So this is a very common way to refuse and show willingness in the future. I want you to notice that here we have so much on my plate instead of a lot on my plate. The part that can change here is we can change my to your his her there, right? And a lot. We can change too so much too much. Or if we don't weaken, say, yeah, I don't have much on my plate right now so we can change this part, substitute this part out and, uh, express whatever we want to express and change the person as well. One thing just to keep in mind. You don't want to always replace simple words like busy with new expressions. You learn it's good to try to use them in conversation. If you feel you're really understand them, that's great. But just keep in mind. Don't use them so much that it sounds like you're awkwardly trying to force them into a situation that can be a little weird. So just keep that in mind and good luck making your own examples. 34. From Scratch: from scratch from scratch to do something from scratch to start from scratch to make something from scratch. Or we often say, Go back and start from scratch. OK, so this really has two meanings or it's used in two different ways. Number one is we were working on something, and it's really not going well. It's getting very complicated. Whatever it is, Maybe it's a school project. Maybe it's something you're doing with the team at work. Maybe it's Ah, it means something you're trying to build electronic something, whatever. Whatever it is, well, it's just not going well. It's going terribly. So instead of trying to just fix it and then fix it again and fix it again or make adjustments, you've decided to just stop completely. Throw away all your progress so far, just get rid of all your progress and begin again from the very beginning. Start from scratch again. Start from nothing. You started from nothing. You went on. You were working on it, trying to make it. Ah, you got frustrated, threw it away and you decided to start from scratch from the beginning. This can also be used. If, for example, something was lost or broken or destroyed. So you're trying to build a beautiful little thing out of wood is a gift. A little wooden wooden wooden carving, say, wouldn't carved figure you got a little piece of wood and you were carving it with a knife and you worked on it for a week, and then the dog took it, and you have no idea where it is. So you say, Uh, well, I guess I have to start over from scratch. Start over, start over from scratch. So you didn't decide to do that? Really? You had to to begin again, start over from the beginning. Shame. All right. Now make something from scratch means that we don't have other materials that are prepared by someone else. And this is often used when we're talking about cooking food. And so a perfect example, I think, is a pie going to make an apple pie an apple pie. You could do it in a couple different ways. You could buy a can of apples seasoned properly with sugar and stuff. All added an a pre made crust. You could buy those things and basically take the crust. Put it in a pan. Put the apples in there and put it in the oven and cook it. You did not make the pie from scratch, and someone might say, Who did you make this from scratch? This is delicious, you might say. Oh, yes, I did. But you would be lying. Or you could pick the apples from a tree. Cut them yourself. Put in all the ingredients to make the sauce or whatever people put in apple pie. Get flour on water and whatever other ingredients you need to make dough and make the crust yourself. Make the crust yourself. Everything is made by you. And so people. People might then say, Did you make this from scratch? And you can honestly say, Yes I did. I made this from scratch. Did you buy this in a store? This is delicious. Did you get this from a bakery? No, actually, I made it from scratch, so that's usually very impressive. Right from raw ingredients, there's a funny quote. It's not funny and interesting quote from a TV series called Cosmos. My Favorite, my favorite TV series from the 19 seventies and the host in the Siri's really talking about making things from scratch. And he says, If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, if you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, which is why I chose this you must. You must first invent the universe. That means you can't have an apple pie unless there's a universe first. So that's really from scratch. OK, let's look at a few examples. I baked this cake from scratch all by myself. This is like our example before again, it's usually for food. I suppose you could talk about building Ah little hut from scratch. You could talk about other things, too, but basically here we're talking about making something from basic raw ingredients. Ingredients of its food or or parts, ingredients or parts. Everything has become a mess, and we don't know what to do. Okay, this is a team, and they're trying Teoh figure out how to build or design, build or design a new smartphone. They want toe come up with the best, coolest new smartphone. There is why my am looks like a P, but anyway, and they're having trouble. They can't do it. Everything has become a mess. Mess means things are not going well, it's It's a disaster. When things are a disaster, we say everything's a mess. It's all a mess. Well, maybe says this consultant. Maybe if you start again from scratch, you'll get it right. That might not be great advice in this case, but let's not focus on that, Okay? It could be advice that someone might give someone has started something. It's not going well. We might start again. Start again from scratch. In this case, that means from the beginning, after the financial crisis in 2008 many people had to start their lives over from scratch. OK, so crisis is a terrible event, either a terrible event in society or a terrible event to a group or terrible event for yourself. And that crisis is something that happened to many people. Many people lost their savings. Okay, after the financial crisis in 2008 many people had to start their lives over from scratch. What does that mean? Die and then become reborn? No lives here means that they had built things up. Maybe savings accounts, maybe. Ah, there. I don't know their retirement plans, things like that. And all of these things were destroyed because of the financial crisis in 2000 and eight, and so they had to begin their financial lives. So it's not their whole lives, their financial lives over from the beginning, from scratch, not the beginning of, like getting a job and stuff. Maybe, but maybe they had to start building up what they had before again from from the start of saving it could it could mean many different, many different things here for many different people. But the idea is something terrible happened. Then they have to go back and do it all again suggests doing things again. So when you start fresh, you start from the beginning or from the basics, and that often means raw ingredients. 35. The Last Straw: last straw or the last straw, the last straw. Now this one is based on another expression. There's another expression which goes the the straw that broke the camel's back. Now a straw is a very small and light thing, kind of like like that's kind of like a piece of dry grass, and it's kind of kind of crunchy. And the idea of the straw that broke the camel's back is, if you keep adding things, eventually something bad is going to happen, even if it's a very small thing. So if we have here a camel and get ready for this, this is going to be the worst camel that you've ever seen in your entire life. So we've got a camel here, very ugly, and the camel has two humps, right? I'm so sorry, big eyes, and you keep putting straw on the camel's back, and it's getting heavier and heavier. Each straw is small, but still it adds up. It adds up, it adds up, and finally you add one little straw. This one is a little straw, think, and it breaks the camel's back. So the idea is it's this tiny thing. Yes, and two people on the outside. It looks like just this minor tiny thing, but it's being laid on this huge pile of other tiny things that have been building up and building up. And finally, basically, it causes the camel to collapse or or die or whatever. So when we say the last straw, we're talking about this last piece of straw that's maybe making us completely lose our minds or lose patients or make a huge change very suddenly or have a breakdown, means we just cry uncontrollably. So then people say, Why are you crying? It was such a small thing. Just somebody saying one little rude thing to you and your your crying like this. You look like you're about to die. What's up? Well, it was the last straw. It was this tiny piece on top of this huge pile, and so it broke your back. It made you lose whatever patients you had. It made you. It made you maybe quit your job. It made you do something sudden, and it's always about bad things. We're talking about bad things, and it's usually something very small. And so when we're explaining some very may be severe action, like quitting or moving to some other country. Uh, as a reaction to what happened to us when we're explaining that we used the last straw to talk about the little piece that made finally, us do that severe thing. That maybe unexpected thing. So you lost your job, and then your girlfriend or your boyfriend broke up with you, and then maybe some money was stolen from you, and then you you accidentally dropped your phone in the screen, broke. And then finally, someone writes a single little comment, a critical, a critical comment on your on your instagram or wherever. And you you just break down crying or you do something you would never normally dio. And it's a small thing, but it's the last straw. And sometimes in movies you'll see people say this when their patients has finally broken and they're gonna do something crazy like quit. I quit. It's the last straw, the last straw to explain that this is the thing that has made me that has made me snap. Sometimes snap means to go completely crazy, but sometimes it just means to become furious or upset. Or maybe quit or maybe break up with someone or divorce someone. This expression is never said in a calm voice. Pretty much, never. It's a it's the last straw. Well, maybe that that would be very scary. Maybe that means you're about toe. Kill somebody. I'm afraid it's the last straw, but more often you'll hear somebody shouting it as they ask for a divorce, for example. So now it's example. Time. Let's look at a few examples to get a better feeling for last straw, and I'm gonna again right the here the last straw, because almost always, almost always will say the the last straw. In fact, I probably should have written that as part of the expression. Anyway, I've been mistreated at work over and over. Nobody appreciates me, and yesterday I got demoted. It's the last straw I'm putting in my two week notice. Que two week notice is. When you say you're going to quit, it's letting them know that you're going to quit. Two week notice and I got demoted means that I was in this position in my job, and now I'm down here. So they didn't give me a promotion. They demoted me. They put me in a lower position and nobody appreciates me and I mistreated. Now that could be many different things. Maybe it's colleagues saying things that aren't nice. Maybe it's the boss being very critical. Whatever this person can't can't take it anymore. Too many too many humps in my m Thinking about camels too much can't take it anymore. I quit. I quit. This example is a husband and a wife, and maybe they don't have a very good relationship. They're having some difficulties because one is always unkind to the other, saying unkind things. You've always been mene. Mene means unkind. You've always been mean to me, and I've been able to bear it. Barrett means tolerate it as though it's on your shoulders and you can OK, OK, another straw, another straw, another straw. You can bear it. I've been able to bear it, Tolerate it, stand it. We can say, Tolerate it, Stand it. I can't stand. It is when we no longer can bear it. No longer can tolerate it, but this is the last straw. I want a divorce. I want a divorce may seem like a small thing this time, but remember, it's the idea of the straw that broke the camel's back. There's already a huge pile there. This person has been able to bear it for so long that it's just this one little thing. That's all it takes to make the other person say, I can't bear it anymore. I can't stand it. And then usually there's some very severe action, like asking for a divorce or quitting, not always. Sometimes it's just crying or being very upset. It's often the description we use when we are doing some life changing thing. It's the final thing that pushed us to do that life changing thing that we've been thinking about for a long time, because the situation that we've been in for a long time is and has been unbearable, right? So it's just that little push, and when we talk about it, we call it the last straw in the past or in the present. One thing I would like to mention before we go on to the next one, try to keep the visual in mind when you want to remember expressions if you can make it visual, or you can connect your own life and your own stories to it, it's going to stick much better. That's why we often draw little