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American English Pronunciation

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18 Lessons (2h 54m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      2:48
    • 2. Basic Tips

      10:05
    • 3. Long Vowel Sounds

      10:15
    • 4. Short Vowels

      10:00
    • 5. Silent 'e'

      7:51
    • 6. Vowels Together

      15:06
    • 7. Diphthongs

      11:02
    • 8. V and W

      12:32
    • 9. TH

      12:21
    • 10. S and Z

      14:40
    • 11. L R N

      8:22
    • 12. L R N Practice

      10:03
    • 13. CH and S

      9:14
    • 14. -ble and -ple

      6:51
    • 15. Similar Words Pt. 1

      14:31
    • 16. Similar Words Pt. 2

      9:17
    • 17. Pronunciation and Form

      6:00
    • 18. Course Summary

      3:27
71 students are watching this class

About This Class

In this course, you will learn the pronunciation of single English sounds. We will go over both how to make the sounds and examples of those sounds in words and phrases. This course includes exercises for making better speaking habits. The course starts with the basics of pronunciation, then goes on to difficult sounds that learners often come across when learning American English pronunciation. If you work hard and practice what you learn, you will improve. 

You will be able to see my face and mouth clearly in each video lesson, and I will use a blackboard at all times. 

Each lesson focuses on a single idea, and each is comprehensive. Students can go at their own pace and should take their time, with lots of practice between videos. Replaying each lesson is highly recommended.

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Hi there. My name is Luke, and I want to just very quickly introduce this pronunciation course. This is a course about basic pronunciation. That means the simple stuff. Some people would say the easy stuff, but actually, no, actually, the simple stuff is sometimes the hard stuff. Sometimes that is the stuff which is really difficult. In this course. We're going to be covering simple vowel sounds, how to say them very clearly and how to tell them apart from each other. Then we're going to talk about where constants fit in to the pronunciation and some rules for when words have a long sound or a short sound and we'll talk about in the course what a long sound is. What a short sound is will be working on syllables. Syllables is up. Beat in a word, and we'll be talking about how syllables can have some effect or can change the basic pronunciation of a word. We're going to be focusing pretty much on the pronunciation off words, not the pronunciation of whole sentences were going to be focusing on words and sounds. We're then going to go on and work on constants. Continents are letters like V and W and K and J these kinds of of letters. And we're going to be talking about some of the difficulty some of the problems with saying these sounds clearly on. We're going to also be working on sounds like T H S, H and C H and making sure that we can easily here and say the differences between them. Then we're going to continue from that and talk about some word endings. That means how to say clearly the end of a word. Okay? And from there, then we'll go on and talk about words that sound almost the same. Similar words but are actually different. So similar similar sounding words will go over the differences between them on Then we'll practice a little bit with stress in this course. So I hope you enjoy the course on I hope you learn a lot. And by the end of it, I hope that you have a lot of really, really good pronunciation habits. Habits will be the main focus of this course, and there will be a lot of practice exercises, four habits in this course. Okay, so I hope you enjoy it. 2. Basic Tips: All right. So the first thing that we should do in this course about pronunciation is to go over or talk about some important pronunciation tips. I want to give you some advice that you can remember throughout this course during this course and in general, which can help you to improve your basic pronunciation skill. So let's just go over. Ah, few of those simple, simple, simple, simple things. Okay, so the 1st 1 is to develop your ear. Now what does that mean to develop your ear? This means that you have to be actually pretty good at listening if you want tohave good pronunciation. Now, maybe at first you think what listening and pronunciation are two different things. Why should I be good at listening if I want to have good pronunciation? Very simple. How can you know? And how can you compare yourself to what is good if you're not able to hear what is good and correct first, So you have to have a very sharp ear for English before you can begin to pick out to find to catch some of the small differences that we will talk about in later videos in this course. So one thing to really remember is that you need to begin to sharpen to improve your ears and you're listening ability on. When you do that, you can begin to hear the small differences between words, phrases on other things. So keep that in mind. The next one, and maybe it's obvious, is that you need to start focusing on mouths mouths when people are speaking, watched their mouths and pay attention to the shapes that the mouth makes when it's making words. So if you're watching a movie, if you're watching a TV show, whatever it is you're watching a native English speaker speak their language. Pay careful attention to the mouth. What is it doing? How is it making the sounds that it's making a simple example and one which we will talk about later, is what? Sometimes these two are very quick vote. Sometimes they're very fast. You have to be able to really pay attention to the difference between these two and many, many others to begin to catch the very small differences in pronunciation, so watch mouths okay. The next thing, which is very, very important, is to repeat sounds. If you learn pronunciation. If you learn a certain sound or a certain word or whatever, repeat that until one. It feels natural to you until you can hear the difference between that and other things. Other sounds on until it becomes a habit, Pronunciation needs to become a habit. If it's not a habit, the habit is something that is just natural for you. You just do it. If it's not a habit than every time you need to think about what's the pronunciation of this one? I have forget, and you need to think about that. Or maybe remember what you wrote down. This is not the best way to do it. The best way to do it is to make it a habit to make it a habit. A good thing to do is to repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat. Okay, so very important. When you learn something new repeated, say it over and over again. Okay, the next one is awareness. Awareness means paying attention to something in this case, paying attention to yourself. Now, I said before, it's important to listen and watch mouths, so this is part of awareness. But I do want to mention awareness separately because it is so important. If you want to be good, you have to be very, very aware of what you are doing. Sometimes we're just aware of what's going on outside, what that person is doing, what that person is saying. But we're often not careful and aware about what we are doing. So if you make a simple mistake, like every time there's a T h sound, you say, like sinking, I'm sinking about something right? Should be I'm thinking about something. Maybe you know this about pronunciation and we will talk about it and practice it later. Maybe you know this, but if you don't pay attention to yourself, then you won't be able to figure out when you do it and why you do it. So really, try to focus on some of the things that you don't do correctly, so that you can fix those things more quickly. So awareness paying attention to yourself and others. He's very important. OK, now, this one, I think, is a very important part of actually being a good speaker. If you write down the pronunciation of everything, that doesn't really make you a better English speaker, does it that doesn't really make you better at pronouncing words correctly. It makes you better at knowing maybe how words are pronounced. But it doesn't make you better at speaking in this course we will avoid. We will not do any writing off pronunciation. No symbols, no, I will write words here on the blackboard, but I will not write any symbols because I don't think it's a good way to learn pronunciation. It's just something on paper. I don't think that that's the best way to actually become a good speaker. To become a good speaker, you have to do what I mentioned earlier to repeat until it becomes a habit to be aware to practice, doing it as much as possible. And so I think writing down pronunciation symbols is a waste of your time. So I would recommend that you don't do it on. We will not be doing it in this course. Okay, it is really key to remember one thing. Throughout this course, not all rules work language came first, whether it's Chinese or Arabic or English or whatever on then, rules followed to try to explain the language. So we have some pretty good rules for things, but and learning them maybe is quite useful. But they don't always work Not 100% of the time. There are always exceptions. That means examples when it doesn't work, and you will find many. So if I give you a rule, just keep that in your mind. Generally, I'm going to try to teach using examples. I prefer examples because I think that is the best way for you to get a feeling for the pronunciation rather than saying Okay, this rule, this rule, it's a mess. So there may be some rules, but generally I'm going to focus on examples on exercises which can help you improve your pronunciation, because I believe this is the best way. And this is the way that I've helped a lot of my students improve in the past. Okay, so just keep that in mind, okay? The last thing before we start this course for riel, I hope that you can relax. Okay. I don't think this is very serious and you have to follow everything like a robot. Relax before every lesson you watch. If you're going to practice, relax. Right. Maybe have a cup of tea or a glass of wine or whatever you want to dio. Relax. Take it easy. Keep your mouth loose. English is a very wide, big, relaxed language, especially American English, which is what I am. I'm American. And what I will be teaching you American pronunciation. So I can't really teach you British pronunciation or Australian pronunciation because I'm not British or Australian. So relax and also try to be confident, right? If if you learn something and you feel comfortable and you make it a habit when you go out and speak English, don't not say something. Don't stay away and avoid speaking. Speak, practice as much as you can be confident. Try. No one is going to say, Oh, your English isn't very good. Your stupid I don't like you. No one is going to do that right. I have lots of friends who have pretty bad English. I don't care Right there, my friends. Why do I care? So relax. Be confident and you will improve faster. All right, so those air the tips. Those are the things to keep in mind throughout this course and after forever for the rest of your life. Um, also in the next video. We're going to be talking about vowel sounds. If you don't know what a vowel is, I will explain it in the next video. Okay, so see you in the next lesson. 3. Long Vowel Sounds: All right, So now the course really begins. We're going to start with the basics. Okay, so we're first going to talk about in this video. Basic vowel sounds. Now, maybe you already know basic vowel sounds, but we need to have a foundation upon which we can build. Okay, so we have to cover this first. What is a foundation? A foundation is the bottom that supports a structure. So, for example, a building. All right. Maybe a very tall building in a city. The bottom of the building is called the foundation. The foundation of the building is the very strong part that stops the building from falling over. Okay, so we're gonna be talking first about basic vowel sounds, but what is of out? We need to make sure that we're clear about what a vowel is. Well, a vowel is simple. It's a letter that is made with the throat. Which is this part? Pretty much open. So a e i Oh, you. These air the five basic vowels. Now there are 26 letters in the English alphabet. The alphabet. I'll write that down the alphabet. 26 letters. 26 letters in the alphabet. five of these letters are vowels, the basic vowels A E i O and U, the others. All of the other letters in the alphabet are called constants. All of the other letters air called continents. So today and this video. Anyway, maybe you're going to watch the other videos today. We're going to cover vowels. All right, so let's do that Vowels again. The names of the vowels A, e i O and U have two forms. Actually, they have mawr than two forms. There are special vowel forms, and we will also talk about that later. But they have two basic forms or sounds they can make the way it sounds, OK, there's long and short, long and short, and we're gonna talk about the long 1st 1st we need to talk about the long sounds, so I'm gonna give you a couple of examples of the long sounds just so that you're very clear on them. OK, so let's go over all of the long vowel sounds on what they sound like. 1st 1 a, That's the letter on the long vowel sound is also a The name of the letter on the long vowel sounds are the same A Okay, now, that's not true. For the short vowel sound. It's true for the long vowels out A k example hate here I have the word hate right? Or maybe rate Okay, Skate Many different words with the long a sound So a a notice My mouth is wide my mouth is wide I'm kind of smiling when I say the long a sound a and my teeth go up and come down again A a a My tongue isn't moving very much My tongue This one It is called the tongue. It's important to know the tongue isn't moving very much when I say this word, okay? And actually, my my lips are also not moving moving very much when I say this one. I'm just opening and closing my teeth on The sound is very wide a hey, a rate Now the sound is closed, but the a part is open rate hate. Okay, the next one The e sound, the long vowel sound and the name of the letter e r The same again e e e. Now this one is even wider than a Remember we were doing a It's like this a this one is wider e e e on the sound comes from the base of my throat My throat I raise this it comes from right here. I say the sound back here and have a wide mouth like I'm smiling again. E e example. Gene. Jeanne Jean, don't focus on the other letters. If you can't quite say them clearly, just focus on the East sound gene. Okay, Steam, steam Jean steam very wide. Okay, Okay. The next one I on. As you can probably guess, the long sound is the same as the name of the letter I I But notice this time I'm not smiling very wide as I did with a and e, right? Not quite know this one. I'm opening my mouth. Watch out. Say it silently. Watch my mouth carefully. On the back of my tongue is moving up a little bit. When I say it, I I I And if you want to make it more clear for yourself, you can say Ah yeah. Ah yet Ah, yeah, on that will help you to feel the sound Once you can feel the sound cut off the yet sound and it just leave. I I I I I Okay, so some examples of this one White, white Why white? Okay, Fight style, style, style. So it's a why in the word, but the sound is the long I sound style style. Now, the next one is very easy to remember. Um, if you're saying the long o sound correctly, then your mouth should be in this in shape oven. Oh, right. Same shaped like a circle when you open and close your mouth a little bit When you say it your bottom jaw will open and close like this on your tongue Should be at the bottom of your mouth 00000 oh Mode, mode Chrome, chrome, chrome Okay, now finally, the long use out Now the long you sound is a little bit special Because sometimes the long you sound isn't quite the same as the name of the letter You is the name of the letter. Yeah, you you. But when we have it in a word, it doesn't always sound like you Exactly. Sometimes we can't hear the you sound at the beginning. In the first example, f l u t e Actually, we don't say full Ute That would be very strange. We say flute. Who? Oh, flute, flute, flute. So this one who who do not Ah, OK, so this one is different from the O sound because the lips should be extended forward a bit . Okay. Ooh. And you're making the sound from the back of your throat. Your tongue shouldn't move. Who? Who? Who? Okay, flute, flute. My name? Luke. Luke. Luke. So this is the long you sound, but it doesn't sound exactly the same, although sometimes it does. For example, the word M u l e is pronounced mule mule. So that one has the you sound mule, mule, mule, mule, mule. So that one has three. You sound the name of the letter you sound and the other one has the normal, more common long you sound Which is who, right? So let's just very quickly review the long sounds. We have a as in hate, we have e as in Jean, we have I as in white, we have Oh, as in mode we have you as in flute. Okay, so remember these long vowel sounds and let's go on to the short vowel sounds in the next video 4. Short Vowels: Okay, now we're going to go on to short vowel sounds. Remember in the last video, we talked about the long vowel sounds which are the same as except for you, sometimes the same as the name of the vowel armor Vowels A e i o u. So let's just begin with the short vowel sounds. Um, the 1st 1 a the