pictures. I want to make it sticky in your brain, So draw your own little camel with straws as a way to remember it. Making pictures is a great way to keep things in your mind. 36. Blew It: I blew it. I blew it or he blew it. Or she blew it or you blew it. We can put whatever we want here. I she he they and we usually say blew it. But we could say the present tense sometimes blow, often used in the negative. Hey, don't blow it. And I wanna I had another one here to to blow your cover. Okay, So what does this mean? Well, to blow, it means to make a huge mistake to make a huge mistake. And often this is a mistake that ruins everything. It ruins everything. So, for example, you have a group of friends and the friends air planning a surprise party for another friend's birthday, and they're going to come home, and everybody is going to be waiting in his house. And then when he opens the door, they're gonna jump out and say Surprise, Happy birthday. But one person, one person at the surprise parties, maybe a little dumb and texts. Uh, this birthday person, The birthday, The birthday boy. We can sometimes say the the birthday. Birthday boy. Can we say birthday, man? No, We always say birthday boy birthday girl, even for adults, okay. And one person who is supposed to be waiting to surprise the birthday boy. This person texted this person earlier in the day to say, Hey, well, I'll see you later tonight. So when the birthday boy opens the door and everybody jumps out, he either has to pretend to be surprised. Or maybe just show that he's not surprised at all and say, Oh, yeah, yeah, Larry told me earlier. He texted me and said, See you tonight at the party and then someone will say to Larry, Larry, you blew it. You ruined everything. You made a huge mistake. You did a stupid thing. So make a mistake, Do a dumb thing, uh, ruined plans. You blew it. And if it's in the future, then we would say, Don't blow it, Don't blow it. That might give someone a lot of pressure. Someone's about to go up on stage for ah performance. And then someone offstage says, Hey, don't blow it. That means don't make a big mistake. Don't make a huge error while you're up there that might make someone feel really nervous. Oh, thanks. Oh, right. Don't blow it. That one is for the future. The thing you're about to do. Okay. What about this one? Blow your cover to blow your cover means you no longer are hidden. So you might have seen in movies people talk about being undercover means people don't know who they really are. Maybe they're pretending to be in a gang, but really, they're police officer finding out information about the gang there undercover, they make a mistake and maybe say their real name by accident. When they're sleeping, they might blow their cover or basically let everyone else know that they aren't who they have been saying they are. They're no longer undercover. People know who they really are. You blew your cover. Okay, Let's look at some examples. You were supposed to finish the report by Friday. Friday has come and gone. You blew it. You blew it. So this is maybe someone's boss shouting at them for making a mistake, right? You were supposed to. That means it was your job. It was on you was on you to finish the report. Maybe just something about the finances of this company. That's their job. And this is a person speaking as the boss of this person boss and maybe accountant. Okay. You were supposed to finish the report by Friday. Friday has come and gone. What does that mean? That means that it's not Friday anymore. Maybe it's Saturday. Maybe it's Monday. Okay. Friday has come. You're supposed to finish it by Friday. And now Friday's gone. Now it's this day Hyundai, and it's still not done. Mm. Terrible. Yeah. Blewitt notice, I say yeah. Here. Well, this isn't really a word, but it's basically saying you blew it. I wrote, Yeah. Just to give you a feeling off how people say it when people are writing text messages, sometimes they'll right? Yeah. Instead of you. When they want to say something like you blew it, they might say, Yeah, yeah. Why? A instead of you, You blew it. You blew it. Just Just so you know, this is not actually correct English. I'm just writing it here so that you know how this is used and how it sounds. When people often say it, they say it quickly. You blew it. Yeah, blew it or I blew it. I blew it. Or were they really blew it? Your favorite team sports team. They played perfectly the whole season. And then right at the end, they were. They were in the championship and they were about to win. They made it all the way to the championship and they were about to win. And then one player made a huge mistake and really blew it. This person blew it. Or we could say the team because they almost one, we could say they blew it. He really blew it. And that caused the team to blow it. So the team blew it and this player blew it. They almost one. But they didn't. Finally, they failed. Uh, okay, One more example. So there is Gregg and there's Tina. And Greg is Tina's boyfriend. And Greg forgot Tina's birthday. Big mistake, big mistake. And Tina is so upset. Tina is furious. Maybe hurt hurt. And Greg feels so guilty. He feels so sorry. Guilty. And he feels that Tina is about to break up with him. He feels that Tina is about to break up with him. That's how serious this is. Wow. I'm so sorry, Tina. I know I blew it. I know. I blew it. Please give me another chance. That means please don't break up with me. If your boss is about to fire you or you're on a team and they they tell you you can't play anymore or you have a girlfriend or a boyfriend and they're about to break up with you and you beg you say Please give me another chance. Give me another chance. I know I blew it. So this is recognizing a big mistake. Recognizing a big mistake. This one is really common. So when you want to talk about your mistakes or others, mistakes usually very serious mistakes, huge mistakes you can use, blew it or sometimes blow it. 37. Know Something Inside Out: No. Something inside out to know something inside out. We often use this expression to describe expertise. If someone is very, very knowledgeable about something, this could be for a lot of different things. You might know a process inside out because you've studied it a lot or you're part of it. Somehow you may know an object inside out, like a car or a computer. A thing. Something technical. Okay, you may know a place inside out your city, your neighborhood, your home. Okay. You may know an idea. An idea or group of ideas inside out. Maybe a religion or a book or something. The point is that you know a lot about it. You you know it very well. And because you know it very well, you can help others understand it. You can't explain its to people. You don't understand. It's OK. I know this thing. This inside out. Let me try to explain it to you so that you can understand it better. Maybe we don't know it very well. And we say I'm going to study this on to until I know it inside out. Until that means I don't know it well. But I want to know it. Well, very, very well. The idea of something inside out means the outside and the inside not only for things, though, just means completely. 100%. You really, really know it. Well, you are an expert. Maybe you are an expert of this thing of this thing. So hopefully after we go through some examples, you will know this particular English expression inside, out, inside out. One thing I want to mention quickly. You can change this new, knowing some things. Know things. Okay, You could say things. I know. I know these things inside out. Can we change this? Can we change it to outside in or something? No, no, we can't change that. Okay, so this can have some small changes, and this can change. Intense, intense, tense, tense. All right, let's talk about some examples. I know our sales flow inside out, but I know nothing about accounting. Could you give me a few pointers? Could you give me a few pointers? So sales flow, sales flow. Different companies have different techniques or process of doing sales. Do this and then do this and then do this and then you can make a sale. So maybe this person is a good, good sales person. And, ah, they know the process of doing sales. They know how to do sales in this company for their product, whatever they're selling very well. I know the process inside up. I know our sales flow inside out, but I know nothing about accounting counting. Maybe they need some help using Excel or something like that. They don't know how to do any of the balancing of the books. Maybe they need to start doing it for some reason. Suddenly they have a need to know something about accounting. Whatever. We won't focus on that. The focus is on this this process that they know inside out. Could you give me a few pointers? Pointers are tips. Suggestions. I like a little lesson. Little lessons. You could say little lessons. Give me a few pointers. Well, you could try this. Do this. Do that. If you need help with something, especially how to do something. How to do something. You may ask someone for pointers. Hey, you know, you know, accounting and excel inside out inside out. You know, accounting and excel inside out. Do you think you could give me a few pointers. I'm trying, Teoh. You know it inside out. I know the sales flow inside out. So one is a process, and one maybe is not a process, but one is a, ah, body of knowledge and maybe skill on a specific software application. Maybe excel. That's the thing. You know, This is the thing. I know. They're different. We each have a different area of expertise. I know this city inside, out, inside out. Ask me where anything is. Ask me where anything is. Now. Some people really like to travel around in their city and explore, Try, try restaurants, right And really look around the city. They like to know their city deeply. Every street, every cafe, every shopping center, everything. If you are this type of person you like to explore, you know your city inside out. Now I live in New York, so it's so big. There's so much that I can't say that I know it inside out. Brooklyn is very big. Queens is very big. Manhattan is very big, and I know it fairly well. But I haven't lived here my whole life, so I don't know it inside out yet. But it's possible that some day I will if you ask me. Hey, where can I get really, really tasty Greek food? Do you know any place where I can I can buy? Uh, this particular brand of blue jeans? Yeah. Yeah. There's one in Greenwich Village. It's awesome. Fantastic. Why? Why do I know everything? Because I've been there. I know the city inside out. Okay, so I want to make it clear. Places, things, ideas, psychologies, philosophies, religions, books, objects, whatever It may be your an expert about that you really are. Then you know it inside out. What are you an expert about? What do you know? Inside out. Write down an example or speaking example. Record yourself. Talking about what? You know inside out. Try to use the expression. Listen to it again. Make some notes and see what improvements you can make. Maybe even try it one more time. One more time. I just want to make clear I've said this before. Sometimes I introduced new words like in the last example. We talked about pointers and lots of other words and expressions that might be new. I'm doing this on purpose so that you will pick these out. We're not really focusing on them. I'm telling you what they mean, but I hope you will. Then go out and explore those mawr. Do some research on your own. Try to find examples and make your own. Actually, you should be learning many mawr expressions and new words than were actually officially talking about. In this course, it's that way on purpose. So I hope you are doing extra research and extra work to find the meanings of the phrases and the words that we're learning on the side. 38. Going Above and Beyond: going above and beyond, above and beyond, and you often see people add above and beyond the call. The call of duty call of duty is often something that's related to the military. The call of duty is what you must do your responsibility in the military, and it's often a very formal thing. Okay, so you'll see that sometimes. And sometimes people will say that maybe about a job, something you're supposed to take care of, something you're responsible for, you will see that. But this expression generally is not not so formal. It's not formal or informal. It can be used in plenty of different ways. It's just a very, very common way to say to do mawr than what others expect of you to do more than what others expect of you. When we talked about a similar expression before to to go go the extra mile and it's basically exactly the same thing. Okay, so to go the extra mile or to go above and beyond or to go above and beyond the call of duty is to do more than you really need to. Now, why would you go the extra mile or go above and beyond. Well, you might want to really impress someone to really impress someone you might doom or than they expect you to do. Maybe they expect you to do 12 and three. But you also do 45 and six. Whatever those things, maybe maybe it's a service. Maybe it's something about your job. Maybe it's helping someone. Whatever it may be, you can use it for lots of different things. Maybe you're trying to show your willingness to be helpful. Maybe you're just showing that you're a really