short vowel sound for a is Ah ah ah Now listen to the difference between the long and the short A a ah a Yeah, A ah. So the difference is not in the shape of the mouth, but comes in the back of the tongue typically in the back of the tongue. Especially so when we made the a sound a a a We have the tongue a little bit forward. And when we have the sound, the tongue is even mawr relaxed in the back of the mouth. Ah, uh, a guy so an example. Fan, Fan fan Now a has another sound in the short form, which is ah, like father, right? So for example, fan on the father have two different sounds, But the main short sound for a is like fen fan fan Okay, Fan And I also put the other one down here. Father, when you say ah ah, it's a lot like the O sound. Ah, we don't say for other, So it's a little bit different, but it is closer to the o sound that that A whereas the infant is mawr, like the long A but not quite the difference is in your tongue. Okay. The short e sound A short east sound. Uh, okay, now, remember when I did the long e sound, my mouth was very wide e on my tongue was in the middle, right When I say a a also, my tongue is in the middle but my mouth isn't nearly as wide now actually, the short a sound and the short e sound are not very different. Listen to the two first I'll do a and then I'll do e Uh uh uh Hey, hey, hey. Uh, yeah. Ah, OK, so maybe you can hear some difference. The difference is one. My mouth shape is a little bit different, right? A is a little bit more closed. So you want to remember that also for this short e sound, the tongue is totally relaxed for the A sound. We had the tongue a little bit back in the mouth. And in this one, we have the tongue totally relaxed. It does absolutely nothing. A a a a, a a. Okay, so it should be more relaxed than the short. A sound example then. Ben Ben, fetch for a fetch. Fetch a a fetch. Fetch. Okay. Fat fit. Yeah. Fair fat notice When I say the Assad my mouth is much bigger, right? It seems more relaxed The next one is the short I sound the short I sound Yeah, yeah. Here it is different than a Okay. Okay. The short I sound comes when you push your jaw This is called your jaw A little bit forward when you say it and the sound will come from the back of the throat. Here is the throat like this? Yeah. Yeah. So notice when I say that sounds a here is a little wider, pretty relaxed, Nothing special with the jaw relaxed When I say that it sound the short ice out. I must stick it out a little bit. Push it forward a little bit. E e. Okay, so this is the short I sound. Sit, sit, sit. Sit it. Sit. Sit, Lick, lick, lick. If I said l a c k, it would be act lack, lack lack Much bigger, right? This one jaw is forward a little bit. Eat a little bit. You eat like that. He not that much, but a little bit forward. Lick, lick, sit, sit. Okay, No, Very different than the long I sound But the long I sound is I fit Fight, fit fight I I much wider, right Fit cake Now the oh, the short oh, sound is much wider than the long o sound Remember when we did the long o sound We did this 000 When we do the short Oh, sound we open our mouth like this Like we're going to eat a huge sandwich Ah ah It's totally open your throat your mouth Ah, ah ah And when you say you do move your tongue down a little bit Ah, ah, ah ah ah ah ah It's a very simple sound There doesn't have to be much action when you say this sound Ah, ostrich, ostrich cop cop a cop, ostrich cop, ostrich cop And now, finally, the short U sound. Remember the long you sound was either you or who who with a very extended mouth. This one is so relaxed. Remember I said when we say the e sound, it's pretty relaxed, right? The mouth is a little bit wider. A like that, and the tongue comes back a little bit. Well, when we say the you sound, it's totally relaxed. So your throat should be loose. Your jaw should be loose and come down a little bit on your mouth. Should almost becoming down like you're sad. Okay. Like that. Uh uh uh, my tongue isn't moving at all. Uh uh uh, So my jaw is very loose. Relaxed. Okay, so let's try this one under under under, son, son, son Sun under some under the sun has a very different than the long sound Very different than the long sound. Okay, so let's quickly review all of these short vowel sounds we have Hey, on the sound is a as in fan fan, okay? Or also we could say sometimes, as in Father Father, can we also have the e sound e Yeah. Yeah. Ben, Then fetch. Okay. We also have the i sound k. Yeah, Yeah. Sit, Sit, lick, lick. Okay. And the o sound. Uh uh, Ostrich ostrich call cop. Finally, the you sound, uh uh, Under under son under under. Okay, so keep repeating those sounds over and over and over again. Watch my mouth. As I was making the sounds go back, maybe watch it a couple times and keep practising them until it's really easy for you until it becomes a habit. Okay, Okay. So in the next video, we're going to be working on why? Some words have long or short sounds, and we're going to be talking about this and practicing some examples of both long and short sounds. So I'll see you in the next video. 5. Silent 'e': All right, so now we're going to talk a little bit about why some words have a long sound vowel with a long sound and some words have a vowel with the short sound. But first we need to talk about a couple of important words. The 1st 1 is a syllable, a syllables. Very simple. It's just a beat in a word. For example, the word facebook Facebook has two syllables do due to beats Facebook about the word usually use you. Ah Lee, that's four syllables. Use you. Ah li four syllables. Okay, so it will be important to understand this word. Also, we need to know continents, which I did talk about before The continent is a letter in the alphabet which is not a valuable so a e i o and u are vowels, the others 21 others Our continent's B C D E f g h and so on. Okay, so let's talk about now. Why the common reasons why avowal Maybe long or short in a word, and we'll talk about two very common reasons. Okay, The 1st 1 is about long vowels. If you have a syllable, remember, a syllable is a beat. In a word. If you have a syllable that has a vowel and then a continent or maybe two continents on, then an E and the E is silent, that means it says nothing. It makes no sound. Then the vow before will be long. It will be a long sound on the e will make no sound. Okay, so let me try to explain that. Okay, let's Let's take a simple word here. Let's take a simple word. Let's say let's say this one. Let's take this word. You kind of know we have our vowel here. Oh, we have a constant here and our continent. So it's you and s, and then we have e. Okay, Ari, because we have this structure. Let's call this a structure because we have this now. This will be long on. This will make no sound or will be silent. We can say that it's almost like this does something to this changes this on because it does that because it changes it now. It's like tired. Let's say it's tired. It's sleepy now, so it can't make a sound. And so we say this word as cone Oh, because oh, is the long sound of the letter O, and we don't say Kona because the E is a silent E, which already did something. It already changed the 02 a long Oh, so we say cone. Now, if you have a syllable and the syllable doesn't have a knee at the end, and that vowel that's in the syllable, every every syllable has to have a vow. The vow that's in the syllable is the Onley. Vowel. In the syllable is only one vowel in the syllable, and it ends with a constant remember like B or C or D or F or Z. It ends in a constant, and there's only one vow that vowel will probably usually usually be short. Okay, so here's a word. Buz z. Buz Z. Well, it ends in a continent. Z is a continent right? And it is a one syllable word, a one syllable word. And so should we say the long or the short sound for you? We should say the short sound because there's no e after it. Maybe if there if it were like that, then we would say booze or something like that. But that's not That's not a word. So we say buzz a buzz because of this, because there's one vowel in the syllable and it ends with a continent. All right, so let's go through some examples of both long and short vowels and syllables that follow the rules that I just told you. So let's try with a Let's try with a long sound h a t e. We should pronounce that hate hate a hate and the short sound h a t h a t We will pronounce hat at the short sound hat because it's the only vowel in the syllable. Okay, the next one R o B on our o b This one has an E at the end. So it's silence. So we say robe, robe on the other one because there's only the O is Rob Rock. Ah! Ah, Rob. Rob! Okay, the next one i B i t and B I t. Okay. So the next one bite right long sound because of the bite bite, bite the other one. Short sound bit, bit bit guy bite and bit. Okay. The next one. Not quite perfect here. L UK eat by the way. That's my name. If you didn't know that. I think you probably do. L u C k short sound. Now here has 2 to 2 continents. But that's OK. Al UK is pronounced Luke Luke Long sound Luke. L U C k Short sound a luck. Luck, Luke. Luck, Luke. Luck. Okay. And the last one here we have s C, E and E, which is pronounced scene seen Same pronunciation as s e n, by the way, Seen on then t e n 10 10 1 is eat. One is a teen 10 Teen 10. So follow these general rules, Uh, doesn't always always work, but pretty much always. And you should be able to know how to say vowels long or short just by looking at the word . All right, in the next video, we're going to be looking at what happens when you put vowels together side by side 6. Vowels Together: Okay, So in this video, we're going to talk about what happens when you put two vowels together. So let me just tell you what happens when you put two vowels together. Actually, a couple of different things can happen. One thing that can happen is if you put two vowels together, is that it will make the vowel long. Which vowel? The 1st 1 or the 2nd 1? Well, as you can see here, it should be the 1st 1 So if you put certain vowels together, you take the long sound of the first vowel on that will generally follow. That would generally be a rule. So let's look at a couple of examples. Um, and we can get a feeling for it. We can get a feeling for it. Okay, so let's start first. With the long sound of a all of the sounds are gonna be looking at in this video are long sounds all long Sounds OK, so if you're thinking about where the short sounds, forget about it. No short sounds in this video. Okay, So the long a be long a sound. Let's first start with a I If you have a and I together in a word. Typically, it will make the sound a sound like the long a sound. So a couple of examples. Wait, wait. Like, wait for me. Wait, wait, wait, wait, wait, wait. Okay. Or straight? Some people say my handwriting is very weird. I agree. Straight, Straight, straight. So long A sound straight and wait. However, very interestingly, Um, we can actually make the long a sound with another group of vowels. And this one is No. A at all. Now, remember I said it takes the long vowel sound of the first vow usually. Well, this is an example when it doesn't. If you have e and I together sometimes not always, But sometimes it will make the sound a That's right. The long a sound for example, w e i g h t. Which means how heavy something is weight. Same pronunciation, exactly the same pronunciation as this word that we just talked about Weight on Dwight. Wait and wait. Not different at all. Okay, so this is the a sound, but this is not a and this is not a obviously, so it makes a new sound in this case. Okay, so this is an exception. Also, freight f r e i g h t Freight freight freight. So weight and freight. Okay, so if we want to make the long o sound remember, the long O sound is Oh, if we want to make that sound, the most common way to make it is to put oh, and a together Besides the silent e, we talked about the sanity. I mean, if you want to put two vowels together side by side and to make the o sound, the most common one is O A. And it's pronounced o in these words. Here are a couple of examples. Be O a t. I'm sure you know this word. All right. C o a l o A t s and l o A n So how about these four words again? The long o sound just like if we had an E at the end, for example, L o N E and L o A. N have the same pronunciation. And it should right, because this is two vowels together and usually not always, but usually if we put two vowels together, we take the long sound of the first vowel right, and the 2nd 1 That makes this one long. So it makes sense that this is Oh, on. We already talked about the silent E, right? Silent E here, long. Oh, here. Loan loan, loan, loan, loan, loan, loan loan. Same. Exactly the same loan loan. I don't even know which one I'm saying anymore. Okay about these Oates Oates? Oh, it's Oh, it's boats, Oates. Okay, how about this one? This is a This one is called a hard See Hard See, the hard See South is like K hard See is like K soft c is like, Yes. So this one is so coal cold, Cole and the l sound. Maybe a little difficulty here, this one. But we will talk about that later in the course. Coal cold. Cole. So, lone oats, Cole, About the last one boat. But oh, boat boat, boat boat. If this were a word, then we would say Could be boat boat boat. Now this has another pronunciation has two pronunciations. We'll talk about that also later. So let's go through these one more time. Very quickly. Just quickly. Boat, boat, cold, cold oats, oats, loan, loan loan. Also loan. Okay, so pretty easy Oh, and a together makes Oh, sometimes if you put oh, you together, then it makes Oh, okay. For example, mold this word. This is a long O sound the long o sound mold mold. Okay, so sometimes it makes this long o sound. Usually when you put Owen you together, it makes our okay. But in this case, it makes Oh, All right. The next one is the long e sound The long e sound. Remember, the long e sound is e like that. Okay, The very common long e sound that doesn't use the silent e that we talked about is when we put Ian a together. E in a together is very common kind, so it can make words like B a n on D e C R e a s e Okay. L e a n like this. Good. It says e So the 1st 1 bean bean being the 2nd 1 decrease decrease, decrease the next one. Lean, lean, lean bean decrease. Lean. Okay, so e a typically makes the long e sound just like this. Okay, now, remember I said before that e I can make the a sound like weight and freight, but e I can also make the ease sound for example, de seat. So we have here de which says D on e i which says e d seat d seat de seat seat So e I can say a and it can say the long e sound as well. Now another one, which you will often see, is when you put to ease together and when you put to ease together it also says the long e sound. But sometimes it doesn't say the long e sound. So, for example, if we say this, for example is thine teams were easily able to recognize the long e sound there and for example, meat, meat, right, meat and teen. This meat has the same pronunciation as this meat. Remember we said e a also makes e so meat, meat, meat, meat Exactly the same pronunciation not different at all. Okay, now, finally, finally, the you sound the long you sound remember the long you sound is like this. Who, Who who? All right, So how do we make it? Well, one way, because we're talking about putting vowels together, right? One way to do it is to put o ano together Oh, and oh, together, Make the long you sound Okay. So, for example, boot boot food. Who? Who? It's the same Do as in my name. Before we said we can make the long you sound with the silent e Like my name l u k e which is Luke Who? Luke. Boo boot Luke. Boot food. Luke Oot food. Luke, Boot food is the same long You sound exactly the same Sound. Okay, so it says that sometimes, however I should mention not all double. Oh, we can call this a double o Not all Double o sounds. Say who? They don't always say The long you sound sometimes it's a special sound, which is like this, uh uh, like this. And this one changes. You have to change your mouth a little bit in the back of your throat, Uh, and push your jaw out as you say it. Uh huh. Book cook Book Cook s So this is not the long you sound. This is a different sound. Okay, So double o sometimes says the long you sound sometimes not. Okay. Book. Cook. Look, for example. Okay, Now, remember, I gave you one example of a case in which oh, you can say Oh, so actually oh, you can say a lot of different things and we'll talk about another thing that oh, you can say in another video. But oh, you can say the long you sound Sometimes it does, for example, youth, youth, you youth. So this is the long you sound with the why usually it follows Why, If you say it like this, it is you, you youth and why Oh, you you you So the long you sound can include can include Oh, you all right? So let's just very, very quickly review all of these. We have a i an e i as in wait and wait, we have o u as in mold shoulder saying the long oh sound we have e a e i o and e saying the long e sound such as bean conceited cheat we have Oh, and oh, you saying the long you sound such as youth and cool? Okay, so, um, try to keep these in mind. Remember, when you're reading to pay attention to these two letters which are put together, sometimes some of these, like oh, you, for example, make other sounds which we will talk about in a future class. Okay, so in the next video, we are going to be talking about some of those special sounds where you put two vowels together and it makes a very different sound that changes. So we will see that in the next video. 