good person. Maybe you are just a really good person. And you always like to really, really help people, right? Maybe. Maybe it's just your pride in your work. This is the good meaning of pride, pride in in your work. If you have pride in your work, you want to do a really good job. So you always go the extra mile. That's the good meaning. Pride has a kind of negative meaning to like, huh? My work is better than everyone else, but this is the good meaning. Okay, that's the idea. And we might use it when we're talking about what great things other people did for us to help us, and we feel very happy about that. And when we talk about that person who did that extra thing for us, we say, you know, he or she really always goes above and beyond and that's the thing that really stands out. That's the thing that really stands out about him or her. That's what really impresses me about him or her. I really recommend her for this job. So let's say your your ah ah boss, or maybe a university professor and someone asks you for a recommendation letter, you might ask a previous boss for a recommendation letter. You might also ask a ah ah, previous, maybe professor or someone you know for a letter of recommendation to get a new job or to get into a better school graduate school. Whatever. And if the comment in that recommendation letter is, he or she always goes above and beyond, always goes the extra mile and does extra, and that really makes him or her stand out very impressive. Then the person who reads that is going to say wow, yes, this person seems like a really good person to choose to hire to accept, for example. Okay, that's the idea. Um, if we're gonna do a visual still quick visual, this is what we expect. And going above and beyond means this is what we get. This is what we expect. And this is what we This is what we get. We get even more. All right, Let's look at a few examples. Sonya goes above and beyond when it comes to her work. I think that's why everyone respects her so much. That's why everyone respects her so much. She's a very hard worker. She always does more. She always goes above and beyond. If it's in the past went above and beyond we can say going above and beyond. But we can't really change this part. This part can't be adjusted. Okay? We can't say above or beyond or anything like that. No, no, no. Uh, when it comes to, when it comes to is a way for us to say this kind of thing, not that kind of thing, because maybe when it comes to her family life, she doesn't go above and beyond. Maybe she just likes to relax at home. She doesn't like to do a lot of work at home or, you know, do extra things for her family. I don't know, just for example. So she Onley goes above and beyond. Maybe when it comes to her job, her work. Okay, so that's why we use when it comes to, we want to focus on a particular area. It's actually a very, very useful little phrase when it comes to when it comes to, you can use it whenever you want to focus. Well, when it comes to pronunciation, when it comes to pronunciation, my English is actually pretty good. But when it comes to using expressions, especially American expressions, I really have a tough time. You don't need to go above and beyond. Just do what you're supposed to do. Just do what you're supposed to dio. All right, now why would somebody say this? Why would somebody say this? Well, let's say let's say time is important. Time is key. That means important, right? And, ah, speed is most important. But there's one person who is a perfectionist and they always want to do everything. S t sorry, perfectionist. They always want to do everything perfectly, perfectly, perfectly and they can't stand because their perfectionist they can't stand doing anything that's not perfect bothers them. However, they work in a team where speed is important and things not being perfect is just fine. We need to finish this work. That's the most important thing. And if it's not perfect, okay, so sometimes going above and beyond is unnecessary and maybe even a problem if it causes someone to work more slowly. If this person is always I need to finish it. I need to make it perfect, and that slows down the whole team. It's actually impeding progress. Impede I M P E d. Means it's making something not able to happen as quickly as it should, right? So don't go above and beyond. You don't need to go above and beyond. Just do what you're supposed to do and then we can finish more quickly. Okay, So sometimes, sometimes being a perfectionist isn't the best isn't the best thing for the first time, I've written a word like this. So I hope I hope that's okay. When you make your example to try to use this expression, try to fit it into something that you did in the past mawr than you were expected to do so . Talk about a time when you went above and beyond, or you went the extra mile fitted into the sentence naturally or record yourself, explaining those things you did in the past. Try to use as much detail as you can. I make sure to include above and beyond in your in your example. That's actually more difficult. If it's not written down and you're just speaking, it's actually challenging yourself to use this expression without really preparing in advance, and that can really help you get a better feeling for how to use it. 39. Drop the Ball: drop the ball, drop the ball. When you fail, you make a mistake and it causes problems for others around you or for yourself. You did that in the past. You do it now. You might do it in the future. We say, Drop the ball, Don't drop the ball. That would be for the future. Don't drop the ball. Ah, I think I I just dropped the ball right, And maybe in the past, I really I really dropped the ball. This is for a specific thing, though it's not in general, it's about not doing something well or failing or making a single mistake that causes problems around the mistake. Other things are affected. Other things are affected direct directly. Somehow you spell affected. Other things are affected directly by that single mistake. Just to be clear, it is something that you can point to an event. That's why we say drop the ball That happened. If it's very general like a long term problem, right? Maybe someone is unsatisfied with their work, and they regularly just don't do their best. We usually would not use it for that kind of thing. That's a different kind of problem here. It's a single mistake. Ah, single bad thing that happened. Ah, single failure. And you can say that you did that, and that means you dropped the ball. You made that mistake except we don't say you made that mistake. We say you you blew it. We say you, you drop the ball. When you When you say this, you are kind of blaming someone. It's a way to blame. If I did it, I dropped the ball. If you tell someone, make sure you don't drop the ball, then you're telling them, Don't make a mistake. This thing is very important. If you do this wrong, everything will be everything will be bad or something bad will happen. That might make them nervous. So maybe that's not a good idea. But anyway, the meaning here is about a single mistake that everybody can point to and see. Whether it's you or somebody else. Why do we say dropped the ball well in many sports or games, even there is a ball and let's say it's football. American football. You have to carry the ball. If you drop the ball and the ball falls down, do the ball falls down. It's an accident. First, if the ball falls down, another team can pick it up and go the other way. Now you don't have the ball anymore. They have the ball now. They can maybe score or they can win. So you've made a mistake that has affected your teams ability to maybe succeed and your team might fail or lose the game because you dropped the ball. And it's not only for American football. There are lots of different sports or games where you're not supposed to drop the ball. But usually if you do drop the ball, you didn't try to do it. And after you do it, you say Oops, oops or Oh my God, what a terrible mistake. I dropped the ball again. I can't believe it. I'm going to get fired. Okay, so it can be for sports. Can be for games. Can be about an actual ball if it is a ball. But it can also be about things in life, work, school among friends, okay? And it's something we can point to if someone was responsible on this trip for maybe taking care of the, uh, taking care of the reservation for the bus. They didn't get the reservation. Then we would say you really dropped the ball. So sorry. I'm sorry I dropped the ball. I'm so sorry. Okay, pretty simple. Drop the ball. Let's look at some examples. Tina didn't do the writing she was supposed to do. So now we can't finish the project on time unless one of us picks up the slack, picks up the slack. She really dropped the ball or she really she really dropped the ball. Uh uh. OK, pick up the slack. One of us picks up the slack. To pick up the slack means that now there's a new area where things are not as good and someone needs to. Someone needs to do the extra work to make it like this again. Some somebody has failed here. They dropped the ball. They didn't do what they were supposed to do. What is the thing? We need to be able to point toward it if we're going to use this expression? Yes. The thing she did is not do her writing. We can point to it. It's not about people's personality, right? Teen is very lazy. She dropped the ball. No. Well laziness is not dropping the ball. Maybe because she's lazy. She dropped the ball by weaken se by. She dropped the ball by. She dropped, uh, ball by failing to do her part of the project. And that's the danger. When you work with a team, if one person isn't doing what they're supposed to do, that everybody loses five people now lose unless one of them picks up the slack. I used to have a bad, a bad trait in university. Now I'm better, Much better now. I can. I can work better with people now. But when I was in the university, I did not trust anybody. I didn't want my grade to be affected by someone else's laziness. I didn't realize that I was supposed to be learning team skills, right? I thought, No, it's my great. And now four other people could cause me to Teoh not do well in this class. So I would just say at the beginning of most projects Listen, guys, I'm going to do this whole project by myself and you guys just relax. Don't worry, I'll do it. See, I've done all these projects so you guys can relax. You'll get the grade. I'll do everything because I don't trust any of you. That's terrible. It's terrible. I was not a good person in college, but I did work very hard because I was afraid that someone would drop the ball. Okay, right about an example in which you or someone else you know, dropped the ball and also talk about what that caused, What effect that had tried to use very clear and specific details. Make sure to use interesting syntax. That means different types of sentence is not only the same sentence again and again, which is often the problem for even higher level English learners. And don't forget to use this expression, dropped the ball or dropped the ball. 40. My Hands are Full: My hands are full. My hands are full and my hands are tied. My hands are tied now I want to be very clear. Thes two don't have the same meaning. They're different. I want to talk about them together because they sound similar. My hands are then we could say tied or full. Actually, the 1st 1 is simpler. My hands are full. We can have a very nice visual here. We have two hands on a little down on. There's a lot of stuff in your hands. And so they're full. My hands were full. Maybe you're holding a lot of things with your hands on. When someone tries to give you something else, you say I can't. I can't. My hands are full. My hands are full. Doesn't mean you actually have your hands full of something like this. Could be one thing over here and to in this hand. One thing on your arm and you're trying to carry everything together. My hands are full, but it's ah, it's got another meaning to Okay, so it has that basic meeting. Could you Do you think you could grab grab that cup for me? My hands are full. I can't get it. Thank you. Thank you. So that's the simple meaning. The other meaning, though, is eyes more general a little bit more abstract. One meaning of my hands are full. Is that I'm very busy too busy to do something or too busy to take on a new responsibility . But it's usually something that's happening right now. You'd say my plate is a bit full right now. If it's more general, my hands are full. Is usually right now. I'm sorry, I can't right now. My hands are really full. I e just can't do it. I don't have time. I don't have Don't have time to do that. I don't have time to do that. Why? Because my hands are full. It's not physical. My hands aren't actually full. Just means I have a lot of things to do. A lot of things to take care of. Okay, but we also say that someone is a handful. He's a handful. So what does that mean? He's a handful means not a handful, but a handful. This is related means that he's difficult to take care off, and maybe he takes more time or energy than other people would. So that's the basic idea. We also say something is, uh, handful. Maybe he is a handful or it is a handful. If you have a responsibility that's difficult to manage because it's complicated or requires a lot of work, you can say it's kind of