7. Diphthongs: Okay, So in the last video, we talked about how, when we put two vowels together remember a vowel, A e i o and U When we put to together, it usually makes a new sound Or says the long sound of the first vowel. Okay, so we looked at examples of that in the last video in this video, we're going to talk about also putting vows together. But how? When we do that, it makes a totally different sound. A special sound that's not a single sound like a or Oh, but instead is a special sound. Actually, these sounds are called Dip Dongs, but we won't really focus on the name. I don't really care if you know the name for these or not, it isn't important at all. So let's go over some of these, and it's important to know also how to pronounce them. Very clearly, the 1st 1 will talk about is oh, you now we talked about Oh, you in the last 10 you makes a lot of different sounds. So this one has a special sound here. Ou says. How oh, how? Here are some examples. F o U N d and r o u N d F o U N d and r o U N d Now watch my mouth. When I make this sound, you'll notice that my mouth begins larger and get smaller during or as I make the sound like this Oh oh, how it's not an up sound like this. Oh, no, it must be Oh, oh, it's not really important if your mouth is really wide like this, how you can say that or how like that, but it must go from wide to narrow when you say it. So let's let's practice a couple of these found found. Be careful not to say Fonda, which is a different word. F o nd font is a very different word guy. So be careful to say how foul and foul and found foul and found found. Okay, the next one ar ou nd round, round round for how and round. Ok, also, a couple more simple examples ground just the same as around, but with a g ground ground sound as ou nd sound. Okay, found round ground sound. It's the same sound for all of them. Okay, How? How? How How How now the interesting thing is Oh, you is not the only way to make this sound. We can also make the same sound if we use O W. It's exactly the same. Oh, you and O w make the same sound. So let's look at some examples of ow. I'm sure you can guess One of them would be our How is a word you say when something painful happens out out If someone does something to you and it hurts out So look at my mouth. How How? It's the basic sound How it's the same one. So here are some examples of Ow T o W N c o W b o w Now be Ow! Hack actually has a couple of different pronunciations, So let me go first to the first won t o w n town town. Same out sound town, town, town next one. Cow, Cow, cow, cow, Town Cow The next one bow bow. Wow. Okay, about is a verb, which means to sort of do that when you greet someone to bow. Now this does have another. Another pronunciation. Bo Bo. So sometimes Ow doesn't say how it has another sound as well. Bo for example or sometimes are Ow is pronounced ro or row in some cases, wrote or route. So, um, I want to focus on the also because it's the same as this one. Okay, so one of these sounds is the same as one of these sounds, but this has a couple other sounds on This has also another sound. The next one is a you and a you makes the sound Aw, oh, oh, aw When I make the all all so when I say the au sound I I do push my chin a little bit downward I push it downward and a little bit out all all all and your tongue should be very flat and straight at the bottom of your mouth. Okay, so a couple of examples of the au sound the aw sound fault all all all fault Fault. We have to add the old sound there because there's the l for our fault. Fault Also are August, August, August fault and August. Okay, now, just as with the previous one. Oh, you and Ow! AU also has another sort of partner. Um, that has the same sound but different letters. And that is a W A W is the same. For example. Claw, claw, flaw, Flaw Law, Law. So fault August claw, flaw and law all have the same sound in them. Okay, so just keep that in mind. And remember when you're saying this sound when you're saying the aw sound Aw! Aw, all your tongue off All is at the bottom of your mouth. Your jaws a little bit down are locked in place. Ah, it's a very open sound. Okay, Okay. Finally we have Oh, I If you put oh, I together It makes a new sound on that new sound is Oy, boy, oy. Just like another sound You might be able to guess which I will write down in a second. So let's look at a couple of examples of oy When you say oy, your mouth starts as a circle pool and then goes to a why sound Oy, oy! At the end of the word, I'm kind of smiling here. Oy, oy, oy, oy! And if you want to make it easier to hear the sound clearly you can say Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah! Oh, yeah. And make that end Sounds stronger. That's just for practice. Don't really do that. Then cut it when you want to really say it. Boy. Boy, boy. Okay, so examples of this r v o i d s o I l and m o i s t I'll say them quickly. Void, void. Soil on moist void soil and moist void Soil moist. Okay. Now, just as with the previous to this one also has a partner on the partner is Oh, why? Which? I think you could probably have guessed. Um, you probably know that T Oh, why s b o? Why de e p? Hello? Why? Okay, so the sound of these two are again exactly the same. Toys, toys, boy boy. Deploy, deploy, Deploy. Okay, so void soil moist toys. Boy, deploy. Practice these and you can get a feeling forwards that have these letter combinations in them. All right, so let's just very quickly review these special words which are called dip thongs, but who cares? Let's quickly go over the pairs or the partners. Oh, you and Ow say how How like out and like sound? Remember, when you say this one, your mouth begins big and then gets year old smaller. Okay, Sound cow. A you and a w all all it's a very open sound. All Aw, your mouth isn't moving very much. And you make sure that you keep your jaw down and your tongue at the bottom of your mouth, huh? Oh, Okay. So, for example, a fault, right? Fault, fault and flaw Claw. Okay. Oh, I and a Why? Oh, I in a wise another partner, Another pair. Oh, I says oy. Oh, Why says oy, for example. Void, for example. Toys. Okay, so just remember these and, Ah, and again review them and look out for them. When you hear this sound boy toy, you might be able to easily guess how to spell words with that sound in them. So in the next video, we're going to be moving on to constant sounds. We're gonna be talking about fee and W Okay. The continent sounds V and W. So I'll see you in the next lesson. 8. V and W: All right. So in the last video, we talked about special vowel combinations. And so in this video, we're going to move on, and we're gonna talk about continents. Let me remind you very quickly what a constant is a continent is any letter of the alphabet , remember? Alphabet A B C D E F G. This is the alphabet. Sorry, Emma. I'm a very bad singer. Anyway. Any letter of the alphabet which is not a vowel bowel? A e i O u constant B c D e f g h i j k l M p Q Z. Okay, These are examples of continents, so V and W v NW thes two sounds are pretty similar, and it's easy to confuse them. It's easy to mix them up. It's easy to mix them up. That means this one instead of this one, this one instead of this one. So after this lesson, I hope you will be able to easily remember which one is. Which about the pronunciation. Okay, so let's get started with how to make both sounds. So watch my mouth carefully. The V sound is pronounced by touching the bottom lip to the top teeth the bottom lip to the top teeth now. Not like that. No, that's too much. Just touching it very lightly. It's important. Lightly means not like this. You don't have to kill yourself. To do it lightly means very soft. When you say the V sound every time you have to touch your bottom lip to your top teeth. Okay, so it's like this. Can you see that it's not very hard? And then when you make it, you let go the sound and bring your mouth and jaw down. Fee V. The after sound is the same as E the letter e The long sound of E e sound. So the second part is like that. The first part is right here. You let it go and then go into E V V V. Now the basic basic sound is just the and it has a slightly different sounds in different words. So let's go over a couple of examples. 1st 1 vibrate vibrate. Be careful not to make the sound too hard. It shouldn't be vibrate. Vibrate That's too hard. Should be vibrate. If you know the meaning of vibrate, you should make your bottom lip vibrate very lightly vibrate means move very quickly a little bit. So you make your bottom lip vibrate against your teeth. Vibrate, vibrate, vibrate, vibrate. Okay, I make sure that you don't do it the same as the f sound. The F sound is you also touch, but you need to. When you make the V sound, you need to add your voice. Okay, so the next one vine divine vine the next one stove stove. Now notice. In this one, the V sound is the last sound of the word say one syllable word and the Is that the end of the word? So I don't add vote at the end. It's the last sound, right? So be careful not to add va after the V sound. So you don't want to say Stover Stover, this is not correct. It should just be stove stove. Now I know that you can't hear the V very clearly, but that's OK. That's OK. As long as you make sure you do make the sound. It is correct. Stove, stove stove. Be careful not to say Stover. Okay, next one. Move, move, move. Move again. Be careful not to say mover. That would be too strong and that would be two syllables. We don't want to say move up because it's a one syllable word move. So I'll go through these once, quickly, again vibrate vine, stove, move, vibrate vine stove. Move to practice these over and over. One thing you can do to practices make a sentence with a lot of V words. Both the beginning and the end. Sound may be in the middle as well. And practice saying the sentence quickly, many, many times. We'll do some different exercises for pronunciation later in the course. Okay, now we move on to the w sound. The double. You sound okay. Second letter here, this one. So we've talked about V now W is actually mawr. Difficulty than V V is pretty simple. V comes from your teeth, right, and you voice the sound. The sound comes from the base, the back of your throat and comes through your teeth. So w is a little bit tough because you have to be very, very careful to make sure that the sound comes from the right place. You can have your mouth in the right place, but still say the letter. The sound wrong. Let me give you an example of the wrong pronunciation. Let's do like this word. Let's do this word here. Okay, This is incorrect. OK, so don't remember this. This is wrong. Food, food. It's wrong. Everything about my mouth is right. So the mouth position is when you have your lips extended on a very narrow, extended and very narrow like that, Almost like a kiss. Okay, but when you make the sound the last part, the last thing that actually makes the beginning off the sound that you need to do is to make sure that your lips actually do something. Your lips actually need to change the sound. And that's the last action you need to do to make the sound correctly. So if I say it the wrong way Food, food, my lips aren't really doing anything, because I can also do this food, food, food. And it's also almost the same right. It's It's basically the same and wrong. So we need to make sure that there's a small action where your lips move a little bit forward and catch the sound coming out from your throat. If you hear a throat sound in the W it's not right. It should be a sound that comes basically from here, Right? Starts here and comes through here. And your lips need to actually change the sound. So this is correct. What work? What? What? What? So notice that I am still using my voice. But my lips are doing something here. My lips are catching the sound. And then I release the sound, catch the sound and release the sound like this. It's sort of like pushing it out with your lips. So you make sure that your mouth is really doing something. So the correct pronunciation of this word is Would would would look at my mouth. Now, it's not the same for every word, because some some words might be like that. So it's not always wore right. But the basic point is that you need to catch it with your lips. Okay. Would food would food would Good. So you can see the 2nd 1 is wrong. The 1st 1 is right. Okay. All right. So let's do a couple of quick examples of the w sound in words. Okay, So in words, Okay. Water, water, not water. And I don't know how to make that sound water. Water. Okay, water. Now some people will say water, water with a d sound to make it faster. And I guess that's okay. Words, words, words, words, words again releasing the w sound. It's like you're pushing it out with your lips. Okay, the next one wives wives. Now I am touching my bottom lip on my teeth. When I make the V sound wives wives, it's very fast. I'm not saying why was wives was, but I am doing it quickly. Wives, wives, wives. Okay, the next one. Wow. Wow. Wow. Wow. Wow. Okay, the next one mower. More, more. Now, let me just add one here for comparison so you can see the difference between between this one and the V sound M O V E r. I'll do one on to Okay. Mower, mover, mower, mover, mo were mover more mover, more mover guy. So practice that back and forth and you can give yourself the feeling of the difference between the V and the W sound. You can also do it for wives, right wives, wives saying it quickly. But I think more and mover is a better way to practice the to because they look the same except for this one sound difference. W and V. Okay, so for the V and the W sounds, just keep in mind that while the difference is small, it is very important to make sure to do both of them perfectly because you have to make sure you catch the basic point for each one for the visa And make sure you're touching your lip to your teeth every time. Even if you say it quickly for the w sound, make sure that you close your mouth and that your your lips catch the word and then release the word or let it go. Okay. Now, uh, I I want to make sure that you remember that you don't always have to focus on these. It should sound very natural when you're speaking them inwards. These two sounds. So I was making them very clear to you. For example, when I said