a handful. It's a lot to do. There's a lot of stuff involved in doing that responsibility in doing that thing. I didn't know when I started doing this that it would be such a handful, such a handful. So it's like we're busy now. We have many things we have to take care of. I didn't know it was going to be such a handful. If I had known, I wouldn't have agreed to do it. Or maybe a parent has a child, and that child is always misbehaving, always misbehaving. Mother or father might say, he's kind of a handful. He is, Ah, handful. Does that mean carrying him no means taking care of him requires more work? Then maybe taking care of another child who's well behaved is always running around. He's always doing bad stuff. He's mischievous, he's always misbehaving. He is kind of a handful. So That's the idea for this one. I can't do that. Sorry. Room in my hands are full physically or I don't think I can do that today because I have so much stuff going on. My hands are full. I'm really sorry. I wish I could. I can't. My hands are full or he's handful. It's a handful. It's a big responsibility. There's a lot to do. OK, so that's the idea. What about Hands are tied time? So now we have two hands again. Two hands, beautiful fingers. Very nice little figures, little finger ease. And there's a rope tying the hands together. They can't move. So this one doesn't mean we're busy. It means we have things that we have to do that prevent us from doing something else. Okay, let's just be clear. It might sound like it's the same as hands full. Hence full busy. Lots of responsibilities. Many things going on, hands are tied. Maybe we're not busy, but we do have this thing we have to do and we can't get out of it. We can't not do that thing because we have committed to it. We've said we would do it. We've maybe even made a promise or we feel trapped. We feel trapped in a situation. We wish we could get out of that. We wish we could do something else. But we say my hands are tied. Maybe that's a legal thing. Maybe you want to do something, but legally you can't. Maybe it's good that you don't. Maybe you want to do something wrong. You can't do that. Why not? Legally, my hands are tied, My hands are tied, not physically. It just means you're not allowed to do that. Okay, so maybe a business wants to use some new creative idea for a video, but that's not appropriate. Maybe it's saying something bad about the other company that's wrong. Maybe there are rules about what you can and can't say about Other companies can't do that . Our hands are kind of tied. Our hands are tied. Often we use this one with a feeling of frustration. We don't want our hands to be tied. We want to be able to do something else, but we cannot. Why? Because of another obligation, another responsibility. We have agreed to the law. Some rules, some guidelines. You know, I'd really like to do that. I'd like if we could go out and do our meetings in a coffee shop. But the company has rules. We have guidelines. So I'm sorry. I can't I can't allow it. We need to have our meetings here. Well, come on. Meetings in the coffee shop would be way more interesting. I'm sorry. My hands are tied, my hands are tied. Maybe I would like to let you do that, but I don't have a choice. I'm stuck, so it's more like stuck. So let's look at a few examples. One person says, Can you help me with something? Can you help me with something? The other says I've got my hands full at the moment. I've got my hands full at the moment. Could you wait? Could you wait? I will help you right now. I'm so busy doing a lot of things. Five minutes. Give me five minutes. Give me five minutes and I will help. You said OK, hands are full, hands are full. And we've talked about adding kind of in a bit to make things sound softer to ah downplay. If we want to downplay it a bit, we can use kind of have my hands full or my hands are a bit full at the moment. Can you wait five minutes? My hands are pretty full with work and school stuff. I wish I had more free time to hang out with friends. Wish I had more free time to hang out with friends. Pretty full means not so full that I can't manage anything. But quite it's like saying quite quite full. My hands are quite full at the moment. Pretty sounds more natural, Spent more natural. If we wanted to make that stronger, we would say very or really, that would be okay or so the hands air so full at the moment. I can't do anything I want. I have no free time. It sucks. It sucks. It sucks. Okay. I want to spend the afternoon with you. But I've already agreed to attend a six o'clock meeting. My hands are tied. My hands are tied. I don't think I can get out of it. Get out of it. Means to find a way not to do that. Find a way not to do that, to avoid doing that. Okay, Now this one sounds a little bit like hands full. You have a meeting that mean you're busy. So is that the same? No, it's different. The focus here is on this. My hands are tied means I only have one thing to do. But that thing is locking me so that I can't do what I want to do. It's not about being busy. It's about not being able to get out of it. If it's something that you can't get out of or something that you have to do or a rule you have to follow. Your hands are tied, your hands are tied and you have no other way. You have to do that. You have to go to the meeting. So to get a really good feeling for this, make sure to make examples for each make a couple of examples for hands are tied and a couple for hands full. They're different, but your examples should make it clear that they're different. They should show the differences. And if you were to show them to me, which you can do, by the way and I hope you dio I should be able to tell without knowing this expression, what this means and what this means. Ah good example should be able to do that 41. No Can Do: no can do. No can do. Hey, this is a very direct way, very direct, very straight. It's a very direct way to say I can't do that. Well, why not just say I can't do that? It's a good question. You can say I can't do that But sometimes if we say I can't do that, it means I'm unable to do it. It means I don't have this skill, right? Not always. Maybe I'm not allowed to do it. So I say, I can't do that. But the feeling is I'm unable. I don't have the skill. So if you say no can do, the feeling is not, I don't have the skill. The feeling is Mawr like I won't I won't for some reason. So it's not that this one is better. It's just that it expresses a slightly different feeling. This one gives the feeling of unable but can be used in other ways like I won't where I'm not allowed. This one has the feeling of I won't or I'm not allowed or it's not possible and doesn't focus on my lack of skills. So I hope that makes sense. Okay, it focuses more on the fact that it simply isn't possible and won't be done by me anyway. Okay? And it could be for a number of reasons. Maybe. Maybe it's against the rules. No can do. Why it's against the rules so you can follow it after someone says, Why can you do this? No can do why it's against the rules or why it's not possible. That doesn't mean I can't do it personally because I don't have enough skill. It means nobody can do it. It simply isn't possible, Okay? Or why I don't have time, Why I don't want to. And you can say these things to Can you do this? I I can't because I don't have time. I can't because it's against the rules. I can't because I don't want to. Actually, no, I can't because I don't want to. Maybe would just be I don't I don't want to or we would just say Sorry, I'm sorry. Sometimes sorry means no. So no can do is a really great way to say no to someone to refuse to refuse. And it's always a response response to a request someone has made. A R e Q U E s t request. Someone has made a request and we're going to say, uh, no Ken do. It's not to direct, So it's OK to say, definitely okay to say it's when you want to be kind of direct and it is usually not rude and you don't want to maybe explain too much on. Maybe you want to move on to something else. It's also just another way to say this, and we usually need other ways to say things right. So hopefully, now that we have a feeling about this one, we can look at some examples and understand more deeply how to use it as a response. One friend says. Sing me a song that means sing a song to me. The other friend says, No can do, no can do And you can say it with a smile. You can say it with a laugh. No can do. No can do. What does that mean? Does that mean I don't know how to sing? Maybe. But it probably means I don't want to sing. I don't want to. Sorry, no can do. You can add that in front. Sorry, no can do. Why? I don't feel like it. I don't feel like it. No. Okay, I'll sing. Wow. Allah, can you meet me tomorrow at six. Can you meet me tomorrow at 60 sorry. No can do. No can do. So what does this one mean? That means it's not possible. Why not? Because maybe I'm busy. I've agreed to do something else. I can't be there at that time. Then another person this other person might say. OK, shall we, uh, choose a different time? What about what About what? About eight? Yeah. Oh, yeah. I can do eight. I can do eight when we talk about times we use Do I can do that? I can do eight. Aiken, do five. Yeah, I can do that. Okay, so this no can do is not focused on willingness. I'm willing to go. I want to meet you. However, I have other plans. I have another thing scheduled, so no can do. Let's try another time. Let's find another time to meet, OK? It's a very flexible expression. I like it a lot 42. Go the Extra Mile: go the extra mile go the extra mile. Now we've talked about this one, I believe, a little bit before. But I'd like to just make sure that it's very clear and talk about it by itself, because it's so common that if you don't know it, then you might not really be able to express this idea very clearly. It's similar to another expression. Go above and beyond. So if you know, go above and beyond which I think that you do, then you should know this one. But we should still look at the usage. So basically it means to do Mawr. Then what people expect off you to do more than what people expect of you. This could be about service or being helpful, and usually it's about being helpful. It could be about showing passion or excitement. It could be about maybe being eager to do something. If you're so excited, eager about something, a project or whatever, you might do a lot mawr related to that. So you you go the extra mile. But again, usually we're talking about here being helpful and giving someone basically a service of some kind, right? That's the basic meaning and I think to get a better feeling for it, we should look at a few simple examples, but I think the meaning is is easy to understand. Oh, you did more than I thought you would do. Thank you so much. You really went the extra mile for me. You really went the extra mile for me? Yeah, we can. We can replace this with went going, but we can't change this stuff the extra mile and extra mile. No, no, no. The extra mile. This can't change. I stayed with my friend in Japan for two weeks. He went the extra mile to make me feel comfortable. He took me out to eat every evening and wouldn't let me pay the bill. He even introduced me to his friends. Okay. This is, by the way, a true story. A true story. Um, so he he did much more than I hoped. All I really wanted was to stay in his house. I asked him, he invited me to stay in his house and I thought, Oh, great. I can stay in his house. I'll try to stay out of the way. I would buy things for the house and for him to make, to make sure he knew that. I was very grateful, thankful. But he did way more than I imagined. Took me out. Eat bought me things, and I thought, maybe even it's too much. I feel guilty for accepting all these things, But he was and is such a nice person, such a nice person that, Ah, that he, I think, couldn't help going the extra mile for me. We can say for me because he's such a kind and generous, generous person, a kind and generous person. When I was working at that job, when I was working at that job, I always went the extra mile. I always went the extra mile like staying on weekends and working overtime, working overtime. Sometimes I even did other people's work. Well, let's say this is this is an office job and I'm so passionate about the work that I'm willing to work extra hours. I'm willing to do your work for you. I work very, very hard. Why? Because I'm passionate. Okay, This one maybe doesn't mean I'm doing a service for someone. I guess it means I'm being helpful, but it really shows maybe enthusiasm. Enthusiasm. Now, if this is related to a service job like being a waiter, then it also includes may be doing more for the people at the restaurant, telling jokes and giving them extra stuff like cake that they didn't order. That would be, perhaps going the extra mile to, including helping maybe other waiter staff or other people in the kitchen clean up after dinner. Whatever I can do to help, I am willing to go the extra mile. I always went the extra mile in that job. Okay, so now I hope you have a very clear, very clear understanding of this one. I know that you might have heard it before, and it's the same as going above and beyond, so you can use either of these two when you went to express this basic idea. 43. Dodge the Bullet: dodge the bullet. Dodge the bullet or to dodge a bullet or you dodged a bullet. I dodged a bullet. There are a lot of variations of this one. This one has many variations, huh? I dodged the bullet. You dodged a bullet. I tried to dodge the bullet, but I couldn't. Hey, what does this mean? Well, I think we should have a visual first. You know what a bullet is? Looks like that. And it comes out of a gun, comes out of a gun. So let's imagine there's a gun over there, and here is a person, and they're scared about the bullet. And they're like a person in the Matrix so they can move very fast and they move out of the way and the bullet goes, show and misses them. Because they you like in The Matrix, right? Hey, you dodged the bullet, But does it really mean dodge the bullet? Do we really do that? No, that wouldn't be a common expression. What does it mean? It means to get out of a duty that you don't want to to have to do. Maybe a responsibility, right? A responsibility. Something you have to do I don't want to do it. Ah, and for some reason, it turns out I don't need to do it, so I feel relieved. Oh, I really dodged a bullet. OK, that's the main way that it's used another way that it's used is to say I avoided some kind of danger, usually nonphysical, nonphysical. So let's say that you, um you feel really sick and you think that you're you're dying. You think you have a terrible illness, a terrible disease, and you go to the hospital and you're sure you're sure that you have some awful awful disease, right? Oh my God. And then the doctor says, No, Actually, it's this small thing. You're going to be fine. You're going to be OK and you show relief. I'm so relieved and you say I really I dodged the bullet there. I dodged the bullet. I thought for sure I was I was going to die, but I didn't. I dodged a bullet, so you avoided there some terrible consequence. So if we're talking about avoiding consequences, avoiding riel danger, sometimes physical danger, maybe a car that almost hits you or some narrow narrowly missed bad thing or some responsibility. All of that stuff. All of that stuff can be put into a variation of this expression. Okay. Thing to really get a feeling for it, though. We have to look at a few examples. Karen, can you go pick up Jeff at the airport? Oh, never mind. He said he's going to take the bus. You dodged the bullet. You dodged a bullet. So first I've asked Karen to do something. I've asked Karen to do something that she doesn't want to do, which is pick up Jeff at the airport. She has to get in her car. She has to drive very far. She doesn't like that. Maybe it's not fun. Nobody likes to go to the airport. 00 never mind. Maybe Jeff sent me a text message and the message says, taking the bus. So Jeff is coming here taking the bus. Okay. Oh, never mind. That means forget what I said. Forget what I said. He said he's going to take the bus. He said he's going to take the bus. You dodged the bullet, so you were going to have to do something you didn't want to do. That was going to be your task. You avoided it. Barely. You dodged the bullet. So good for you. Good for you. It's just a comment on the fact that you've avoided the thing you don't enjoy. I thought I was going to have to work this weekend, but I dodged the bullet. I dodged the bullet. They brought someone new on. They brought someone new on. So it's sort of similar to the last example. Maybe I was going to need to work overtime extra. Usually I don't have to work on Saturday and Sunday, but this time I do. I think so. But then they hire a new person. Brought someone new on means they hire someone new. That doesn't mean I'm fired. It just means they have a new person now, so I don't have to do it. Who? I'm relieved. It's such a relief. They have to work on Saturday because their new I've been here a while. I can take the weekend off. That's great. I dodged the bullet or I really dodged. Ah, bullet. Sometimes people will say, Uh although I feel that the is much, much more common. Seven people in the team out of 10 got laid off due to cutbacks. Sandra didn't, though, because she's irreplaceable. She felt like she dodged a bullet. She felt like she dodged a bullet so laid off seven out of 10 got laid off. Laid off is not the same as fired, but it's sort of like you. You can't work here anymore right now until we have enough money to pay you. Sometimes if a company gets smaller, they need to ask people to not work here. But maybe if they have more money, they can bring those people on first again toe work. So it's not quite the same as being fired, not quite the same as as getting fire cutbacks means the company is doing things to save money, save money, cut costs, something companies do often, especially with employees, reduce employees, save money. OK, Sandra didn't, though, because she's irreplaceable. You can't replace Sandra. She's so good. She was one of the three people in her team who didn't get laid off. They need her. She is essential. She felt like she dodged a bullet. It's not that she did anything. Try to dodge the bullet. Well, she's good at her job, but she avoided being laid off. She feels very relieved about that, right? So it's a feeling off. It's a feeling of who that didn't happen to me, I mentioned it can be for terrible things like diseases and things that are physical, like maybe a car or or something bad happening to your body, right? But it doesn't happen. It almost happens. Well, it can be for losing your job to. She didn't lose her job. She feels that she dodged a bullet. Why does it work here? Because it's seven out of 10 who got laid off. Most people got laid off, so it was very close to her. It almost happened to her because it happened to almost everybody around her, so it's the perfect expression for this situation. 44. Fire Away: Fire away, fire away. This is a reference to guns, but we don't usually use it to talk about guns. If there's someone who's in charge of soldiers, like a captain or whoever is in charge of a group of people who have guns. And the people are, soldiers are waiting to shoot their guns or fire their guns. When it's time, the person who's in charge, the person who's in charge will say, fire away, fire away, or maybe fire at will, or maybe just fire, fire. You'll hear that in movies a lot, right? But sometimes fire away. Okay? But we usually use this in daily life to talk about questions or ideas when we want to hear other people's questions or other people's ideas, usually questions, questions or ideas. And basically it means to give others permission to, oops, permission to start saying ideas or questions, to start speaking, okay, basically it means I'm listening. You can say your ideas now, I'm listening. You can ask your questions now, that's the idea. And it's very casual. It feels casual. If somebody says, I'd like to ask you a few questions, you could respond by saying, fire away, fire away. It means I'm very open to the questions that you may have. Go ahead and ask, giving permission to you to ask your questions. Okay? So that's the idea comes from shooting guns. Maybe that will help you remember it. Shooting bullets at someone is kind of like asking questions or giving ideas. It's a good way to maybe help it stay in your mind. But let's look at a few simple examples to make sure we know how to actually use it. So there's an important person, alright, IP, that's not what I epi means, but here it means important person. Oh, I think we can add V here. Oh, there we go, VIP. That's a one. And here is a reporter. A journalist could also say, and there may be at an event and this person was just giving a talk and has finished giving the talk, and now it's time for Q and a. Q and a. Q and a. And so this person, the reporter, says to the very important person, the speaker, and I have a question, and then the VIP says, Okay, far away. That means ask your question, asks you a question. If they say I have some questions, same answer. Okay, fire away. Fire away. Again, it's a very confident casual way to just say, yep, Say it. What do you want to say? Say it. Start, begin. Like that. It's like start shooting your gun now, even if it's only one shot. Okay, let's look at one more example. Now for this one, we have people at a brainstorming session or meeting. A brainstorming session or meeting. And this is where people will just throw out ideas, okay, trying to come up with ideas to maybe solve a problem in a business or maybe in a group or whatever. It doesn't matter. And we have one person who is writing down the ideas and they are sitting at a whiteboard with some, some markers, right? Maybe they're writing down the ideas in different colors. Maybe Jane's ideas are in green and Harvey is, ideas are in yellow and whatever. Okay, so this person, let's say it's Jasmine, because that's a fun name. Jasmine has some ideas. So Jasmine says, I have some ideas. I'd like to share. I'd like to share. Jasmine has some ideas in this brainstorming meeting. That's the point. Could you put these on the board to two here means that other people are also throwing out, throwing out, we say throwing out ideas. And then this person, let's say this is Clint is with the markers writing down the ideas. All right. Did I already give a name to that person? Okay. Who cares? You get the idea. All right. So Clint, when he wants to say that he's ready to write, he's got his marker at the board. He's ready to write. He says, fire away. Whenever you're ready. That means I'm ready to write. Then Jasmine can say, okay, well first I think we should blah, blah, blah, blah. Or we could love a level bot and start saying her ideas. She's pure. Firing away her ideas. It's especially good for a brainstorming session or a brainstorming meeting. Okay, so this one can give us a kind of rapid fire feeling as though ideas are coming very quickly, like bullets from a gun, which is what the expression comes from. So next time somebody says, hey, um, can I ask you a couple of questions instead of saying yes, you can say, Yeah, fire away, fire away. And if you're talking with an American who's a native English speaker, that should fit into the situation, into the conversation perfectly. 45. Good Point: good point. Good point. This one is very simple, but it's used in two different ways. One as a response to something someone else said usually or another as a description of how right someone else is for yourself. Sometimes you could say how right you think you are if you're talking about something, you said Basically, basically, the idea is something that was said by someone is you think correct? Ah, correct idea. Often when we talk about correct ideas, we say Points points a point is a single idea that someone is sharing about something. That's basically what a point is. I'm trying to make a point. I'm trying to trying to make a point. Hopes point pointing point. Trying to make a point means I'm trying to express a single idea trying to se one idea. Maybe it's a good idea. Maybe it's a bad idea, but I'm trying to say an idea that maybe you didn't think about before. That's my point. Do you get my point? What's the point now? You could say here, what's the point means what's the idea? But we could also say it means what's the purpose? What's the purpose of this. So sometimes point means I don't know the point purpose. Sometimes it means the basic idea. Sometimes it means what is the intention? What is the intention of what you're saying? What are you trying to tell people? Your intention? Okay, so that's basically what a point is Now a good point would be something that seems absolutely correct. Somebody says something that seems right, and you feel it's right and maybe it's a response. Maybe it's a response or a reply to what you said or someone else. And so you say Good point is a way to say that idea that you just said that you just communicated that point that you just made. I think it's I think it's correct. So let's look at a couple of examples. How can we use this very simple expression? Good point. I think you had a good point when you said that thinking too much isn't very useful. It can lead to a lot of anxiety. I think you had a good point when you said so. It's not just about the words. It's not only about the words that were said, it's also about the meaning of the words and maybe the correctness. Or maybe how appropriate the words are. This is a description of what somebody said, right? It's not just a response were describing what was said, which is this? Thinking too much isn't very useful. The description of this is that it is a good point. So we say, I think you had a good point. We can say I have a good point I made Ah, good point. That is a good point. OK, so that's the basic idea. Just to explain this very quickly. Thinking too much isn't very useful. That means if we're always thinking, thinking, thinking we might worry can lead to lead to or cause a lot of anxiety. Anxiety means worry stress, something we feel inside an uncomfortable feeling of worrying all the time. I think you had a good point when you said that, or we could say when you talked about thinking too much, being the cause of a lot of anxiety. I think you had a very good point. A very good point we use make we use have usually make and have a lot of people study English, but few English learners speak it well. I think it's because they are too afraid to actually get out there and have