mower were I focused on the w sound. But when I'm speaking very quickly, I will do that sound also very quickly, right? I got the mower from the garage. I got the more from the garage. I got the mower from the garage more from the garage, so I'm still doing it correctly, but I'm doing it very fast. Okay, So you don't have to. Whenever you say this Sounds say I got the mo work from the garage. That doesn't sound natural. So you have to master the sound and then speed it up on to make it more natural. Make it soft. Okay, so in the next video, we're going to be looking at Ah, some more constant sounds. We're going to be looking at th S and Z. 9. TH: Okay, So in the last video, we talked about V and W, And in this video we're going to be talking about the sounds of th of s and of Z, th s and Z. Now you may wonder, why are we learning these sounds together? The reason is because many people students of English who who say or try to say, t h correctly accidentally say the s or the Z sound. And so we need to talk about these three sounds together to try to find the differences between them and make sure to say them correctly on, especially, get into the habit of doing that. It's especially sometimes difficulty because if you say the th sound as the S sound or the Z sound, that's also another word. And people will think that you mean that word You mean the other word? Not the word with th So let me just give you a couple of quick examples to let you know what I mean. Sync and think I'll teach you the sounds later sink and think so. Sink is a word I think is a word. They're two different words. You have to be able to say them differently. Clearly. Now, if you say I sink, most people can guess. You know you're talking about this one and not where you wash your hands, because that's not a verb. But there are other cases when it is not easy, not possible to tell just from the grammar. Which one you're saying or which one you're trying to say. So let's go over these sounds very carefully. Ah, the other two examples quickly with and Wiz with and Wiz, then and Zen then and Zen. Okay, So again, the difference between these sounds is very important because it's easy to be mis understood, and that is a bad thing. All right, now we'll start with th We'll start with the TH sound. It's pretty easy to actually do. It's not a hard sound to make. The difficult thing is remembering to do it every time. Now, if you try to just remember to do it every time you will fail, okay? It won't work. Thinking about that every time you speak is probably not possible. It has to become a habit. A habit is when you do something naturally, you don't think about it. It just happens So if you want to learn to be good at, that's a Ping Pong, right? You practice ping pong, and eventually you get pretty good. Not because you're thinking more about the ball, but because your muscles, right. And the connection between your brain and your your hand, for example, is learning to connect to the ball out of habit out of muscle memory. Okay, so this is something that you have to do with pronunciation as well. Pronunciation is actually muscle memory. It's not enough just to know how to say something correctly. It really isn't. You have to know it and then do it until it becomes 100% habit until it becomes total muscle memory. That means when you say a word with th you say it correctly, not because you're thinking about it just because you do, because you practiced it many times. So just remember this point now. There are two basic th sounds. One is with the voice, and one is without voice voice, as I'm sure you know, is using your voice box, which is in your throat to make us out. Ah, like that. That is a voice sound. One is voiced won is not OK, so the basic mouth position for th is to put your tongue between your teeth on to make it very, very soft. You don't want to bite your tongue off, right? That will fall on the floor, and it would be very, very painful. You don't want that. You want to put your tongue between your teeth without putting too much pressure on it, but still touching like this. Okay, I'm not biting my tongue off, but I am touching my tongue with my teeth, both my bottom and top teeth. Now, this is not enough. That's not enough. That is too much. You don't want to stick your tongue totally out of your face. It has to be a little bit out and pretty relaxed. So let's go over the two sounds. The 1st 1 without voice. Now in a sentence, you have to put this here before you actually say it. We have to actually get your tongue ready to say the sound before you do it. If you try to do it at the same time as you say it, then it will sound like this, I think, and it will not sound very good. It won't sound natural. So put your tongue on your teeth first. Before you say the sound and then pull it back like that. The other one is the same here, but different here. You add your voice now notice. This is not a hard sound. I'm not saying I'm not biting my tongue off. It's very soft. It can go on and on and on for a long time. Uh, so practice that until you can do it perfectly. It has to have that very soft sound. And on this is the basic th sound. So practice and practice and practice until you can do it just like me. All right, So now we actually need to go over some examples of words that include the th sounds. So let's do the unveil voiced sound First, the 1st 1 and why th is pronounced myth, myth, myth. The pair of this one with the s sound would be miss. So make sure it's different than that Myth. Miss Myth, Miss Myth, myth notice. I'm not bringing my voice into the th sound. I'm not saying mid that's that's different. Don't do that Myth, Mitt. So the last voice sound, is it? Myth? Okay, the next one thing thing. Thing thing. Okay, we won't focus on the end of the I N. G. Because I'm going to teach you that in another lesson on make sure Recover that. I just want you to focus on the th sounds Notice that I'm bringing my tongue back. My tongue is ready. I'm not doing this thing thing like that. I'm not sticking my tongue out and then back quickly. My tongue is sitting here ready, and then pull it back. It's there. Thing thing. Okay, It's already They're sort of waiting to go the next one. Thor. Sore. Sore. Thor. Thor. Soft. Very soft. Right. Okay. Now the other sound is the one with the voice added. Okay. And this one is the same. Except for that difference. Here we go, either. Either I there I there. And if you want to really practice this, make the sound very, very long on. That might help you remember it. I There I There I there that might help you to really remember and focus on the softness, the softness of the sound, the next one feather feather fed. There, feather feather feather. Okay, so very soft. We can do it longer as well. Says they're fed. They're okay. My tongue is vibrating between my teeth very, very quickly when I say that. Okay, So very quickly. Again. Myth thing. Thor. Either. Feather practice those many, many times. Now I think the best practice word for th is this one. Because you have to say both es sound and the th sounds very quickly on the faster you can say the word, the better you will get at doing it and making it a habit. So practice this one many times. Some, some thing 2nd 1 thing thing, something some. And when I say some, I'm ready. Some thing it's already there waiting to do the thing. So when I say the thing, I just pulled it back. I don't need to do this. Did you like that? Suddenly sometimes you need to do that. But not in this word. It's pretty fast, but not so fast that you have to do that. It's waiting. When I say some thing, I'm getting my tongue ready. Something, something, something, something something something something something something something something something something faster and faster. and faster until you can really do it until it becomes a habit. All right, So what I want to give you now is a short paragraph that has many th sounds in it, which you can use as a sort of practice for the th sound for saying it correctly and remember, very, very importantly, making it into a habit. Okay, so I'm going to read this paragraph two times One time a little bit slowly one time pretty quickly, and I want you to practice it as well. Practice it many times until it becomes totally natural and easy for you, OK? And you will thank yourself in the future. Here we go. I know it's a little bit long. One of the things that I think is the most threatening to the world is that most people don't think about how their actions impact the rest of the environment. Even though there is a plethora of scientific research that supports the conclusion that global warming is the result of human activity. I wish there was something that I could do. Okay, so that was the slow one. Now we'll do it quickly. Now, notice. I did focus on the th sound a little bit. I said it a little bit more clearly. You don't have to do that once you get it. Really, really good. You can not focus on it. You can just say it quickly. Right? Has to be still natural. If every word is, for example, something and you say it too hard than it won't sound good. So now I'll read it totally naturally. Here we go. Try to read it naturally. Oh, okay. Here we go. One of the things that I think is the most threatening to the world is that most people don't think about how their actions impact the rest of the environment. Even though there is a plethora of scientific research that supports the conclusion that global warming is that the result of human activity? I wish there was something that I could do. Okay, so listen to both practice. Both do it many times, okay? And this is an excellent way for you to improve your th pronunciation. Next, we will work on S and Z 10. S and Z: Okay, So in the last video, we talked about th on. So in this video, we're gonna focus on the difference between S and Z specifically, that means exactly s and Z. Now it's important to understand that s doesn't make only one sound, although generally Z makes the same sound so we'll focus on s first. Okay, So? So the basic pronunciation for the s sound, which is is to close your teeth to close your teeth and to bring your tongue tight a little bit behind your teeth, but not touching your teeth. Your your tongue, Your tongue should not touch your teeth, but its close behind it. So like this. All right, so now let's go over a couple of examples with the S sound like this. This basic s sound s I n g and m i s s I l e Okay. All right. So the 1st 1 s i n g sing, sing, sing, sing. Okay, now I can say it with my teeth. Not quite touching, but I would recommend it just to remember the sound that at the beginning when you practice it, you should bring your teeth together. STIs like that Okay, the next one Missile missile, Missile Miss. So miss so missile. Okay, now notice that this is not a clear sile sound. So here's an example where we learned the i l e should make a long I sound right eye, but in this case, it doesn't we say so. Missile missile. Now, before I talk about the three other s sounds, I should probably say something about Z because the other s sound is the Z sound. One of them is the Z sound. So let's talk about how to make the Z when you want to make the Z sound correctly, you need to make your tongue pretty firm. Okay, Tongue, pretty firm. And then you want to bring your tongue up where the sides of your tongue are against your teeth. The sides of your tongue are pushed up against your teeth on the front of your tongue is very, very near your teeth so that it can vibrate or move like this. Okay, now your teeth must be closed and must be touching because part of the Z sound teeth must be closed and touching. So for the s sound I told you you should close your mouth but you can make the s sound without exactly touching your teeth together. But for the Z sound you really have to bring your teeth very tight together to make the sound Well, okay, on your again your tongue is up against the side of your mouth against your teeth. Okay. Also need to use your voice when you say the Z sound. So it should be coming from here as well. So tight here, tied up, coming from the back of the throat. XYZ If I open my mouth a little bit like that I can't make it. Is is I can kind of make the sound, but it's not correct. So make sure that your mouth is closed tight is no notice. It's not so hard that the sound has to cook suddenly Stop. It's not a sound. It's also a very long sound. You should be able to do it softly for quite a long time. Even though your tongue is pushed up against your teeth. So Z like that OK is now. The reason I am going to the Z sound and then back to the S sound is because I want to first make sure you know the Z sound on. Then we'll talk about examples when the s does make that sound the same sound. OK, so a couple of examples here c e b r a z o and eat and d o Z. Okay, so let's go through these words carefully. The 1st 2 at the beginning, the others at the end of the last sound Zebra, zebra, zebra, zebra. OK, Z z z z, which is also the name of the letter. The name of the letter Z zebra. Ok, the next one zone Zo Zo Zone Zone Zebra zone zebras own the next one at the end should not be as strong. Fuzz fuzz. Be careful not to add a sound after it. If you say fuzz. Ah, that's two syllables. That's incorrect. Fuzz, fuzz fuzz. But not that long. Fuzz fuzz. The next one does, does, does does. Okay, so the Z sound, I think, is not too difficult. I think if you practice it, you'll be able to get this out. Make sure make sure make sure that you can hold it for a long time. If you can't go for a long time, you're not doing it right. If you're Z sound goes, look and dies every time it's too hard, You need to make it a little bit softer. Okay, so practice until you can get it to sound like Z a forever flat sound. Okay, Back to s back to s. We go Here we go. Back to s okay. No examples when the s makes Aziz sound. Okay. The 1st 1 This one has the why. You said remember what we talked about. You rightly said sometimes you makes the Yeah. Yeah. Sound sometimes makes the sound. This one makes the yeah yet self. A little bit of why there. Fuse, fuse, fuse, fuse, fuse. We can break it up like this. We could say it's similar to f e w plus z fue is right. This is pronounced few, few or f plus. Use USC just like this one. Use use, use use, not use it. Not use use, use, fuse and use. Okay. This one has actually two pronunciations, which is interesting. This could be in action like he plus this. Or it could be an animal. More than one of a certain animal. 1st 1 does like he he does, He does. He does. Does, uh, says a you sound does does does he does. Okay, the next one, which is? The other pronunciation of this is a female deer Maybe, you know that famous song from the sound of music? It's a movie, a doe, a deer, a female deer Todo todo I'm a terrible singer. I hate myself Anyway, um, this is pronounced, Does a female dearest called a dough and more than one is Does does does just like the last one we wrote D o z e right Does does all right, this one Now the next one. Also an end sound because because Because because Because there's that Z sound there. It's pretty quick. It's pretty fast, but it is there. You have to make it. But you don't want to make it so much that you add something else which would make another syllable. You don't want to say because the right that would be too strong because because some people say because because it's very common in America for people to say because because because because because both are, I guess okay, next one, wives, wives, wives. So this one is not Vozza Vozza. It's much faster. It's You need to go straight from the to the This is this is this is remember the V sound here? We talked about that one right directly to the sound. There's no break. Not Abuza. That sounds bad. It has to be a visit Wives that you can't focus on it. You can't say wives. That doesn't sound good. So you have to make it pretty fast on not too strong. Wives, wives, wives, wives. So we don't say wife's It is Aziz sound. It is wives. So once again, quickly fuse use does does because wives Okay, now we have two very quickly Talk about a special sound that s makes in certain words such as? You probably know U s you a lot. And you see, I that style These are just two examples. There are more. Okay, are more like vision. You could save me vision. It's why my whispering Why am I talking like this? Who am I? All right. So u s u a l l y one way to say this which is correct in some places Eyes you surely and some people really will say it like that. But I do not want to teach you that one. I'm teaching you American English. So in American English we say this one as a year. You you e So my teeth are together tight, okay? And I'm making the sound, which is pretty easy to make. Sh like that sound. Okay, But I'm adding my voice so I'm doing uh, plus put them together. E e e e e. It's pretty weird, right? It's a weird sound, but it is a sound in English and you have to be able to do it. American English is full of this sound. Okay, So you is You book, Lee. You jubilantly usually usually usually usually usually usually usually usually usually usually Usually I like to run around in my house with my cats. The next one thesis Asian decision Here. This see? Oops. Sorry. This sea makes the s sound which it sometimes does. It's called a soft soft See? It's hard. See, part C is like cake. So the sea here makes a soft sound which is like the s sound and the s here. Usually when you see s i o n will say John is young John John Decision, Decision Decision, Vision, Vision Jones, That sound vision, decision, vision usually. So practice this one until you can match me until you can get it just right. And then, as always, make it a habit to go to the next step. Make it a habit. Habits are so important, especially for this course. If you remember anything from this course, remember how important it is to make these things habit not just learned them. Learning is the first step. The next step is habits. Okay, So just like I did for the th I want to read and give you a short paragraph to practice the S and disease sounds on, I hope you can read this many, many times out loud on maybe record yourself, reading it out loud so that these can become a habit. Remember, it's very, very important to not only learn basic pronunciation, but also make it a habit. So I'm going to read this two times the first time slowly, with stress on the sound. The second time, naturally and quickly. Here we go wise zoning wizards, so seldom send whizzing missiles to the fuzzy whispering zombie people of the basil states that the zoning wizards have caused the fuzzy zombies to become docile, dozers and snoozers. Some people say, basil, some people say, Basil Ah, common American pronunciation, Basil. All right now, one more time, this time faster and natural y zoning wizards so seldom send whizzing missiles to the fuzzy whispering zombie people of the basal states that the zoning wizards have caused the fuzzy zombies to become docile, dozers and snoozers, You may be wondering, Did Luke write that? Or did he find it somewhere? Huh? I wrote it by myself. Thesis, move. It's ridiculously stupid, and you can't understand it. You know who to blame. All right, so in the next video, we're going to be talking about mawr constant sounds. We're going to be focusing on L our an end. So I will see you in the next lesson. 11. L R N: All right. So I hope you've had enough practice with th s and Z. Now it's time to move on. And in this video, we will be focusing on l are an end sounds. We're going to be talking about some examples, and we're gonna be talking about some of the different sounds that they make in different situations. Well, not necessarily different sounds, but sometimes the stress we'll change the sound of the word kind of Okay, we'll talk about that for these three sounds. All right, so now let's start with the l sound The l sound. Okay. Now, the l sound is pretty easy to make, but you have to remember to make it correctly every time because if you don't make it correctly, it might sound like the R sound or like the end sound. So you have to be careful. I put these three together because just as with the last three, th s and Z can be confused. Thes three can also be confused. So I want to focus on that. Okay, so the l sound make your tongue not like this, but like this, right? Your tongue can be relaxed and wide or it can be narrow. Do you want to make your tongue narrow? And then you want to bring your tongue up and you want to put it against your teeth and the roof of your mouth so the front of your tongue will be at the point where your teeth meet the roof of your mouth. The roof is the top of your mouth. So right at that beginning point where it begins and the teeth Put your tongue there and again bring your tongue like this. It should be narrow, not wide. Right. So the sound correctly is like this, then Oh, oh, oh, oh le le le So if I make my tongue too wide then it will fill the top of my mouth and it will make all of the air come out through my nose. Right? N stands for nose, because when you make the end sound, all of the air comes out through your nose. But when you make this sound, it doesn't. The air should be coming out on this side of your tongue and on this side of your tongue here and here, not through your nose. So if I make it very wide and everything is here. The end sound, right? So it should be 00 The sound is coming out through my mouth, not my notes. Very important to remember. Okay, Narrow top of the mouth and air coming out on both sides of the tongue. One way to practice This is just to repeat this simple repetition of the lot sound la la la la la la la la la la la la la la la, la la And do it quickly and you can begin to quickly build the habit of making that sound every time. Okay, When you pull your tongue away from the roof away from the roof of your mouth Le le it should make a sound like that. Le le le le le le le OK, so that's the l sound a couple of examples. Now, let's look at first beginning sounds start with the beginning Sound. That means where l is at the beginning. Who let me fix this? Sorry, l I'm sorry. Where It's at the beginning of the word. Okay, So l e a v e l e f t l UK et al u and c h k So let's try these 1st 1 again. Same position. Leave. Leave. Leave. Leave. Okay, the next one left. Left, left, left. Now might My teeth are not touching all le, but if I make them touch, it's OK. Le le. I can still make the sound, but you don't have to bring your teeth together. Not necessary. Leave Left. Luke. My name? Luke. Luke. Luke. Luke. Next one. Lunch. Lunch. Lunch. Lunch. Leave left. Luke. Lunch. Okay, leave left. Luke. Lunch. All right, The next one in the middle one elevator. Ella, Ella, Ella, Ella, Ella. Elevator, Elevator, Elevator. So you want to say pretty quickly? Elevator, elevator But it's important to always do it if we say elevator or something. Like that era Vader innovator, it doesn't sound right. Must still hit your tongue in this case, because I'm saying it pretty fast. My tongue is sort of hitting the top of my mouth where my teeth meet the roof of my mouth and bringing it back. It's very fast. Ella Elevator. Elastic, elastic, elastic, Elastic, elastic. Willo, Willo, Willo, Willo, Willo Elevator. Elastic willow elevator. Elastic willow. All right, so now when we make the l sound at the end of the word. It's really much less than the previous two. When we make the other two, we have to hit the back of the teeth. But this one isn't obvious. L l We bring our tongue against our teeth as before, but we don't have to take it away if we're just saying this word. So, for example, if I say the word wall wall wall, I am bringing my tongue up and putting it there. But I'm not taking it away. I don't say wall a wall. Allah, that sounds very strange. So this one is much less stressed. We really don't focus on the l sound at the end wall. Well, wall. It's almost like I just kind of put it there, but it doesn't make a very obvious sound. Reveal, reveal, reveal right. You can't very easily here the l sound at the end. However, if I add something to it, then it becomes more clear than I need to say this stronger, revealing, revealing. So it's revealing when we add sounds after the l that the L is there. But if the L is just a the end, it's not so obvious. Obvious means easy to see. It's not so clear to us. The next one level level, level, level. In both cases, my tongue is doing this, but you hear it more clearly at the beginning. Lulla level level. Okay, The next one will Will. Will will. Now, if I add to this like I did before Willow. Now it's more clear. Right? I gave you that word before Willow. So we can hear that when sounds come after it. Better than if it's just at the end. By itself Will Willo Willo Willo next one. Soil, soil, soil, soil, soil. Next one rial. Rheal rial. Okay, so remember, focus on making that action with your tongue against your teeth and get into the habit of doing that. Let's now go on to the R sound. 12. L R N Practice: Let's now go on to the R sound. The R sound is actually not too tough to make. When you make the R sound, you do need to make sure that your tongue is curled up and back. That's a very, very important thing to do to make it correctly. So your tongue is this shape like this were your tongue needs to do that if you want to do it well, OK her, her, her. I bring my tongue up like that and I relax my mouth. But its not wide earth doesn't sound as good as her. Her her. So the basic are sound is a somewhat narrow mouth. Pretty relaxed. Okay, all right, so now let's go over some words that have are at the beginning when we do our, especially at the beginning sound. We want to bring the mouth together a little bit when we do it and a little bit forward a little bit a little bit out like this, a little bit, especially for beginning sounds. So let's go over some examples of that than in words read, Read. Rich, rich, rich, rotate, rotate, rotate, roof, roof, roof. So notice that when I'm saying these at the beginning, I'm bringing my mouth a little bit forward. And of course, my tongue is curled backward like this. Now, middle sounds in the middle. We don't need to focus on the r sound So much. Iris. Iris. Notice. I didn't say I risks risks like that. I don't need to focus on it so much. So I don't need to bring my mouth out so much. Bring it forward so much and bring it together as much. Iris, Iris, Erase, Erase! Murder, murder, murder barrel, barrel, barrel, barrel, Iris, erase. Murder barrel. Okay, okay, So when are is at the end, it's not as strong. Usually as when our is at the beginning. Typically at the beginning, we need to focus on it much more. So let's do a couple of examples. War, war. Now, this is different than the other one that we did before with L. But it does have a similar sound, so I'll write it down. War. Whoa! War This one. Wall war. Wall war. Wall War wall. Okay, so remember the R has to come up like this at the end. L has to go up behind the teeth of the end. Next one. Fair, fair, Fair Fare. Next one. Air, air, air. Next one. Cure. Cure, Cure. Cure. Cure Cure. Next one. Steer, steer, steer, steer. Okay, War fare. Air steer, Which again is different than if we right s t e a l That would be steel o at the end. Right? Oh, this one. Her steer steel steer, steel steer steel. And here is very important to remember what I said before that you need to have awareness. You need to be able to focus on the small differences between these things. Okay, Steers deal. All right, so next we're going to be going on toothy end. Sound to the end sound. So when we say the end sound, all of the air needs to be coming out from here. These two holes in your nose, which are called your nostrils. But anyway Ah, and nothing coming out from your mouth. Nothing coming out from your mouth. So your tongue, your tongue, your tongue needs to be wide for the l. It was like this for the end. It's like this on. That's the basic difference between them. Actually, the n your tongue is in the same place as the EL. It should be against your teeth on the beginning of the roof of your mouth, A top of your teeth touching, actually touching that right. And this time, because it's wider, it's wider like this. It covers the entire top of your mouth. So no air when it comes out, can go through your mouth. Instead, it goes in and out your nose there. And so when you say Hmm, you can put your finger here, M. And you can feel air coming out from your nose, but not from your mouth. Um, yes, I can feel it. Okay, so Mm hmm. Is the correct end sound. Now, some examples as before, we can do the very simple. The very simple exercise as we did with L. No. No. And we can do it quickly to make it a habit. Right? We want to make all of these sounds habits. No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, not not not not No, no, no, no, no, not not Not not No, no, no, no, no, no, no. None in in. In in the Net. So keep doing it until you can do it really, really fast, right? Needs to become a habit. Make sure that your tongue is wide. All right. So some examples of end sounds and I g h t and U T s an e d l e s n o i s e k and e g and o m e Why? Well, when we have k n and G n at the beginning of a word, it says the end sound. OK, so don't be afraid If you read G ends Good. What would or K and click was going or what It is just the end sound. You don't need to do anything else. OK, so let's go through these really quickly. Night, night, night. Nuts, Nuts, nuts, Needles, needles, needles This one we actually skip the l sound so we don't say needles. Needles is very difficult to say, so because it's so difficult, we usually skip it in this case and say, needles needle, don't go. We don't actually touch the l where it usually is. Needles, noise noise, me knee gnome, gnome, gnome gnome And in every case, in every situation I'm covering my mouth the top of my mouth so that air is coming out gnome Gnome. Okay, Night nuts. Needles. Noise need No. Okay, so now let's just very quickly go over the middle and end. Sounds the middle and end sounds for end number one. Winner, Winner, Winner, Winner. Finish, finish, finish, finish. Next one. Spender. Spender, Spender. Spender. Spender. Next one. The end sounds here. Over here. None. No. Ah, none. None. Be careful not to add a sound. You don't want to say Nonna. None. Now you don't want to add it. You have to end there. None. None. The next one is exactly the same. Different spelling. It's the same pronunciation. None also. None. Not different at all. Okay, the next one oven of in Remember the V sound oven oven oven. Next one win, win, win, win win Different than this one. If we add a d sound, it's different, right? This would be wind, wind, wind, wind, wind. Okay, so now, as we have done before, I want to give you a quick paragraph that you can use to practice the r l and end sounds. And I've tried to put them here all together. Ah, to give you a way to make it a habit. Here we go. I'll read it slowly, first and then quickly. None of us realize how lovely Lola's legs are, because Lola's lovely legs and knees live behind address under layers of red cotton. Now, once more, this time, quicker and natural. None of us realize how lovely Lola's legs are because Lola's lovely legs and knees live behind address under layers of red cotton. Okay, now, don't worry about the meaning. It's just nonsense. The point is to give you a way to practice these sounds on get them quick to get them to become habits. All right, so in the next video, we're going to practice C H and S H. So I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. CH and S: All right, so we've covered l are an end. Now we need to go to another two sounds which are kind of similar C h and s h. OK, so I want to put these together again because it's possible to confuse them on. Sometimes Ch can make the same