conversations. I'm sharing my opinion, and someone listening to my opinion may be listening. And then after I finished, say good point. So they think that what I said is right, Yeah, good point. I agree. Or maybe I hadn't considered that. I hadn't thought about that before. Yeah, yeah, I think that's right. Good point. All right, so this is just a response to something someone else says, and it can be a great tool for continuing a conversation and making a comment about what other people say. When you agree, you might say good point as a way to disagree as well. You could say, Yeah, good point comma, but and then make an opposite point. But English is a very complicated language, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah OK, so it can be a great way to agree and then disagree. Or just agree. And then ask another question. It's, I think, a really good way to show the person who's speaking that you were listening and then transition to saying something yourself. Whether you're going to agree or disagree, you might have heard good point in another way. A strong, a strong point, a weak point. A good point as a way to talk about yourself, your characteristics. I think this is one of my good points. My patients. One of my strong points. Can we use it that way? Yeah, sure, sure. I wanted to talk about it in conversation when we're talking about ideas, things people say. But if you want to say good point like this or weak point like this to talk about characteristics, that's okay, too. That's okay, too. And sometimes it's used in a whole sentence to talk about a place in time. So we could say, I think this might be a good point to stop. And then we can continue tomorrow. If we're working on a project. This is This is a good Let me let me make a little a little space here. This is a good point. And this point means place, place to to stop for today. We can continue tomorrow. This is a good point in Okay, point to stop. Let's continue tomorrow so it can be used that way as well. I think the most common way to use it, though, is when we're having a conversation and we think the idea that someone else has explained or described we think that idea is right. We say, Yep, good point. Good point. I agree. Good point, but I think blah, blah, blah. Okay, it's very, very common now. I think this is a good point to stop and go on to the next expression. 46. No Sweat: no sweat, no sweat. This means easy. It was easy. It is easy. It will be easy. Or maybe it would be easy. It would be easy. Okay, No sweat, no sweat. That is no sweat. It would be no sweat for me. Basically, What is sweat? Well, sweat is what happens when you're running outside or it's very hot. You've got water coming down your face, right, and you're maybe in your your back, your shoulders. Everything is wet because you're very hot, right? Why do we sweat usually? Well, if we do things that are difficult, I'm sure you've seen movies of people in very stressful situations and there I don't know. We need to What are we going to do? And there's always sweat, sweat pouring, pouring down their faces because the situation is so tense, so difficult. Okay, so we say no sweat when it's not difficult. What about when it is difficult? Should we say sweat? No, not usually not. Usually there is another expression I'll mention in just a second that's related to this. But basically no sweat means if I do this, it will not cause me to sweat. There will be no sweat because it's easy for me. And again, it could be the past. It was easy for me. It was no sweat. It is easy. Yeah, no sweat. It is no sweat for me. It will be easy. Yeah, that that's no sweat. We don't have to say it will be no sweat. We can just say that's no sweat. We will do it And looking at it from here, right? Looking at it in the future, we can say that thing is easy. We don't have to talk about it like it's in the future. We can talk about it like it's a thing. Ah, thing right in front of us. Yeah, that's that's no sweat, no sweat. So it's kind of like when we talked about a piece of cake, something that's easy. Rain, a piece of cake, a piece of cake. Easy, easy. No problem. We can also say no problem. No problem is pretty common as well. All right, so what's the related expression we can say? Don't sweat it. Don't sweat it. We also often used the expression Don't sweat the small stuff, don't sweat the small stuff and sometimes then people will say I do sweat the small stuff. I sweat the small stuff. This is probably the only one I sweat the small stuff where we might use sweat by itself. Well, what does? Don't sweat it mean? Does that mean don't easy it? What does that mean? It means don't worry about it. Don't stress about it. Stress is also one of those things that can make us sweat. So we say, Don't sweat it, Don't worry about it. And if we say, Don't sweat the small stuff. In fact, I think there's a book called Don't Sweat the Small Stuff. Basically, it means don't worry about the little details. You don't need to. You don't need to really care about those things. You don't need to pay attention to those. Okay, so it just means don't worry about small things. Then someone might say, No, no, no, I sweat. I sweat the small stuff. That means I do care about the little details. I do pay careful attention to the tiny little details. Okay, so basically no sweat means something is easy. Don't sweat. It means don't worry. And don't sweat. The small stuff means don't worry about the little details Okay, so let's look at some examples. So there are two roommates and one has a job interview. Or maybe it's an interview for an internship or whatever. It's an interview on DA. The other knows about it. And when this roommate comes back to wherever they're living to their apartment to their apartment, this one says to the other, This one says to this one. How was the interview again? We always ask, How was that in American English? Ask what's going on? How was work? How was school? How was the movie? How was the interview? I know that you did something. I know you had an interview. How was it? Or we could say how? How did the interview go? Now, if we say that, we couldn't say no sweat. If we say how did the interview go, then the answer might be It went really well. It went really well, I think. All right, that would be the answer to this question. How was the interview? No sweat. We could just say no sweat. That means it. Waas. Usually the answer matches the question. How did it go? It went, go and went matches question, usually should match the answer in English. The grammar, right. How was the interview? It waas easy. It was no sweat. Or we can shorten it to just no sweat. So this one does fit this question Now, could this be sarcastic? Could this person be joking and say no sweat? And actually, it was very hard. Yeah, yeah, maybe if this person is that kind of person, when they do something very hard, they say at no sweat. Yeah, we could say that. We could use no sweat to be sarcastic. How was climbing Mount Everest yet? No sweat. Of course, That's probably sarcastic. Sarcastic? You mean the opposite. But here we can use it as a simple answer to a question when something waas very easy to do . Building APS is really no sweat for me. Building APS is really no sweat for me. Okay, so this person might be a coder. Might be a programmer or a developer, and they know how to build APS or applications for APS. Right? So we can say the thing that's easy doing this thing, building APS or we could say running marathons. Or we could say I don't know, um, managing people noticed that we use I N g. Here I n g Managing people is really no sweat for me. We could add or change this to for her, him, them. We can put other things in here. OK, we could change. No sweat. Too easy. Building APS is really easy for me. Building APS is really easy for her. Managing people is really easy for her. Running marathons is no sweat for her. So we can add things. Take them away. We can change this a lot. It's very it's very flexible. I would like to just quickly mention that this is pretty casual, pretty casual. That means it's something that you would use generally in a situation with friends or people. You know? Well, maybe not in a very formal situation. I suppose, in some formal situations, when you want to make it very clear that this is so easy, you might use it. So it's OK, but I think you'll hear it more often in casual situations. 47. Good Thinking: good thinking, good thinking, good thinking. What does this mean? Good thinking? Well, it's usually used as a response to an action or an idea which which which you didn't consider. But you didn't consider okay, And it's It's a way to tell somebody that you think what they said or what they did is is nice. It's great, it's excellent. And you wouldn't have thought of that by yourself. Usually. Usually that's what that means. You could be having a conversation, and maybe you're talking about how to solve a problem. One person says. Why don't we do this? Good thinking, good thinking. So it is really about what they say. But they say it may be because they had a good idea. And having a good idea is about thinking. So we say Good thinking. We don't use good thinking to mean today I did some very good I did some very good thinking during lunch. It would be a little strange to say that it's a had time to think during lunch, but when we're talking about the action or the thing that was said, and we want to then comment on it as being a smart idea. We say Good idea or good thinking. You'll often see good thinking in movies when the main characters are in a really tough spot and they don't know what to do. And then one person, one person has a good idea and starts doing something and they see the other person doing that. Oh, yeah, good thinking. Let's do that. Now we know how to get out of this tough situation. So let's just look at a few simple examples. So two friends get lost. It's late at night. They don't know where the nearest subway entrances, and they don't know what to do. And one says, Why don't we just take a taxi? The other says, Good thinking, Good thinking. Because if you take a taxi, doesn't matter where you are now. Yeah, you're lost. But the taxi driver knows where that hotel is because they know the city Well, huh? Good thinking, good thinking. So there was a meeting, and the meeting is over. And then one person who was in the meeting says to another that she had a good idea. Something in the meeting that happened was very smart, but it's after the meeting happened good thinking, good thinking in the meeting so we can say good thinking and then where the good thinking waas in the meeting or when we wanted to say Good thinking last night. Good thinking yesterday and you could say that good thinking yesterday with metadata good thinking in the meeting today. Mallory, you're carpool scheme will save money and facilitate better relationships. We couldn't get along without you. Okay, so this is where the thinking happened. Could be a place could be a time and will often use with as well, good thinking with the carpool scheme. Good thinking with good thinking, Good thinking with the carpool scheme today, that's when it happened. Okay, that is common to people will say that to a scheme is a plan or an idea to solve a problem . I can't have another meaning negative meaning some some secret plan that might hurt people . But anyway, we can say its a scheme or a set of ideas that's meant to solve a problem on the way that that plan will be structured. That is this scheme are payment scheme. That's the whole sort of structure of the payment system the way that we do it the way that we solve the problem of paying people carpool means people are riding to work together. I drive a car and there are three people living on the way to my workplace. So if everybody knew where everybody lived, we might be able to save costs and actually get people together. People would talk on the way and so it would help would help everybody. But whatever the scheme, whatever the scheme is, your carpool scheme will save money and facilitate better relationships. Facilitate means to help. Something to help. Something happen to help. Something happen is to facilitate. We're trying to facilitate growth here. We're trying to facilitate your development. Oh, I see. Thank you. Facilitate better relationships. So people will be in the car on the way to work, telling jokes, talking about work, talking about family, whatever. We couldn't get along without you get along. If someone says I could get along without it, that means I could survive without it. I would be fine without it if we couldn't get along without you. Mallory. That means you're very valuable in this company. We need you to survive. Not really. It doesn't mean the company will fail if she quits. It just means you're very valuable here. We we really need you. Your ideas are important. We couldn't get along without you. It's a very common expression to tell someone that their important that you value them. 48. Method to My Madness: method to my madness method to my madness. So let's first talk about the variations of the phrase, because there are some and then we'll talk about what it means. OK, so methods to my madness. No, no, not really. We usually will say there is. There is, ah, method to my madness. We might say a method to his madness, her madness, their madness. But it's usually a method singular. There are methods to their madness. Some people might say that you might hear it once in a while, but we don't really need to learn that. Generally speaking, a method to his her their my our madness. You'll also hear a method to the madness. There is a method. There is, ah, method to the madness. Okay, now madness. What is madness mean? Madness is insanity. Are we talking about a really crazy person? A person who is insane? A psycho? No, no, we're not. It's not used to talk about actual crazy people. We're talking about a process, approach or way of doing things that is not well understood by the people not doing that process or not doing that way of doing things. Okay, it's It's hard to see. If you see a great painter, for example, working great artists, great filmmaker working. You try to understand the way that they work. It looks like what so many things happening. It looks like chaos. It looks like chaos. It's hard to figure out if there is any clear order or structure here. Is this person just randomly doing things? What's going on? And yet they make such beautiful art. They make such beautiful movies such beautiful mute music. Maybe a musician seems like you're just randomly doing things. No, no, no. There is a method to my madness, so it looks kind of crazy and unclear and messy or disorganized, or at least hard to understand from the outside, not the person doing it, but to those around the person, to those looking at that person or that group of people. To the person, though, there are steps. There is a process. They know what they're doing. They have a plan. Even if the plan is a little chaotic. Maybe chaos is part of the plan. Maybe having chaos here, but not here and doing this first and then this and having this person do that and then that person do that. Each piece may be chaotic looking, but maybe the order is important. Ah, so there is a method to the madness. Sometimes we talk about great geniuses this way, artists this way. Sometimes we're talking about a person who just has a process that's kind of hard to understand. And we look at it and we say, How do you do that? How do you do this? How does this work so well on then? Then we say, Well, there's a method to my madness. There's a method to my madness, So usually it's after something has been recognized as a success as successful. This works clearly, but and yet we don't know why. We don't know how it all works. But the person who does it knows, or at least they have a pretty good idea. There's some structure, some order. There is a method to my madness, a method to my madness. Okay, so it's not about craziness. Let's look at a few examples now. Maybe there's a small team of people working together in a business, and the leader of this team asks one of them to go to some place in Africa, maybe their offices in the United States. And they need to go to some place in Africa very far away to some small other company to ask, Ah, the maybe the leader there about something, Whatever it may be, let's not focus on the details. But this person who was asked thinks it's very strange. Why do I need to do this? How is this going to help us? I go to another continent and ask someone from that company who has nothing to do with us to to help us with what is Huh? Huh? Huh? Right. So then then the leader of this team explains, I know, I know. You think it's a strange way to do things, but there is a method to my madness. If you just stick with the plan or follow the plan, stick with means to follow the plan, not leave or stray from the plan. Stick with the plan. I promise everything will come out fine. Come out fine means the end result the end result. Finally, everything will be OK. It will be good. I don't know what Okay. All right, I'll go. There's a method to my madness So maybe maybe this person is on Ah, need to know basis. That means only the leader really understands the whole thing And the people doing different parts of it. They don't know exactly what they're doing. They don't know the whole goal. So they might feel confused. And to help them feel better than the person who is telling them to do it will say, Hey, don't worry. Don't worry. There is a method to the madness. There is a method to the madness. This is going to work. I have a plan. I have a plan. You don't understand the plan yet right now. But maybe you will, after we're we're finished with this. Okay, Okay. Okay. Method to the madness. Steve Jobs certainly had a method to his madness. Now, a lot of people were critical of Steve Jobs because he was known as being may be rude to people or shouting, shouting at people, calling them dumb, calling them idiots. Onda. Generally, he had a very, uh maybe a rough or direct personality. But why did he do that? Was there a plan that just his personality? Well, you couldn't really say that, because at this moment. The company is one of the most valuable companies in the world. Then there must have been some reason why he used that to communicate with people that way of speaking, or or even if it's not. That thing may be part of his personality. Maybe maybe some of his ideas about how to market products marketing think different. I remember Apple had this campaign slogan when he came back to the company. Think different. But the grammar would be. Think differently, right? Because it's about a verb, so it is different. Ah, that's weird. What's going on here? This is strange, but it was very successful. So there was a method to the madness. That means that there was a plan. There was a strategy. It worked. I had good effect. It wasn't just random, a method to his madness. So it's used in this way. I want you to make an example by yourself. You can write it or speak it, record yourself and then listen to it again. Talk about something that you do that maybe other people don't understand Well, because because it's maybe complicated or because maybe you haven't told them everything or or something that you don't understand well. Doesn't have to be. A person doesn't have to be a person. It's often a person, but it could be a group or a whole system. There is a method to the madness. There is a method to the madness. Maybe there's, Ah, way of offering tickets to a group of people, and it seems like chaos. Do they have any rules? Here? People are getting getting their tickets. There is a method to the madness. Think about some example. Write it down or speak it. Record it. Remember to use the expression and then see if you can improve it. See if you can make it even better or come up with more examples. It's the best way to really get a feeling for these expressions. Okay, so you in the next one 49. Music to My Ears: music to my years. Music to their ears, music to his ears. Music to her years. What does this mean? Does this mean we're actually listening to music New? It has nothing to do with music the way that we use it. Nothing about music. Okay, so let's just be clear about that. But it comes from the idea of listening to music. When we listen to music, we listen to music. How do we feel? We hear music, listen to some very good music. We feel happy, right? Feel very happy. Feel very excited. Well, maybe not excited. Okay, let's just say happy. It's something we enjoy doing. So keep that in mind. So just keep that in mind and use that to remember when we say something is music to our ears. We hear some good news here, something we like or approve off. Find out, find out something that we hoped was true. Maybe he hoped it was true. And then we find out or discover Ah, it's true, yes, music to my ears, but it could be used in different ways, and we'll talk about how it's used. Let's say you go into school one day and you find out that the test that you thought you were going to have the big exam that you thought you were going to have is now not an exam . Now it's a paper that you have to write, and you enjoy writing papers much more because you can relax. It's much easier for you. So when you hear the teacher explained that you go, that's music to my ears. That's music to my ears. I love to hear this news. It's like listening to music. It makes me happy. It's not only when the teacher is speaking when the teacher is announcing this, it's just learning about that music to my ears. What if we read it on a piece of paper? I suppose you could still use it. Okay, Now, what about a sound that we approve of a sound that we approve of? Well, maybe your apparent, and you always have a difficult time getting your kids to go to bed. You have two kids. They're always jumping around. You go to bed, go to bed and they always want to just play and have fun. They don't want to sleep right one night instead of them jumping around. You go into their room and you hear them both sleeping soundly. And you say to yourself, Music, too. My years now, that really is something going into your ears. So the focus there is on sound, but it's a sound that you love to hear. It's a sound that means that you don't have to experience something difficulty, like putting your kids to bed when they don't want to go to bed. So they're little snores are music to your ears, and you can say that for lots of different things. When you hear sounds, when you hear somebody say something that you really like. Okay, canceling the exam was perhaps something you didn't expect, but there might be something that you hoped was true. That you find out is true. So maybe you work in an office and you know that every year there's a Christmas bonus, but it's a little different every year. You hope that the Christmas bonus this year is, let's say, $1300 you hope, and then you find out that the Christmas bonus you get or the holiday bonus from your company that you get is 1000 Let's say $1350. Ah, music to my years. So the announcement is music to your ears. When you hear that, everybody, we're going to be giving out your Christmas bonuses. This year. Everybody's getting $1350. Ah, it's music to my ear. So it's a reaction there. It's a reaction, and I know I know that Christmas bonuses are different for different people in riel companies. So let's not focus on that. The point is, you heard some news. You thought it was true. Now it's been confirmed, its been announced. And yes, yes, it's right. I was right. We're getting the bonus. It is music to my years. Maybe two people live together and one is supposed to clean the house today. It's there their responsibility today, but they feel tired, exhausted. Eso so tired. I'm beat on beat. The other says, I'll clean the house. I'll clean the house for you. Ah, music to my ears. It's exactly what you wanted to hear. Thank you. A slightly more complicated example. It was music to the boards ears to find out that their change in strategy had led to a 25% increase in revenue. Can aboard have ears? Board here means a group of people a big company may have a board aboard. It's a group of important people in the company. They often make very big decisions. They may make strategic decisions. Strategy is sort of a plan for the whole company. The direction of the company was music to the boards years. Well, it's made up of people, right? So the people on the board, the people in this group, they're glad to see this. They're happy to find out that it worked, that it was successful right to each one of them. It's good news. So it's music to their ears, led to caused revenue money. How much money comes in basically and find out like discover, hear music to the boards, years to find out. Or we could say, maybe when they discovered when they heard you could say that, too, so it could be used in this more complicated sentence, followed by to or when or when think about some really good news you got recently or think about a sound that you don't get to hear very often, but but When you do hear it, you feel very happy, Okay? And then try to describe it and make sure to use this expression in your description. 