sound as s H sometimes. Okay, so it's a pretty easy sound to make. You can bring your teeth together or just slightly apart like that. Or like that. Totally together. The sides of your tongue should come up and touch your teeth. Okay. And then you want to push air out without making any voice? Sh sh Pretty easy to make. Okay, so let's just very quickly go over some examples of the S H sound inwards on Will do beginning, middle and end. So let's start with the beginning. Sounds one shoulder, shoulder shoulder. Here's an example where Oh, you just makes a long o sound, Remember? I said it can shoulder shoulder this one. Shrine shrine shrine I Shrine Shrine I II Shrine Shoulder shrine. Okay, let's go to the middle. Sounds the middle sounds, fashion, fashion, fashion. This is not e on. This is just a simple sound. We don't say fascia on we say just a simple short U sound Fashion, fashion, fashion. The next one, huh? What's this? T I o n Yes. T I o n can say and does say shut. Okay, so caution. Aw, remember au caution, Caution, Caution. Caution. Okay, the next one station station again. T i o n makes that sound station station fashion caution station. Okay, now and sounds or final sounds Wish I wish. Flash flash now. Previously we had said that end sounds are usually not as strong as the middle or the beginning. Sound right? Like maybe n for example, or l wall is not as strong as level, right. But in this case, it's not true. Shoulder and wish is the same. So you don't have to make wish lower or not as stressed. So it's the same stress for both of them. Shoulder and wish, for example, have the same s h sound. Exactly. So let's just quickly go over these shoulder shrine fashion caution station. I wish flash. Right. So we've done s h. Now we need to move on to ch the ch sound. All right, So ch sound is harder than the S H sound s age Sounds very soft. Ch sound touch her teeth together. So when we make the ch sound instead of keeping our tongue in the same place, we actually bring our tongue from the top of the mouth and then bring it down. So it's actually on the roof of the mouth like that, and then down on that makes the harder sound of the ch. Otherwise, it's it's kind of the same as the S H. We again do not use the voice. We do not use any voice here. OK, so this one I noticed the outside of my mouth, the shape of my mouth When I do the sound that actually changes, she doesn't change, but does change. I open my teeth a little bit. I bring my tongue down from the roof of my mouth and my mouth opens a little bit here as well. I push my lips a bit forward. Okay, so let's do a couple of examples of this one. Okay, so let's go over some words with CH, innit? Church, church. Quite the next one. Change, change, Change, change. Okay, now, if this were S h here it would be shirt shirt. It would be much softer, right? My tongue wouldn't move. My mouth would be more static. Sure, Church. So keep in mind one is softer. One is harder. Okay, The next one. Middle sounds watcher, Watcher. Now notice it is a little bit harder because I have the tea here. What? What? Watcher? Watcher. Ah, here. We have an example that I had mentioned earlier. Where sometimes ch makes the s h sound. So this one isn't machine. This one is machine. So this sound is the same as s H. Ok, so in the middle here we have a very hard sound watch Watcher Watcher writes the same If it's at the end watch. Okay. But here, because we have i n e. It's a soft sound machine machine. Definitely the s H sound. Now, since we're talking about that, let's quickly go over a couple of other words that have ch as the s h sound. An example. First c a c H year cash, cash, Same pronunciation as C A s H cash. Cash. Exactly the same cash cash, the other one kind of a long word. C h A N d e l I e r Chandelier chandelier, Chandelier Shan dio Lear. So this one is just like s h a n Same sound. Shen chandelier chandelier. Okay, so sometimes the ch does maketh es age Sound interesting? The end or the final sound for ch We have match match. It's not less stressed, just like s h was the same. It's not less stressed because one reason is because we don't use the voice to make it right. So we just make the simple sound. It should be the same. Whether it's in the middle end, the beginning shouldn't matter. Okay, match. And this one. Bench bench. Ben, Bench Bench. If there's no end sound, it will sound like this. Fetch, fetch. Okay. So make sure you have a bench. Bench bench quickly. Church change. Watcher machine cash chandelier. Match bench. Okay. All right. So now practice a short paragraph that we can use to practice the S h and the ch sound. I'm going to read it two times as usual. One time slowly said very clearly. And then another time. Quickly on. Naturally. Here we go. She showed me what she had watched. It was ah, show about choosing and washing Cherries for Children. Who's wishes for washed Cherries had never been reached. I know. It's weird. Okay, I know it makes no sense. Don't worry. Okay? Now I will read it naturally and quickly. Here we go. She showed me what she had watched. It was a show about choosing and washing Cherries for Children whose wishes for wash Cherries had never been reached. Okay, so practice these a couple of times, many times as many times as you need to get it right. And I know I've said it 1000 times to make it a habit. All right, so in the next video, we're going to be talking about endings. We're gonna be talking about P l e and B l E and how to say these two endings correctly. I'll see you in the next lesson. 14. -ble and -ple: Okay, so we have gone over a lot of constant sounds, a lot of vowel sounds. But now I want to move our attention for for this lesson to end sounds ending sounds ending sounds that sounds that come at the end of words. And I want to focus, particularly on P l E on B l E. Because it's very easy to miss. Pronounce the's. And actually the rule for both of them is very much the same. So we're going to talk about them together. It's very easy to put a vowel between PL or B L. Right. For example, let's use example as a word. E x a M P l e. Okay, how should we say this word? Okay, One example that's easy. First syllables, a two syllable word, one syllable. And there's another syllable. The second syllable. Remember, syllable is a beat in a work, right? So should we say exam, poll or example? Example. Which one is right? The 2nd 1 is actually correct. Now you don't have to really, really focus on saying Pull, pull, pull like that. You can say it pretty quickly, but you also should be careful about not saying poll pole or in this case bowl. You do not want to do that. You don't want to make a very big o sound You don't want to add on. Oh, sound here or an o sound here. That is that bad. Okay, now again, Like I said, it's not essential that you say coal like that and make sure you really hit the l sound. That is not that important either. For these two sounds, it's usually pretty quick. Okay, on the mouth is pretty flat. Not very wide open. So example example, example example. In this case, my tongue actually does not touch my teeth. I didn't say example. That sounds a little bit forced. Like I'm trying too hard. Sounds to forced. Okay, so I'm actually not touching here, but I'm also not saying Oh, like that. My mouth is pretty flat. Example. Example. Pull, pull, pull, pull. See? Pull. Example. Example. Example. All right. So I want to do some more examples to show you how this these two sounds, which are very similar, should sound correctly. So let's go over these examples quickly. Now, Um, you could if it's the end of the word. Still touch your tongue to the back of your teeth. But again, sometimes it isn't necessary. And if you don't do it, you can still make the sound pretty correctly. And it's acceptable. Okay, so let's look at these examples. Ample, ample, ample, ample. At the end of the world, I am resting my teeth or excuse me, resting my tongue at the back of my teeth. Ample. That's the end. Ample, um, pull ample, Ample, But I'm not saying ample like that. I'm not forcing myself to do it very quickly. It's pretty relaxed. I can say it kind of without as well, ample, ample ample that I'm not touching anything ample. My tongue is not touching my teeth, but I'm able to still make the sound okay, so you can do either On. Both are acceptable as long as it sounds. Right. Okay, next one. Maple or maple, maple or maple? No notice. I'm not saying maypole, right? Maple or maple maple like that. It's pretty relaxed and not stressed. Maple maple, The next one grapple, grapple, grapple, grapple, grapple! Poeple. That's that syllable is very fast. Syllable. Okay, The next one is basically the same. The only difference is we have the be sound instead of the p sound. So we have but right or book. But otherwise same rules. Stable, stable, stable, Stable. Now, at the end of this one, I am bringing my tongue against my teeth. But I'm not doing it so quickly that it sounds like stable like that and it doesn't sound good, so be relaxed. Don't force it. Okay? The next one table, table, table, table, table The next one Shambles, Shambles, shambles, Shambles, Shambles, shambles. Ample maple grapple, stable table shambles. All right, To practice thes again. You don't need to force that sound. It should be a natural sound at the end of a word. All right, so a paragraph to practice the ending sounds of ple and ble. I'm going to read it as usual. Slowly, clearly on Then quickly, naturally. Okay, here we go. I was grappling with the shambles of the maple table I had built and whether I would be able to find an example off a case in which a maple table had ever been stable. I was grappling with the shambles of the maple table I had built on whether I would be able to find an example of a case in which a maple table had ever been stable. Okay, so practice both of these. Try to go faster and faster and faster. And, um, again, this ending doesn't need to be too stressed. All right, so in the next video, we're going to move on and talk about words. That sound similar words that sound kind of the same. And we're going to try to resolve some general confusion or difficulty with those similar sounding words. Okay, so I'll see you in the next video. 15. Similar Words Pt. 1: all right, so we've covered a lot of the basics. We have a lot of the basics down. What do I mean when I say we have the basics down? That means we've learned a lot of the simple basic points about pronunciation, and we feel comfortable. At least I hope you feel comfortable with a lot of those simple things. But now we need to practice a little bit, some of them or difficulty things. So I want to work in this video on the next video. In some similar words, that means words that sound basically the same almost the same, but are not the same on first. How to hear those small differences. Second, how to say those small differences. So that's what we will be working on in this and the next lesson. Okay, so next we'll go over sounds that end in end or I N g the end of sounds on. We need to be careful because these really can sound very, very much the same. But there again, they are not the same. So let's do a simple example here. Th th i n and T h I M g. This is ah This is a tough one to here. Let me just say them both and I won't say which one is first and see if you can hear which one I'm saying. OK, here we go. Thing thin thing thin. So actually, I was saying t h i n g first on then I said th i n So if you could hear that nice job So now let me talk a little bit about the difference between the two sounds When you say i n g the i n g sound here the back of your tongue way back there comes up and touches the back of your mouth the beginning of your throat. It must every time you say i n g so no, no practice that the back should say no, no, If you need to practice it, just do that many times in Yangon and then No, no, no, no, no. Practice it a lot. Okay, The other one, The end sound we've learned right? Remember when we make the end sound Our tongue is wide on against or around our teeth and all of the sound comes out from our nose so fit thin, thin, thin on this one thing thing. I think it's not clear, very clear, because we don't make any sound after this one. It's the last sound thing, and then we just stop. But actually, for this one, the sound is way back here at the end On this one, this won t h i n is coming out through my nose. So if I say this one like this thing, not a thing, you can hear that you can hear that very easily. Right thing. I think this one. Thin, thin, thin, thin. Now it's easy to tell. So it's the same thing, right? It's just that we have to cut those endings off thin thing. Also, when we say this won t. H i n g. It's a little bit more of a e sound instead of an e sound. When we say this one thing, we kind of have to smile a little bit. E think, think and this one i the I sound the jaw out a little bit thin, thin, so let's do these thing thin thing thin thing thin. Okay, let's do a couple of other words that are kind of the same, but not not only i n g r A N r A N G S u and s u n g b o and d b o N G e d Okay, so let's let's practice these really quickly. Next one rang Ren ring ran Now the difference here is the same When I say our a n g I'm saying no, The back of my mouth Nenana happening The back of my tongue rang and ran. This one again is coming out of my nose Ran rang Rant rank Also, when I say rang I same or oven a sound The long a sound a rang this one I say very clearly . The short a sound ran rang Ren rang Okay, the next one, the next to S u N and S, u and G. Okay, so listen carefully, son. Sung Sun sunk very difficult to hear these two, but again, the difference is the same. I'm saying the, uh, sound the same in this case. Uh uh, this one. Uh huh. Which is why it's more difficult to hear because in these is the short it's a little bit long, short, little bit long A In this one, both are short son again, The end is making the air go through my nose. This one sung sung. And if I continue that, I'll say Sung up, son. No. Still going through my nose. But it's coming from the back. The sound is fourth toward the back of my mouth. The next one bond bond, this one. Bond boned bond. Bond, Bond, Bond This one time again making the normal end sound bond and coming through my nose bond this one bunk back of the mouth bung do bunk. So the D sound is the same. The O sound is the same. Ah, the only difference here is this one is very clearly the men Annette sound And this one is very clearly the Nung Gun Sound The Nanyang a sound So let's go through these one more time Thin thing ran rang son Sung Bond boned. Okay, so practice those If you can't hear them, then you need to improve your listening ability. So really, really try to focus on the sound. You should be able to hear a small difference and then focus on making that sound. You should feel it differently when you say both words. All right now Let's really quickly go over some differences. Some similar sounding words with differences for FNV For FNV. Now this is the F NV sound. Not only the letters fnv right, because sometimes the letter F makes the sound V the 1st 1 clearly an F sound. Now we haven't really gone over the F sound carefully, so it's similar to the V's sound. Except you take out to the voice right for food. But it's basically the same thing. So serve surf. Which one did I say first? If you heard V first and then F that's correct. Serve surf, served surf serve surf. Okay, The difference is the end. When I say I'm using my voice when I say if I'm not using my voice pretty simple. Okay, let's go on off off oven of off oven. Which one was first? This one was first. This one was second. This one was third of is actually the V sound, not the f sounds. I don't say off, I say of it's almost like o v e of of of okay o f f very clearly the sound. No voice off, off, so of off. And now these 20 F and O v E end. These two is the same sound. The only difference is we add n to the end. Right off oven off oven off oven a T end off oven. Okay, So that's the only difference between these two. Actually, these two arm or different than these two, even though it looks like they're more the same because this one only has one more f. The pronunciation is very different. Okay, the next one starve staff stave. Which one did I say first? I said this one first, then this one, then this one. So let's go over them really quickly. Starve, starve, starve. So here we haven't are sounding a visa. Arv, arv arv starves one syllable Starve, not starve up. Clearly it's still one syllable. But we do have to make sure we continue the voice during this one. Starve, starve, starve staff staff. So, actually, the last voice sound is here on then just the F sound staff staff The next one Stave, Stave, Stave. Actually, this is short. This is short. This is long. This is the long a sound right. Are are this is not stairs, right? Its star starved so This is short and this assured. But this is the long a sound. Remember, the long A sound is the name a stay stay just like s t A Y Stave Stave And then we just add the V sound stave. So let's quickly go over these surf Serve surf, serve off of oven staff. Starve stave. So practice these until you can easily get the differences both listening and speaking. And again remember, it's really important to have awareness to be able to notice. Pay attention to these small things. If you can't, you need to work on that before you can really, really master these. Okay, now the next one should be pretty easy for you because we have carefully gone over the Z and th difference. OK, so we'll just go over these very, very quickly. The 1st 1 is sometimes confusing because people want to say this as a syllable. Actually, it's not. This is one syllable word. This is a one syllable word, and actually, most native English speakers will say these two words exactly the same clothes, clothes, clothes close. So you can and it's OK. Say these words totally the same. No one will notice. It's okay. It's better that you do that. Then if you try to say CLO this right clothes is wrong, it's never right. So don't try to do that close and close now. Actually, the correct pronunciation should have a very quick th. They're very, very fast. Um, and it's difficult to hear, but if you are able to do that, you can. You can try clothes, clothes, clothes, clothes. But that's pretty difficult to do. Okay, so the next three I think you can You can handle pretty well Pretty easy for you. Probably breath. Breathe on the breeze, Breath breeze and breathe. I did those out of order. It's OK. We'll figure it out. 1st 1 Don't make any voice. Hear no voice here. The next one you want to do Voice Here, here is here is And here is the Z sound. Just the Z sound. Okay, so not voice voice Z breath, breath. Breathe. Breathe, breeze breeze, breath. Breathe breeze. Let's go over all of these quickly clothes or clothes and clothes. OK, you can do these the same or a little bit different with the clothes. A little bit th okay again see Losc. You can use that pronunciation for both of them. If you want to. The other one. Breath, Breathe, breeze breath, breathe, breeze. Just remember that the difference really is in the ending sound. All right, so in the next video, we are going to continue with similar sounding words. 16. Similar Words Pt. 2: So this video, we're going to be continuing what we did in the last video. We're going to be looking at words that sound very similar on looking at the differences between them. So let's let's just begin. The 1st 1 is another th sound, which is quite difficult, and I think we should really cover it. M o n th m o N t h s m o t h m o t h sk. So this is a pretty tough one. So let's just quickly go over this this one month month. Make sure you say that sound, but when you say that sound, you can say it with the T H there, like this month and the month now when you want to add the s, all you do is pull your tongue back a little bit. So month, months, months, months. Now you have to get used to that very quick action. Once you say the ch sound, you pull it back and make the theme s sound. So it takes some practice. But it should sound like that month and months, month and months. It can't be. Month is or months. It can't be two syllables. It has to be only one syllable months and months. Okay, the next one. Moth moth on moths. It's the same skill you have to be able to take the tongue quickly back and then into the S that very fast sound. So once more month months, moth moths practice that until you can get it right. Okay, let's continue now. Some people learning English have a difficult time with the R and the l sound right, They can be quite tough. So let's just quickly go over an example of one where the single sound is different. L r glass, grass, glass grass. Remember the position for the L behind your teeth? Very narrow tongue and the are curled gla gla gla gla glass, grass, ger, ger, ger grass. Very different sound. Actually, if you say it right, Glass, grass, glass, grass. Okay, Another one, which is actually quite similar to the glass and grass is blocked on Brock Brock is actually the name of a person. Locke is a thing that is square that you can use to build things. So block Brock Earth Lola, block Brock. So you can practice these two as well on make sure that your sound matches my sound. Make sure that your tongue is either like this for the are or like this. And against your teeth for the L block. Brock. All right, now let's go on to some difficulty with the O sound. The O sound can sound like other other vowels. So we should go over some words. That air. Quite tough for that one. This one The short a sound The long o sound What? Want? Want, want want Now this one's weird Because you can't hear the a sound as clearly as the others are what want and won't want won't want won't This one is not the long o sound Not totes Actually, the short oh, sandwiches Aw ah Tossed tar are tossed, tossed, tossed And this one is the long o sound Oh, a is another way to make the long o sound toast, toast, toast. Okay, on this one the only thing that's different between these two is that you need to make as we know the w would sound where your mouth actually moves a little bit on very simple, straight sound Ah ah ah This one Oh oh, So first make the O sound with e W at the end. Oh, plus on own on own. Okay, on very simple on on, then own own. So you have to bring your mouth out to, say the w sound for that one. So let's quickly go over these again. Want won't tossed toast on own Now these next ones are actually very easy. But because, um, Onley the vowel is different. We do have to be careful when we say them, because again, on Lee, the vowel is different. Only one vowel that's different between the words. So we have to focus on making sure that vowel is clear in the word. Otherwise, people won't be able to hear it very well. OK, so this one a simple e short e sound. This one a simple short, a sound vet that vet that vet that that that the next one? Exactly the same Short e short, a short you long e Longhi legs, legs, let legs Legs. Uh huh. Lags at lags lags short. You lugs lugs long eat leagues. League's long e long eat leagues leaks. Okay, so again it's the same. Only difference is the single vowel, which is different So you have to really focus on making sure that's clear. Okay, the next one. Once again. Short E short, a short you lender blender. Let a blender a short a blander the lander. The next one blunder Le Lunder Blender Lander Blunder! Okay, so let's quickly go through all of these again. The only difference. Just the vowels vet that legs lags, Lugs leagues, blender Blander blunder. Okay, so if you can't hear these differences, you really need to focus on the vowel sounds. Go back and watch the earlier lessons about vowel sounds. Really, really. Focus on it and practice it. Listen to it until you can hear the difference is okay. And if you are able to get the differences, just make sure that when you are saying these, you say them very, very clearly. Okay? So let me just give you one more really quickly to practice for the foul sounds K This one dead dead Did Did Did it deed deed Dud. Uh, dud. Dud. Uh, Dad. Dad, Dad. And what you can do is you can quickly go through these and practice saying them fast to make them Ah, habit more easily. Okay, so so dead did deep debt that did deduct that that did deduct debt dead did de de de de de de de debt. You can say them very, very fast, and the faster you can do it, the deeper of a habit it will. It will become okay, so again, practice those. It's simple thing. It's a simple thing, but this is, as I said, at the beginning of the course, the foundation off your speaking ability. If you can't pronounce words clearly, then you won't be able to express yourself or be understood very well. So in the next video, we're going to actually look at very quickly how whether something is a noun or a verb or adjective can change the pronunciation. 17. Pronunciation and Form: Okay, So in this video, I just want to very, very quickly talk about how the pronunciation of a word can change with form. That means ah, different kind of word can make a word be pronounced this way or this way. We'll just look at a couple of examples so that you can get a feeling about it. I don't want to talk about it too much. I just want to you to get the idea, okay? Just just the general idea. So let's start by talking about the difference between basic now owns and verbs. If you have a two syllable word on the two syllable word is a verb. You want to stress the second syllable. If it's a noun or an adjective, you want to stress the first pretty simple two syllable word. The verb stress, the second now or additive stress the first. What does stress mean? Well, I'm sure you can probably remember because I've talked about it before. Stress is, when we focus or say that part stronger, then the other part of the word. Okay, so let's look at a very simple example. P R O D U C E P R o D you see? P r e S e n t p r e s e n t. Okay, let's say this one is a noun. This one is a verb. This one is a noun. This one is a verb. OK, if this this one is a noun, we should say this one at the beginning stressed. Right, Because announce stress the first syllable produce produce produce. This one is a verb. So we should stress the second produce produce. So the pronunciation is the same basically, but the stress is different. And so we can kind of say that the pronunciation is different because it sounds different. So produce, produce, produce produce on. These have two different meanings as well. The next one present, present present That's one present, present, present, present, present, produce produce. So just remember that when you come across words like this, if you know it's a verb or noun, you might be able to guess the pronunciation or, in this case, the stress of the word. There are a couple of a couple of examples that aren't two syllable words that we can also talk about. I'll just give you a couple of simple examples. Okay, so a d o v e and D o v e on c l O s e and C L O s e This one will say is in now This one will say is a verb this one will say is a verb and this and will say is an adjective. Okay, so as a noun, this is a kind of bird. It's a white bird. It's very beautiful. It means peace. So the pronunciation is dove just like the UV dove, Dove, dove, dove This one d o v e means to jump forward into something like a swimming pool in the past says past tense. Okay, so it's the past of dive dive D I V is the present past dove. So this one is dove. This one is Dove. This one follows our rule, right O v e. This one should be long, right? And this one is silent, right? Remember our rule we have a long constant and then silent, you doe. Oh, dove. Okay, This one does not. This one is like a short use. Um Dove dove. Okay. This one is also very interesting. As a verb. It's a Z sound as a verb. Close, Close, Close. We've talked about that before. This one as an adjective isn't as sound, which we also talked about. Close, close, close. So the spelling is the same. But the meaning will be different on that determines or can tell you what's the pronunciation or the stress will be dove dove close, close. Okay, so I don't want to focus on this too much because it is a big topic. Stress. I want to focus mostly on pronunciation. In this course. I mean basic basic pronunciation of vowels and continents and endings what we've been talking about in this course, but I just want you to be kind of aware to know about something related to stress and why stress might be this way or this way. All right, so in the next video, I just want to do ah, quick conclusion or summary video just to give you a few things to keep in mind for your further English and pronunciation studies. A couple of things that I really, really hope you can remember from this course. Yes. I'll see you in the next and last video 18. Course Summary: Okay, So in this video, let's just quickly talk about what we covered in this course. It's been a long journey. It's been it's been a voyage. It's been epic. It's been crazy. So here we are at the end. I hope you've accomplished a lot. I hope you feel happy with what you've learned. I hope you're better. I hope you can hear words and the differences more clearly. And I hope you have awesome habits. All right, so let's just do a review of what we talked about. First we talked about vowels and we talked about the different sounds they make long and short. And when those vowels are long when they're short and importantly, some rules about what makes vowels long. What makes vowels short? We talked about vowels coming together, combining right. They can make a new vowel sound where they can make a long vowel sound. For example, E a bean can make a long e vowel sound or they can make a totally different and weird sound like how Right? Oh, you has the same sound as O. W. Remember we talked about words like sound and cow. Okay. Also, we talked about continents syllables, of course, which are very important on the relationship between syllables and continents. We talked about some tough sounds like C h S H and the differences between those how to say them clearly on situations where the sound is not always the same in different words, it has different stress on in different words. It also has a different sound or can sound like another word. For example, chandelier can have the S H sound. Then we went on and talked about endings. We talked about ple b l e and how we should say endings without much stress. Sometimes on. Then we continued, and we talked a little bit about words that sound different, but only a little bit different. We talked about how to here and say some of those differences. Finally, we went into stress a little bit, and we talked about how the form of a word Maybe if it's a noun or an adjective, can actually change the stress, change the stress of the word. We didn't talk about that much. Maybe in a future course, we can talk more about that. So anyway, I hope you learned a lot. I hope you feel much more confident in your basic pronunciation. That's what this course is all about. And, of course, do not forget to go back and practise the exercises, particularly the paragraphs that I wrote, which can help you really make your pronunciation a habit. And again, habits are the most important thing about this course. Making good habits. Habits allow you to speak naturally. If you're always thinking about what to say, you really can't speak naturally, so improve your awareness. Keep improving your habits right. Keep improving your listening because listening is connected with pronunciation on DA. I think you will continue to improve, as I hope you have during this course. Anyway. It's been very fun for me. I've really enjoyed it. I hope you will continue to take courses from me on da I will. Hopefully I will see you next time. Thanks again