50. Couldn't Agree More: couldn't agree more, couldn't agree more or I couldn't agree more. He couldn't agree more. She couldn't agree more. They I think you get the idea. Agree more. I think I think you might know this one, but I want to be clear about the usage. And I want to be clear about the variations off which there are none. We can say this I or he she they we can add that or we can use it without Couldn't agree more as a simple statement using this expression. But that's it. You can't change this word. You you can't change this to can't And we wouldn't say, for example, with you. Sounds strange. I've heard it once or twice, but let's just say no. So the main issue that I hear with a lot of English learners is they use this expression. I don't know if this is you, but they use this expression and use it wrong incorrectly because they might say a variation of it. Like I can't agree more. I can't agree more or I can't agree with you more or something. Couldn't agree more. That's it. Okay. What does it mean? What does this mean? if you couldn't agree more, that means you're hearing something. You totally focused their on. Totally agree with hearing something that you totally agree with. It focuses on the emphasis of agreement. It's not that you actually couldn't agree more. It gets a little confusing to even talk about that. But you totally agree. Basically. Okay, I It's like saying I completely agree, which is pretty strong. I totally agree. Couldn't agree more. And we often take these out and say it as a simple response very quickly. And that sounds really natural. Yeah. Couldn't agree more? Yep. Couldn't agree more. Yep, yep. Couldn't agree more very fast. Sounds like could No. Could not. Could not. Couldn't agree more. Very natural. We need to be careful with our money. We need to be careful with our money. Maybe this is Ah, a couple and they share money, right? Maybe they have a shared bank account. Shared. Okay, this is a kind of plan. The plan is Let's be careful, Okay? Couldn't agree. More means I think we should be careful to. What does that mean? That means you want to try not to spend too much money. Let's not spend too much money. OK, that's what it means here. We're basically saying No disagreement from me on the plan. And so it's not about someone's opinion. This is nice, isn't it? Yes, this is about a plan to do something, but we can use it for simple opinions to convey, used for either one ah, plan or a strategy or something that is true, something that is correct, or a simple opinion about something more qualitative. This one, unlike the last one, is very subjective, very subjective. Subjective means it happens on the inside and it's it's not based. In fact, you might say, I like it. You might say, I don't like it and nobody could say, That's wrong. That doesn't make sense. What's wrong with you? With the other one the being careful with money? One you could say, No, that's not right. What are you talking about? We shouldn't be careful with money. There's some objectivity there. This is totally subjective. It's totally qualitative, totally qualitative, so we can use it for that one. To your opinion, is the same as my opinion. Couldn't agree more. Okay, Pretty simple 51. Get to the Point: get to the point. Get to the point now if you're the type of person who uses this expression. You probably don't like this course, because in this course I want to really explore each expression instead of just saying this expression means this. Here's one example. Next. I don't want to do that. I don't want to. I don't want to get it over with as quickly as possible. I want to try to give you a really feeling for each expression, and hopefully it's not too boring. And it's useful to you to have maybe other expressions that are related and maybe a few examples and my explanation and how I understand it and maybe my description about how people use it, how it feels, the connotations, if that's useful to you. And hopefully you enjoy this course. By the way, if you if you enjoy this course, feel free to check out my other courses. But if you're the type of person who doesn't like that kind of thing first wonderful job to be so patient to still be here. And second, you might say sometimes to me in your head, get to the point, get to The point means just say what you want to say. Just say what you want to say Just say what you want to say Don't don't talk around it In a very direct way to say it is to just say out with it out with it Just say it, Okay, Same idea, Same idea. Now we often will use this when we are feeling impatient because we feel like someone has talked too much and is beginning to waste our time, waste our time and if someone is wasting our time and we don't want that toe happen anymore But we need the information that they have and they're talking about it and we know that eventually we will get that information we may impatiently say something that can be considered and is often rude. Okay, so I'm not recommending that you say this to people. I'm not saying go out and say, Get to the 0.2 people. You can use it in some cases, if you're talking with a friend and they've been talking for an hour and they still haven't said the point, they still haven't said the point. You might say, get to the point OK, and it won't be so rude because it's your friend and they are really talking too much. But if you say this may be in the workplace to a colleague, get to the point. It shows that you are this type of person and that you lack. You lack the ability or the patients to. Here's someone out completely, and maybe you feel that they're not communicating very well because they have to talk a lot in order to say something. That's the basic idea of get to the point. The classic thing would be the boss who's listening to a presentation and then says, Get to the point because the presentation isn't snappy enough. It's not snappy, and we could ask it to Could you Could you please get to the point? Could you please get to the point? Yes, let's do that by looking at examples. So we've got some people in a conference room. One person is presenting something and they're showing slides. Maybe we could we could call that a PPT or a power point. Or maybe we would call it a saliva show and they're going really slowly. They're not covering ground very quickly. not covering, not covering ground very quickly. The meeting has to be finished in an hour because other people have other things to do. Started at three and ends it for now. It's already 3 40 20 minutes left. Now it's only 3 40 20 minutes left. Please says maybe the person in charge of the meeting or this session or whatever. Please get to the point. Please get to the point. This meeting is an hour long and you're only on the third slide. Maybe there are 15 slides and they're only on the 3rd 1 on the important stuff. The main point, maybe of this presentation is happening later. The main point means the main idea. The main thing that they're focusing on, right, It's supposed to happen, maybe toward the end. Please, please, please move it along. Moving along. You're going to run out of time. You're going to run out of time. Just to be clear, it doesn't mean you're going to run out of time to say get to the point. It means, please say the important information. Now we need to know before this meeting is finished. You're only on the third slide. You're just talking about the introduction stuff. It's been 40 minutes already. Come on, go quickly. Hurry up. This expression can also be used to basically say, Let's not talk about anything else. Let me just say the main important thing right from the beginning. And it's often about a tough subject, a tough subject, something that would be hard to talk about. I want to say my opinion. Sometimes if there's a tough subject, something that's difficult to talk about, someone will say, Oh, well, I'd like to talk to you about this and well, first, let me just say and I'd like to say many things first and then in a very roundabout or indirect way, say, and I think maybe maybe Charlie is not the best guy for you. You should break up with him eventually. You say that I know some people like to be very direct, very direct, very straight, and so they might begin their description by saying, Let me get right to the point. Let me get right to the point. I don't think you should see Charlie anymore. Si means date Date. Are you seeing someone now? If someone says, by the way are you seeing anyone? If you want to know if that person has a girlfriend or a boyfriend, you should ask. Are you seeing anyone now? Are you seeing anyone? Sounds weird, but it means Are you dating? Let me get right to the point. I don't think you should see Charlie anymore. He's a bad influence. Bad influence is someone who causes you to do bad things. Causes you to do bad things. Good influence causes you to do good things. You're such a good influence on me. Thank you so much. Okay. Let me get right to the point. I just I'm so grateful. Thank you so much. Okay, that's my point. That's what I want to say. I'm being very direct. Make your own examples. Try to make them fit. Why not try to put them into a dialogue? That way you can start thinking about how people use this expression in conversation. Show me your dialogues. I'd like to see them 52. Spot On: spot on spot on this one is so useful, so useful, and it's used in different ways. So let's try to explore how it's used in and what it means. If something is spot on, it's exactly right or it's accurate. It's accurate. Maybe it's the correct answer. Or somehow it's perfect. Or maybe sometimes it couldn't be better. Not possible to be better because it's basically right on its. It's perfect Right on is another way to say it. Maybe, but right on sometimes means come on, you can do it or you said something I agree with Yeah, right on. So let's not really focus on that one. Let's focus on spot on. It could be a response to someone. If I ask you a question and then you answer it and you're correct, I'll say spot on. But it's not just any question. If I say what's four plus four and you say eight, I won't say spot on spot on, I'll say yes, yes, that's right. I don't know why I would ask you that question, but if I say why do you think, Why do you think this happened? And you say well, because that is the and I think that you're absolutely correct. I'll say spot on. I think you are spot on. I could just say spot on or I could say You are spot on. You are spot on your exactly right But it's more than that. It's more than just being correct. It's also things really lining up perfectly. So if somebody sings very well and maybe they sound like a famous person singing, then we might say, or her voice is spot on spot on. It's sort of like there perfect. Or maybe if it's supposed to sound like a famous singer, perfectly accurate as an impression. And it is often used to talk about things that are supposed to sound like other things. For example, your Elvis is spot on, Your Elvis is spot on. Elvis was a famous musician, and a lot of people like to do impressions of Elvis or they like to impersonate him. If this person looks like Elvis talks like Elvis sings like Elvis, everything is just like Elvis. We say your Elvis is spot on or we just say, Wow, that was spot on, maybe some accents to maybe some accents to if you do a British accent, but you don't speak British English natively. You're not from England, but you do an accent very well. That someone might say Your British accent is spot on spot on my British accent is not spot on. I can do a Chinese English accent, okay? And this expression also works when we want to say that we found the right thing after trying many other things for a long time before. So maybe we wanted to dress up perfectly. We wanted to wear just the right thing. We try this shirt, try that shirt, these shoes, thes socks, hair like this, hair like that, this much makeup, whatever. Finally, it's perfect. Everything is perfect. Who, Yes, this is me. This is perfect for this party, This event spot on spot on. It's exactly the right thing to wear. OK, so you can see that it's used in all kinds of different, different ways, and so you really have to explore it and watch out for it. But still, let's look at a few a few examples that that I've written Okay, so maybe there's a leader of a team, and she calls her team to her her office, maybe to discuss something. She asks them to come. That's what calls means in this case. Does anybody know why I called you here? She wonders. Does anybody know why one person says You want to reconsider our pricing structure? OK, that means you want to think about this again. Maybe we could change it. Something is not right. If you want to reconsider something, you think about it more because you might want to change it, make it different. Pricing structure is maybe how much money you charge for whatever product you sell. Pricing structure spot on spot on. That's exactly the right answer. You said exactly what I was going to say, So it shows me that you understand why we're all talking about this. Let's now begin the conversation. It's a good way to maybe interact with people. Ask a question, they answer. Then they get it right and you say, Yeah, spot on spot on two people are shopping and one holds up a shirt and says I really like this. Do you think this is too expensive? Feel this. Do you think this is too expensive? The other friend feels it looks at it checks it $20.20 dollars for quality this good. That means it's very good. $20 for quality. This good? No, I think the price is spot on. Get it? That means by it. I think this is a very good price. It's exactly the right price for this thing. You should get it. It's not too expensive. It's not too cheap. It's perfect. It's spot on. This painting of me is spot on. This painting of me is spot on spot on. What does that mean? Does that mean it's really good? Well, in a way, it means it looks like me here. It means that the person in the painting person who painted this painted it exactly like me . If you look between us, maybe you don't know which one is which. Well, we look exactly the same. We look exactly the same, and you can sometimes use this as an adjective before this is a spot on painting a spot on painting. Did you did you see that spot on painting of me that my friend made? Well, it's amazing. It is spot on because this phrase spot on is used in so many different ways, but it basically has the same core, meaning it's important to. It's important to have a range of examples. Try to make a range of examples that express the different meanings and uses of spot on that we've talked about in this lesson and show me your examples. I would like to take a look. 53. I Don't Buy It: I don't buy it. I don't by it or I'm not buying it. Sometimes we say I'll buy that. I'll buy th